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CERTIFICATE (Revised May 2008)


Table of Contents
Program Objectives Program Schedule Course Description

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X-ray Technician Program (Certificate)

Duration 1 year (12 Months) Objectives of the Program
The Trained X RAY Technician must be able to: 1. Produce diagnostic Radiographs of all routine X Ray examinations and the common special examinations. 2. Operate X Ray equipment efficiently and safely. 3. Take all possible precautions to minimize radiation dose to himself/herself, other personnel and the patients. 4. Prepare trays/trolleys for the common special X Ray examinations.

5. Carry out simple first aid procedures. 6. Perform X Ray office procedures such as filing patients records, preparing instructions to patients for special X Ray examinations.

Program Schedule Term I

HSD HSD HSD XTH XTH XTH XTH 011 012 013 011 012 013 014 Human Body and Disease National Health Care System Medical Terminology General Physics Radiographic Anatomy I Hospital Practice for Radiographers Practicum I 4 (3-1) 2 (2-0) 2 (2-0) 1 (1-0) 3 (2-1) 1 (1-0) 1 (0-1) 14 17 Weeks Basic and Applied Computer Skills Radiographic Technique I Radiographic Photography Radiographic Anatomy II Radiographic Equipment Practicum II 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 3 (2-1) 2.(0-2) 17 18 weeks Communication Skillsand Ethics Radiographic Technique II Radiation Physics Practicum III 3 (3-0) 3 (2-1) 1 (1-0) 2 (0-2) 9 54 72 18 50 194 68 68 68 68 68 50 390 90 30 30 15 68 15 45 293

Term Total Term II HSD XTH XTH XTH XTH XTH 021 021 023 022 024 025

Term Total Term III HSD XTH XTH XTH 031 031 033 035

Total Total credits 40 Total hours 877

Course Description
XTH 024 Radiographic Equipment 3 Credits

Objectives 1. To understand the scientific principles involved in the production of x-rays 2. To understand the functioning of x-ray equipment Competencies 1. Be able to operate x-ray equipment safely 2. To recognize abnormal symptoms in the equipment. Content - Electrical System, Main supply, components and control in x-ray circuits - Generation of electrical energy, Distribution and uses of electrical energy. - High tension transformer , the control of Kilo voltage , filament circuit and tube current - X-ray tubes features of fixed and rotating anode tubes, cooling of x-ray tubes. - Characteristics Mammography x-ray tubes, faults that may develop. - Construction and operation of high tension valves - Control equipment Autotransformer, compensators, voltage indicators, control current timers, high tension cables, fuses, earthing and insulation. - Exposure switches and exposure timers, switching and timing systems, exposure switching and its radiographic application. - Dental x-ray equipment - Portable x-ray equipment - Electrical hazards , safety devices , interlocks - Accessories Grids, beam linking devices, beam centering devices immobilizers - Care and maintenance of x-ray equipment.

XTH 013 Hospital Practice and Patient Care for X-ray Technicians 1 Credit Objectives 1. The student will gain the required knowledge to provide patient care. 2. The student will learn measures to prevent infection to staff and others. Competencies 1. Provide safe and effective patient care 2. Prepare patients for X-ray examinations. Content. - History of discovery of x-rays. - Nature of x-rays - The characteristics of x-rays. - Properties of x-rays. - Hazards of x-rays. - Requirements for the production of x-rays. - Practical applications of x-rays. - Medical applications of x-rays. - Protective devices used in the x-ray department to protect staff and patients. - Cross infection : causes , prevention - Dealing with accidents in the x-ray department. - Preparation of patients for x-ray examinations

XTH 023 Objectives. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Radiographic Photography.

3 Credits.

.Know the requirements for recording image on x-ray film Carry out Photographic procedures for producing a radiographic image. Know the requirement of a darkroom Understand the principles of processing x-ray films.

Competencies. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mixing of processing chemicals. Load and unload cassettes Process x-ray films Discuss the constitution of x-ray films, cassettes and intensifying screens. Print the names of the patients on the x-ray film before processing with the use of an actinic markers.

Content - Fundamentals of Photography- production of image, recording of image, processing of image, latent image. - X-ray films- structure, types of films, handing and storage of films. - Intensifying screens-constitution, types, handing and cleaning, maintenance. - Cassette- construction, types care. - Processing- constituents of the developer, standardization by time, temperature control, exhaustion and replenishment. Constituents of the field, exhaustion and regeneration. Rinsing, washing, drying. Film processing unit, Accessories. Manual and automatic processing. - Dark site construction, layout of lighting, and storage facilities. - Film faults.

XTH 011

General Physics

1 credit

Objectives 1. To understand the basic principles of the requirements for equipment needed to produce x-rays, 2. To provide the students with in depth knowledge of electricity and magnetism Competency Identify and discuss the basic concepts of general physics. Content. 1.Revision of basic mathematics-decimals, fractions, percentage, equations. 2. Explain and discuss fundamentals of electricity and electrical circuits. Learning objectives a. Apply Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's law to analyze electrical circuits with resistors. b. Analyze circuits with capacitors. c. Study resistors and capacitors for their properties. 3. Investigate magnetism due to various sources. Learning objectives a. Study the principle magnetism as electric effect of permanent, temporary, electromagnet, natural magnet and earth as a magnet. b. Study magnetism due to a conductor carrying electric current. c. Generation of alternating current.

4. Investigate the functioning of generator, motor and transformer. Learning objectives a. Apply Faraday law of induction and Lenze's law to explain the functioning of generator and motor. b. Distinguish between motor and generator. c. Explain the functioning of transformer. d. Describe transformer theory and construction e. Identify electrical circuits, conductors and insulators -

XTH Radiation Physics Objectives 1. 2.


1 credit

To provide the student with an understanding of the principles involved in the use of ionizing radiation To be knowledgeable of the effects of ionizing radiation and the means of protection.

Competency Apply protective measures necessary in a knowledgeable manner. Content - Atomic structure - Electromagnetic radiation, electromagnetic waves - Production of x-rays intensity and quality - Properties of x-ray - X-ray interaction with matter-ionization, absorption of x-rays. - Scatter transmission through the body filtration of x-rays. - Permissible exposure, International recommendations. - Protective materials- use of lead and other materials. - Personnel Monitoring



Radiographic Anatomy I

3 Credits

Objectives 1. To Know accurate and appropriate terms in describing various anatomical features. 2. To know structures that comprises the parts of the skeletal system. 3. Identify types of fractures and understand process involved in healing of same. 4. Identify appearances of the skeletal system structures on Radiographs. Competencies 1. Know the structures of the skeletal system 2. Identify structures on the Radiographs 3. Apply the knowledge in the practice of Radiography. Musculo skeletal system. Skull, Vertebral Column, Shoulder girdle, bones of upper Extremities, Bones of lower extremities, Thorax and pelvic girdle.



Radiographic Anatomy II

3 Credits

Objectives 1. Know the structures and organs that make up the body excluding the skeletal system 2. Know locations and functions of systems 3. Identify location of organs by surface landmarks and vertebral levels. 1. Cardio Vascular System Heart Arterial System Venous System 2. Lymphatic System Circulation of lymph, Lymph Gland and Thoracic duct 3. Digestive System Oral Cavity, Oesophagus, Stomach, Small intestine, Large Intestine, Liver, Gall bladder, Pancreas, Spleen.

4. Respiratory System Nose, Larynx, Trachea, Lungs 5. Nervous System Brain, Meninges, Ventricles, Spinal Cord & Nerves 6. Reproductive System Female Organs - Uterus, Follopian Tubes and Ovaries. Male Organs - Penis, Testes, Prostate 7. Urinary System Kidneys, Ureter, Urinary bladder, Urethra. 8.Endocrine System Pituitary gland, Pineal gland, Thymis, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal glands. 9. Miscellaneous Skin and Eyes

XTH 021

Radiographic Technique I

3 Credits

Objectives The students must be able to position patients correctly for radiographic examinations of the skeletal system Competencies 1. Taking x-rays of the skeletal system 2. Performing patient positioning and related task 3. Remove all items that would compromise the quality of the image 4. Plan, adapt positioning requirements according to patient condition. 5. Demonstrate knowledge of imaging procedure 6. Discuss factors affecting radiographic quality Content - Principles of exposure - Latent image formation - Principal factors of exposure - Factors affecting radiographic quality , contrast - Conditions that determine exposure factors - Identification - Terminology in Radiography/Radiology 10

Terms used to identify projections. Implications of clinical information Technique for examination upper limbs- hand wrist Techniques used for examination of the lower limbs- foot, ankle, leg, hip etc. Technique for examination of spine e.g. C/spine, T/Spine, Lumbo-sacral spine, sacrum, coccyx, sacro-iliac joint. Technique for examination of the skull , mandible, facial bones, paranasal sinuses, temporo- mandibular joint, mastoids Technique for the examination of the teeth Technique for the examination of ribs and sternum. Measure to protect staff from unnecessary radiation

XTH 031 Radiographic Technique II

3 Credits

Objectives 1. The student will be able to perform radiographic examination of the chest and abdomen correctly 2. Students will be able to understand the basic principles of contrast examination which they will encounter in the Radiographic department. 3. Students will be able to do ward and theatre radiography. Competencies 1. Taking x-rays of the chest and abdomen 2. Able to do ward and theatre radiography Content - Procedures for examination of the chest and mediastinum - Procedures for examination of the abdomen - Principles of contrast media, preparation and dangers. - Introduction to the basic principles of contrast examinations- Alimentary, Bilary, Urinary, Respiratory, Renal and Reproductive Systems. - Ward Radiography - Operating Theatre Radiography.