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History of hypnosis starts from ancient times. But modern hypnosis developed from 17-th century. Below you will learn the modern history of hypnosis and discover how it has been developed until nowadays. The first type of hypnosis was animal hypnosis. In 17th century farmers could calm chickens hypnotically using different techniques. In France, farmers learned to hypnotize hens to sit on eggs not their own. In 1800-s people hypnotized birds, rabbits, frogs and others. B. Danilewsky experimented with animal hypnosis and studied its physiological workings in animals. Austrian doctor, Franz Anton Mesmer (1733-1815) who is acknowledged as the "Father of Hypnosis" started the concept of magnetism. Mesmer believed that there was a quasi-magnetic in the every air we breathe and a "cosmic fluid" could be stored in inanimate objects, such as magnets and transferred to patients for curing their illness. Mesmer cured a woman, who suffered from a convulsive malady. During one of the woman's attacks he applied three magnets to the patient's stomach and legs while she concentrated on the positive effects of the "cosmic fluid". Her symptoms subsided when Mesmer gave her this treatment. Mesmer believed that "cosmic fluid" was directed through his patient's body, her energy flow was restored and she regained her health in this way. He could restore the sight of a young famous, female musician, Mille Paradies, who had gone blind at age 4 when she heard a noise at her bedroom door. Mesmer had great success treating thousands of people with "animal magnetism" and the process referred to as mesmerism. A student of Mesmer, Marquis de Puysegur (1751-1825) first described and coined the term for "somnambulism". He used "animal magnetism" on a young peasant. During this process Puysegur noticed that the patient could still communicate with him and respond to his suggestions. Puysegur thought that the will of the person and the operator's actions were important factors in the success or failure of the magnetism and he believed that a "cosmic fluid" was not magnetic, but electric. An English surgeon, Dr. John Elliotson (1791-1868) reported in 1834 numerous painless surgical operations performed using mesmerism. A Scottish surgeon, James Braid (795-1860) gave mesmerism a scientific explanation. He found

that some experimental subjects could go into a trance if they simply fixated their eyes on a bright object. He believed that mesmerism is a "nervous sleep" and coined the word hypnosis, derived from the Greek word "hypnos" which means sleep. Braid rejected Mesmer's idea that hypnosis was induced by magnetism. French neurologist, Jean Martin Charcot (1825-1893) used hypnosis to treat hysterics and categorized it as an abnormal neurological activity. Auguste Ambroise Leibeault (1823-1904) and Hippolyte Bernheim (1837-1919) were the first who regarded hypnosis as a normal phenomenon. Freud was interested in hypnosis and read Bernheim's book on hypnosis "De la Suggestion" to find a physiological explanation of suggestion in the nervous system. As he observed patients enter a hypnotic state, Freud began to recognize the existence of the unconscious. However, Freud rejected hypnosis as the tool to unlock repressed memories, instead favoring his techniques of free association and dream interpretation. With the rise of psychoanalysis in the fist half of the 20-th century hypnosis declined in popularity. The modern study of hypnotism is usually considered to have begun in the 1930s with Clark Leonard Hull (1884-1952) at Yale University. His work Hypnosis and Suggestibility (1933) was a rigorous study of the phenomenon, using statistical and experimental analysis. Hull's studies demonstrated that hypnosis had no connection with sleep ("hypnosis is not sleep, ... it has no special relationship to sleep, and the whole concept of sleep when applied to hypnosis obscures the situation"). Hypnosis therapy has been widely used in World War I, World War II and the Korean War. Hypnosis techniques were merged with psychiatry and was especially useful in the treatment of what is known today as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. In 1950s medicine started to use hypnosis for therapy. In Britain, in 1952, a Hypnotism Act was instituted to regulate stage hypnotists' public entertainments. In 1955 British Medical Association recognized therapeutic use of hypnosis and in 1958 the American Medical Association approved a report on the medical use of hypnosis. Two years after AMA approval, the American Psychological Association endorsed hypnosis as a branch of psychology. Milton Erickson (1901-1980) developed many tips and techniques in hypnosis that were very different from what was commonly practiced. His style is known as an Ericksonian Hypnosis, which has greatly influenced many modern schools of hypnosis. Dave Elman (1900-1967) was one of the pioneers of the medical use of hypnosis. Elman's definition of hypnosis is still widely used among many professional hypnotists. He is known for having trained the most physicians and psychotherapists in America, in the use of hypnotism. He is also known for introducing rapid inductions to the field of hypnotism. One method of induction which he introduced more than fifty years ago, is still one of the favored inductions used

by many of today's masters. John Cerbone is best known for his work in the area of instant inductions (speedtrance induction). His work draws on the six methods of inducing trance (boredom, confusion, loss of equilibrium, eye fixation, misdirection, shock and overload) in a unique technique that produces instant induction in 3-7 seconds. Richard Nongard has been a collaborator in developing these methods with Cerbone. Today, hypnosis is highly effective and popular medical tool. It is widely used for habit control stop smoking, weight control and other health problems. Many hypnotists run their own stage and street hypnosis business. And others do hypnosis just for fun (hypnotize their friends, parents etc.)

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