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Aquatic productivity

1) Production:
Process of manufacture of any item, goods, production applied to living things in the ecosystem. Production of organic substance from inorganic substances. Productivity- rate of production per unit time per unit area or capacity to produce.

2) Primary production:
Is the production of organic compounds from atmospheric or aquatic carbon dioxide, principally through the process of photosynthesis. All life on earth is directly or indirectly reliant on primary production. The organisms responsible for primary production are known as primary producers or autotrophs, and form the base of the food chain. In terrestrial ecoregions, these are mainly plants, while in aquatic ecoregions algae are primarily responsible. Primary production is distinguished as either net or gross, the former accounting for losses to processes such as cellular respiration, the latter not. At the fundamental level, primary production is the conversion of energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation into stored chemical energy by living organisms. The main source of this energy is the sun. A minute fraction of primary production is driven by organisms utilizing the chemical energy of inorganic molecules. Regardless of its source, this energy is used to synthesize complex organic molecules from simpler inorganic compounds such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). The following two equations are simplified representations of photosynthesis (top) and (one form of) chemosynthesis (bottom): CO2 + H2O + light CO2 + O2 + 4 H2S CH2O + O2 CH2O + 4 S + 3 H2O

In both cases, the end point is reduced carbohydrate (CH2O), typically molecules such as glucose or other sugars. These relatively simple molecules may be then used to synthesise further more complicated molecules, including proteins, complex

carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, or be respired to perform work. Consumption of primary producers by heterotrophic organisms, such as animals, then transfers these organic molecules (and the energy stored within them) up the food chain, fueling all of the Earth's living systems.

3) Gross primary production (GPP):

Gross primary production is the total amount of energy fixed by primary producers in a given area or ecosystem. Some fraction of this fixed energy is used by primary producers for cellular respiration and maintenance of existing tissues.

4) Net primary production (NPP): The remaining fixed energy is referred to as

net primary production (NPP). Net primary production is the rate at which new biomass accrues in an ecosystem. Some net primary production will go towards growth and reproduction of primary producers, while some will be consumed by herbivores. Both gross and net primary productions are in units of mass / area / time.