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B. RAVI TEJA ROLL NO: Y3EC868 4/4 B.TECH(ECE)
RVR&JC ENGINEERING COLLEGE GUNTUR-522019
ROLLNO: Y3EC823 4/4 B.TECH(ECE)
RVR&JC ENGINEERING COLLEGE GUNTUR 522019
ABSTRACT Object Identification plays an important role in various applications ranging
from robotics to computer vision. Artificial neural network (ANN) is being used for in various pattern recognition applications due to the advantages of ability as well as adaptability to learn. This paper presents identification of object independent to size,
position and orientation using the concept of ANN and moments. The image of the object is taken with the help of the tactile sensing system. This paper describes the
complete hardware and software of the system for the object identification with the
help of ANN. Keywords: Tactile sensing, Object orientation, force sensing sites.
During this assembly operation an industrial robot must be capable of recognizing parts.Touch sensing gives the information about the object like shape . hardness . The conductive elastomer is mounted on 8*8 force sensing sites for the measurement of pressure distribution on the object. determining their position. Once the image of the object is acquired through the tactile . The concept of artificial neural network is used in this system for the proper identification of the object irrespective to their size. the one that is probably the most likely to be taken for granted is that of touch. which has property that its conductivity changes as the function of the pressure. Touch is not only complementary to vision . surface details and height of the object etc. Tactile sensing is required when an intelligent robot wants to perform delicate assembly operations. These force sensing sites are connected through PC add on data acquisition card. Hardware for scanning the matrix and related signal conditioning is designed along with the stepper motor interface circuitry. Classification of the object independent of translation. scale.Introduction Of the many sensing operations performed by the human beings . Configuration of tactile sensing system This system uses conductive elastomer as a sensor. Fig 1 shows the configuration of the system. Tactile sensing is another name of touch sensing. rotation is a difficult task. orientation and sensing any problem encountered during the assembly from the interface of the parts. Stepper motor is used to apply specific amount of pressure for proper identification of the objects. but it offers many powerful sensing capabilities. position and the orientation. which deals with the acquisition of information about the object simply by touching that object . Keeping all these things in mind a tactile sensing system is developed which uses image processing techniques for preprocessing and analysis along with ANN’s for object identification.
CARD Figure1. edge detection and moments calculations for generating a feature vector. After the removal of noise from this tactile data it passes to the different modules of the system for furtherprocessing. Configuration of the system Tactile data processing A menu driven user interactive software has been developed in C language on DOS platform for the system. DATA ACQUISITOIN CARD TACTILE IMAGER MOUNTED ON COMPUTER FOR TACTILE DATA INPUT OUTPUT STEPPER MOTOR DATA PROCEESSING . which is essential for acquiring the image of the object under consideration. Main system program . The preprocessing module involves in the removal of the noise. Invariant moments are calculated in this module which is required by the next module to the artificial neural for the identification of the object independent to scale. In this system tactile sensor is used to obtain the pressure data of the object and this data is further acquired with the help of data acquisition and data input output card. matrix representation graphical representation. Main modules of this software package are preprocessing. Tactile data for the object identification is acquired using row-scanning technique.sensing system then it is further processed using image processing concepts for the proper identification and inferring other properties of the objects. which are interfaced with the computer. data acquisition. Tactile image acquisition involves conversion of the pressure image into an array of numbers that can be manipulated by the computer. rotation and position. The image is analyzed by a set of numerical features to remove redundancy from data and reduce its dimensions.
has been used for various applications like supervised classifier. Several experiments were carried out and it was observed that for input neurodes equal to the seven. Artificial Neural Network Artificial neural network . The back propagation algorithm was implemented in the software to generate three-layered network. rectangular. hidden neurodes required were three . The number of output neurodes was kept equal to the number of the objects to be identified. circle. Here it was considered only five objects like square. which best represent the input pattern.3.which is inspired from the studies of biological nervous system . These invariant moment are used by the ANN as the input neurodes which is the important data for the classification and identification of the object. triangular. Tactile Data processing To overcome the difficulty of identifying the object using the moment alone use of artificial neural networks for the same purpose was investigated. The feature vector was given as the input layer to the network. Feature extraction module is used for the calculation of the moments from the acquired tactile data.The software for the system is menu driven. Main module of a system includes the description of the system and gives many options to the user for processing the tactile data in different forms like automatic or manual processing of the data.Increase in hidden neurodes increase the . Flow chart for taking the image identification is shown in Fig. Object identification is decision making process that requires the neural network to identify the class and category. user interactive. bar. position and the orientation. The number of input neurodes was equal to the number of feature vectors (invariant moments). The application of moments provides a method of describing the object in terms of its area. TACTILE IMAGE ACQUISITION PRE PROCESSING OBJECT IDENTIFICAITON BY ANN Figure 2.
Hence the optimum value of hidden value to be decided for the use of artificial neural network .which is required for the handling of delicate START objects.Which is given in Graph capacitive tactels.First graph was plotted Figure 3. Pressure calibration with the help of motor is done between two parallel plates of the capacitor .Also less number of hidden neurodes takes longer time to be trained .03 mm per step. And the pressure 3.This process .Stepper motor is used for exerting specific amount of pressure on the object . Experimentation To start with tactile sensing system was designed and tested.complexity of the network and also increases the computational time of the system . This part of calibration is also used for calculating the height of the object . Then the same capacitive tactel was used to find the number of steps verses change in capacitance response as shown in Graph 2.Response of the same is shown in Graph1.Then pressure verses was repeated with for the the help of steps many of the two graphs the third graph was plotted number of the stepper .First of all stepper motor is arranged in such a way that its angular a way that it travels linear Is Syste m Y Acquire the Image Pre processing of the image N motion is converted into the linear motion and it was designed in such No Card Detected STOP distance of 0. getting proper image of the object and calculating the height of object .motion and the linear of stepper of the stepper User Option for Image Identification STOP motor was calibrated in terms of pressure applied displacement .To begin with . Flowchart of image identification pressure verses the change in the value of the capacitance .
Target pattern was set at less than 0. triangular circular.The purposes software provides the user options of processing the data for different through the main menu. rectangular. The trained network was linked with the moments module and derived moments were input to the neural network. The by generating the learn data file having moments with change in the position . Thus the system with stepper motor used for applying specific amount of pressure along with the data acquisition and data input Output card could be used for acquiring a tactile data. Experiments on object identification with the help of ANN After the calibration performed was trained on the of the sensor and the system the experiments were network objects like square. The response of change in the ADC out put voltage with the number of steps of the stepper motor is shown in Graph 4.5 for output not belonging to the class and greater than 0.size and orientation of the objects. GRAPH 1 GRAPH 2 . Finally It was found that stepper motor could exert pressure 19N/M2 per step. After the calibration of the stepper motor the sensor (elastometer) was calibrated in terms of the pressure and time response.5 for correct class. Programs were developed to scan and digitize individual tactels and store the tactile information in the form of a two dimensional array.calibration was completed in this way.
orientation and position of the object . (B) Change in size Size of square was varied as 2x2.Invariant moments calculated from these objects and network was trained then network was given set of the data which was not included in the training and it was observed that the network was successful to give proper identification of the object. (C) Change in orientation The network was trained with set of data by changing its orientation and this network was tested for the data.Finally it was observed that network can identify the objects independent of the size .6X6. Then the network was trained with the help of three sets of data by varying its position .bar type of the object once the training Of the artificial neural network has been completed with the help of moment data file.GRAPH 3 (A) Change in position GRAPH 4 For this experiment the position of the object is varied over the array of the sensor. triangular. circular . which was not included in the training set. These experiment s have been carried out for the identification of the square.4X4 . Then is was observed that network was successful to identify the object which was not included in the training set of the object. In this way different types of objects were tested and it was concluded that system is intelligent enough to give best results for the identification of different . rectangular . And the moments were calculated for the same object.
types of objects and describing the object further analysis of the object the tactile modules of the system For under consideration in many ways.3-D representation.G.orientation and scale and giving its many physical properties .pp 282-290. Tactile Imaging. position etc of the object. Classification and identification of the object is independent to size. For data automatically passed to the different the SURFER software 3-D representation of the object package is included in the system which gives the best 3-D representation of the object. height .on consideration . contact area.edge. triangle independent to their position .P. References: . Elepart &Bobbins (Eds).Security and Actuators.Neural network for invariant image Classification .L. The system has well support of software for processing the tactile data in different forms and taking any decision after the identification of the object. McGraw Hill . Rectier.pp162-166 .J.July-October 1994. Finally it is observed that this system is intelligent enough for the identification of different types of the object like square.Prasant Kumar Patra.nos4-5. the object. position capability and orientation of the object under distribution . Thomas .This system has various applications in robotics. Neural Network PC Tools A practical guide .This system has of describing the object under test in different forms like identification .vol 42. medical and teleoperations and in computer vision. Applied image processing . A(1992) pp 83-89. Journal of the IETE. .R. rectangle . pressure orientation.circle. Conclusion This system is well suited for the classification of the object with the help of ANN and moments. Awcock & R. bar. .
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