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AP – Unit 2 – Test Bank

These are a lot of review questions on material from last year. Refresh your brains. 1) The primary goal of the American Revolution was to A) establish a new political system B) create a new economic order C) institutionalize new social values based on equality D) restore rights the colonists felt were already theirs as British subjects 6) Right after the Revolutionary War, a dramatic change swept through the new country: A) a dramatic increase in democracy and freedom. B) a population shift from country to city. C) an explosion in prosperity. D) a population shift from the cities to the country. E) full-scale industrialization. 4) After the Revolution, James Madison observed that “the most common and durable source of faction has been A) racial inequalities.” B) the various and unequal divisions of property.” C) urban and rural divisions.” D) aristocracy.” E) the British army.” 3) Beginning in 1781, the U.S. was governed under the A) Articles of Confederation B) British Constitution C) Mayflower Compact D) current U.S. Constitution E) Basic Law of 1781 5) Among the factors that contributed to economic turmoil under the Articles of Confederation was the A) power shift from middle-class farmers to wealthy landowners. B) state legislatures that favored creditors and created more debt. C) postwar depression that left many small farmers unable to pay their debts and threatened mortgage foreclosure. D) decreasing economic viability of slavery. E) existence of all these factors. 2) A small band of farmers in Western Massachusetts took up arm in what is remembered as A) Shay’s Rebellion. B) the Whiskey Rebellion. C) King George’s War. D) the Farmer’s Revolt. E) the Boston Tea Party.

and express purpose of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia? A) Revise the Articles of Confederation B) Abolish the Articles of Confederation C) To grant women the right to vote D) To choose the first president E) To negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain 9) The view of human nature most prevalent among the Founding Fathers was that A) People are basically cooperative and community-oriented B) People are self-interested in acquiring wealth and power C) Human nature can be perfected. E) All of these. which was never put into effect 11) The Connecticut Compromise at the Constitutional Convention A) resolved the impasse between those who favored the New Jersey Plan and those who preferred the Virginia Plan B) threw out the idea of having a monarchy in the United States. opting instead for an indirectly elected president C) settled the dispute over whether slavery should be allowed in the final constitution D) added the Bill of Rights to the Constitution in order to lessen concerns about too much power for the new government E) involved all of these elements . D) overturn state laws.7) Under the Articles of Confederation. given the right social and political institutions D) Men abhor power and the burdens that come with it (Hint: Think about Madison’s view on the reason for factions) 10) At the time of the Constitutional Convention. C) regulate commerce. 8) What was the original. slavery A) was illegal only in Massachusetts B) was prohibited north of the Mason Dixon line C) existed only in Georgia and the Carolinas D) was permitted in all 13 states E) was prohibited by the Connecticut Compromise. B) levy taxes. sole. Congress had the power to A) maintain an army and navy.

. the framers of the Constitution A) decided to leave it up to the individual states to determine voter qualifications in their own states B) included a requirement that all free. B) the original name of the constitution written by the Constitutional Convention.S. 19) Ratification of the Constitution A) needed the approval of nine states. C) that a gradual end to slavery must be worked out by Congress and the states within ten years D) a boundary. elections. known as the Mason Dixon line. the Constitution specified A) that slaves would count as three-fifths person for counting the nation’s population and determining seats in the House B) nothing—it was too controversial a subject and the delegates could not agree on anything regarding it. C) essays written that were critical of the constitution. south of which slavery would be legal. D) the notes that George Washington took at the Constitutional Convention. E) that slavery would be banned beginning in 1800 15) Regarding the right to vote in national elections. adult males be allowed to vote C) required that all free adult males with p[property be worth at least 50$ to be allowed to vote D) provided that free men and women over the age of 20 be allowed to vote E) finally granted women the right to vote 16) A major purpose of the economic provisions in the Constitution was to A) guarantee the states a significant economic role B) preserve and strengthen the farm economy to the disadvantage of manufacturing C) create a strong national government so as to bring stability out of economic chaos D) establish a comprehensive set of social welfare programs to assist people in times of need 17) The Madisonian requirement that each branch of government acquire the consent of the others for many of its actions created a system of A) separation of powers B) checks and balances C) constitutional republic D) confederated government E) cross-cutting requirements 18) The Federalist Papers were A) essays in support of ratification of the constitution. E) newspapers which backed the Federalist Party in the early U.13) On the issue of slaves.

C) popular vote in each of the states. 21) The Constitution was ratified by A) the state legislatures. C) expand the powers of the states. E) do all of these. one needs to have a A) majority vote of the Supreme Court. (Especially in terms of the right to vote. B) The Anti-Federalists believed that the new government was an enemy of freedom. B) a national convention. E) a majority of the Supreme Court. C) three-quarters vote in Congress. B) two-thirds vote in Congress. D) The ERA was opposed by many southern states. C) needed the approval of a majority of the people. D) national convention requested by half the states. E) the electoral college. 23) Constitutional amendments are usually ratified by A) a two-thirds vote in each house of Congress. . D) needed the approval of all the states. C) Public opinion polls showed little support for the ERA after 1960. B) special conventions in each of the states. B) expand liberty and equality. E) The ERA never became part of the Constitution. E) The Anti-Federalists fought to prevent ratification of the new constitution. D) reinforce elite control of the government. 20) Which of the following statements about the Anti-Federalists is false? A) The Anti-Federalists were basically unpatriotic and un-American. E) was by two-thirds vote of the Continental Congress. C) legislatures of three-fourths of the states. D) state representatives to the Constitutional Convention. C) The Anti-Federalists believed the new Constitution was a class-based document. 24) The most important effect of the constitutional amendments had been to A) strengthen the capitalist economy. B) The ERA was proposed by Congress in 1978. D) The Anti-Federalists believed the new government would erode fundamental liberties.B) occurred when it was approved by the delegates to the Constitutional Convention.) 25) Which of the following statements about the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) is false? A) The ERA was first proposed in 1923. 26) To propose a formal amendment to the Constitution. D) state conventions called by two-thirds vote in Congress.

D) is gradually being written into the Constitution. and majority opinion prevails. 31) The Supreme Court in Marbury vs. 22) The “unwritten constitution” A) has no effect on the written constitution. The number of electors has decreased dramatically. E. Today. C) most states did not want to grant constitutional equality. 28) Which of the following is established by the written Constitution? A) the committee system in Congress. B. C) may have an impact on the interpretation of the Constitution. E. check the actions of the other branches through judicial review. electors vote for whom they personally feel would make the best president. E) we are a democracy. . C. Madison (1803) asserted the power of the Court to A. which was rejected by the delegates. nullify constitutional amendments. impeach the President. still unwilling to grant women equal rights. D) men are pigs. B) consists of traditions that are never changed. D) All of these are mentioned to the written Constitution. D. C. Almost all electors vote for the presidential candidate who wins the most popular votes in their state. E) was the Constitution that Thomas Jefferson proposed to the Constitutional Convention. 30) How has the electoral college changed from the original intent of the framers? A. B. determine its own size and makeup. B) Congress was unwilling to support a measure opposed by a strong minority of the public. B) political parties C) the right to an abortion. The President must now be elected by two-thirds vote of the electoral college rather than a simple majority. D. although standards have also been lowered. E) None of these are mentioned in the written Constitution. confirm presidential appointments. Affirmative action programs have made the student body much more diverse.27) The failure of the Equal Rights Amendment showed that A) a national majority in favor of an amendment is not sufficient to add it to the Constitution.

formal amendment process. D. The Gun Free School Zones Act exceeded congress’s authority to regulate commerce among the states. The Gun Free School Zones Act was constitutional. v. B. 34) The U. government decision making. the Supreme Court ruled that The Gun Free School Zones Act violated citizens’ rights to bear arms. Third Amendment. E. E. unwritten constitution. the inability of groups to get their grievances heard. judicial interpretation. B. C. D. increasing demands on policymakers. 35) Some scholars have suggested that a consequence of a separation of powers and checks and balances has been A.S. E. C. E. Illegal immigrants can be denied access to basic social services. . fragmented policymaking processes. D. but hasty. B) judicial interpretation. Lopez. C) constitutional amendments. D) political practice. B. was modeled on the British Constitution. B.S. Streamlined. All of these. gives particular detail to the function of the judiciary. the tyranny of the majority. political practice. 33) The development of the two-party system is an example of informal constitutional change through: A. 32) Political parties are an important example of the A. Constitution A. technology. does not prescribe the function and structure of government in detail. lists the executive departments that are required to advise the President.29) Informal changes to the Constitution have reflected changes in all of the following EXCEPT: A) technology. D. C. political instability. wishes of the founders. a) b) c) d) 36) In the U. C. rigidity of the Constitution. is one of the oldest and longest constitutions in the world.

b) Sole government authority in the states. d) A system of shared power by the state and national governments. b) Confederations. 40) The workings of the federal system are sometimes called a) International relations.. b) A unitary government. b) Only some democracies use federal systems. c) Sole government authority in the national government. 41) Which of the following is NOT true? a) Most federal systems are democracies. in which all power resides in the central national government. 42) Most of the governments in the world today are ____. c) Practiced by about half the nations worldwide.37) Federalism is a) The same as unitary government. 38) Federalism is a) Unique to the U. e) Few countries have federal systems. c) Authoritarian regimes generally do not use federalist systems. 39) A form of government structure in witch the national government is weak and most or all power is in the hands of its components (e. e) Statist. d) A confederation. e) A three-branch government with a system of checks and balances. a) Federalist.g. c) Internal relations.S. b) Intergovernmental relations. d) No unitary governments are democratic. e) Practiced in about half the American states. states) is known as a) Federalism. e) Intrastate relations. d) Practiced by nearly all of the 190 nations worldwide. . b) Practiced by fewer than 20 nations worldwide. d) Interstate relations. c) Parliamentary.

d) Unitary. e) Every single government is independent of the others and possesses its own specialized power and authority.c) Fiscal. d) Kenya. e) There is one federal government and all regional governments are administrative subunits of it. d) National and state governments have separate powers over different areas and people. b) Power is concentrated in a central government. e) No other country uses federalism. c) Power is concentrated in state and local governments. 49) Which of the following is NOT an effect of federalism? a) It simplifies the governmental system b) It decentralizes the political power c) It increases more access points to government d) Courts are called upon to be referees. b) Power is centralized in the national government. 45) Which one of the following countries has federalism as its method of governing? a) Canada. e) Nationalist. 43) A unitary system is a way of organizing government so that a) Both national and state levels of government have authority over the same land and people. 44) Federalism is a way of organizing a nation so that a) Both nation and state levels of government have authority over the same land and people. and they gain power e) All of these are characteristics of a federal system 50) The power to directly regulate drinking ages. d) There are three branches of government and a system of checks and balances. c) Power is centralized in state and local government. and sexual behavior and the like has been granted a) to state governments b) to the national government c) to both the state and national governments d) to all governments by the Bill of Rights . c) China. b) France. marriage and divorce.

the powers of the state governments are ultimately granted by a) the U.e) to the President 51) States are responsible for most public policies dealing with each of the following issues except a) social issues b) economic issues c) family issues d) moral issues e) police powers 52) Laws that directly regulate abortion. government c) theirs state’s Supreme Court d) their state legislature e) the people of their state 55) As the framers wrote the Constitution. drinking ages.S. they had no practical choice but to adopt a federal system for all but which of the following reasons? a) America had always had a federal system and it would have been too radical and disruptive a change to adopt another system b) Americans’ loyalty to state governments was stronger than it was to the United States c) The population was too dispersed for a unitary system to work d) The country’s transportation and communication systems were too primitive for a unitary government to work e) The confederation had clearly failed in managing the country’s problems . Constitution b) the U. or sexual behavior are policy prerogatives that belong to a) the states b) Congress c) local governments d) the bureaucracy e) federal courts 53) Which of these is NOT among the factors that tend to lead to the creation of a federal form of government in a country? a) industrialization b) large land area c) large population d) diverse population e) the existence of multiple religions 54) In our federal system.S. marriage and divorce.

D) made the Constitution. Answer: D 61) The efforts of Candy Lightner and Mothers Against Drunk Driving (MADD) to raise the legal drinking age to 21 are an example of A) the constitutional authority of the national government to impose policies on state governments. the laws of the national government. and the national Government’s treaties the supreme law of the land. Constitution c) laws of the national government (when consistent with the Constitution) d) treaties of the national government (when consistent with the Constitution) e) C and D 60) The Constitution’s supremacy clause A) does not apply to state and local matters. B) states acting as policy innovators. E) makes the President supreme in any constitutional conflicts with the other two branches. B) is vague about which level of government should prevail in a dispute involving federalism. the states constitute a ________ to develop and test public policies and share the results with other states and the national government a) major roadblock b) neglected resource c) national laboratory d) severe reluctance e) last chance 57) Almost every policy the national government has adopted has originated with a) the President b) the states c) the Supreme Court d) the Senate e) the House of Representatives 59) The supremacy clause of the Constitution states that all of the following are the supreme law of the land. .S. EXCEPT a) state constitutions b) the U. C) gives the states superiority over the national government’s Constitution and laws.56) From clean-air legislation to welfare reforms.

spending. 63) In the Constitution. D) neither the individual states nor the national government. B) national laws override state laws when there is a conflict between the two. B) It was printing too much worthless paper money which debtors were using to Pay off their debts with. Arizona E) United States v. C) both the individual states and the national government.S. government hopelessly in debt. Ogden D) Miranda v. Maryland C) Gibbons v. the powers to coin money. C) specifically spelled out in the Constitution. E) both the states and national government are bound by limitations in the Bill of Rights. E) the Senate only. E) the unconstitutionality of age discrimination. C) It was borrowing too much money. Madison B) McCulloch v. but nonetheless acknowledged. 65) The principle that the national government has certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers was first elaborated in the Supreme Court’s decision in ____. D) It was charging exorbitant interest rates on its loans.S. to enter into treaties. government? A) It was an instrument of the elite and gave the national government too much control of the economy. and to regulate commerce with foreign nations and among the states were given to A) the individual states. . the States 66) The enumerated powers of Congress and the national government are those A) involving taxes. D) not specifically spelled out in the Constitution. and fiscal policy. A) Marbury v. 64) What was the main criticism of the national bank created by the U. putting the U. 62) The primary thrust of the original intent and wording of the Tenth Amendment is that A) States have certain powers that the national government cannot encroach upon. B) the national government. C) the national government can take control of a state government during a national emergency. E) set out in the first ten amendments. B) requiring ratification by the states. D) the supremacy of state governments to regulate its own affairs. D) state legislatures have the ultimate authority to determine what a stage government’s powers are.C) the ability of the national government to influence state policy.

C) privileges and immunities. the Supreme Court A) listed the enumerated powers of Congress and the national government. E) prohibited Congress from regulating business activity on the grounds it violated private property rights. US d) Schenck v. try to clean up dirty air and water. B) listed the implied powers of Congress and the national government. Oregon 74) In the 1950s and 1960s. D) defined commerce very narrowly in considering the right of Congress to regulate it. D) heart of fiscal federalism E) Unwritten Amendment 69) In determining the power of Congress to regulate commerce in the case of Gibbons v. protect consumers. 70) In the decision to what Supreme Court case did the majority of the justices rule that states can pass legislation that deals with health. encompassing virtually every form of commercial activity. morals. A) categorical grants B) constitutionally specified powers C) enumerated powers D) implied powers E) reserved powers 68) The Constitution’s provision that Congress has the right to “make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution” its powers is often referred to as the A) enumerated powers. US e) Muller v. safety. the proclamation of states rights was usually made by those opposing the national governments efforts in the area of A) civil rights for African-Americans. Ogden (1824). B) elastic clause. B) abortion rights C) the Vietnam War D) the interstate highway system . a) Marbury v. Maryland c) Schechter Poultry v.67) Federal policies to regulate food and drugs. C) defined commerce very broadly. build interstate highways. and do many other things are all justified as ____ of Congress. and the public welfare. Madison b) McCulloch v.

E) enforce federal law within their state. D) states are supreme over the national government. B) cannot discriminate against citizens of other states. D) provide sanctuary for federal criminals. A) states and the national government each remain supreme within their own spheres. 81) Funding for the interstate highway system is an example of A) a unitary system of government. there has been a gradual change from a dual federalism to a _____ Federalism A) Fiscal B) Cooperative C) Single D) Tripartite E) Unitary 78) Extradition is the requirement that states A) recognize each others public acts. 80) In cooperative federalism. while the states have exclusive control over other specific areas. B) powers and policy assignments of the layers of government are distinct. E) A and B. and monetary policy. C) responsibilities are mingled and distinctions are blurred between the levels of government. . This division of responsibilities reflects A) fiscal federalism B) cooperative federalism C) dual federalism D) tripartite federalism E) divided federalism 77) Over time. records. and civil judicial proceedings. C) must return a person charged with a crime in another state to that state for trial or imprisonment. the postal system.75) The fact that a drivers license from one state is valid in another state is an example of A) privileges and immunities B) full faith and credit C) extradition D) implied powers E) unmandated reciprocity 76) The national government has exclusive control over foreign and military policy.

taxing. 84) Which of these was not a principle established in the case of McCulloch vs. . D) propose standard operating procedures. the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. C) allow federal agencies to administer the funds. 85) About ______ of the funds state and local governments spend comes from the federal government. B) dual federalism. D) tripartite federalism. even though the Constitution does not say it can. C) The national government is supreme to the states when it is acting within its sphere of action. E) national federalism. 82) The National Defense Education Act.B) cooperative federalism. C) cooperative federalism. E) all of these. B) follow federal guidelines for adopting and enforcing federal laws. D) unitary federalism. C) dual federalism. B) the distinct separation of national government spending versus state and local government spending. 83) In cooperative federalism. D) The national government can establish a national bank. and providing grants in the federal system. B) The national government has certain implied powers that go beyond its enumerated powers. A) 20% B) 33% C)50% D) 75% E) 90% 86) The main instrument of the national government uses to influence state governments is A) grants-in-aid B) Presidential Decrees C) mandates D) The Tenth Amendment E) Judicial Review 87) Fiscal federalism is A) The pattern of spending. E) State governments are forbidden spending more money than they raise each year. Maryland? A) State laws preempt national laws when the national government clearly exceeds its constitutional powers and intrudes upon state powers. cities and states must A) match federal funding dollar for dollar. and the Interstate Highway System are all examples of A) layer cake federalism. E) triangulation. which there is no such requirement on the national government. in order to qualify for federal grant money.

block grants C. 91) Programs such as Medicaid and Aid for Families with Dependent Children. E. B) a string attached to categorical grants. formula grants E. they intend to raise more money from state governments to reduce the federal budget deficit. the want to decrease federal aid to state government. 89) The requirement of a drinking age provision before states can receive federal highway aid is an example of A) a project grant supported by the interest groups. are examples of A. E) a rescission fund. where applicants automatically qualify for aid if they meet the requirements. they want federal money to be spent at the neighborhood level rather than the state level. The fact that the new Republican majority in Congress prefers block grants to categorical grants indicates that A. welfare. B) categorical grants. D) as sharing of local and national resources practiced in other countries but not in the United States. D) disaster relief.C) The federal income tax. C) project grants. C. 88) The principle type of federal aid for states and localities is A) block grants. D) an important element of the “formula” used to calculate formula grants. 92. . D) disaster loans. D. C) revenue sharing. E) the federal government’s regulation of the money supply and interest rates. B) block grants. they to increase federal aid to state governments. they want the federal government to exercise less authority over the states. E) urban renewal grants. project grants D. C) the efforts of state agencies to get federal funds. E) an un mandate 90) The most common type of categorical grant is A) revenue sharing. dual federalism B. B.

block grants B. All of these. B. cronyism. C. project grants E. computerized grant applications 95. E. universalism. 96. categorical grants C. limited the use of unfunded mandates. E) all of these . B. foreign governments. Congress D. B. D. the recipient of the service or program. The new Republican majority in Congress. E. limited the use of block grants. to the victors go the spoils. A. formula grants D. D. In response to complaints from state and local governments about the paperwork and requirements attached to most grants. Federal taxpayers 97. state and local government. federal grant distribution follows the principle of A. C. E. Congress has established ___________ to spurt programs in areas like community development and social services. C. 98) Medicaid is an example of A) a federal block grant B) a federal grant program that receives little support from the political parties C) a federal grant program that puts an economic strain on the states D) a federal grant program that produces considerable competition between the states. prohibited the stats from using unfunded mandates. stinginess. On the whole. needs-testing. Expansions of mandated programs by the national government present especially difficult funding problems for A. has (This does NOT include the Bush presidency who required the states to make educational changes as part of his “No Child Left Behind” legislation without providing any money) A. in contrast to previous Democratic Congresses. avoided funded mandates.93.

99) A number of states have sued the federal government for reimbursement of funds on the grounds that A) The federal government isn’t preventing illegal immigration into their states B) Overcrowded prisons are a form of cruel and unusual punishment. economic interest groups turned to the state governments rather than the federal government D) As the country became more industrialized and urbanized. C) It has no right to charter a national bank D) The Federal Reserve board has pushed interest rates too high. economic interest groups turned to the state governments rather than the federal government for help E) The federal government has given billions of dollars in subsidies to private industries 103) Today roughly ____ of the gross domestic product is spent by state and local governments A 2. increasing state borrowing costs E) Trick question! States cannot sue the federal government 100) Spending on public education illustrates A) The diversity in the quality of education among states as a result of federalism B) The advantages of fiscal federalism C) Cooperation between states and federal government for unified policy D) Advantages of relying on states to supply public services E) The national curriculum that exists in the United States 101) Over the last 125 years the people of the United States have turned increasingly to the national government to solve problems or provide assistance because A) Of a corruption at the state level B) A problem or policy often requires the authority and resources of the national government C) The tenth amendment gave increased power to the national government D) We have a unitary government E) Of the lessons of the Civil War 102) Which of the following statements is false? A) The national government has increasingly involved itself in the economic marketplace B) The national government took a direct interest in economic affairs form the very founding of the republic C) As the country became more industrialized and urbanized.5% B 15% C 9% D 25% E 5% .

making human law equal to natural rights E) Human law was the source of natural rights 117) John Locke believed in each of the following EXCEPT! A) Natural rights B) Consent of the governed C) Divine rights of Kings .5% B) 9% C) 20% D) 44% E) 15% 105) Federalism is advantageous for democracy for each of the following reasons EXCEPT: A) it allows more opportunity for political participation B) it increases access to the government C) it allows for a greater diversity of opinion to be reflected in public policy D) it increases the number of decisions and compromises made at the national level E) it allows customization of policies for local needs Some other questions from Chapter 2: 114) The foundation of John Locke’s philosophy was that human beings A) Derive their rights from nature B) Determine their own rights C) Derive their rights from God D) Have rights that are granted to them by the government E) Are granted their rights by their King 115) Which of these were NOT among John Locke’s key philosophy A) Checks and balances B) Natural rights C) Limited government D) Consent of the governed E) Property rights 116) Johns Locke’s ideas on natural rights were related to human law in that A) Natural rights were considered higher than human law B) Natural rights were less important than human law C) Human law and natural rights were unimportant after revolution D) Human law protected property rights. the national government spends roughly _____ of the gross domestic product.104) Today. A) 2.

D) Limited government E) C and D Answer Key: 1) D 6) A 15) A 16) C 30) A 31) A 39) D 40) B 54) A 55) A 67) D 68) B 83) B 84) E 96) D 97) A 104) C 4) B 3) A 17) B 18) A 22) C 28) E 41) A 42) D 56) C 57) B 69) C 70) E 85) A 86) A 98) C 99) A 105) D 5) C 2) A 19) A 20) A 29) C 32) B 43) B 44) A 59) A 60) D 74) A 75) B 87) A 88) B 100) A 114) A 7) A 8) A 21) B 27) A 33) A 34) C 45) A 49) A 61) C 62) A 76) C 77) B 89) B 90) C 101) B 115) A 9) B 10) A 23) C 26) B 35) D 36) C 50) A 51) B 63) C 64) A 78) C 80) C 91) D 92) A 102) D 116) A 11) A 13) A 24) B 25) C 37) D 38) B 52) A 53) A 65) B 66) C 81) B 82) C 93) A 95) A 103) C 117) C .