# Fishing Rods

Maths Portfolio II Matthew Shim Maths SL Mr Davies Word Count (XXXX)

The table shown below gives the distances for each of the line guides from the tip of his fishing rod. there are two dependant variables: the guide number is dependent on the length of the rod and the distance from tip is dependent on guide number and therefore also the length of the rod. For the purpose of graphing the data and showing parameters and constraints algebraically. As x is the number of the guide. it must be an integer value and as there are eight guides (not including the guide at the tip of the rod). the parameters of x are: . Guide number (from tip) distance from tip (cm) 1 10 2 23 3 38 4 55 5 74 6 96 7 120 8 149 In this case. let x be the guide number from tip and let y be the distance from tip.Leo has a fishing rod with overall length 230 cm.

0) guide is the guide at the tip of the rod which is not included in the numbered guides.When the data is mapped out on a graph. As the form of a quadratic is: We can use the first three terms of the table to try and find a quadratic that fits the curve. it is 0 cm from the tip. The (0. it is as below: Leo's Fishing Rod 160 140 distance from tip (cm) 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Series1 Guide Number (from tip) N. it is possible to find a quadratic function that closely fits the real function.B. as it is a guide at the tip. . Using matrix methods.

 Let be A. Therefore one quadratic solution that fits the first three terms is: Thus the resulting table would be as follows: 1 10 2 23 3 38 4 55 5 74 6 95 7 118 8 143 .

However it begins to deviate from the sixth guide upwards. the quadratic is the same as the original function.The quadratic equation can be plotted against the original function: 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Series2 Series1 The graph shows that for the first 5 values. .

14 7 121.57 4 55 5 74.86 6 97.The same process can be repeated with different x values: Let be A The resulting table is as follows: 1 10 2 22.57 3 37.86 8 149 .

The same matrix method can be used to find a cubic function which would be more accurate than a quadratic function. this is impractical given the scope of this assignment.B. The quadratic function shown above is logically the best quadratic to use as it takes the first. diamonds are the quadratic function: The graph and table comparisons show that this quadratic function closely replicates the original function. Squares are the original function. although it does not do so exactly. last and middle value into account. .The graph with two functions is shown below: 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Series2 Series1 N. While the most effective way to find the best quadratic equation would be to go through all 56 combinations of 3 x values in the matrix.

it is possible to use a different combination of x values ± as with the quadratic ± to find a better fitting cubic function using simultaneous equations.Let be A    The resulting cubic equation is the same as the first quadratic equation found: Therefore this graph would not be a cubic graph. . Again.

Let be A    The resulting table is as follows: 1 -54 2 -10 3 24 4 51 5 74 6 96 7 120 8 149 .This time the last 4 values will be used.

200 150 100 Series2 50 Series1 0 0 -50 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 -100 The problem with this cubic is that it has negative y values. The problem with both quadratic and cubic functions is that they are only accurate for the values placed into the matrix and don¶t take into account all eight values. The only way to do this is to have a polynomial expression that uses all eight values.The graph of this cubic is mapped below with the original function. it is impossible to have a negative value. . As the y values indicate the distance from the tip. The graph shows that the cubic function is only accurate for the 4 values placed in the simultaneous equation. there would be no y value for the x values 1 & 2. Therefore in this case.

1 1 1 1 1 1 « ¬ 128 64 32 16 8 4 ¬ ¬ 2187 729 243 81 27 9 ¬ 16384 4096 1024 256 64 16 Let ¬ ¬ 78125 15625 3125 625 125 25 ¬ ¬ 279936 46656 7776 1296 216 36 ¬ 823543 117649 16807 2401 343 49 ¬ ¬2097152 262144 32768 4096 512 64 ­ « a » « 10 » ¬ b ¼ ¬ 23 ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ c ¼ ¬ 38 ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ 55 d A¬ ¼ ! ¬ ¼ ¬ e ¼ ¬ 74 ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ f ¼ ¬ 96 ¼ ¬ g ¼ ¬120¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ h ¼ ¬149¼ ­ ½ ­ ½ « 10 » «a » ¬ 23 ¼ ¬b ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ 38 ¼ ¬c ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ 55 ¼ d 1 ¬ ¼ 1 ¬ !A A A ¬ 74 ¼ ¬e¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ 96 ¼ ¬f¼ ¬120¼ ¬g ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬149¼ ¬h¼ ­ ½ ­ ½ « 10 » «a » ¬ 23 ¼ ¬b ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ 38 ¼ ¬c ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ d ¼ ! A 1 ¬ 55 ¼ ¬ 74 ¼ ¬e ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ 96 ¼ ¬f¼ ¬120¼ ¬g ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬149¼ ¬h ¼ ­ ½ ­ ½ 1 1» 2 1¼ ¼ 3 1¼ ¼ 4 1¼ !A 5 1¼ ¼ 6 1¼ 7 1¼ ¼ 8 1¼ ½ .

The graph is shown below.79047619 ¼ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬  19 ¼ ¬h ¼ ¬ ½ ­ ½ ­ *Using Casio fx-9860G graphic design calculator The resulting polynomial is: As the polynomial takes all eight values into account.07777777778¼ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¬ c ¼ ¬ 0.25138889 ¼ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¬ f ¼ ¬  43. In this case the regression tool can find an equation where R squared equals 1. and that this portfolio only works in 4 significant figures. the coefficient of determination R2 is very close to 1. it can be taken that the equation fits the original function. .152777778 ¼ ¬ e ¼ ¬ 22.002579365079 » ¬ b ¼ ¬ 0. A regression tool can be used to find a more accurate equation that is equal to the original function. As it goes up to 13 significant figures.« a » « 0.9555555556 ¼ ¼ ¬ ¼ ¬ ¬ d ¼ ! ¬  6.76944445 ¼ ¬ g ¼ ¬ 55.

(Series2) y = 0. . It is interesting to note that excel finds the polynomial to be of order six instead of order seven as found by the matrix method above. The implications of putting a ninth guide onto the rod are that the rod is the same length and we have to account for the grip and the reel.042x2 + 7.0067 R² = 1 The R squared value is 1 in the resulting polynomial. The polynomial function found above is the best fitting of all the functions found.3202x4 .160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Series2 Poly. the ninth guide would be at 179 cm rounded up to the nearest whole centimetre. it will not have any effect or could unbalance the rod.0369x + 0. Using the quadratic model . This is because of the R squared value of 1 and the fact that the regression tool has found a polynomial that passes through all the points. thus it can be concluded that the polynomial is the equation of the original function.0. This means that the regression tool doesn¶t need to go to the seventh order to find an R squared value of 1. Assuming that the ninth guide can fit.0015x6 .0349x5 + 0.4095x3 + 4.1.

. guide number (from tip) distance from tip (cm) 1 10 2 22 3 34 4 48 5 64 6 81 7 102 8 124 The best quadratic model that was found using Leo¶s fishing rod was compared with the values shown above. The relationship between guide number (x) and distance (y) is shown below. Mark¶s fishing rod is 300 cm. and squares are the The graph of the original function (squares) looks like a flatter version of the quadratic function that has been found. The resulting graph is shown below.These formulas may still apply for a rod that is 70 cm longer than Leo¶s. and thus it is possible to manipulate the quadratic to model the data of Mark¶s fishing rod. and also has 8 guides not including the guide at the tip. 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Where the diamonds are the quadratic function original function for Mark¶s fishing rod. .

In order to do this. we must realise that the half parabola must be ³stretched´ horizontally. Thus:   By making the half parabola wider. it will fit the curve of Mark¶s rod. .