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Social and Cultural Norms

Q.1) Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies.
A norm is a set of rules based on socially or culturally shared beliefs of how an individual ought to behave. The norms thus regulate behaviour within a group. Being social animals, the need to belong plays a strong role in the desire to conform to group norms. Albert Bandura¶s Social learning theory in 1965 describes how society or culture passes on its norms to individuals within a group. It is the learning of social behaviours through the observing and replicating of behaviours seen in others. It refers mainly to the learning of social and moral behaviours after observing and imitating a model. Although social learning can take place at any stage in life, it is thought to be particularly important during childhood, particularly as authority becomes important. There were three key concepts: Modeling was the focus of Bandura¶s first research. This means to observe the actions of another person, form and idea of how one should behave and then use it for future actions. Secondly, Self efficacy the belief that one is capable of starting and carrying through a required action. Lastly, Moral disengagement, when someone abandons a moral belief, this helps explain terrorism. Bandura gave four conditions required for a person to successfully model the behaviour of someone else: ‡ Attention: Individuals cannot learn much by observation unless they perceive and attend to the significant features of the modeled behavior. ‡ Retention: The observer must store information about the model¶s behavior in memory. The ability to retrieve information later and act on it is vital to social learning. ‡ Reproduction: Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. ‡ Motivation: Finally in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. The presence of reinforcement (reward) or punishment is an important motivational. There are several factors which may influence whether or not the observer decides to imitate and learn. y y y y Consistency Identification: tendency to imitate models who are like ourselves Rewards/punishments: Bandura argues that people can learn from observing and don¶t have to necessarily experience consequences themselves. This is called vicarious reinforcement. Linking models: warm friendly models are more likely to be imitated then cold, uncaring ones.

SLT has been used to explain many things but particularly in the role of violence in the media on aggression in children. Bandura et al devised a lab experiment, to test the observation and modeling of aggressive behavior. Participants were 72 children, girls and boys, around 4 years of age. The children were all rated for aggression before the study and the groups were matched to make sure that one did not have more aggressive children in it than another. 24 children watched an aggressive act, 24 watched nonaggressive acts, and the remaining 24, acting as a control group say neither aggressive no aggressive acts. The children in each group were playing quietly when an adult entered. In the µaggressive¶ condition, the adult played quietly for a while in another corner, and then started to act aggressively towards a bobo doll. In the non aggressive condition, the adult continued to play quietly before leaving. The children were then put in a slightly aggressive state by being told they could not play with something they found interesting ± this was to ensure that the children were all at the same level of arousal before their behavior was observed. Then all children were observed playing, with access to a bobo doll. The children in the non-aggressive group showed almost no aggression. Those who watched the aggressive models imitated their behaviour and were aggressive. Children who watched the aggressive models showed both physical and verbal aggression. 88% of the children imitated the aggressive behavior. The acts were clearly those that the adult had

this argument is being continued. The discovery of mirror neurons has lent biological support to the theory of social learning. The most likely reason for this is that they are conscious of the consequences of violent behavior and choose not be be violent. Helena in 1995. They found a positive correlation between the number of hours of violence watched on television by elementary school students and the level of aggression demonstrated when they were teenagers. . A study was conducted by Juesmann and Eron in 1986. After interviewing parents and older children. We have a lot of cognitive control over our behavior and just because we have had experiences of violence does not mean we have to reproduce such behavior. the study has very low ecological validity. However. Even five years after the introduction of violent models. Then it is also argued if it is ethical or not to use such young children and expose them to such violence and aggression. However a case that quite contradicts this is when television was first introduced to the island of St. By watching aggression. and through the observations it was concluded that violent television programs had no effect of the behavior of children on the playground. Although this study supports SLT. children learn how to be aggressive in new ways and also draw conclusions. they found a positive correlation between the number of hours of violence watched on television by elementary school children and the level of aggression demonstrated when they were teenagers. Researchers observed the behavior of children aged 3-8 on the playground. SLT helps explain why behaviours may be generationally or culturally passed on. children in Canada were found to have become significantly more aggressive two years after television was introduced to their town. Even though the behavior of children did not change. and exploiting that those children had become criminals is unethical. This might be demonstrated in the St Helena study. It is also argued that the children must have reacted this was only to please the researchers and to feel wanted.carried out. Another methodological consideration is that the adult models must not have been completely standardized. It is a theory well supported by research and has helped us understand aggression and how the media/film industry might contribute to violence in society. it is argued that this could be purely coincidental. Although it can explain some quite complex behavior it cannot adequately account for how we develop a whole range of behavior including thoughts and feelings. not just general aggression. However. there has been no increase in violent behavior of children on the playground. where monitoring children¶s behavior over a 15-year period. the requirement of showing aggressive television to children at the age of nine solely for the purpose of a psychological study is also unethical. In another important study by Kimball and Zabrack in 1986. it does not mean that the children have not been observing the models and learning from them. A possible reason could be the influence of their elders¶ on them which proved to be stronger role models to the children than the television characters. Or that the children who watched violent television may have lived in families that facilitated such behaviour. they also found that those who watched a lot of television violence when they were 9 years old were more likely to be arrested and prosecuted for criminal acts as adults. The observation of children for a period of 15 years. It is also questioned about the actual aggression encountered. The result of this study indicated a link between watching violent television and aggressive behaviour. According to SLT there is a chance that violence on television will lead to more violent children. However a major criticism of SLT is that it provides an oversimplified description of human behavior.

to sign a poster that said ³Take shorter showers. this is to enhance the buying rate. The next important and most seen technique is Commitment. they will face both personal and social pressures to behave consistently with that commitment. However reciprocity does not always involve giving gifts. In 1998. Social influence is how interpersonal interactions shape the expected behaviours of a group. This means that the longer a person commits themselves to something. it still lacks ecological validity. It is also possible that a person feels that the other person has already compromised so much on what he or she wanted. Different social backgrounds have a different take on different causes and approaches. This also seen when the outsider finds it illogical. It is said that once people make a choice or take a stand at what they say or do. Liking: People comply with requests from people they like. with the hope of persuading them to agree to something larger. Then they asked them to design a survey to make them think about their own water wastage. Students¶ who had to do this. Arousal of feelings of guilt plays a key role in such cases. Although this experiment is valid. were forced to think of their water wastage and took an average shower time of 3. Therefore there are many advertisements that say ³Limited time only´. in 1992 was on this technique. around 50 percent agreed to do so and serve as chaperone. Compliance is yielding to social pressure in one¶s public behaviour. This is the reason advertisements use a famous figure to brand their product. . One technique is the ³door-in-the-face technique´. There are 6 factors that influence people to comply with a request: Authority: people tend to comply more often when someone in authority is asking them to do something. 83 percent refused to this. It is also argued that the students might have altered their timings or it could be the other way round where they already had a commitment to the cause. To do so they asked students to do two things: first. Social proof: People tend to view a behaviour as correct if they see others performing it. Reciprocity is considered as one of the main compliance techniques. Many advertisements and markets salesmen use these to persuade consumers to buy their product. It is also argued that we do not know what was running in the college students¶ heads therefore it might have been something contrary to the aim of the experiment. this time not one agreed. The small request is called the µtarget question¶. Cultural beliefs must be taken into consideration as well. This is when a large request is made. Nearly everyone is trained from childhood to abide by this rule.2) Discuss the use of compliance techniques. Posing as representatives of the ³Country Youth Counseling Program´. The team wanted to see if they could get university students to save water in their dormitory. This rule is often used by salesmen to convince consumers¶ to by their product by making them feel very warm. the less likely it is for them to abandon their goal. the size of the trip they leave increases. Lynn and McCall found that when restaurant customers are given a mint or sweet with their bill. and then is followed by a smaller more appropriate request once the large request is turned down. Scarcity: Opportunities seem more valuable when they are less readily available. It is considered as normal etiquettes. It is the result of direct pressure to respond to a request. This rule says that a person must try to repay what another person has provided them. Reciprocity: This is when people comply because they feel they need to return a favor done with them. The ³Foot-in-the-door technique´ is often used with commitment. The next time they stopped students and first asked them if they were willing to work for two hours per week as counselors for a minimum of two years. This used when one want to get people to make a commitment to something small. and hence comply with such situations. In 1951 Kurt Lewin argued that behaviour is motivated by goal gradients. Their shower times were then monitored. he and his team stopped university students on campus and asked them if they would be willing to take a group of young children on a day trip to the zoo. The reciprocity principle is that it is considered a social norm to treat others the way they treat us. it is argued that the youth are not representatives of the general population. Compliance techniques outlined by Robert Cialdini are the ways in which individuals are influenced to comply with the demands or desires of others. If I can do it. welcome and comfortable in their store. so can you!´. and therefore this should be acknowledged and could be a way of appreciation. Although the experiment was conducted in reliable conditions. An experiment was conducted by Robert Cialdini in 1975 on this theory.Q. This was significantly shorter than the time the rest of the students in the dormitory took.5 minutes. even though one¶s private beliefs may not have changed. Commitment: Once people have given their word or a statement of belief they tend to comply with similar requests. Commitment is characterized as being consistent with previous behaviour. A study carried out my Dickerson et al. But when they followed up the student¶s refusal with the request to take the kids to the zoo.

In a second group they were asked the same favor but were not told the timing. They asked a class of first-year psychology students to volunteer to be part of a study on cognition that would meet at 7a.m. . Cialdini et al. subsequently claims it was an error. It is a An strategy whereby a salesperson induces a customer to agree to purchase a product at a very low cost. only 24 percent were willing to leave the warmth and comfort of their bed so early in the morning to support this research.In 1974. none did. On the actual day of the meeting 95 percent of the students who had committed to come arrived. 56 percent agreed to take part. This once again is said lacks generalization as students are not representatives of the general population. Here. Then when they were told the time. and were also told that they could back out if they wished to. It also said that this technique can be considered as ill-legal in business. and then raises the price. frequently the customer will agree to make the purchase at the inflated price. demonstrated the technique of low-balling in a university. though enthusiastic about this.

the participants continued to give incorrect answers even after the two confederates had left the experiment. they are not representatives of the general population. Conformity is one of the key ways that society or culture passes down its values and behaviours to its members indirectly. Deception was used and since the participants were not informed about the confederates. B or C) was most like the target line. Since culture is dynamic it is possible that Asch¶s study is no longer valid.the majority have the power to reward and punish with approval and disapproval. 24 percent did not conform to the incorrect responses given by the confederates. psychologists have found that there are two main factors that influence the likelihood to conform to the group. In this respect. Moscovici argues that majority influence tends to be based on public compliance. The real participant sat at the end of the row and gave his or her answer last. involving the physical presence of others or imagined. that is: y y Group size: Asch found that with just 1 confederate just 3 percent of the participants conformed and so on. The real participant did not know this and was led to believe that the other seven participants were also real participants like themselves. Each person in the room had to state aloud which comparison line (A. Once again the experiment was artificial. Some argue that this could also be explained in terms of the ³need to belong´ ± the need to be part of the group is stronger than the desire to give right answers. the seven confederates gave the wrong answer. How often are we faced with making a judgment like the one he used where the answer is plain to see ? Asch replied that he wanted to investigate a situation where the participants could be in no doubt what the correct answer was. he placed two confederates with four genuine participants. Out of these replications. Asch¶s work raises ethical issues. power of numbers is important . In addition. culture could also have limited the validity of the study. The original study was only conducted on Americans. Asch used a lab experiment to study conformity. In 1969. However. the research lacks ecological validity. larger groupsw did not increase the rate of conformity. They found that the minority was able to influence about 32 percent of the participants to make at least one incorrect judgment about the colo\r of slides they were shown. About 75 percent of the participants agreed with the confederates¶ incorrect responses at least once during the trials. flexibility. In some trials. His participants did not provide fully informed consent because they were misled about key aspects of the experimental procedure. A mean of 32 percent of the participants agreed with incorrect responses in half or more of the trials. the participant was significantly less likely to conform. The confederates had agreed in advance what their responses would be when presented with the line task. In so doing he could explore the true limits of social influence. Peer pressure is used to describe the conformity seen in schools. The minority of two confederates described a blue-green colour as green. conformity occurs at all levels in life not only in school. All reported experiencing some degree of self doubt but agreed with the confederate because they did not want to beappear to be against the group. they were put in an embarrassing and difficult position. Even if one disagreed. therefore lacks ecological validity. This change is in response to real. Four main factors have been identified as important for a minority to have an influence over a majority. Using the line judgement task. Instead of keeping a majority of confederates. It is likely to be a case of normative social influence. Also all participants were male students who all belonged to the same age group. Cultural views must also be taken into consideration. However. Hogg & Vaughan claim that the following are important for minorities to be influential: . And because of this there is pressure on minorities to conform. The study is referred to as Asch¶s Paradigm and has been repeated several times. There were 18 trials in total and the confederates gave the wrong answer on 12 trails. there are issues with informed consent. He conducted the same experiment as Asch but in reverse. Unanimity: Conformity was more likely when all the confederates agreed. Moscovici argued along different lines than what Asch had stated. style of thinking. A classic study on conformity was conducted by Soloman Asch in 1951. involving the pressure of social norms group pressure. During the debriefing after the experiment Asch asked the participants how they felt. It was also argued that there is bias in the interpretation of the findings. In addition. These are behavioural style. However. The answer was always obvious.3) Evaluate research on conformity to group norms. and identification. Conformity is a type of social influence involving a change in belief or behaviour in order to fit in with a group.Q. Asch put a naive participant in a room with seven confederates. In 1995.

However with normative influence it less likely that there will be a change in the individuals privately held opinions. In 1955. Social trends: if the views of the minority are in keeping with social trends. To resolve the conflict we conform to what others are doing on the assumption that others possess more knowledge about the situation ‡ Normative influence is based on our nature as social animals. but they if they went with their own answer they risked ridicule and rejection from the majority. For example current trends in Western Society are tolerance and liberalisation. . Therefore calls by a minority for equal rights for a minority group are more likely to meet with acceptance. we may experience cognitive dissonance. In order to avoid rejection and ridicule and to gain social approval we learn to conform to rules of other people. He or she is merely µgoing along with the crowd¶ (compliance). ‡ Informational influence is based on the need for certainty. In the Asch study most participants weren¶t unsure about the answer. Deutsch and Gerrard argue that conformity is a result of informational and normative social influence. with the need to belong and be accepted. social class etc. If information conflicts with our own beliefs about an event or situation.y y y y Principle: if the minority seem to be acting on principle rather than out of self interest Sacrifice: if the minority have had to make sacrifices to maintain their position Share characteristics with the majority: if the minority are similar in age. race.

In 2004. While in 2002. beliefs. there is ³deep culture´ which is related to beliefs. social class structure and its effect on interclass communication and the list goes on. attitudes and values that underpin culture manifestations. psychologists mainly focus on the subjective elements of culture. They can control almost every element of the culture such as marriage. Lonner defined culture as being a set of rules which guide interactions and behaviour in a given society as well as number of shared values and attributes in it. Matsumoto mentioned a book from 1998 that analyzed 128 different definitions of culture. values. Hofstede defined it as being "mental software" or a series of socio-culturally shared schemas that are shaped over generations and shared through common interactions and reactions. description of cultural factors such as the environment. The group¶s attitudes. On the surface he sees it as "a dynamic system of rules. culture cannot be seen but the manifestations of culture can. In 1995. Culture can also be seen as the whole of Thai culture or down to just what life at ISE is like. Though anthropologists often study the objects which make up culture. Also that the concept of culture is too vague. behaviors and symbols shared by a large group of people and usually communicated from one generation to the next. beliefs. it might lead to generalizations and circular arguments. elders etc. feeling and behaving. Culture is a set of attitudes. explicit and implicit. He warns that if culture is used to explain behaviour. established by groups in order to ensure their survival. social groups. It is often referred to as ³surface. There are various definitions of culture. communication. Culture is a complex concept that is used in several ways to describe different characteristics of a person. Instead." With culture being seen as dynamic is to say that it is constantly changing in response to environmental and social changes. The factors may lead to specific behaviour patterns. involving attitudes. . Places such as ISE can have a written set of rules (explicit) and those that are only understood (implicit). teachers. In 2004. Cultural norms are the norms of an established group which are transmitted across generations and regulate behavior in accordance with the group¶s beliefs about acceptable and unacceptable ways of thinking. attitudes and norms influence behaviour in social and cultural groups. However. how food is eaten.Q. Matsumoto developed the most expansive definition of culture. They are controlled by the "gatekeepers" such as parents.4) Define the term culture and cultural norms. beliefs. According to Kuschel in 2004. values and norms are the social representation which has been internalized by its members. He claims that culture cannot be a explanation of behaviour. norms and behaviours.

Then it is also argued if it is ethical or not to use such young children and expose them to such violence and aggression. Cole did not want to simply report that Kpelle farmers had poor memories. Instead he set out to make the research culturally relevant. Free recall items were planted within two different stories that made sense to the Kpelle about the bride wealth to the chief¶s daughter. tools or utensils. a man kidnapped the girl who drops the same items along the way but in no specific order by category. On the other hand. Experiments using free recall tasks in the US were a popular memory research format. and furthermore ³meaningful values to the members of a given society´. When Kpelle farmers of Africa took the same recall test. 24 watched nonaggressive acts. Although this study supports SLT. The acts were clearly those that the adult had carried out. An experiment that supports the theory of emic was conducted in 1971 by Michael Cole and colleagues. a research study often involves studying of at least two different cultures and the human behavior within social world. the adult played quietly for a while in another corner. The children were then put in a slightly aggressive state by being told they could not play with something they found interesting ± this was to ensure that the children were all at the same level of arousal before their behavior was observed. In the second. where the scientists use two different approaches: emic and etic. He tested Barlett¶s idea that non-literate African tribal people used rote recall on memory tasks for which they had no emotional connection. Even practice did not improve the Kpelle¶s memories. cognitive and perceptual structures.Q. to test the observation and modeling of aggressive behavior. around 4 years of age. with access to a bobo doll. In sociocultural level of analysis. Those hearing the second story recalled the items according to the way they were presented in the story. In the non aggressive condition. It is also argued that the children must have reacted this was only to please the researchers and to feel wanted. This proved that researchers cannot simply use the same task to test cognitive processing across cultures. 88% of the children imitated the aggressive behavior. The children in each group were playing quietly when an adult entered. the study has very low ecological validity. In one story different suitors offered clothes. an etic approach takes a look at culture from the researchers or outsiders of that culture in a much analytical and anthropological perspective. US subjects clustered the items into categories. Participants were 72 children. behavior. Cole designed a series of experiments to make them culturally relevant. Educated American adults used the clustering strategy increasingly with numerous trials. girls and boys. Another experiment conducted on emic was conducted by Bandura et al to explain the role of violence in the media on aggression in children. It is also questioned about the actual aggression encountered. Those who watched the aggressive models imitated their behaviour and were aggressive. Then all children were observed playing. The children in the non-aggressive group showed almost no aggression. . Quite the opposite of an emic approach. To do this the decision to try narrative¶s as the context for the free recall test was made. acting as a control group say neither aggressive no aggressive acts. Children who watched the aggressive models showed both physical and verbal aggression. These are useful cross-cultural research tools. He devised a lab experiment. An emic approach involves perspectives of the natives or insiders about the justifications or reasons for their belief. Otherwise they wouldn¶t be able to recall the items. However. they selected items representing familiar categories. the researchers use previous constructed theories and assumptions to determine whether it applies to a new setting or population and discovering the universal properties of cultures.5) Using examples. Small children however do not perform well at clustering even with numerous trials. food. This finding was contrary to the popular stereotype that non-literate persons had tremendous memories. and the remaining 24. and then started to act aggressively towards a bobo doll. there was no clear pattern of organization in how these subjects recalled the items. not just general aggression. Another methodological consideration is that the adult models must not have been completely standardized. In the µaggressive¶ condition. explain emic and etic concepts. which includes emotional. That is put the items as a part of a story to make sense of them. Participants hearing the first story clustered the items. the adult continued to play quietly before leaving. Results showed that how the items were embedded into the stories affected the way in which they were recalled. When given free recall tasks for familiar objects. The children were all rated for aggression before the study and the groups were matched to make sure that one did not have more aggressive children in it than another. 24 children watched an aggressive act. He did this by making sure the tasks represented something significant to the Kpelle.

anger. both Mundugamor men and women showed µmasculine¶ trait through their aggressive and unpleasant behavior. In 1935.An experiment that explains the theory of etics was conducted by Ekman. Since the Fore had no written language Ekman couldn¶t directly ask the subjects what emotion they saw in the film nor could he as them to select a word from a list that he had created. contempt and sadness. Furthermore. Meads conducted an emic research study on cultural variations in gender in her study of three different cultures living close to each other in New Guinea. The results from the experiment showed a large amount of similarity in the content of the stories. . The research was conducted by a western person. disgust. translators were needed. However. there was a reversal in gender ± while the women was dominant. The Fore had already been films by another researcher. which was established before her investigation. rejecting the notion of ³universal properties of cultures´ and instead led to a discovery that behavior can be influenced from culture and its society. it took a long time for the Fore to convey their stories due to language problems. the Fore. in contrast. surprise. ³tell me what is happening now. she discovered that the Arapesh people featured µfeminine¶ characteristic since both men and women exposed same level of sensitivity and non-aggressive behavior. it was unclear how to show that the stories related with specific emotions. he edited the film such that only the facial experiments could be seen. To control his experiment and make sure that the experiment was following the cues of emotion. to compare the perspective of gender in the cultures also implies her emic approach. Ekman studied a group that was socially isolated from other cultures and the media. Since translators were used it also took a long time for the subject¶s ideas to be conveyed. what happened before to cause such an expression on the person¶s face. However. The basic emotions are happiness. This research also contradicts the theory of stereotypes. Cultural views must also be considered. Instead he had to tell them to make up a story about every facial expression that was shown. fear. He suspected that this data was evidence for his universal emotions theory. Although the research was relevant it is argued that it could have been biased. Ekman analyzed this study. He went to Papua Guinea to study an isolated group. the collection of data was not an easy task. men were much sensitive and cared about their appearance. and what do you think will happen next´. and in the Tchambuli people. Clutural views must also be considered. He is famous for discovering that everyone has a set of basic emotions that are distinct and recognizable on the face. Although the experiment did come to suitable conclusions. Throughout her research. They are universal and make up an innate facial affect program for responding to emotional triggers. her utilization of western gender imagery. an outsider of all three cultures. gathering data in the island was quite a challenge. The conditions were harsh and due to language barriers.

On an individual level. social hierarchy.6) Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour. This also may have led to racial discrimination. where bonds between individuals are loosely based. The definition of cultural dimensions was given by Hofstede. patience. and that non-western cultures tend towards connectedness. The second dimension is uncertainty versus avoidance. In 1986. severe results can arise. It was found that uncertainty avoidance was not correlated to Chinese Survey responses. This means that every being are referred to as a 'true individual' where one is expected to look after themselves and their own family. whilst the Japanese in contrast. They describe the behaviour of a group and do not always accurately describe individuals¶ behaviour. each person displays behaviour based on situation. The term individualism refers to 'individualist societies'. Although the research is valid cultural conflict might take place and therefore problems must arise. Therefore he went back and studied a vast number of participants from different cultural backgrounds. On the other hand the term collectivism refers to 'collectivist societies'. A questionnaire. The research was experimental based. The first dimension is individualism and collectivism. The Japanese were found to be less likely to make self-serving attributions than Americans thus demonstrating that the link between the self-serving bias and maintenance of self-esteem at least in individualist societies. In 1988. Cultural views must also be considered. . as well being integrated into strong cohesive in-groups. He called this long and short-term orientation. by a belief in the absolute Truth. aunts and grandparents to provide support and protection towards that individual. therefore lacks ecological validity. The dimension of culture are etics. tended to attribute their failures to lack of ability. Uncertainty avoiding cultures try to minimize the possibility of such situations by strict laws and rules. It helps to avoid stereotyping people by over-identifying them with a dimension of culture.Q.´ It showed that Japanese children were raised with being taught to live within the parameters of society while for the Americans it was otherwise.and short-term orientation which was later found by Hofstede. where an individual is expected to conform immediately to society's rules and expectations from birth onwards. such as uncles. feelings and behaviours. Since the participants knew what they were doing. the nail that stands out gets pounded down. therefore must be backed up with research showing that it is universal. They characterized the difference between US and Japanese culture by citing two of their proverbs: ³In America the squeaky wheel gets the grease. Kashima & Triandis asked American and Japanese participants to remember slides of scenes from unfamiliar countries. was then administered to people in 23 countries. This experiment concluded that relationships are based on status. Nevertheless if an individual in a conformed collectivist society does not reach to its expectations. They also argued that argue that this sense of self can influence our thoughts. it deals with the society¶s tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity. this was the Confucian dynamism because it reflected Confucius¶s ideas about the importance of perseverance. He holds one of the largest numbers of research conducted across cultures. He asked a number of Chinese social scientists to create a list of what Chinese people viewed as their basic values. some cultures focus on virtues. It indicates to what extent a culture programmes its members to feel either uncomfortable or comfortable in unexpected situations. Although the way we look at ourselves is the way we look at the world. in Japan. Markus and Kitamaya conducted an experiment on this. Markus and Kitamaya argued that perceiving a boundary between the individual and the social environment is distinctively western in its cultural orientation. When asked to explain their performance the Americans tended to attribute their success in remembering accurate details to ability. based on this list. it could have affected their behaviour during the experiment. A dimension of culture is an aspect of culture that can be measured relative to other cultures. In 1991. and on philosophical and religious levels. the role of culture is pivotal in understanding bias. thrift and having a sense of shame. instead of focusing in the truth. Bond argued that Chinese culture replaced the uncertainty-avoidance dimension with Confucian work dynamism. The dimensions are research categories that make many psychological concepts acceptable cross-culturally. Hofstede while conducting research was afraid that questions set by Western researchers would not allow for true responses by non-Western participants. There are four dimensions: y y y y Individualism versus collectivism Masculinity versus feminity Power distance Uncertainty avoidance And Long. safety and security measures. Such as an extended family. They have a need to protect the collective identity and respect tradition. Dimensions categorize people on a social level of analysis rather than on an individual level of analysis. The outcome of this project was the emergence of a fifth cultural dimension.

social. Different cultures have different views. Short term goals referred to quick results. This is the long. Unlike Bond. Although Hofstede conceptualized individualism ± collectivism as one bipolar dimension of culture. Hofstede did not study every one of the dimensions. After Bond¶s findings of the Confucian dynamism. and emotional needs among their members. regard for social obligations such as greeting. They are rather impatient.Although the experiment was valid. rather than to their origin¶. etc. as well as avoidance versus uncertainty. sense of shame/ collective face saving and high regard for virtue. Cultures scoring high on long-term orientation subscribes to the values of long-term commitments and respect for long-standing traditions. formalities. these too must be considered. However he did study individualism and collectivism well.and short-term orientation. In practical terms. spend culture. This may explain the strong work ethic in these cultures. Finally. Bond¶s research led to the last dimension following uncertainty and avoidance. contradicting Hofstede¶s theory. are present-oriented and strive for immediate results. It is also argued that the ecological myth is the mistaken belief that if two cultures differ across dimensions it should not be assumed that two individuals from those cultures would also differ. This dimension was not originally part of a study by Hofstede¶s IBM survey analysis. There are other ways such as in non-verbal communication. favors.and short-term orientation. it was artificially based hence lacks ecological validity. While. where long-term rewards come as a result of today's hard work. the long-term versus short-term orientation refers to the degree to which cultures encourage delayed gratification of material. a series of questionnaires and the dimensions proposed to explain the results demonstrate a cultural bias specific to western scientific values. Hence. meaning. Hofstead went back and found that other countries also reported values fitting into the Confucian dynamism continuum but however these nations did not recognize the principles. gifts. Also argued is that the techniques used to gather these data. . such dimensions are not the only ways to view cultural differences. more recent research suggests the dimensions are more continuous and may even overlap. a µlabel referring to nature of the values involved. The experiment could also lead to some racial and cultural problems. The research by Triandis et al found that under some circumstances people may exhibit collectivist cultural traits whilst another time exhibit more individualist cultural traits. saving money. In contrast Cultures with a short-term view are not as concerned with past traditions. he changed the name to long. and individual face saving. Long term orientation referred to Long term goals and perseverance.