# Homework Title / No.

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2_____

Course Code: CSE314_________ Course Tutor (if applicable) : ____________

Course Instructor : Mrs. RAJDEEP KAUR

Date of submission : _______23/02/2011____________

Student’s Roll No.___b2805b31__ Section No. : ____b2805____________________
Declaration: I declare that this assignment is my individual work. I have not copied from any other student’s work or from any other source except where due acknowledgment is made explicitly in the text, nor has any part been written for me by another person. Student’s Signature : SAJAN

Q1. Develop a procedural design for an interactive user interface that queries for basic income tax information. Derive your own requirements. Ans: Q2. “Before the project can begin, the manager and the software team must estimate the work to be done, the resources that will be required, and the time that will elapse from start to finish.” Ans: Manager and the software team must estimate the work to be done
 Estimate the size of the product: - As size increases, the interdependency among various elements of the

software grows rapidly. Thus size estimation is very important. Size increases, the interdependency among various elements of the software grows rapidly. Estimation gives you a fair idea of the size of the project.
 The availability of historical information has a strong influence on estimation risk.  Risk is measured by the degree of uncertainty in the quantitative estimates established for resources,

cost, and schedule.
 About size to estimate the cost, effort, and duration of the project. This further helps plan for resources

and schedule the project.
 Estimate the effort: - It tells about how many man per month are required for the development of

software  Estimate the resources required.  Estimate the time required to complete the project.

Q3.  Cohesion strengthens the bond between the elements of the same module by maximizing the relationship between the elements of same module and therefore we maximize cohesion.  Loosely coupled modules means the two modules are independent. Discuss the various methods for verifying a design . if there are two modules. If errors are made during decision process. the lower the coupling between modules is. Part B Q4.  Lists are prepared on the basis of survey. This process is similar to inspection process. Coupling and cohesion are completely related. Design reviews or inspection: purpose of design reviews is to ensure that the design satisfies the requirements and is of “good quality”. We therefore prefer loosely coupled.  Checklist of frequently occurring risks: most organizations prepare a list of commonly occurring risks for projects. Greater the cohesion of each module in the system. What other attributes of design might influence system maintainability ? Ans: Coupling between modules is the strength of interconnections between modules or the measure of interdependence among modules. While cohesion represents how tightly bound the internal elements of the modules to each another. prepared from the survey of previous projects. Explain why maximizing cohesion and minimizing coupling in the design of a software system improves the system maintainability. . • • Detecting errors is the purpose of the design reviews. Which of these in your opinion is likely to be most effective in revealing design errors ? Take an example to answer this question Ans: various methods for verifying a design: 1. they will ultimately reflect themselves in the code and the final system. A and B we need to study both modules if we need to understand any one of the module in highly coupled technique. The most effective method in revealing design errors is checklist. For example.

Therefore. it can adversely affect the project and hamper the successful and timely completion of the project. Identifying risks: 1. A problem when we have a number of possible risks is that it can be difficult to decide which risks are worth putting effort into addressing. RE=prob (UO) * loss (UO) Where. Risk identification 2. so that contingency plans can be prepared to contain each risk. Checklist of frequently occurring risks: most organizations prepare a list of commonly occurring risks for projects. enabling different risks to be compared. Risk assessment 3. Risk containment Risks can be identified using risk identification. Risk management consists of three main activities: 1.Q5. Why is risk Management important? How risks can be identified? what is risk exposure and how it Can be calculated Ans: A risk is any anticipated unfavorable event of circumstance that occur when a project is underway. Risk Exposure is a simple calculation that gives a numeric value to a risk. prepared from the survey of previous projects.  Risk exposure Also known as risk impact. it is necessary for the project manager to anticipate and identify the different risks that are susceptible to. Lists are prepared on the basis of survey. which identifies all the different risks for a particular project. • If risk becomes real. .

Data modeling Data modeling The information flow defined as part of the business modeling phase is refined into a set of data objects that are needed to support the business.ER diagram enables a software engineer to identify data objects and their relationships using a graphical notation. In the context of structured analysis. Defining internal classes and operations 4. The characteristics (called attributes) of each object are identified and the relationships between these objects defined. Functional modeling: specifies how the output values are compared in the system from the input values. 3. Optimize and package 5. 2. Name the various system design methodologies and describe in brief the data design methodology. and produced within an application. stored. Data modeling answers a set of specific questions that are relevant to any data processing application. Loss (UO) = total loss incurred due to unsatisfactory outcome. . Dynamic modeling: aims to specify how the state of various objects occurs when event occurs. The ERD is especially useful for applications in which data and the relationships that govern data are complex. the ERD defines all data that are entered. Q6. Ans: Various system design methodologies are: 1.Prob (UO) =prob of undesirable outcome. transformed.  What are the primary data objects to be processed by the system?  What is the composition of each data object and what attributes describe the object?  Where do the objects currently reside?  What are the relationships between each object and other objects?  What are the relationships between the objects and the processes that transform them? Data modeling methods make use of the entity relationship diagram.