bSTERREICHISCHE

AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN

PHILOSOPHTSCH-HTSTORISCHE KLASSE STTZUNGSBERICHTE, 662. BAND

Beitrage zur Kultur- und Geistesgeschichte Asiens Nr. 28

bSTERREJCHlSCHE

AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN

PHILOSOPHISCH-HTSTORTSCHE KLASSE STTZUNGSBERICHTE, 662. BAND

Studies in Hinduism II
Miscellanea to the Phenomenon of Tantras

Edited by GERHARD OBERHAMMER

VERLAG
DER bSTERREICHISCHEN AKADEMIE WJEN 1998 DER WISSENSCHAFTEN

'JUI ~i:J~L

vun

v« M.

G.ERX:\RD 'lrf!

01'lEm~;.. , ... " 1F.1l.LII lb.· I Si 1:(lmJ~

F~. Jmli J 998

I:IJI~L·llla.gbi
FO[·D:

lrl; U:~.;i1..:il:;.mii Thomas Zlt'311 ...::k

I,'; HI\I }-71...1!)1-27~·~

Copyright r-;. 1~1'J.i!b;~
fNb'::n\.:i...:iJi:,_;.Jl":: Akadcm ic 4::r Wi~Sl:D::I(ru:tkD Wi~ll

I NHA LT

E(Htf)rial Remarks

~~

I

~

I

I

••

,.

.,

••••••

••

7 9

o )nCf'm~Tj;g Tantric
"B{:Ob~lch"l.unger.li s;rrp hi'l ii. (fI,.
ZIJIi"

Traditions (A_

P,\r.f(tll-:':)

. .. . . ..

c.Oneobi1!l1mgsgc!:.Chic htc" Clef PL1Gi1.1"L1~
_ .. . . . . . . .

Onf.RH/i.t.{\{f]~)

2 I.

S:~1:i kmriia - Order of Crearion in the Paramasam hit11 C\,f_ C7.J::RNl K- DR07.rJ,7:0WTG.) The karku.h~<;" in lhe :S.~li '~I urul V ~li:~r,1 Tan Ir~(; T;i<Jiji rm: ~ ~P.;~l T

_ _ 4:1

Some Considcrarions 'octw';'~l,;iI"I Theology (illd GnuIllllIlB[ (It ltlLU::LLrt.) "', •• ,""""', •• ,. , , , , , , , , , , , , , __ , 55
The sexual Aspect of the t.if/;stl Cult according to the Saiddhantlka Sc riptures (H. BIlL~:-'")'"IR)

'"

.

~7

54

BlliUOGRi\P[·IY

LAINE ~9f.:1

r.w. LA.IN"E, Tbe crcerioa account
br-lL'lllU.Smrti: AnORI vel, 62., 1981 GEI~t-U\r{ [1

in

OB ~R 1-[/\ MlvlER 1994

Oarmn:gsgeSCbicbLJ;: als Text Religionshem.elit:=~L.is-clJe Bcrnerkungen zurn
Phiiinnml;!u m hinduistiscber 'I.'raditiml, (Publiceiions of the De Nobil ~ ReKt=~~1u

o JJERlLU{\ffi[<" Offen-

Library, Occasional \Vien ]994

[IllIIpt::r:; . .'),),

SCllRADER

1916

P-lDillllasaLllhira [of the ~iic.;uitrn], Ed. and transl. into Er.ligl i!i-h with an iarroduction by S. Ki~ISnNASW AMY AN AN'GAR (Gaekwad'» Oriental series 86). nflrod~ J 940, P.O. S.crmAnER. Introducuon ln
the P1'i11c-ilfaUa ami the Ahirbudhuya Samhita. Madras ] 91 6

T~ B KAfilCUKAS IN TIre SALV A AND V AIsr~r'\. VA T&\lTRK'

TRADJTION; A fEW COl\'S lDERA nONS HEJiA,'EEN
l'HEUI.OUY AN"D URMrli\1AR

"Permeated I-}y the fri:\id of the c uirusscs. ~l m} pUSrlil...Q i:l>y I'ime, e.lY'r·r;:~(tp~ by Ncc~s:;:r{}r,this. p.I'jndple proceeds ...... ltl-c quality [~f"iru.HvLooa! [t1l 3(1ul', l'trrl:.!!jJlil'l'g .u the 8d1'"
A.mOillg the husk principles (uJ{t'l!.a) dud fD.ml (he s.tructure (lEthe universe according to the H.IIi\<l: Tantric tl'aditi.on, the gJ'(IUV named 'kwicukils' ccrtai ni}, du not consiimte a ~nc.redoctrinal detaa 1fmoJ~g ll1:3Ii1Yothers but tlrIe th t=ori:7.f~lion, also translated mte ri· tuaJ, of a L~tJ'a1 point Dr 1 ilh tnc lboughtl which mil}' 1 ell U.5 very 'much on iLo:: concept of man and h i·!j.lifu.

The t"irst pecui i~:jf t:: w.acl cr of th i!j gi"nu p of prim:') pies, which is deernr;;d tn {:ol"1stitul.:; the Jeltp structure of [he pe:rs.on, is their ·1.~"rm~liIg· a foreign body \vifh respect to the S.iiimk"hj'·a basis or 1a1tvas,.U"mdii more foreign [01' t=xa~~rle th;:Uli en...c tifflt Jive [aNV(l'!. (SJ.V,IJ, Sal,:ti; So!tdB.~~ lS\-'!Lr.a ami Suddha vidy".l, With variations va, dEpertdill,g on the si'(l!gie !i.chooJs and texts) al ~Q being ~:.I:lJ addhj~m hy the- Salva tradition, J tHlced., the hitter present 'Ltte.lll sdve8 expNciHy as ,iii completely other and ~ntsceliderH sphere of l'eidify, w.hiht the former give rather the ullprcssjun of doubles, having an uncertain status, :0-:0 much 80 that Mil only aU the S<'I!!va phikisophers hut also SO.tIlC of the Sruv"a scriptures them&eJ V{!S 'k:d bound to answer the Qbjectiol!ls tlley already foresaw all thc opponents' minds and 10 highiighr Lbe s:pec.)tiic.I~r, for exemple, of niga Att"at.:hmt:nt' and vidyii S cicnce' wnh re:o-:pecf to thdr l'Ol;;:cmingdA1U·
l L

bles aWlil'd,v'q ;:uui. buLidhl,z

1 ""iPA I:'id.l'iipiirhr XJV.2; IizJ.fi('~ku//"it~y;i"i1!ldJMJIl Mil) f lI~~'(JtJra{Hlxita~ Pr.lI1fbkii1"e'liiifllf!1.IVfIrtlmi {,I }Yili

kiil~)Ml j;t.ihtr1~y.

sa..·

~ See for Vi.!1-I~ >-r~ ~'id.I'.!IfX"idH xr.9. J 4·, l!:1PA l'jdJ'iipt.1d(~x.S, 19., TS It '41-11'1, BilK 1;l3cd-Y;I'kIb-, T~' 47 . ..::k .• f,;~rr~wl'I M rA Ixid}'i1p,jdl"J. Xl. 1S ..HS.. :\4P A

R.

ntliid I.A.

Tn spite of a few eoutradlctleua
more
Oil" ]>:!:!i;.'i

that lhe

OOIlr.JUlen!l:sibrJrs

try ~

eucccssfullv, to smooth WiVO'Ly or, at least, IJ.uLto underliue,' the traditioa Dr Saud.dhii:nlic S<.J!i v i~·m .iJ.PpltarS. hu:i;irull y cohereur. The dudri nei fi, I::xiJ.1'lllmdil!:d, above all, in :-;lDme Ag~s and Up1'i.g.iurnLs~sueh as the Sii!(iyamb-hu V:.(J.'iilil·il,~·arrw.rt.lh{1\ iraK 1, 8an~jiiJrlQU(./.m6. lI{rgr.ndr-c/ and AlalJu\ R"tlw'tml', Jlariik.hya
tangcwlimmr:d]''ara·'o

(see atsoMtIUI}.[.~!j,ja}'tl

.1 ..27-.2:9).

Just as. ex-

pected, we owe the most c("!i~iipteh~i1i~~ ~ietre 114m I;n!1. f Ih"Cmatter to o the MP N\ whk~ wras unani raously CL)~~s.i:dered ·!l"I;["''I"~IiI~ point lhe for the doctrine of the taft~;·as as a whole, l2 The MfA, L1. text .i n

respects close ro the ·MP.4..:.ulsH dw~lI::: ,ld some length 011! til i So subject, Among the philoscphen, ul the S,ai.V;f115idcl!b...1..nt['l~ besides the COntl't1;f:libU.lD:l or I he above scriptures - Narnyal(KIkatJ-tha ft~r the 1\;11'11. and his son RJimwlE)~ for the hlP A and KA - the '!1Dctrune c;ff the kaiJ{.'uk~ is J~H with parlieularly by Sadyoivotls in the T::-l (W-2.5), the llhK (90I;;J-] 05,.·dJ) and iilil. his commentary o~ the Svii.y[,tmb.lru.va,nl."IJ·{)"'~W?1~·~'frlY (:-;;~e ~180 Blf1oJotd!c va' s TP
marry vid_wpOOi:lXI.1-2Sah: TS I{I-I I, Rlil( 901,.-d-9('i,~b·,'IT'" ·~8. , See: for .:.xampJc
4

~L~

rA lX,4400·4c$<11:J.

'A' il.b J:j1.~;zLlLhil'·~ olJrnrnenUJr.:

•.

~"idy.ii:PfJdu, 1.6-11 •. !l..~-W.

, ~~d>Yp.ii.df~. 1.1Q-l~, .!1l.4:11h-.l V_neil ';;'111.123-132~ l<idJ!i1[Jiid(!.,

IJ. 1·~-1;5,

.' Some: rdc:"i:iL:IL"I. LLII'VL.j~IJD~Irom lhis _~liB.i.I cun be found in ~b.ework of the Saidrll~tic; oot.!'U:[I~.nL.j1tur'-::o (~~ kliuw p, 1(0),
a k"'J-IlJJ(,Id(t, c:h<1.pt£j ·VIIi ~,~ul1w~ipnJ·li~f"(j~[f'). tll~~n·1 G Orienral MS~" T.ibrary, MaJl";t1:, MS Nu. 1D,~,~50,. in piITI.L\l,:ld;.u- JJ. i4b-I,6il {I,;L. 1:1Le ~e ~~~~ ql.lf"l¢OO by .T;:!yM.il~~.m 'FAV 'o'1J1,VI pp.4:3-46}. ~ ~·(I:Hlpiida, XI-1'9,. Xl.1 J-l9·_ m vifiyiipf"irkr. Pt1.fe.t.as

~x-xIH.
TS{lk!i

--ct
~yi:1thiWt~ifl ...

Agll(l:r.RJi:iva·ii,

p.l I 'il: NJatiTir~&:1yJtrn.'iJ8. .tZi!t.I'VaJak;w1a-

1"[:

1:2 Wh-::~l dealing with the: tattves; Ablli[l:n".II.,gupto. ~en;.te UJ,t: hlP"A.
1:1

hi~lf
oi)Jjj

VlJDeiDi,JftU~.l1

cr. ali"!.~"''':: fhA.

:s~ in poo1klJli;;,r

his

'!.:O-~D~~

I.lO.

·'i7

4 J - 49)_ 1'0 these rex ts, whkb recur .us the main authoritj~!i on the matter, \\'e should also add at kasf the<VivatanU$ci"5lra ()rBrh~sp<tti, perhaps ulso tht= author of 3 f~D~~)nS commentary (rii"lti~a) on the Raxrava. sometimes cited as upholding differ;cnt views fro.1Il Sad)"Qfyoli·s. Raumm.[ruru]vrl1i. rrbe sc..'-anty aU.coliun paid 10 i( by i.be Saiddbantikas themselves is made ill,P for by Ablliiliilva_gupm

who t,uot~5. extensively from Ihis text in the lA. \\'~e owe ito Abhi~ who mus t ha ve held lbis work in higf' esteem, not wi thstanding their ll'i'ffercut JXi'i nt of ",·icw - the survival of several passages (!;Qtl1C even of a certain fe-ngt~l) of ilhls important text, now ~tlaI"{!nlIy lost I';
l!IaV<l!gnlpl:.!~ (and hiiS Cl)m~iI1{.'Dl4Lor htyarntha)

.Jhc description whh::h ti~HQW8 (-c:f-eB 01l' the wh Die LQ the Sah-asiddbanti:l sources, but is also l.ttrgdr saared by tht:: mssters ~,.fJ ,I ~n·dual Saivi sm", who, tor fueil' :p.'irt, in dealing with the ~ljjcu.kas, mai nly quot{: fJ'< till texts bernngi ng more speciflr::-~Uy to that tJ'adit.t no. ! win mention some posi lion~:specul iarto I1:('D~r:llla1istic schoets later on.

'1he word kai'iC.'ukt! is raken fo]' granted in all sources and J14 ~ '-!Qllbt bdQllg!:l t(l a commcn layer teachings. 011 the coutrary, the same can not be sa~d of it.... meanl ng. the number ·of the: kaficu-

or

ku« aud tlH;ir genesis, 111.t::two prin,cipal
'cuirass,

armour' and '1:1 kind dress, bodice' botb fit the main function of these pnnciplcs whicb is. iLhal (If 'coveriug, sheltering'

or

1l1rC"d'runb"3

of kw1cuka,

the Indivi dual soul de!:iotituw of its fuji powers. because of maculation, hut' the Lr';:xt!i cunstanth-' 31s[~ j'efu to lhe~r 'h.urdJless' or
'fQtcc"

eni.t:lg power' (udbalr'uw, pa~5im). ThcJ'ej~re, let us' say 'ceirass',

(1vWA lJidyiip-atla, XI ..d kalk.-u.b..'RP- hafiya.'I;i1)

~'/:;

Hnd "strength-

f

whieh perhap .... uy l~ 001ter :'.ISstJ!met1 an ·orga.nic" sense, as the m in
tbick .... of .an aruni,Hi', that is; as s~}m.ething able to protect and kin s.treiI'Jgtftl:.:n, n:OF being supe.ri.mp~.1seU from w~thuut but heing an inleWaJ part of t1~~ li1d1vr'duar h prol~ctS. 'fhis would tit wen thc 'Very tigb!t, ahnost ine-J{uicable. connection wmUL the .ii'!JivijdiUa~ soul.

--------14

Some ilUOI'jo;,1[tuD on .ftis W(:Irklt"ll:i bc~, CJlUecl~ iu
mt.c~tjrlg

nvi'!.rcdi N.!I3:
qL1L1~~ in

rx ..2fl-f'l.·d-'- ~2_

UpDagnuta J~.iO. An

pa-5~~

011

file .tI:UTGfI'iu5 is

TA

::.,Tit i~ opposition is u rather !1ilDpli:;tkone, !I~Ilr;e" MII-dwdbiic trend~ can ;~IEO found in S8i~·<I&jddl.r.nt3 Le,x[lI (tir.'1t 0 r ILII, 't~c SanmjiTtilMUa1Yl). he

R.TLlrmr.A

wh uch the lr:::;:.r:lfi. a.. ;::.;,i~.n to the k~-i"icl.!'~5" .lmd pilT.L~CI!I~;!l.dy to ~on:r.e:of them, The only one to say h ex plicitly is Ri:iJllaki?iJj).th;::r when he compares them to the snake' s skill. r (, Their nurnbcrvarics (SlX, r 7 fii"'e: ~·i:lIli~ nr tlr r.t:er.9), even LlirmJ.g:h i Iir tlr .. most t(.JttMtr~Or.r Cf!l~.L;c="pr~ t= tion they ~["C" flvc (kalii~ vidya rag~l.,.kola and niY4w) with mayi1: their dli[["C:(;~ cansc, 1.'Is. the sixrh." Ho~'"CV'clI"~ among tTIm11l IhO;;:.fC is a group of three enjoying a .priv'i ~e:ger1status, 110 th~ scrm eti ~iic:"!), a'S
j

inl the pas:fiag€ cit-ed at the v til)' outset, the ;;l!t).rr~l ltinri • kaii{.'u.k41' h applies to them On.~y_~l ·TIr.. y are K.a.Jii:, vMJ'~1. nd rliga. They are the e a
.ama)'OiI;I!}:l!. say the texts, ~J.&Ellg a phrase originally bclongjng to the gremmaeical sphere, where it stands, !:Imong others, for the priority- in. the application order of two Ill.IN or for . the closer proximity of an affix to the fOO~~ cte.; (J1f.tQ.ltnl,~,(l is here intended in the ::1.CIlrSC that they are more intimately connected with ·llie individual soul.Z! Our considerations will be mainly devoted to

iLlIJ:C!rmOSt ones -

I~

Orl

\lIT' fl;, ~"id)-'iP(7df~ XI.;J.;:JlJtl.::;4;W,

p..l.:!4: ~rpfJSr'!

~I..mpr.h!. ill::,;

.r:i(Ji li(ifL.~~roJ.Y~rfl l~r~I'l(Jlrllh 1of~li'i'Y:rmllf';p~~·~(JP"jIl~(!.miW#I/~~i?>(1 ~ml'1iJ'(!.·I.'o;:/.ri)' Itoi-.)'i-I"I."8.
I"~

A(:oorujng

to the ~'il\:i'ta.r.!l\!jii!{I.. ·a (see bd'l)w).

I~ Por cumple i n .'!" hhi navagapta's P'TV and P'fl.v, where WD find (:Ir~b.'rli(Jj.<~,t(.ll(.l, vMya arrrl ~l:J (i r~order lIn match r!hc: number of the: four ~H.t.i"ilIJli.'II(:·l~~ ~c: b:~JIJ'W).

·I~ l1i1frt is, lfllfi lIid;·"Yi and nig>!l' he-e beln ..... TIiIIi!·~!l1'eli! ;I;.o~ik7r~~~ rc), ferred It!' in [I(llrd'mriilh<l~rl.iM Q (.rnJ corntn.) have ?]. k:.I?]Uy ,Jif~~ol m~;!'liiii.s.
1

~; Fur hnJnd(l~~~8:

-II.

discussion

of ihe

;mill~18ol)nL~r."

.1~lJ[J.

J:ir~l,o-,;! jn ~hl!! nllr.l'Il)(:r 8r"1Ci Ti\ f;if_4j-4.1lah and Jayaratha' s

order of the oomr:ocn~!)r"j'"

~l

cr, i1~~U 1IT"A vidytipi@l.

XI .. .Jcd-31ah: ,~~pi4Wika',jkiJ.wlra l
~i!t,.j k¥.tMpfj(2tam
_lJff!li

Ir;Mfi.f,';

()I;'kmriltr.wlffl'

l'ai .I pn.:rIC(:k"i~hu/.~ sl,fJ1'J(Jd.iir.iJITlu

A..gBl.:(rn~hiJ.·~ Tikii. IJD. TIl 24 (p, J 2....'\1 d(J~: l:tl' laltwub\:1J~~~ [i.eo. /(iUfJ [!lL(I J1j,.. m.tjJ kaNiuyO.:p1Jt/iU;Yfi btrJrJ'ru.ngfllwJ,o;! lj{.riU .. &2 ~'i.Itt21'e~ 1.!-G! q ;f.iid/li."i"f.l'm., , i !;if.. iii'! ·a ditfercnt oonte~1: (.-.::'lb"Jrng L'D Drhi,sJ~[i'~ _~lmJaJ'i'l~ia:~i!I'l2), V ~t;I.\'J "fA rt-! li9- i70: .tJ'N1,d1.lafuif'Crllia./nllmeli iriL.full(.lsJ1:J. kci"!.i:nci4j\:irogfl.mra~~ t.:llr.r."lJ(J.~J.il1 klfl!lM R- .. J.
II cr_ iEIt;{wo;: fu. 16. On B:1JIm-a. I .ix1!Jirui:iXCt ;iCC c.g, Chancrj] I !:Ji'J4~: :14!4-;).4iti, Rcnou 1')4{r:. L! 8-1m,. JEIiI.:ob 19! i:; J.(li ~ the: lIbla~r~ reference pomr, at least for the Slfi.;;"'::.' ~.T;!.1i1Ji1;!r.i'l:;~1idt:, ii~ i!l-18 p(JrN>Jr,j~I1'({I;'Ji1cIl.i2HI !Df j\."i:-;njis

tnCJn.~

Amnng rbe kafic:I~k.a':i proper, klllii~ j,!; t.ht:·one wh iell is una:rumnusly OC~I}SM4'1"edthe most closely li.~kcJ,lA).,or r"tlilier iarert "I.\,·rntti wUh,. the' sU1bjed - a 'second (:OIilSCieusucss' as it were, us Brhusp<liti says (dvitiyat.:1tir h'a2.')~ t~.ough it hi eS8cmj!i!~ly insenhunt (a.::.et4'11J'u, says the MP}i. 11.;: .Ia:fja, :!:lays Ahh:ina""'ag.u.pta7.)_ Hue ~J1,,-rrV'ic..ll~a~ sou], whose rOVf't .. uf lit! [)wj t:dge and ~K'1.nn.bllve been "!S obliterated by fhe bask jmpurhy (mala), iI.1.nds its deepest sillJ1'PO'rt in k.ala, a kind of j njection of basic energy (iedeed, the Yt=I)' incl ('.ing power of the I .ord is <l4.;:tingn ief:), whr(.:.h, at least partially, i

I:IbnW~ (wirb K~dh.oI'tL·9.tf~ID5biio.l~ ;md Iernarks: cf. Kielhorn

r %cY.: n1 :tf j,

l.~ Kiifl.2 and fii).'(fli ,11l'C not spec:ifu:nll!t· Sa.i v L' Cil[lCI;I'l~ and occur. 'il< i~fJ liJj.F:f.J~Jy djJlbI~nl' fiiwdci,; 4)f mess ing 3Ud. ·fi.l[Jcti()J1!!.l, i~l mauy other 'Il.:'..xts .and :schuol;;. (Uill ni')'aIJ see e,g. f(i.Il'ifm.i 199'/: S:'l-~~4)..l-or " diff~lsc d~liCilptr..-11"] of kuJtf ;lmfl nrJ'iI/i as Sai"" I'i.H!Va ....see Mt' A, ~i~11~'ipiido.chapters Xl! nnd XHI wilh R;'dm!lbo~rla':s. W'Ui ~ see .::IJ~uA",JL'l)ra~L'r"a:~ lJ1pl)Jj 011 M'I'i\ v, viily;.ij!iid{J, X,f4 (Iruns!. Hu.lil!l ~,) 228-232), Even i:n the ~iliv8 1~J(iI:!=; !.hey arc !i(}mC:Iim=~ cy,_d!JI:"I~d from th~ mio;;l of rhe i.uik'U'hIS for :rc~.... ..... icfJ .!IfC '!ill1i41113~y imtt:r .. ons h ~,retc:fl by the 0I"1[JJ[1)C"1l1I.<1tIIFS {tbt: C'lo:dLI!lal.l.[] (if flrya/j ill the- S"4''C!jiia1/..1Humi j~ .iJ!f",1J[ with by A hhi.naV.:1gJ!.Ipl'l 3ruJ .hy",·arbu. ill "1 A 4'scd ..46a rsnd cummentary; s~M}.;,tP J,,65 f... tl·l~ nh~cc 1.r C'f kiJ:!d and flJ.Jmti ~rl tl'lc I'f; .:(,g)SIJ ahuve f!'J 2(t On ~~ riil1J;~~'kme, too. Iii/a aM hiyalJ !S1!.e11"l gel1emrly (0 have ;1! some .. r ·'ii;·hs! peri pheral role 'I~ itb respect lo dlf! Otll'l;!!l CU~~!lSe.,; r see JOI ~xs!fI1pk- rhe ~;'trk ()f the Rru'U mIl {qI:lLt:ltil .m T A v Vl.)J.. vr p.l 70 jc fIr~Uirti(fMI' (~"'11"',"11&dlulio; tat [i.c. .lio:.TlI.HJiJ~#iJ .\"Iiddliill/f dmr{(J L')V1/t1 iry .ua.iI'i[wiij-'(ItfJ 'f.fifbJiMM(!'tIll! niiMurru~, ~{')[]OC 'Klh~ etc, huvc been purift~d, Mil(1~fliyaIi toCt- iI.I"C= lu he considered a~ rrl\l[im1OlJ. Kiiia"o'liya1j <.114:' not I:xplidtfy 1II1Ci'Jlkon~ fill th¢ l(tUrra~~J'ju. .. foJ-l '!hi;:;. reuson, allJ !10L M~LI~e tbt!y ct'"" [I(}t !!!Xi:.;!,-' j :;l
!4

Ka/ii

,[If:

i1 C:i ra~~ is o;;ornm.(}JIly tra,II..&lm.ed as 'en~'Y' .. d

I

'I ~imitcdl

f.'o:Y'.\"e.r

'bl) ;.... ~.I

::- Qu~d

~n lA

LX..2Qogc. [ also \1iA V p..2(m .!Ill-mil" C

(:,(1

lJrha.'1fllfIJj;ii ...

daWjrmtn'f" vilJhfi(I" ffli.~l(~fm7J(j dl,it~I<r~J.'(If.."r'ldllii,
~5 vlifyiipiiria, IX. I ~b~ tft~ 'l,r~c is qunlL'd ia l'Av vel.\.'1 f).! 38 witl'i tt-'i~ cnont!'QlJs,~ding ~.Y~U1liii. 'I1

TA~x. iSM.
nralJ!.ltr1liX-o

~ ~pA Vid_I-&Pu.dif, 1X.241::d: k..flhSfJ'lm·WJ.,l"In.rjiw.yii /i.gfe...vjtl'l Mb, see ar'-ll) T A. ~x..I!ilord ..

60 revives the 1j}iD""jte'1"3 the soul. An obicctien l;:~lJTl~:-;; of ~p()lI1ilH1neflilli1'y to 1011<::' mind: wby due!;, the l.Dn:I'S 'power J10t intervene 50 directly b~~t ~mLs" ullil (~rderto release the soul, to. something whmdi i~ in ~ ~(};el.fa bound? 'nib (I bjection indirectly reveals the paradoxical nature of kalti~ and of human dimeosion ~ a whole, The scrl P: 2!J lures nT11' that the i ntervention (If the Lord's power would >l:nf.!llil the :Lmrt~t::di.;ue manifestatiou of the soul '"S. powers in the fuH~~ glory, nu:r1jlt:ly liberation, whllst the question h{:'IT is to fit (.lId ilie soul Ior i~ worldy adventure, whlch the d[pC.ll·~5~ of mala and ill. e karmic impulses diirect ut ~:o. ./\.8 in the nice s.umil.c found .LI1I :til S~i.~ vas.tdd:hanta text; kala is like the clu b Siv.a (01 the guru) makes use 01" in -o.r·(1er to awake theadept, who would no I: be able to ;::I./Ii_nd his, direct loU.i;:Ii!_:il ,A.11 the scriptures ag~ee on the Fact that kala is prodaccd by maya, but it is atso tughtly bound tothe soul (am~)- Therefore, il. is Immaterial, ~ike .i':I'J:.il:ya and Q8!:I!,J2 Kp;UJ and a.r_ru C:~iI"i never be seen ~epllrute "from one another, they seem one single entity ;:.L~ t"nt:ir di f-

forcnec lj;l im[len,.'t::plihh= ({J.tak..~Jr't.I, TA IX_184a), Moroevcr, Abhin~."..aglipta adds (Ti\ V1.[1.176~] 77). it is 'Only iuasmuch ru-: iL is Iifin 1y bound to the soul that kala CO'Jln produ~ this (Iirnited] fl'CI'\lrer of action, When by virtue of 'llie Yad,vv1J11·'J.--a.l"}o.-dik.,\'fi. the .(I.!r.u e~ calles. from this embrace - whereas kaW for il'ii part pers.i sts .i n it this now imperfect eiabraeing caU~1;8 !r(~'ii;I!it)~ to be ::l.MIt: W bring :ahemt lts effects any Longer.

~ Mr.~ 'l!Jd}'GI,(llida, X.Ci 8~~i~113 two opposile 1Il~[1%S 1iJ.)' the rOClll:kai-; mmkhJ~~ '"1:;;) connt, to ddi mit' 3!lIIri11;orem~l\.7 QI" pro~sii'rwru 'tv di~ri:=l r darkness]": the .;,:iJii~IJ~tenLii.ryoonn0l:l!.."'I ~hc ri:J!I"~ furu;l~uD. w11~L'iJlle r"-'lft1 of .kaJa form L1.5 1I"i_:v.;:/.~i, ~11! ;)lw 'f.~ DC 155cd-15oob-: njnuldll(.l·t"Ukl~J· y~ tilf1dtkarlrJCJdh12l12w7tmilii II mil~ya bYJhih .IYJtjj1&~tiitpll1fJmh K~i Jia~vq~1.t" I
'iI

cr .~tp,,-1.'.!'tij'iipii(l(}.,
T.;\. ]X, U;._2,

TX_25od-2bab:;

IS

18

iLi~

Agllil:lra:-§iY,I.'-;:

eommentury:

~I l~N~~t;:!Vi!I:h~ 197.:1: 47. Th~ snnile comes yo~iD.·~OOmD1e~LtJrr ClIl the Sil\fljnfilltl·b"iddki;._'i'tij·_ :<:2 ::<'1

.3J,f.IpliUCl:.lt1r from

S..i-vi!81i!1·-

Cf MPA l<ifty.iiP("Jdf~,] X ..15cd-l 6o.ib und
/1 R-ll MJ;:ylt~

1;:1I~r"lrn(;I~t.a:ry.

~bid_;l9b-3Oah: kakrya~rub hj!(IPY I,I.tJIfJ. I sl!~:;;/ijbril'>l";i"lIIrma

},l15I1'ru;( l~'-

yo«

U/.5rmid l-lhk~ataiJ

'irIm'l:!'J!l dr,a::;(:Urn ekam BWJ.pB''(IIfWf~I~~i

6] "Just as .j!. day poC. once heated by fire, L:a.J!lJ .ilb~()rh sfu::ilac.: so tht:! Oe.1U, pertncater] b.y kala, t:.lI\D receive tho ffUjtiojl.~ obtained

by hlm, with great j oy"," .. And again: K alii hrings about frulnon and i.:.> the ubode of the indi\rjdual sou] (Mngadh~t.l"t Kalil jiie}>u kaliidlw(J.~· ca pudg,ulQ./;!.)_ Rcsti mig on IalJa, imbued' wi r.h karma, the irldj'!{idu-l1LsolJ~ cannot leave i~any more and heectnes :alti.ll;;hed more .ilInd mn(lre.,.,3!II

But if ka:!ii. is ttl!:! most internal and i.mportaltl factor le<:td.ing 'I11·eoul C'OWL:tI'dS the ...... of experience (lhe career Qf hhQk:tr), s "OJ·ld however II. is not ttlt:!· onl Y one. "Just ~15~ by virtue ·of ~il:s sw~ma~g, dille I (1 the l,IJ:];km Vtith substances such as W<l1ter or the sun's heat:. fire becomes the cause of the sprout's birth, ~(J kata is the C.IlilJi!YC of the union wi LII ;..riJyO and of the <l!\v.ft!keltlinghrough l ahou I 'by JW,p,.{J v.·itLIll. view lO l~f(Jnw(ing tbe tru~ Lion in t~t: mum. ''12(; in the soul
.made aC[;1 vc by h.11t1. the process of' knowledge ~rjJ)ni tah place yet u .... ing 4l the (ack of a specific instrlJment The 'auer C.3!nll1()tbe r rc;PJ'e!:icCnt~Lf the senses Of the mind. (buddhi). since they do not by figl!l!tt:!: n an kinds of lriIow~""d£e;Ilhe mind itsclf tbough. haying a a role nf its. own in .alr fQnn~ zyf evcryd~~y lift:! (l).\(ll'-ahJl'a), ~~ .not able (n cognize irs OWI1 aClivit:J·_.~! Since it fuUy ihdOiig8 to the material .... yorld (pliik{.fi) if i~not enabied be anything more Lhan a mirror ill which the equaUl' material things. ilK ~'enc{:ted. Vid!ii 'Sci~mce' is tht! necessary link between the knowing Kub.iet:l - exdUl>i't''C.~Y to be I'CpJ'escnted by the dJ,nt - and the ~]hject imi:"1Se:':i.
I

w

·Th.IJS, W·I; ha ..... a 'l.:(lJ]SC.I N~S subject, who is however entirely c dependent onan impulse from w~th()n.It and the operation of an in~hUriaJ.. f[)f h~:,;cognitive activity, The delicate rdatiQ]Jship beart hveef'll these very different clements il~accounted for hy resorting, once ~~n, LO a rno_d~.~ ved trom gram rnatlcal speculati no; the Jeri

H
l~

.,'{p'A

l>t{!j'dpIUiJl., '£;(28-19<1_

ibid. ]. ~C<I-32_
lRiiJ1!1;:1klll).lhs.'.~ Wl.ti III!!. MI':\. 'I!J;dJ'~lpUJa,JX. i led

:0;;

ff {p,_2YS).

J~ i bid. FI~ 3 J Q...J. i 1: ... wtam iii pro#wdu:naqa .'<,.{i [i.e ~'idF"i 1 "'."I'll' alUmu mi l m~ til' f!~ddlfyiidilJi ti'l/t t.i:I 5-arl"!J~yll f!ilr:rgtrh/lDg.lwIIJ'Fn'£1ki"inI!/.i"U fli,'gum fnrdrlhifJ, udll~~11'EJ..~*7yiitJtwH.fit'lt'U' Itn:1.U iifHtf!O'H'" Sfmm~~i"Un! ml~"!J" 1i:Jt.1mii. J

r-.-,

bJuJNati; (cLtrMlcmlllg

0.1) .!:;). x

62

mood of the C<liL.i:;'b1ti VI:: clause, 'I 'hu Sci jill the action of ex pcrienciag, the agenr is. I!.he.(.,l£JU, katJ is the pJ'ayojakcl, which impels him to 0111;:1. leaving !lis iJgen i .~ s intact (Hils- j S the vef)' p~~pJJ"..l3ibut k:du tuoj] Ior the C['I usative cI ause L(1 be possible: only he who .j s. already able 1:0 c.H1T)' o.ut a eertain ac[:i{~1!1by himself can he i ~npeHed 1,..(1 aet:" see bel nW p, 72- 73). Vidyii .i s the lIl'o~L cssCIl!ria~ instrurnen L tht!: agt::nt makes use of to C<Ji1lT}' out the actlcn, p(:II'iJrp .li:al'a~u~m,~~ 'where the Pil!l).itllian, delinition of the k(u·a~r.tl-Iciiraka (P, L4_2 siidlJ~lk.atl.lmo.m k{~r{J.f)am) L.~echoed. 'Jhe direct 0 bject is tJl€ datum, but, as the lS says, wha~ is. meant here i So not '!he extern a~ object but the huddJrf which receive'S irn reflection." Therefore, p4IT()'ln ka rma" I (Of param btu."f{fam) is ill faa the buddhi. TM~ model seems 1'0 ClCC''Ll!' the Ii n;t IIimc ill the Pal'iikhpa-iigr:m~_:t.:.! and it is for taken Ull agw,n hiler on and developed in the 1\,,1rA, J..·]P.3..!.IIml h'y the , rarious S.lIi \'.H~ddhfulJta exegetes, .11m finally by Abhi nuvaI gupta him&elfrr.Ji. rClS3). Everything i~now ready for [he aubjecl 1.0begin hL1.vi~lg exPCriCncS5.. but for a faCI(lI. as is subtly noted by the S.aoV'.3J scripLllf(...~, the a bscnce of whi ch w(l,mldllllilkc the entire pmr,;c~s ::Idu3!lly motionless OI merely vi~ilu.JIil:· wish to have experiences the the 1Lmgin,g [C.1I them. Or, as tilt MIA puts it. now the {J.f)1l' c.i~nsec the
I

j'I

MrA
set

vkl.~~if!i:r41. X_~cJ: tmtmJ:l~ ]!Jd)...... ,k,liy~i"IJ a:J[jm

fiaTm,J(J1f11nlt'(il!1

,itmalta~t;,

ills",

IS ~ etc, 200.

<II! TS I ~aJ:.; ffliddhiT vi~.Q.l'ii.hthJ. /(;J(l!J£iI1irupii :tamiio.::r,to bJwgmm; T.~ IX ..I 9200- 19J;,j1.: bw:Ml,lil}f pai.Vllti .ill i-iUJ''':i IlmfdhiWlrpfl~factiri7;faJl .:1' _mli.iiildol tmJ'I.I-'7I'I)-o,jl'jl". ~I

Lim context
~a:r.lIing5 l;::

-The most dirc;:~ objlill;"'; 0D the L.....o possi blc mea:n ings of.o.:.lIi'J07t in SiX ~·rr.~ Ili4JYi~l~lfJ• .x.. iU OO'Jd vrttt {p.2fJ9-21 (I). On the 'WOO
OfpQI'(,j1;lt

as fMel~

'l(IokaJ"(llIIiTIfI'

see ibid. (0111 X.9dl'-

ct l1:kii 0'J1

RtlK

IOO~d"l(}1<'11b- (p.:tii);· !,(ku~m0(1 Syrmf.hlpal'.:ikll.l.:.a(f.f.lU
I

~J:arlrNakti!fJ ~:J."i2i':1Qkty "'\I-~ hlifispitfli!pmyvjiJii i tawQ Imlasal!"l{iywRw Mc-g.e 'ot'1ll:lo! kilrEj"kl1mka~" il.i, IlI.Ii! verse ts :?Im:;o qutlh:~d. imlJCYJruYU sLy in '1 A V v.ol. VI p, I .. _ Aerually, B n ..III 11;4.11.!m"'~ i!1II)' other llJl::ll~C~ W. ~~Ippv~ Lh.il'1Ilit~ PwiikllJ'I1 predates the ~'1f A. and the ~I;arl if!e r~L.o1ILIi;:H the ~'ji~·ll m!'Ifu_!.~ iend 1.0 quote the fersuer lIS tbc standard l!U[hCi~i1.) l~i~ th iii issue, ilmlLgb il. is .LI"",) d~alL "'"i~11 i.h~'la~r 1~~.5. hy

Mr.;;;.

object frlal'1lks tn ~he rnanifsstauon (lif til!:!' i[1(F','i.'e.r conscu fUSn.eSS, of btJI~he does. lI10t tam to ~<lK it: tOI" Lh~s reason, thli: J .ord creates e rijgiil,~~ Riiga 'ilUacnm;;::nL,affe.c:fio.El!, the fa.c¢ of he]liIg coloured by

emotices'

is the last of the three euirasses Pl'OP!:!L In fut.:l, it is ..iTl

desires OJ" viceversa, so' ~nti]]:tilM}' they refer to each other". ;:\:;. Abhin: rv L'1gUpL:;I. says in the TPV\', refcrriag I.Q the kfliicukas as L1 whole: "These cuirasses J1limililglcwith each other, in ihc sense that they SUiPJ.l'O'rl each other i~l fudl' functions. They .j}f'C: like the vann_ -l" ous UO'IJVO!IJr,.;;;11 ru:I 'ItlgrctlJ.e~lt!jill ill sweet, '.ol.'. '. It is H given Iact tln.!!1 there is no ;leI ion .i rIi ord inary life which do-es. no'l prececd from an idea (If expectation nf iP.JeiIl~urc4('; 1iIl0IeOV!:!J", the ~'~fjouS philosophical s.chooJs lind authoritative texts agl'ee on Ci.~II!5.ide'.I'if~g rt1ga ~JS the rnot of all feel [n~s. cmotions an Lti uctivities of th!:! mind. ~';' As in the case of vic.)'ll, also I'i.igoa is not to be mmsf::J.kcfJ 'for what i:'1 only <l! [I'<.LItic!I.Ibll" epiphenomenon of it 'I' ci bcgi n with, rilga is ru~I the era '!ling for objects but what lies behind it {abhdii,~·aJf{'?~). Tl is, .i.n IW'rticu.l.llr. not h) be mistaken Inr a feehng (pral}'aj:'a) :<mch as. ~minL&'1>'a. whi-ch is a quali Ly of the mind und beJong5. to [he sphere of (lIbj~d':l-In e veryday M.~ man cnntinun w:-:ly ex pericnces .[E~saffec:li n after a frui Lmnn o ..., J._'1r,.\ 1,Id)'iip.iiliu, X, f!: lw1uMivyakwn'c.rh.?J;Iidrlitar/Ju!
!fIt! f ill.l.i!i Ifl.r/f
Jill

ficu[t if n~Qtimp\l'tlsible to establish an ilbsl[lh.l!~e priori!'}' ordes het ween liig.a and I'iflva, HlA1t is, ~u !lay' whether he: who kn [)\\'S then

'py l1pif!(J~i-

i(},lJ'I~kmlf I"ci'gl.'fJl'J

NrRiniid

e~'Ii.~rjiJl pYrlMjU!~ ii veda
I«J'''W{1

(;If. TA IX,21 Sed: niDtlm';Jm.t

\.'i&:J.mj ropy

(J'/ra 1~iJI.·i(~ .. i

~. ifl'VV ID p.2;;;'2; ~/alli hi kr.!iir.lll,yiJl'f 1l1~,~ra.5.ll w~ a1i'j'(.ljrFllJu,t;'J~1ljaliJ~~li"h::rmd(jlraVj''n~l'ili, Sec <ibD tlIc 4.a1)1J~lLtiGI1 from the .Miifi'llI.~.lrn wl1 ida im IIL'l:!uiatcly ftdJows:.
I(

MrA vidj.-'fJpiida XT.J~l1ib:
'iIIC

.w~rVt7!ilU.~l.'f'WIdCi.~lrvrj

4dMjr'i I 'fP' 48(:: JJlln(~'apl:a l'rttil1elu.~, C f. N.w~Vilrutl'fJ

dm·'~':.mat:."Fnr
a L1Bell~[If:

,elll not I~a~ experleuce
('(1

Pl'fJl·rttilr .~uf;fmb'lf~'i'Umlp,"!i(J'!r/l'liiIIf iJIJiIytiultiy being born dC".o~'Ltl {If

m J .25:

VITI;SyS.Y;;lDi.!I·~

1MJ.rl.dITtJ. j(Jyate
ic!fJ~'O

r-·.J .fl?1\:'kli.~

BJ!&,~)"a thereon p, I '),'7; _._ ioI:plI/r je.l"rm{J/liJ /'(rJ¢.rlNoomlluj W.

j'li,!{(!mr-

17 frv\, IJ r rl.~; I:
n'jglflJ?Nlr".ll~I~I,
oR'

uf.,lJid/lr1/'/n(j,'dwi

bJt£irmiiliiolN (\(/ .dw·.\-im.~ r:iIlir~·m.l-

Cf. Prfti ou Mr,\ 't-idj."api"Nliol, XUflab (p:'}6t

Bur rliga rises. .... gaie ~mmedi ?4tdy afterwiudl'l. with u differ·t:nt objeL.:t,4!J'I'his so-to-speak I'OOL-i"'J.l'."'t1, wh~.cll never ceases in ordinary li [c. is 1h~' ragc1 made .of Ial cnt karmic Jmpregnations {l 'iisaniiJ'ijpa)~O; it is in~ taka pertain i ~ig to the :H 1J1~recL (vedaka~tlla),~1 If r(jgl~.:lis, a feeljng' (pr.::.rLyaya} can drive ~'~'<lrd!j the parIku.lilIl' eX[1criencI:!8. th is; is only due to i1.50 bed rug snppcrted bY .t.. • ·1 ~~., we Inner energy Q.f t~le root-rt~ga."-

has been accomplished.

~. :MI:'.~ 1,.ld)'ti'pMi:oi,X~.2200·:2~b n

sni.1

Vrtti.

!L' Tile ~alv<l ph i]osop.h;;:f.~ l'eftl to 1i~ S.1i1J1rdt:Y<1 dCi(;'tJint: of the t:igl'lt tdl.ii1Y:i~ and tifty .PJ"12!)'I'.I}'GIS" expounded for C':un~pf1:. ill %[lJkbyak;TJ-ikii 4.3-52, The bJw.wf-~,h!!int the ba<;.jl,; predi!'l~iliooHl of the unman mind', <Ire dl~a, j;Uinu, !.>YfiriiR}'(J l'n'li ar,fwfl}''1:1 alol!.g with their OPPCl~jt~; the: .i'!/'ai}'i:1J{f;;!~, ....·Ili(:.n Jepre:~c. the tfl'bliLy of the pii.y;:,:bic..:11rocesses alkl qual ities of i1I!.1IU<'lC me., p arc: .... jpar}'fIJ~:. ai~lktJ,I~!iii :3JINi ~'iddIrJ,with five, I~ine.wc.cl)'-eigh~ ;md cr.ghr t varjeties n:;;'I~~;livc~}' (~he third .... aricty of vipui'"J"'~m jij f11IJhi1!1I(}J~~or 1'ax.-r:1, The Siir;nkh);j1 lexrs do (lot L:flf!!: to p]!,!I,.I~ib]y cennect these rnro euaceptions,

...hi~1Jseem ,

rather :lQ belol~.tl 10' two di.ffi:OCI·lt

layera of iIhe

is:3Jl}lkb}'1l

doctrine

{fR..;,~m,~u..."';E-R 197); l, 2ri8t 111 iItI~ d.uooratitrIt made by iItIc: S;_Ili.'r'<1 phjhJ:;IJph~r!!., Nl('j'11-;19 'OCC>l)IDe e:xt'lmidUy tlLo; UIWiCI: u.f pmtJrYJ;y¥15 (Mrt. "'1.·dJ."0.F('ida.

X.2:5a: ;)m/y(l_w.1N Imiupildiimi!l; Vrtti- U~pi1;tJ']wlm'}'(!.~iin.1 ._.): or the: larrer !DC gro;;;;. form, Dr' f:1I;:IU<IJi7t:ltilJc. of If~ ICUlnC:f ('iI:rtti on ]i..·WA l<Jidy§p5diL, XI.'r'!.

iP-327: ~Y'i.san(lp.rmpliltu.w~:Kit li.t.kfllena JNrJ/Y::I}.alit~mI e:k1hMH(I.Q MMJatiifj! plupM ily aNlu~~. Aghorusiva's '[i((ii.on Bhl:.. (!IfJ: 11,21'7: fa ~~'Va{hhiilV,;fJj lJl'(J/.xir.)y'j~¥lsrliall' [wrjpld~t sliliitehzl !'UpI?l;ti-r Nw-gp:.idafam (rpo.rmiiir .t.ut?rSoiriJ;:l!..lf!j praJyi'iyanar l.If4I\t}"a}'(J~· fr&tJl)'GJ!fJC7, VI1Jti IJ.D MPi\ l·'idyi.!l:!(ida, XVilI,157-1:d, pAl I; ete.j,
~I

cr

Vrtli on l\.U'A ~~dJ'r~i'ida, XI.4oo-5ah

<p_326);

I' ibid. p,32'1.: t(wii.ycrm .... pMJj.-Yjp'llmakrJ va
~
gil

g!-ahak{J'gIJla.7},(J ,,::rl:,"(/$)tl
,15

Nrt!fr:l!tJ ln V:titi
(}1

0(1

",j'gCl blwgulrero1' ~&~.5 W.5'~·jry~(1'pa.b[1JJlrita~ .Rm. Cf .... conccnrion of ro~ MrA vidJcip(ida., XU5b-d (r.-23S). The l'eilron why

tlLol;:' ItlfillMl(jl-'o(j

(,I1.'I;lirogJz~-bha ..'i1 (]f

Ih~' aI1'1ili}'1!I S

doc:ltil!l.1;.':

cannot

represent

'he ultirnute grDD!ld of buntan nttachemeer Is e;l.ei!J1l.y cXfil;li:m:d. ~

thu,

R';:lil!lBIknl):-

wl1ile

I,;m11Ji1lo::r)~i.cg o:n,:MPA

wdJ-iipiido.:. Xr_6~7

(p'.J27}:

/fa lu ~'GI.l'I'Ino:~t.J'i'U1-

kal;t ("~Yj .I bruidlw.& ,\~al"'l!l...r&li\1tnrtal,fis(ma}'flP!!I!(J· ]7H1I'tW yUI:,"i:1patfl;IF~diliinaIl.-· t(JflI'tf/Jlxru'l~igmlfapnlSa'IrR&l itt brliidhitfMrma.q~ w7.san5hU\)li:ui':J.=r"im lJpi r('lfi.iakllt~Yi/l(!tivyaljri'kta"~(JMjl/.'ViMjddhib; nbl!' same <lr_gLlmc:nt i~found ill II is. Yrtt! on lei\, via:VI.lp.iir/a •. f. I' 7 (UoodflU 199::;; 22: the LW' i:s rnL1~ probalJly ColJ.ITlIpt), and l\'<1~ J-I:p::a~cl later en, 'with few variatjons, by Aghor:a~i ... in RL'" ,;1. oi:LlllUi1,eu[a:riM ~)Jl '1is 10 {p.120) and iDbK U~- UilO (p.12,fJ)_ \Vhik the ~iri\ and II is. ;;;IJrIlnlCnWII£ Nar~aJ).<1klliQtl~a (iind, I iike..... , Sad}'L'jyu<ii5. in BhK 5<1he

65

H is not pleasure whkh directly moves raf;a, says a1..:utely the MPj\, but it is /-r~a 'l-'Ihh.:h ,c~-e.ateipleasure l\·ith respect to dl~ .. pariicutar ohjet!1 it. turns [0_:5:,1 In dims way, we c-Mt ~.lCcount for the attachment to I..b.eir wn s1Jttl1~ mal even those which belong to the o lowest strata of being (dogs; worms. and .!iO on) sbow,!4 This doex not t=omml tb.yt tfll; L1dcp[ who h<.l!5overcome raga (lIiUll"iip;a) is CLLt C from pl.e<J8urt:", j nstead, the ..... tff i.tatiigtl enjoys a particular rOml of pleas LI L'€ in ail acti ons.:~j The very existence (j·f the v1tal'tig{f is oae 01"!hI:! recurri qg arguments '(1 all Ihe tcxt8 to prove ihar riiga res IS. in the depths of s-ubjtX:t, not in Qbjec~, for in the I~UtI=I case the mere existence (If n~fl:!"''t~ OlJ[d suffice to keep ra,ga alive, w Therefore, l-aga to·o. like I/jdyii, is both a ccrnplex and .iJn elementary reality, al] the more difficult tu dt:fille the more Internal fy j t a bides in the structure [)f the l. Let us he a'ded in tills difficult t;:v;k by some ins igbrf!Jl ("Q1]." ide~"4lioh8 by i\ bbih.ll'vaWJPt:. j ii the TA (IX-6l-64). The unaver;;e has been created in order to 53:tist}· the souls in whicn a trcnzy, a fcvt:nsh craving for irurtioll bas been aroused. This frenzy (lolikiJ) has (10 u~jl:Xt ill it i~.so-to5PI:!~~k. \k.sirrng state (~dJ/iild!ijtii), a. stale ofindefinite expecraa lion (J1<l)'ar"U.l<i!: sviitmani siik4lik,yatt'I'(l), hence (he fhitlking of' ~~nel>df as Imperfect, a kind of ncsc icnce, j n a word: the basic impurity. nuda. Tbi!i. L.,. only the readiness 10 assume Iururc hmitJ.tions (y.(lf{J'i~/iimiHI'C1m evanad hhiil)},fll 'ac.(.:lu:-liaSll'F[;T-al/.e). That i~ wny th.i:-: does nut constitute a tatrva. as OJ] Lbe contrary riiga docs.

an~

dQetrine L)[ blJijV.!1~ ;IIJlOpfaIFIJ"l.~ us ~xf'()'j!Ddc4 by ~bc c:I"'::;!lk~iJ5l;U:rikbya, .1 more ~pl:Citic-..!I]ay Saiva ebibl.lwtinu i~ presented by the "i!PA (sec, in li<lrtiL.:Lllar, vi4yiir!i#ll'J., X \'11) Mid R~[I13.J.:.~II;:I~'~ 's Vrui ,hereon. The l~cll~i.;lrity of "'lPA ircuement ..... elK l>ubj>;:!cti:s Llnd~JjtJed hJ' A~b.O'JilhlV3 f ir] hi"; Dipika on ),·11'" V, vid_r:;:Jpada, X.25 (11.3lISL Hillin 1'9~: 24J); for cxumpte, in RITm::tkn..I.'!OO'S tme:rpn::I<ltiClu of the MPA, the Im~~urt,/~.wbie-lL ~ fii)y in number ;Kool'ti'mg to ~ilI11'k_nya, beCo:.mlC!lUCl? tJlIlIUrcri (MPA V, Yid>'ripcr~io.. p_4 J "'J). -

63 ~cllfe.sry Ii:'!lJuw the

-: "'fp,A "i~~,-apUdf.l .I.l;:1o. xi,
~4 jfl.id. j :'cd-l4ah; sec' in [1ilrti(;ulal ~flc lirtli LhC'rNJl fp_::29): m::w.rli'lu m-.ohml1l~_w:rlil mjr!~h::rJ.-YJm <pi v;.;' 'l-'iy~.oal1r j'i'q_T.(1.Viisjtii~ ,.. wil·hwl'Ia:).Ulll' C:"l'{l PfU>WIU J a11}''fftltii 111 Mma;..n./ Wid ii~~yu.\:· o 'U .~~'i1JffaMrl11W1/1 JiJ'iluF,}{iqr Cd .I:ftl'imdhiirc1~mr i1~U f1.i~pafJffd}-eJa.

~~ ih!.d. f fioo- I;ab.

G~i

11:. 'TQI1~II'"

RMgll ,is cssenti .. II'Y this. same frenzy once ~lhas been ~ill1ited by a stil] indjsill1~t object (nirm'aC't JrediJ1a~rmal1fs(l.nujll·iip!.-!1lXht'lilaJ.ttM. '-~ A 11ail"iigy'a is. only ~l qualiflcation of the Jillilnd, and consi SoL:.;; in its,

being cDnliinll ousty m~dJfied anti alfcetcd by lhf:' various

(I

bj ~C!~,:~~

'Ute cuirasses cunstihrte the most Inteii'Tili:i1l and OO~lll::~IC>d1 !j,1ncture of 'i I1;divldual r~I3()n..1.fhy _~ 'nn esta bUshing their ex i slenr ce, "f·unlr.uc tradit~ons - iu general, even those grounded on dualis-

tic presupposjtieus - seem to 'have been driveIDl by a two..i,~~dneed: to overcome the dualism and th~ baste incoiil1m~l11!icahmty of the purely spiritual and the purel y ma.c.ria~components PIJl'u:fo·prt:l.kri!' or puru,ta.-lmddIU - and ln single out II. boundary land with i D [he human bel ng where the jr~r,.hh~jcuihl omponents ill most touch c one another, as it were 7:.1 Wheut Tantnkas' th~l~.~ght action seem and
IT the: definition of ,.,.jga in J P 4&3.h: dig'.) illJwpher
UI~ full)!

I~

'bM,r~YJiri'F("ilma l'j¥t}~~

1'.x:hed{IJll ~'i.'l{l'h,~.,.a.F1.Ian';"a~.
'I':'

:-40'A" rh~ SEI!iYD.pfl

kno\Vloo,~

hWLm,1i: groo:uAlly

~rngJ~ out

or COI1IX,;lI'.;;d wnd a........ i~cl rc:i'i::Ii'ill!!, i.e pnnic:ula.r ro )'1P..&., At iIf~ outset there k. il OO,~llitioOll urising from the o:.:ul!l.'lM:t of thli!! senses '!,l,rith cxremul objects, im'! uced Gy ilfnc: sl)bj~:. "!:i craving (WJU,dl 'iii-iii i I.JIII. caused by [bl,'; rii.ga primdt"ll~). 'lbi5, fil~1i. ;.W,,~!::!''g of the IJbject 11~L.~~~.ml~' passes through sontc reference to tbe 1!'he latter is; due neither to rb~ ~I!ml~ nor to lhe c"uddfl.i, but 10 ,I speeific instrument, the (IM,mkiiro.. II1le:JL,iropdLed by the soul. tllc ''-r.o:#UlS comes i!:lW play, Jt pl'I::~r(l~over the cxrernul 9t::J1:OC~ wirh jt~ adi,firy consisting ill '~4t~"nti..:m', and, afler @J".lJspi,ngtih€: objects, r.a:pidly I,';,Ol~I~ the crlfJlII?JNiir.(l_ wllmclll .appropriate;;. 'liie: ~~p1icm ('T', 'mme').. A tkr th i:...""Lerl, called wYjl'(l'1alpariinwf"~Yf, <111 SIlE'l-ir'l ilti:d 10 the lrlK-&lhi whri:h briJli,gs ~>1.l~t is. '{I etc I '.I ruIl<l l Lon', Finally, vi¢1,:o.Q p!::l'iihf.!jl~ ;:II 'lhornl!Lgl~ discriminetion, ~11 ~D d.oin~, vj(-{H! L1> {:lCl~~L Iuctor tor thl!o;I.d~ing of !aIDwloogl:., whicb Ll~timare'Ille I)" takas place by vi JnJI: of .tile srnJl, I'bl: experienccr V,ll(f~lJ'"t So, the self knows rhunks to iIilc 1>idJ'a princuslo 'A'~Ul,;bdlliY~ very close I'u him (yi*'b"a}~jlm~lJl~(~~~)'I'.i).

uccount rh~ lhe process ,,)I" iIti~ various fac~rl.t.:. eifher sr.,f:<":tMll ,!leiT 1'C~t-'1,';o;.:6i rules to euch of tll.r:m. J urn ve \'idyu,["I{ida X.6-14ah ''>'tilb.1t5rnaika).t1lw's Vrrti.

" R-ii1113ibl.l:t1JL<1 (f'l)ll-owDlll hy AgilO'IURV.:J}

ODI1~ id(;1 ~ rhern

<I~

consli-

LLlL[IT]!;l tlhe 1'I1",!;I; elevated part of dte '~u~Jt:: body' (_\'tI~rIl(~Yk''!!(f, prlI)!a:JIa/aJ): d. F1 wc:ll.llii.LOwn atraincd i IItGrp.re:1<'I li:DJJ of Siir'l'i1J~/tj'lYlli«ijllj~t(im XVIJ .4{:{lis

5ab U'r11l' ric [ Z6}, Agho'I3:siva,'s; tiM nf die TS itself}, et,.:,

1.IJIi

nl 24-2:5

Cpr. 124- • 2Si cf also 'Ihe ~;([
of tala a~
',3.

~ Om: is remmdad of D:rbacSp3!ti ~a.king

s;ccortd

(;01]-

words. infinifc potential. cpcnings, which make (he ja4~-aJad{i dichot~lmrymore and more' problctllt~tic and firJ..iiUy overtnrow h ~~ttogelher. Attention is Qbviou131y Joeused primarily OJ} the buman being, whk:h it; 110 d.oaN the most paradoxical being in Cue lln~verse. Of "Jl the possible .!1ubjt:cti'i.ity levels, Ihe must cnrciai is after <I'll the ~o,»,._c:st one, technkaHy called sakaia 'endowed 'l\;ilh kala\ siacc It is the only 0111;; - >'IS the fot.WAand, more t:xplrdtly, its C>Otruneo:ta:tor Ri.f.iHlkaoth.!!l suy - to bave the priv~ll;;ge of" CCHI'lain riilg in j tscl f tbe who~e patb of the uni verst, from S1va <lQwil to the Earth. ({! And. iI1i the hUD:.wn being, p.aITId.nxk.al par excellence are tht:: cuirasses, which Oil the O'!lC haJ:HJ pmiuIly restore the power of thc sp.kimaf. principle ttnd, (HI tht: other, embrace it so lightly that they may prevent it from cxpandiug. in aU i(~ tte,ntlL'll j:)( glory/,l Resung on kalii; imbued 't't'ith karma, tile in.dividual SHut cannot leave it any more .U1d becomes attached more and more. F·JiJitiuns. dt) not have any other $[fhs.trilLtm~ Chao. kala_ It i~ for thJt.l reason that 8L'1t!1sam is so n;::tjolf to O\');::I{:omeY "The nmerion of kuhT. SU)'"S a Pa.-':S;)h"C of t~ie SSV: "is to deJhnit;::f\'e tbe V <J.Iious. thing!iby .I;;nt~ring in to (laki og posacssiou of) ihel r own w.tur.;;:s."~ Thus,
!"J.Cf:(!I..Isne:)5s. i[ were' (d. u.b;, ...f!; fu.25). 8..:;
ill_' MP A vi4J!'.rpiirio X .238-";; .-ihYid_HI.Wltlfpli.ryaliw _WI )-Ul'i'l all/mINvJIilrtafl i .~ SGl,.Iit7,~ ca l:ita1.rjneyak; ~·l't!ithereeu (p.318): [.. -1 ;:ilEJ.l{ iti ~;afl'ljfif1niitnrak~ p.r~..se H(dar/(YlIl:le .iiie:)·:ub i IW II' llKak ...11~sminl~rliJi1-~"'iid}y!~·am.bf~aIo,§.n nil samosto }'tfltfi1. MctlolJ~'r·C~. the \'DI}' flj;OCCS:; Ie:ildillg to Iincrution pl~ SlIPPOii(!:; ill UK u.~.pt tbe comorcal form {oI.:f KA: ddJ0ptida, I'' ' ' .28'<1: na deklfil "ilfii fIIkktrt!,-Ssv p.54: dehaprii~ild)l(l.1-~Jllilasym""-I.i. gi~'&S(WTiivL\~il1"Wlm ui.lm)1; ete.),

most interested in are' predsdy bordcrfmes, raWer than the dt:fmik: :-::Iia(~ uf being. fn parti cular, the n)Quisti c s.;::u.Qu's O'f KaiimIr v.;l' end up by St:dn8 borderhnes everywhere or. iEI! other

EJ

padjc!j~

Cf. the U!rui.lOg<llU!I ~QJ1r.,:l!:pt of 'ru.iwss· RciL;b '97:]2, CbIlPI~ VII f}.

in WilJldm

Rci.,:h

hI!('. in

~ Cf. M:t' A. vitl)''!lfhifdu. .X .32-13_ lbc en ir~:iSG::; B~ a I",H'(j~r;:;r ~lAY ~·~~tVI .1M; karrcukiln'i.ti !~ml'i!i'krtl.-iit} and J!ii~.~(MMP r.4f.l: rod rlK1tWl.liNlp milffa_'Ie '!.<fg.F! 1114.10 lil'l'id_lii m I'1~Furjb /rala .n'o!:l ('~~ ,I pu,-ktrvt'i!_I'I""iSJuy;.1h soan.:.;11ii/;iiR r·t'll' {!r(1iil"tilii{lli in)_
9 SSV: Ilf/hil J:aJuyori .'I,l'a.h ... l.. '1~~Se!f{~ jut 1114 V<I~m piIri('t['/tif Ul.... ITt1ttili ku,a.,.:1iipfinrlJ. Jj~~n-.::!, II is [lOt d~{illil ely cl~Olf !/r·llal 'III/a' Ibis r-",ss.a.l!('

r.o:

r
weighr and it dd11dtc s.U\K:lure Irurn the cuirasses, bHJ[ at the li-IImc time he also sacnfices his tlljJ~ui'ty,or in other words .. hi;!; free lPeJ·'i,'.u~'t·cuess and Sovc'l-emgnt:f- In presenung sometiraes one aspect, sometimes the other, the tex f:.::I do [loth itog but refer tn the two sill,:I..:;:sof a coin, Ibis. also has a pW'oldlly involuntary correspondence ~:j.,l a lexical level, in ilic recurri rIIg of two ulmost identical terms having .j}~~ opposite rl1!;'~lfllllW (rIJ)balUtivaUtl1_0S4 the iii!divjdua~ gains

The esscnriall l' ambigu.(l UIj nature of thc cuirasses is. indircetly highlighted by the hint Illlt their also ha '!Iiinga 'purt.::' form u 'I:mre form. which [~ pcssible fnr the other tauvos, tfl4:t, but which seems particularly 8igrrif.k..am.tin the case of the cuirasses, i'RligQ', vtdyii, krllii etc, exist as putt:: principles t::'1"en beyond mayii" :-lays Ri:im.aka1J:!,ha/,s HFLlr all these principJes.", l'Ia.ys Ahhim~'t'liIgupta (TA IX- 17 J-til} following the authority ... Vidyfulbipati;s f)filFfji.iv.a,.f stotra, "there may also h~ ~ pure form, with IeSrt:C~ to the ath;pts. who have been fa vourcd by .u descent lJf uivine power. For eX<LI1!iIP~C1pure killti brings about a series of actinns, which, lhuugh still ~iil1.g limited in themselves (adoration of Siva: mcdlration and 'So 01111), ena ble the individual soul to gd rid of sa.r!Jil~Mil," The NlPA, wh i ch appareut! y does nul expressly rneation <J! pure form of

i", ~~[]'mi:l to (i!J,;lming tn ·~~mW'.o,ia: "that which Ita,;, ~(& <15· t~ essence", in r means k(lmJam~l(I), but til i:;. d.efU1ilkm tiP.=: ~h(; o v ~II chilii;lii.:h::r of our kalii-tatlm .very It ..... OUlI..:f e tt:mplliog b to Ulld.c:I'S~i!nd .1·l-\:HI...:.l....,;pave,7eo'1l:l'ill .u causari ..·~ sense: 'hy !JJ~~L.gn~ll:!! o::kll;mlJ.i[]oo CIWJLn.:lIUEC ro ~l=.b uf mcm', a 'fhi~ il'lri!'rprelu~jQfI i:;. certulnly a. ;;,1li'i'W~d one hut ""(IouM result io hlghlightin.,g [tIlQ[hC:I' i rnportant Ch;1i;lo:;l~ IOf ta'iu (d. above fiL29) .

ss U,

wen ..

.!H .. mo.tln.,g tile \ 1Y.o;..<IJRpJeg a l1i!'g?1~ive qualiflcation of the kdi'iJ::uh~.d. of MP A ~'uJ>~(ida J X.l5b;: J:aia d(~till£)'ih;u.bM; KA l.fd)'iipada J r.(~ J..im Iri~ miJJal!J fllrMr baridil.r) MlUluefl!1tmii !illiidjnii~ vrn. 11.~d~ vr¢Iit'7kJt_l.:u!?r. .j:L~UddmrJ!j tNJ·t~rm(J/lrIkam, etc, DLlI~ to iliic: IUnlL:illIDO and weakness of buman OO[~.diti(in In!:: Lord cannot but make l.!IS!) of WMt [-9 C:ARCI~tia]~y II • bond" to fi'ce; tile ;"'(]l.JI(cf, 1"8 1*1). l\~ the KA .~~ li.k~wi~e.. in order en cleun Ll di:'rty cl'.oth nne im~ 10 resort ~II ;!u1()IM-r kind of dhl, I.hlill b. II. detersive lidYtip§da' 1.1.1(lla!J.) . '

r

.u

'11/,1#

DO.

1.::r.m2.lIei':h:lriiJ!w4dy.iilfaliiiJliilJI

i<;j.v<I·s 1."JipJfu

Oil

d,y'iipri-di::r XI1.3Ocd {p.~.:3g.):vpary .apJ' r;'1ii"~.,jJ.~~ prv!r.tlpi s;uddlJrinJ laltWJ.fll ~~'dPMjj'f!. Sec alse A~r;lM rA v, l!k~flUdu. X.II (transl, Hl!Il itJ ~ ~~I): 225-226). Mf A
'f.'..

69 ~s/a.ri~ C)ut1ines with few bu. C'xlun,sting
WOJUR

the pure
.II

.tClIlll

of

Lbe other cuirasses, "This

I,.'i~~-a [namely, vi~.vd as.

cuirass] does

nu( bestow the SiVA nature toO ,ttl! beings, PtlJ Lhen;: is another (<<nyt'i) l'idyii, if1::s~dingin the pure f'L'Ith. whi<:h is capable of entering ~'heSi''I,1.11 niliU!e (SiV(].H~dbhlivak#.hda). [ ••-J The Lord aller dispeHing darkness 3!f,!J porilYin,g the soul, ill wh ich maya and karmic impregnati [lOS have been dl;st\!lJyet.f. unites it with that vid, -a v.'hich ahid€s in tfll:: energy of Silkti, and tfim ugh it thc soul acbieves. the knowledge of Siva. ',.,"1 There is a PUr() form of diRa. too, which ari ~5 .i l1i those whfi Me detached .f'rQID bounds; by virtue of it, rhe limited soul experiences a drive to the summum hoD'ulI1l, the search fctr a gm·l!.I. the:; pllssj nnate devotion to S iva ...::a J ht=·supreme form of Time drives the :-;oul to. a guru, IIOt to nrdinary C'Xpo::lricnccs." \Vo:cn (he ctlu,jdi.7.~.j.tioJl of karmas OCL: urs, pun; Ne-ces!)xty arises which d~:::;p:::Jsimpure Neccssi ty and drives ihe :-:ouJ 8'W-<I. y th ..ll:ll ,"Y1ltI..Wua.71"! S"twdwnd{lItWtra IL42cd-4.J.lJb mention!; the pu[ifh.:~~til)nof tile tauvas through the iIDpo~ti 0.0 I) r the prWIt~Vll wi ('b u view t(] p.wdm::i.og a pure pody Uuddlradeh(~) in the adept; commenting 4 m tfUs passage, K.::;ema.roltjaefers to the pure form of th~ r cuirasses in .a~IDOS:( the same [t::Illl:;. as ... ovc, ,I b The doctrine of six cui rasses di ,,:jded into tWl';! gl'UUps of three, put rorwurd in the L~iv-al.t:mtt.~~'JI'aj '12- int[Qduces. 8 ·ftntbE:! variation, The.three cuirasses proper (1]]01:: again kala, vidyt1 and
~, Sec Ilid}·ijpi:ida X1UOi;;-d: yri'1!dj'Z 1I{1 ~·~/fi,},.. oii.]XiI>-fj·~ P1'r?J'if(J '~fir is, however. dHfc,i Iffitl~ mrcrprcred b!l R.!iII[ll1Ika.nUla-

f'(rmU!"

pras); 'Whlcb
1.7

Mf' A

wJyiipiida

X .2Ocd-24ah.

u;
W

Lbid, Xr.3(ii,;:~1-33iLb.

.Ibid, XII.){I,

..".ibid.

xnu 8-1 9a.b;

see .a.hio· 19'cd-l2'.!lb..

71 S"oqcchatWrUf1lrfl'a--uddyof.i2 vnl.] p. 4) ; hllM hi - f-"J k(~/a pi'rjfiJh,ra' !TliJiJ:i~Tr:ifktr)'lrtI'O'/mTilikii, wdya Jtiitviki1ViwMHP~, !.. ..;grJ 'blkrfi')it1UIi:'WfIl~Ip-nldah. ki;f,;i/). ~pwJeiiidi'VJfja.)'(1~k"1.hiiprm4W, "~~~rih bh"'gaL YJ'dtil"iidlwI1W:(aU n(L'timikti 1.-.],

~~TIle r:oi1:;~
nlotO~I1' IDNI!;;m).

j!'l

tltrotcd

j(l

1.·\ JX,20fl-2fJ

(11~e also .T;;:tyar.ttlta'scom-

70

'R. T(JKELL....

r:a~'U - arc' ghie11 the l.;J:;,k ¢o. pillt'Lrally re v·i ve the soul, after 'lIltE other three (aj~mj l'1.imdfw.stddi and maya)' ha'V€ dirlli!mcd U.:s00.1:1-

sciousness. Thus, the smd is covered nor by nne but "by h'lo"Oseries Df cLl.iatlfis~. one ~uiPcrin1 p":~cd on the ojher, J ik.~ tire chaIT and the husk of rice. TflIi:'j structure supporting the i' has one more (:huT~.c:k:risth.:, \'I.' hid] is nnl rCXl)lit:iHy mentioned but the texts hint ill! occasionany. This !l.;haf.3lete~l~'I..iic directly connected wi~,.h the deep level is wh(:rc 'the cuirasses are located and aet, always behind aiiy v.iis.ihJe manifestation: it is HLI:ir being ~ubhmina] and esc~,ping perception. The secrecy of cuirasses [S precisely fuat' peculiar to any real bordcrl lne, in which one: f nds Quest If wi.hout kn-owing it in advance, as. it W<;IC. In f}wt~as it seems, the IDmYleIlit when the cui [',1118~ is. fun), cognized 'i~,also the moment when it become» incapable of PCIToJ',rnrQg its tas 'k, thus np(...WIiI:g tht:: way to g~lingb!t:)~ md, it "The experlencer continueusly -dr;iPcnds. on Necessi I"Y. Lind yet, due lc_" his state of obfuscation, he l!; IIl0't aware of Ne~ssHy."7:J The OV~I"com iIil~ of Necessity takes the torm of the [!omin~ inro play ~~fits pure aspect, where we .efL') !i'EIId the :u.mc specific nature of the 'l,;1.1~D113S but j t 'i!i. so-so-speak turned upwards and engaged iill freeing the soul from its. own lower ~':i)l!1Il. "At this point", the ,MF.'A goes on (11dyaptida: XU.~. 18-191:1b), o'lhis power [RfuI)akl:llJ~ha;'deri ving from Ihe man i.~~tat~Orl[)f ST-uidlmntyatF I, hocing endowed wi III the capaci Ly of eJ!::U'ill;:ti.L1!g S()LEi:s from SJIIillSi'ira, vehemently disiPers t the lower J N cccssi Ly thanks ~o its OWIl cverwhelmmg ~n""'1'gy~ atte-r havl ~igaverted them from Iruitlons, '"', To idenlify theinncnnost cuirass - till;;: one which geJ~erute!ithe others, that is, kaW - amount» to ach ie ...Dg s.eJl<J.TahOD fmm i mi'iyii _ .. A..Ilc.r attentively t~b5crving with the lamp of' the 'I;YC of knowJecl:g:e and reulizing the di:ffurena= between the two ~'eahues :this is th-t: soul, this is the ~n~~~5piciousala. abode of illlPlllht~es' , k the adept, 'who now h... entered in •o h.ls. authentic condi tiQD. Mows s nu I,.·'74 This :o;:ta~cis similar to the discrumnation between p~'Wfi.~·{).
.. MP}. I,irlyapfitia ~~tJl f1riu;hfiliIrUr_

xrn. )(tt.;;d;

,tat.taurl'l:J.~

;~CJ.wumlbhoktu ~~

CfJ

u7.~

\....hid. IX,34od-JS: FiiimIc.Q1r4II1YNYfl!ipem.:r ,!:(ml}~ iifs!k),'fl rudLu;a.m /.I i
,o:.IJI"lI?J pumii'll i}I:11t1 t::uiFf kal.::. d(l.yii-.iayaGubkii J
(,.!O':o(JYOI'"

mJm/"(,ll1ljRii~~ lilJim~(!

and p't"olq1i rn the Srup'khya, with tile dl "T-crer",;;e lhat. ~he fermer klkt:8 prau at a higher !ellcl, though DO!' yet ,t:om.::.spnlldillg t(J full J ibcrat ami, In faCl, the latter (if we refer to the scllt::IDe (If the Si~'UtauusiistJ"a) ~'eqnifC'.she c.lis:.cnmjnatiQ]J of rhe more internal series t of cul r~5S~, or, as IHilllukarHha ~ay:;;in ills 'vrlii (pJ (5)~ the dis~ .crimJ\n~~tiono.f"lIwla, The state tile soul altairls It! fhi.!)Will)' is ~h.j)tof "ijMl1:akt'",'(~{a 'isdat~ oy vistue of kf.t[)l.'I,.;rt!{\g~·. These arc preclsely lIte three kind» ot' vi .... (pJ'ukl"{i-pU"ll.~~.k,dii-punl!i-a ~t!l!d eka mala-iitJrum) mentioned by A bh imrV'agl1pta in ]'A IX. 1. &4~188.
Tf1rs overall concepti on of the cuirasses is basicaU y shared by the non-duel Saiva tradHjon, ton. FHr r.ls part, the latter se:C]]1.!i ~lt:ul<l!rly intercsted in <leveloping 'N,:Q fL8P~ts, namely, the: dirt:ct correspondecce of c,uinJ5stl': wi In the nighest pO'i.\~,rs, ~.lfSi,,'a: on the one hand, ,}md l'he~r~jl1g 'intt;:rrm .. "{\j~{:' (or, in a sense, also 'mediating") realities and 'supports", OJ1 Ibe other,

point, we -C,Ul limit ourselves to pointing oue that ilic C·Uifasses kala, ~tt~vii.ruga, tiiM and n~vali are considered to be ihe COliImel cd form o r the pe wel':-: ..~id, ('inCll1.da, icchii. jirana and kn)'a rcspcct~yery (f'Hr p.llS); or. in dHlcIt:1lt {';Ollil.exts, ma,w'l, kah'%-I.:idyu (mkcn together), kahHliyati (iaken tngethc.r) and tuga are the l.!ontmciled forms of the PUTI.:; princ:jple-: mrii.irita, R{'uliish'a. i... ~ur4 ;lFtd sad~'idJ:ii (r A VI.41 cd-4.3;lb; see also the verse quoted in Jayal~ath.1.·.!i OOIDrmmtary Lhe~i)n)~ 01', yeL again, a hOIDoloS"v is: stared between .'it1rvil!rW-ml·a and kala, .wrvajnutv,{i and 1"i(~J'&, J.)/7r"1Jat~la and raga, nisyatva and WH, ,,}vpakall!,a. and niyat] (j""Hr p_ 22~ ct also MJitliP pAS "'). But aU til is Is. quite obvi (JUS, fu.!iloC3d, i( is lhe SCC4md point which deserves a closer E'xamlrl.1:1tiol1.
As to Ole f1fi.L

,,<\Jnong the Sai va scriptures which h~Vt'e come down t(~H~., Lhe I:¥r presents a d,iflcf'ent 4ks.i,gnatJQll tor this group LJf pJ"indpies: rhaL is, dhii1Y.lfJ.ij tlr dhiira1}U.I1J 'supporC1(, The ~~r1ill ccurs iFi the: o
nlrviJty
QlIurrd.Uyr11h"'/

dlJoe.

~~See also Am.rtrrnsfl~fa·t'j, S'altb11iiKYt1!<lI-dl:wd,1j'iI LU ff., 'W IUdl unrothe tJocl,noc by an arpn)rriB.~ simile: ra~'ir i~'a srl~TffhY'ijr(iK.L(2/;u(lIlThrt""

1'u,l;mih ,miN/U.wne, 'pJ tlp!.l1ul); "like lhe ,..1m. n:dd~cd by the sunset, It.:wing liiiithdmwn i[s lay,' is. I:'!',CJI mC&p;\bk 10 ilium illQ[<: ~Jf', L
Yo PT ish l.'i.1)"'(1gni~'fIUl!:nEITI.'i.~fil/T 4!1l.~mlj.'iiM!p. Cu.tIl~'UiJ!t.1~,The rl(t.!.!"af _gt'Jli!:ivc I:!ndifIl{ does n.,,1 a:.1J() ..... ~o ~([k Ik genLier of the ..... -(11';;" \Vhjlc Abl~l-

72.

fl., TCG:EUA

r

nf the g:rdd.u.lIJ emanation of phonemes <lfnd tl1t:ir CIilITOspuadcnec with tattva,~_ Thl!' 'cuirasses' [h esc , jiha.r-aqii':» might not find a better correlate than the series of semi vowels (ml.ia}rstha 01' w:r(aJpi-Ilm), The.!ie two t.erln:-; dMira1:}ll and af[t,abs,hi1, eml}' Lt.] be found in tl1.t= contexr ttl' phonemic t:::rrutlil!:ltioll.,are the s,talting pHi 1uC' of ~ few iJili:er'l!~til'I!g COn ~i crations in the two commcntaties th,id d Ahhinavagnpta devoted t~J the PI ~ and 1n:-at arc partly' echoed, in the S~riva.sphere, by ~emaf'J.j.a ill the SS.V (p.31) and Maheivar3f1ambt ill the M:lVlP (p,4~). «Though the specific nature of these pr~no;::i'pk~ does not cease to be!(lng. to the realm of the objecl, ~hc.~r function", says A hrunavaguJltl! in the IlTLV'? i "is to bring about the uni ti [!~ uon of the knower a.ni.~the knowable, differentnal.l;;d 815they are in the sphere (If mil)'.ii_ 1["'] These powers 'hold up' (dhiil'ayt1ntt)~ tha~ i :1.,. make the :1.'I.luJ stand IIIi clw.t!iY (m(J~/hJ'f!). like lr.i.~(iii11i..tJ ."·jI,.Hdwu s. rhat is, £l}l Krs"Ild1i~ say~ more ex pl icitly in his IJJnp,d,] i shed r'yiikhyii on the An'Uu.araru.tll;·Q:~'fnwsi!Jt (i,e, iP'TL V). between prll~rH. and jIlJdhm)iri,}oa!!J, A similar remark seems ~.l occur in the :r...fP}'~, ven though Rtlm;llbiutha dtle!i not e grasp it nr al least d.i;l~ not develop it, The exrernal object, ':j.,iJy::the. 1'lP A, exceedingJy gms!j, as it is, can W .;;;ogni?t=donly by hjm who also resides in matter (pl'Udhi'int~},,v:i(h a body rrtilldt: of matter and with modiflcations (I>'ikii'r:a) ik:miiving fum; matter; the ':>4lul can only mte'L thC50Crequirements if tI!t::I"C js the kala laftva,iffI If these
ocscriptiul1

"I~

1l3.'i/;ugUptu (in 1I1e:'PTV) l:ake;;, lir as <I neuter, an die 0'1M:r OCCUI1'Cm;~~· of ~t1.e tertn in the Saiv3.l;llJ]d Vai~a'lflllJ IIilJiili.;m arc. iri [be- Iemmme gender,

~~pp.6-7: J.~d l'E'dJ:m'{j.~~ ('m aty.ak1a~'ed.vah~·val1ya hliIRrzi.il'f,'(~~l'eJd,m'ld);amtIJ211J l(..(h)-aprMJJ./ {iI}r;i, ~,"i1!ru,jl!i} i:l:m'll!:ini i-.. J .rii !~l{i,\; (,lUw;md) l ;W~I{lyalJ PJIIIJ!.~.Mi'I dlriimyalfli rnmfhye tliiilIlrklH'4U ~'iinmf(rj'i1nlJ.
'! TrHiI.:il.ku. who W,::lrllet:B '10 usecnd to ~ie;lv~nwi~b hi!! l~h}'~il,:;;I1 btr..uy. was 001'100 d!.l .....n from heaven ~r ~be godq. and then arrested mic1..... ~ <.:It '\... !iyim.itt3,tluss remaining SU~f"L\Dd~ in tlic sky, His ~lill;.' (which was ~ ],...,~ pulal' 3,.", t(l give: birth to ;.1 ffmkrkaJ'i'}....rJ.'12 l~roJ~[') Is LQW e.g. in Rurll(j'~'OI(,I, iMJ(fhl~r(kr, Ch.aptt:1'S 57-:)4"):. SkalJda-p'Ui'(J~UL, N~g(~mldw.~l~ha, ChaJ1Nn. 2·6 ~I,;f. Ra::pe>1la 19i%).
or,.

prakrrilallkr1:.~IDliJ~

.... ifJplt.(1ttl!'a}'rJ1'

Reg;:;:tI"e'h TllSI LIl!.~ mild :\1SS Lihlo'Lry.
NI

l'riv undrum,

F/wtl.n~'I!i!!: L-i~~i'm:rJ'anli (Or.iclrtill MS ::-4'00. C.llQ8D. U68b}.
'ti~Yj

1!i4_}lipada IX. 110:.: d-2}; Mn}~' 'dim

:f.t.hu~

laJfJ ~'j'lti1ro.i~ pra-

princi ples did 110t exist, Abh inav~iUiPlu goes ora, (,"jJhcI tbt= Inch vidual 80U~ woul d 'becottli:!' ill~l;:nrj;el'ibt, like i:1 !:>toUt!. or j t would J.i rectI), <corer the :-:ky of the sU,rremc (:DIJ!Sciousness, hke P~rnftl.c5var~; in both cases, however; the knowable would eJ.jually cease to be, since it presupposes the existence of illltliyk knowing subject," I .rile kunculi.ar;:, / dhiir(u.uJ~, having to m~dc.h the semlvowejs rn number, turn QUL to be fL~I,.I'l" In the PI LV and Yrv: kaUl, l'jJ_wi., nW)..ii and riib.~1 (once ,lgain the ihree thillt are the mosr cssentinl ' pIus maya, which ~'lltl. originate» fromf1. The PI n::Jat~') them to ah, :tirt:!, WilIkI' and eurth respectively; this cannot but remind H!lC ofthe dhiiruI}ii3 il!j, "concentrations' iill the yog~c (:nnte'}ti wflrc;h ilITI;' precisely rdal,t,..-d in the five clements, even though such ~lconnection, adapt cd. to the Sai va context, is only LO be found iO! the '11k PT-I'i.1'/1.i by ~.aks n:tirarm~ ((t-5).

A bhl r~a,"""agu.pta t;1,k.:::~ up again tb.e scruti F1JY o r dha(,a~1ii3' nature in the P"JY, 'j'his tl me, thoug h starting frQtliU the :'-:::IIDt:! ord, w he totaJly Chtl,nge!j tbe aim and cunsequc'lltly the result, of his 3;rl!b1l:rsis,. III :-l(,J d.uing, tIC' gives an eXi:lmpk ,of t!QJ'widcl'ling (:0herence as a negative vi rtuc <lind Oldy a hindrance :for Ihe ~ulelJt wh['j sets OLLt W face the ever c:b.ang~ng ,IfOC.rt)' of !:i-1Ipreme Co,n-

ms

eclousness,

',j 'he

tcols of h~s MlDL'1JY!:iis arc

lH I'W of

a gnlmnw! tkt'll or-

dcr, Dhlira/ja (:':IS already noted, here the neune f{l-l'ftI is. preferred) hi !:IJl <JJCti(tlFIJn()tm dCIiv~ng from <I CilIu3L'1ti, v o stem, and, OOJlSCquently, Abhill3!vagllpl a "t4Jo,CUSt::~ hili in v ~tigation ~nto (he dlit"inl~1asen the ru.orphL)lo~)' and wl:rlIJ.utks or' t!::Iu.'1arive, as presented .. b}· the ~}'t"ikarr:t!JaJii''''lra_ s::: My own iuterpretation of (his. rH)t easy
dOOM(1i(li~ ;:,'pnJ4/hal(./K..f!JI# kci'j'l:na pmdhti{1(l.lltltif/1 ' 'I:Vtia-i'wa .'lil1i ,tal1~B k#lfitJiI(~1re //
~J

.M

~n\:? hi i

1!ij.ti"iilj

mlllili-

.!'ct~"mf wi

PH.V p.i; fUt~lth~ pa."/i'if.1ifdl'1'{ft jadabl!uflclilj'(: eMt)'(lfeJ ,wm:mw'sl.'a-U11{11c1.(lgugmwm ~r;.o(jpakl .I IlI.Mld~lllljpi In~1J'iipTtWJtit/'tiibM~'(~ vedyam api m:r 1di!1('id #i.
F<- 'f'~ currcspcndencc d/h::r!'il'YI~~ -mahiibJli'i~15 -.QNra~I,\'llfd.'" !!1t1Crges elearly ,io ,P'TlV P' 7: li.(ltJ -1'iI"_v;.4' • Y. 1<fd)'tJ 'agni -R, ~h:i}-.:J -ruliJa -V, n~il Mii -1. (I:f ar~ l'A HlJ :54- r;% &1101 Jayamth 's CAJ[]1t1"1~t:ar;r) .. frUitcad. Pl''i,.: j:I.224 says; .1~d(~'D L-Yl,tluyilrla ~avid}'ai.aMmiiJ'akhy{i"/ji Jat/~y'itfi. oH This ia 11",'t tb~ 'OIl~)' [t(;(Mmno fllr AWUr!;Jvo.gupca 1(1) d~IJ wtlh [hit oatll[e of till:" cau~t1th", ~f.nusc: in <1 sliHctly leJjgioU: ..... phj~osuphi.;,:;~L 0:lonl~X~.cf

74

from. GIlQlfs H 985: 65-67) <rllld Sing'h'~, (1988: 98· J (0). These pTind'p~e~ .are cbtHed dJriim'laS hCC3!Js.e. they •dhiira.wllt'fi', !.hat is, "TI.ill.kC [the knower] assume (objl::d51 as separated" (prtlu~hbutatu,Ya {J.blJimiiJ1(~yanll}. However, in dhara}'w,r~i w,e do 11I0t have L'I singl I:: Ciill!ISL'LtL'i,'C bU!t LWQ causatives, which lIJC so-to-speak CPDcentric (dv<w !Ji(.'au). The firsr cau sarlve has tIll::Lord ill-: h~rtu, nd a the thrngs of Ith", mani tested world as, p'fflJ'Oj}"it. The m.oro makes nUtl!.gS. ib(Jld up, i.c, exist • shine, manifest ctc., bit tihirlig~ already posses~l::d this eonditi ()II by themselves, lliat is., even before tilt! Lord's iiri!lI;:;rvention (dhr(vamiifJtiJ,~~' hiivli.n (Unl.l·llY'ati), since they b have- been in unity with ttl:1::I in its fullness ull the time; essentially !being' I and Iight themselves, In tms way, the Lord, by making thjn_g50 be in need of .HI[ exrernai ligM (0,1[' asseming tfrllcm to be 300), traeslorms them into objects ("idamhh(il;aspwlatii/m1fX1JiteIW), but only i0 immediately oEmliig them rock to the sphere L)r ~JJ.e~ L~!r. as the texts pur ijt, to veil them wdh the I (ah.(l.mbhJ"'11r.r~ivac(:hij.r)a~ yau'). So, this is the rnQrnent when t.h~ objec:t-polL'll'iry rome'S into h,ght - that objpct-'poEarit]" which will bl::'necessary at the level ui tbe phenomesal world f'~lTall empirical subject t,o arise and, COllS~q.I("-'11tJy: fur CXper.EL'11cetn become possible (lIf'~ ca srJddhaparumeiv.ara~.'iITmajiariipiipd."i(4m rUpatn (,rpflpadyalll. itt}. Nnw

'p.:I!s.~age (lYfV linDIi

Ed. W, 2241°-2251

is somewhat

diffcrcnr

birillnapralhtUmakam idanlf1khyttl!l let us come to ihe second causative, that is. the remote one, one cOIiJIM~ay: ttre cansatlve of the t:aus;a· tive. The Raiir:ukas. / dhJnllJ.f.t'$ serve fhr the. Lord tL) become the' knower of a separate knowable. OJ to become knower and tkno..... -

--_._---

~.g.. r~vampm1y.a,hlujfu'i"~j'l!!l iv,irnal';;ilu H pA21 (T!Jrer.l3. 19~7: 157-1 $~). An inLere~ltir"l~ p.:1S~Si~ of the T A (.X-3(joiil-44) js 31""~4J d~';otctl, to !.his wF"i-il;j there, at D.certain pojm, Abl'ljn3'ii;~guptD. s;top:; bi9 oom{'lil:-K ~lrgut"ne-nI;:JtIDI1 3i1~drefers (be rcadeI ~Q another W(,,rk of hijs where tha matter hus already been extcn~i'i.. y dealt ..... {.::II~V(llm 1·#u~1?-1 erad ~i'l.ijmro' .It,\UJ"';J Acooldiog: i0 d i;lfl Ja}·SiI·a.!JJ..iI.'Iilri;; W()rk, LS the .f'ra.ti,..~akr,l...v<nu;:ra. s.utQ;~ Ute PfYJTirroaki1. ..·llo,ur,u{lfJ i (n~' f-IJi:iL} was ~.~' pm 1'-.'1~]}' 3. COE.[Jl[]eJiltm)' (.II'! the HI fa:l.IJ.J(j 0'1" the V(J~)~1.. J.!4/.diya. it is most l'ik~my thet tlllo2 ~.iJiI1!iJlg poil.1: 'lJf ;:iII! Ab.ll i il~1!lIflurta'~ consideratiens on the ~rr.Ji_I\nLL'l:S.;!of rb~ cuusarivc cluuse was, 1~re.;;b~ly Rll\il.fII:buri'~ tresnnent (!<itihe n~C§" 'in: ttll:: $iidlwniI.Mmr,I(J,f;J.5(l_

~ r .;i!k~d'wIJ'l"1.I~ij~ra!l..0;1111whi'l.:l'l, the enun:: ~~!s:;ilbrc i~,centred (and D[I Ifle overall interpretanon 1)[ il uep;:nd;;.)" <1~ .he present pilifli,dp-lc (If 1i1c atJfU1ttett(Jdt~ ii!l.r':lDiij[!'i.·~ root dJft-·
"';fl ich

75

<J.h1eas s.-cpal'<ifc Ircm each utheru (:~l'Ijlmani tuthiividhal) .salrtit' 'lb.at is. the kl~ncu.kasllUlJli!J(ne yii.hhir asa~ {(ldairva hhin.na~'edyavedaktblltll'tlm upasmJ.1'ila)., To sum up, closely following Abhina.vagupty's. grntllll~<J.ljeal explaaation: the Jlulrul:lGs cause th.e Lord to .;.::.auSt: things to exist, or in other W(ird~, to cause thlngs [(J (secn!~ to} need an impuJse from olIDL'Jther in order itu be, to shi nco Thus ttl t: I Lord iilahs (hWl:£5 appt:'8f as idam; and in so d~..lj pr'BC i~el}' ng. th rQugh tht- taik 1tka~,hI;; trunstorme itself int~ I' th e ettlpiricL":t1 su Iijeet, However, {;(_ll]clud~ Abhin3v.;tgu.pta, Uji:;; ~error' cL~nfains 111 iffidhhe rcvelati on of the real nature of tbil.1£:l:l. EOf" 'l,s grammarians reach, t,he 1.fS(; of cuusarive is our)' p~lssihle Vi-'1ithft:;'::p~t to !:ioHicthmiilg wj~jcll 'is ahead)' able (0 C~UT)' m a certain ll(;tiun hy ito !j,{!J f;. therefore, t!l~ tact t.b.at th~ su~,ed In~k,t:s things e:Usf., or mauife.!1L, means toO 8cknowletlge ilhat, in Ibe fast auufysis; such :'.ICtiou partains to Iheir very nature (dhn):umi11Jar.ayli pr(lJi.iHumiiml~

s.. vaiw hi .dhu.f}'I.mww~tJ upt'l.jJu.dyaJe ..... ·ul·a&.).. But Abbi rI.;·r'vagupta vv il~ deal wi th thc kafi~:u*a'j 'wrtalJ..~'thc:l.s ooce ",gain in tIle IH chapter of the T1\,. It is w~lI:th dw!;'!Hi,ilg 011 this lmhlt fo .. lv.'O re£l!!ioOfl!j" On the one hand. the fact rh.a:t AbbinaV}lgujJ'b pills t411wnni ,an interpretation whkh is yet agai 11 cmllpfctel}: different from those he bL'ld given previcusly is a fmlb:el· cxample (lof the' unrestrained exegetical Urn...'1'ty these 3c;ho~J:ts,whkh is perof
fectly in tune with their lTl.:;taphY~C'il1 premises i!IDd even more with the peculiar flu \'QlJI that pCi""}lCI~ them. On th~ other hand, tills gj '>'e..":i us (he nPiXlltumtr to restate fhe -COiltill1JA.1U:-; LHI4~0t~)'i])g pre-

sence til the 'J0R:aralJ.aS.ii,·ltra c... wdhll~{:~H·(!llC".'lf speculation .. ven Abhina"'agu'pf\!!l says (T)\ ill. j 58.); "Thi.s tetrad is named U11t.u/:1srhafU[ two re<J801'l_S: icchad~'lln1at"f.futvefla ,<''}i.(./sa!TliipwU (.'(~ $amsrhitr..>/J. I .ct us ~ry to understand Hle ~aUcr hem isti in. the Jigfl t ot' Jaym"<lltha' s comrnen I 5>. The firsl re<J!5-Qo.fl C;1Lf5e:i no ditfJ{:U~ry: "because it resides in Iccl~~ eLC "; namd}' :in lcdt~and (Inlil(.';p. In lbi:o::iconnec tiolt; without going intH detail:1, one is reminded Lhat ~ccha (H1C vowel I) had been considered the b.lisi:.; Qf'R and L, too ff.~ m,7:!t~79: S~ ,~o IYf\i pp.. 245-246, SSV p.lO) .. So ilie 'seII

co

.~ Oli~ j:" f(:1"!1mD",-d of rA iX.2 I 5: .~~mttrm hi T!iU').}{YfI111 m htwkl'ii,-,va ram ca tnYI!li1y.al~ i kaM [ ..., 1 ,1.1: "lralii pr<xlllC~~ aL I:hC' ssrcc It1J)~ 1M Qbject [IJ be e..... peri~OOC1[ una ~bc: <;xp::ri<'.nci'J'!~;;uhjcC"L".

r I,

16
miv» w els"

it ToR.F.u '"

Y R L V QrigJJja~e from Icchf I aU1I[) T:l\!ffioe}iJ U when they tum rOo.i.I different 'p0WoC[ - that i~, when ll~ .~ U meet with. other vowels t1'llJlll thcmsel v ~ (PililJ;J"ini would 'S;fIJY much mnrc tersely 'llw J'Q.'1,t d""i'). According lu ]oIlIya.rntha.,.the: second reason i:ito be llnden;t4,-c.:lid as. foll UW!;i.; "because iI is in a condi ~iQIIi of uul ty wi.:h the selt, the iknowing subject"." H~ Jayaratha i~ obviously rhl FLkiTig of the very i;:~QSC link between the cal rasses and the soul, \vl~iil,.:h the texts so OnC1l! and s.tfi.lngly underl i lie. Actually, A bhinavagupta' s inten lion is. completely different .. m grammaticsl literalUN, too, alrltil,p.thii - later tn he rransform ..d into the ~dj~C:1ive anw.!J.stlla· {with ~'.w',.ra ete, understood) iha:~iII]WilYS been a problematic term. The YCl'Y gen.!;ll;;:i[ 01)[ its older Iorm. the noulil ama~.~/ha, oscillates bet ween the rnascnline and tile Icmiu i t.l:e(being deci dediy femi FLiil'l~ only from lhl; Pratisak~ onwards; et. Chaltc~ii 1964 ~;272), Al Stl ~ls meaning i:!:i problematic: :~tallding. between". wh i... j~nY'1t'ay'seems to 00 more often understood as [lot reterring JiI to. its. (phonetically) ~lJlfFldingbetween lilic vowels snd the cansonauts", as tnt:: current hnmol.O'gati.mb wi'll] the nlodt::m tcnn stemming from Greek 1}f.!.C.jJe..r'>'ovlmllld Lstui semi, ..o,('.aiis would instead ' induce to ihetje'i/~, H~ Thus, modern authcrx mostly Uildenl•and the tenn Wi "sl anding between the occlusives and HL~t:: spirants", ;LIlid iii] this. con m=~t~(Jn aimosr invariably quote the wel ~kiilfJlWill passage n r Uvara' s corrnncntary Of! .8gvt~da.-pn.l.ti.~likhya 1.9' (p.52), which explains the term as simply IT'fcrring to tftl: positioa {}f IiK.."SG pho~ VoQ)[. II p.l 59:
aikritmJ-\'!.tlii.wibh.iI~l;f1tr ~~ Cf.,
•:oj

:l,w.L~m pnl1t1aJidu.tTiipflby.f1.

a.tJf1Ql:la~!, $;(~l?I.W~

iipri~ -

.. Ja.t!'u ml.!?~thite~' - pf'amiitJ'~ihitmyeJl!l Po llen I SlSJ: 29',

~'W·lmlul'IJ(ltr-iit.

fur exumple,

Ci13.uC".rji19t41:

27] .
.~~mi'W.It:::'(lIi.~

Iueidenuilly, it i~tv be no~ed that hot'" t'j.jl€ ¢'w~'IJ"'" Uld!

hod a diffl!Ni!nt and widi:u referent than the rnctrl~m '~~L'YOWCr, heing incfnsivc of '(:I,)u1in'll<lDC\!i.'of v:1I"jum. Ilypeli (AUcn 1953= 2Q->U). On the: Gl'ol:ik

Tif.l-L4rIi.J·VoI)1.i ~e ~JElrdi 19R5= 7J~88. tl.;;t:'l..'i.Ning to Donatus' clussical de:fim· troll (A.t.i: (;rm.~rn(Jtic(}. 1.1, il~: Cnwmmlicr: Latini '0'01. ~V 1)i"·367·.JobSt "'Semi~ ~lYfrJffl, f 1 ffl ~ r S Jr," Mt: <1150 fl'ri9cianu!\' remark {hrlltiIN~ tWm._"o; ('l"I'l/Tilli'ltrfiooni'olt ~.9, in: (i!"l;tl'l'J"'r.rl~i.r:i i..o#'lJi v 0J.Jl1 p.9): 'S(~illo(.!(·a''(~· au/eYJ Hili';!! {J'flf!t.dlulfW, qUfI6 pleIJ!.l'fl1' ~~"I::'M nrni 1w.I!r~n1, 'Mt 'semtdeo \ ' ~t •.Wmivrro.:> ' i:lppel&21m/;.~. m.m ql/f dimidii:l1lf fMJ.H.em h;:;!lh2rz~ dror.llm wi "rn)l"r.!rII, .~flJ(j'lfi pl.em· ~lii vel vir! liwr .~!'III',
.'i'lll;!! 11;J#.{:'11f mtfflf!rO

vocak-s sma quae per

!I~

tjll.il"wm pr()j~nmJur; ~ed per se

.'lyfJI:JHUIJ

l1oJI.j(:rci'l.mI,

cmt:l[! Ue!liref tile classical concept uf semivowel). Since el:!lfiy tunes, to Ihe IUilcerUll!a~ltl;...';S of its g·erH.r..cr and its. meaning is to bCildded the uncertalnty concesmng ih Vt:=1)' form. which {-,£tenpasses from anfatmha. to untuRthfi. But if Nli!i is vet}' likely tu be a. mere 'phm~etjtCI'Jlatter. i. e. tbc fal] of Ij.--isw--g.a bejore <l! couwnili1Jta! group formed by a 3~ bfhl.tl![ pi L1:.'1 an unvoiced oeclns ivc - a full ,~'hich .msvery common ~h MSS and which has been, moreover, eVC11 sanctioned in the 8gvedu-PtaliSiikJrJlG ([V.36) and ill ~:!. viil'tti/w of KBtyuyaoo. (vJl't:t. ~ QJl iP,"VJfI.3 ..16) the: rerm tmtaslha won hega.n ha v ing ~:!. separate states, where the cnmponcuts of In(! word became ansa and .... IM. The ':new"~1 term

C1<cclu!)iou!o'J (which wntdd

ncines iII ~'hc·u.!;ual vm'~Ul~am(7mllaYtL 'Ihcre is also some SfI(J1I~ [wi C and some\'>'fial indirect n;:fen::noe LO t~~~ jmt:'TIDediate level of

m spar;'V!/"t.imii"~ Im/ul' 'ItU1d~y-=, ti~#taJiLjt)"(/Jl.t.-:I.~tl~iI:" ..

:..IM. I

;][11

'All~~jl Is, 1M dil~U}' lill.kiii,g thb plI~l1~iC3J feaClJrt: tcJlh.e terrn alTlalt· alJ~ldillg, fi.l'st a.f.i!IL to M(/MM,j'~FI on P. LU.O (V1)U p,M): 4cJt-

~PN!Im1 aruao.;H·niim1m, lire .dsn JIJl[j,rl,(I~'&la-Fniliiflkkya (,{lfJllW.ki_ru CtltUj' iidlty.{iyika) DO wjtb ~he ii;t[IlI:: 'A'w,d~t']~. ~~Vf!4'.l·f'riiji9)klt}YI xm W ~spl~.
Itll1f iu pdigg:k~Uin:J.r: C.ii!ltU·,\l'rI"t, etc, UD~"·I!:J. ;r~ Prof. fme"l.1I'gC Cm·d.m~';1 11;~,; pojnt~ our to Jr~ il~ iI! pc-n;ona[ 'l'onl.l1l1mi';:j]Lion, Ifle lI'PPaI'mtly IllDI'C tradi~ionai exrlilIL<l[flJO of cmrul}stflii ~:ertilmly tCLLkc~thls term ~OI'i1t1K:t with th~ remaining term inoJ(},f!_}', :iJl',o'4')[Yflbf, Illtl~lrrhu.wfl1Uiiiis fur liQWl4,h (.\·I~In;!,!fpe.I~:(I ~1';:.1. .. jJ CI Ikc~8 have ,10 do wiHl iP)um~tic'l, n..~I~ has to d<, wid-I an C:;;,lrilli1 \ r iL' order in tl~' .;drn<~bi!=t.Thls 'I'loold induce 1M (0 rl'.if.carf.1 ioo hastily th.:' arb. [J~ti0.11 'phonellcal' in L':_'ffJ1~. h.[][~ "'~ 8!bfl'!J~. Imleed, W'C might read jn tlti;.,. Hghl Uk sequence ~iven jo Pudam(Jiijal'l un Kii:§fJ:iiL'[Ilr ;;II~P.J. j ~ (Vl)Jj p-. 98" wJj~r{' ~{llil~utlriilles (rl9 dolJ~, rmollcti.;;ully) • OCf',l.'i!lCfI' $.p-arsa and ii.~m'(m.'W~ftl' taken t~)gl:'tlll;:\[:l~iro .'(pry..tl.tJ:{f1'{1~7 .1~r'j6. [. ,1 iwt,slrr.Y/fJ·tw.r:rI~·a ~IJ"alt:;rhiilJ ['..,] \'i ~rt.-:#:al'/'fYU ii~mii~raJi .\·V.(Wii\: ('a.
~, 1\.11 i~Lierc~lITil8remark l'fy PI'1:)[' Maclbav Deatlpande (pCI~O[lS' cornml.liLL{'ati(~JI!) koi!~p~ the i~5L1C: op::rl, .II~ AjJa!'4ry-'ii!·.1ra~lJ'l"~kam.2.I, wtll:~re ~Ie I~ml eecnrstor the lint Iimc, a1ltu.~tJIii stulld., lor ~b.e r.3!!i~ eI3!S::; of WLLlblh. TlI~ aJl.ltbllr of lite- Ait~1n:'ya-Amtl.l~a, ~ly~~"Oldy tl~~ clI,tega.loJ'il!;; Iiowc beC11 I:.!IlJg~tI~) Uti" (tNYf!m 11' f.'1'U 11(1 (~(~t '1I"fJlcrlJ~I).00 the bll~J~ of rhls and !lIbel' i;;.ffl'l(Jlr, 3J1(f allJustJlI.1

JJc.~hP'3iI)II~.1~~!e!l .h~t [h~ elder .ra1.e@Ot·i~:; v.WC' .~l\:l'j·.!t, spur.sa 31'1J 3 4J[]Jy a (-t"Jati~J~r lu te aIIJitiu'n. $.a, tltoe ~eJrT! m.~f]~ I'C~~ [0 iL~ oci~lg t]l~ Jour und h15. c.::s!~gol} n{,'Voiy added hoy 1~le [m.a.ii[i4)!]of UI'lJo.;'''n M.aOQukq.:1 (d Dcsbpande 1994::W54t· hi 'this (:1IS(', II win be <lm(J,~slhii dl!1l has h~~ a laler l'I::rl1tNJI~I<I~joil II r amastlt,i, ,lf1d not the urhcr lA'a)" n.mml
poaS';ilgC!I,

R. TOREL[':\.

was "Y,H'iOlJJ~~y i.lu:erp~Lt::d hy the commentators, w.h~,(:h however mostlv ended up by ~l.IIggesti.ilg H meant ''iii.'hich ~l1amh ,Ill Lo!::' "-'TId of ~hl!,Iuti[!ul.;dory orgaa', il:fum~& ossibly referring again, lu some p way Of other, to Ithe criterion of !.hejrnperfcct occlusion." Thas, ill cosnrnentaries on the Ka:tamrav)-ah1!'a,~,rl:' which, imOICO\W ~ was very popul fit preci ~~I}' ~lm~m.gthe Kashmiri pandits, we cain read passa.&e~ 1 ike these: S~t~)'a ,:..-v~~.t:!;.t.lriiJ~)'a ante ti:S&Ramity antasllr£r. m.:).lGlr.i·i~ [ ... J {nlJrw~'!j. '[!ka on K(:ji(.t:nfrav)'flkanuJa Ll ,]4}comm.: 1 ... 1 ,plli:iiriidintif.!r. ,'iIv""tI...~(hiinil1Ii lii1viiJjm' ~adarw;! ;{-e..~aHl;\al-~ ti,yh'airtiJy ;fd{J.d e .... -5.h.a_ "The '["If:g-rt;:~tiv'¥placea
'l:-\IlS~

(lif ar-

ticu~OlI'[ionof Y etc. .. !We the palate I;:~~- 1111;:)'[an,"; called .tmhlst.hii in that they] reside Old the end - I:b.a~, is, O:IJt '~hc boundary, at the ex-

the respective places of articulation" (Kav.irfij. a+ s svasamaptmt ill the 'IA becomes now perfectly clear. The semivnwels, hence !h.:;:: r.lhiim!'J~, o ..... e thei r .ll<l!~lle thei r :I'es.i:dj·ng 'at the erl,r~',that "1":.;;, '~~L extreme to the borders' of the Powers of knowledge and action (terr't::-it::n1-~d.n i UIC phonemic emanation DY the' vowels 1 and U respectively), Th i S. i·~.mm~he, way 1.0 underline the basic ·r.oD;1:Unruitr of the hUm...111 'euirasses' with the di\'~ (1.:= Pnwera, Th us, A hh ~liIav.;igup"" is li10~ only exphuning the term alt issue in two ways wMch we di ni:::renL JiTt)lll C3Cb. other and from the interpretations ..be .nL":ld put forwaed earlier, l:Ju~:he is also ~aking into account two ;!I~tcrnat.iiye forma of the
U:~ 'TI:l~ .. (J[

part -

Panj.tlc(1 thereon), ~~1111. their light,

s<iJinYll" L~ (eLl. m l ~u~~

1~64 : 272J J1:lrwmJa.J1I)oapmbfj~tr1l.a¥f Ii{j'm~mli,rm ll.mX}EjaR)lliJ.'i#ya-m--Ihij-~\i 121:1taRt!i,j il:"i-' ii.tl.i.l\:i)oaJl'Je· .. lli-al. mare illt~~1iIl&ly, see siitr.n .I [,40 of tI~e lo.I1Jil'-IJ'B.-Pr.itiRiiklt'j.-'JJ itself Jii1t1J1 fi}W,jJflfJtiky{i1r!ii~ NI.viif!J }oarul't? or I"!A3 1'j!if!J.im.itJ!.'llii1p. di2i':1roil' "W1t.ire. However, <1~ tti.lI" ;IS. I. kuow, only I)lLTE!a's on K(,jt{fJ71ro.~~0."k.:1ra.P,lQ .L.l.14 (ql!lot~d in ChiiUc:rji 1:9ri4~:273) SC:CIil"l~ tn establish a direct connection between ~~llt:I'5draas 'r.;:~id in.@; r (u 'lx:ing rr,ndl!l.Qoo'll 3..[ [he; ond! [of the' respectlve place !\:if ~ic:ul<l-

,_._ I ~~ _ ~~ .~~

(!o~_ Pil~:S~~

~ik:e ~a.i!iJ,ribh(lm'l.lu· ..

1J0._

T~iUir~m-p:!'a~~-

raJ

tiuu]"

.'~l(!ilt"lpelitlat occ:jusi.;:;I' (lfl1txPt1fml1).
1'].

I huve drawn these ;:pootatiClflii fro:rTil! -il J,;mg piL'SS<Igt: ~'p~1_1c:cd i[1 Cb3!trerji l'9M·~; 2i3-.2N. In this, .'it t~r:;~'sighl, r'J~her .;.:b;.mli~ pa.."i.Sil~p., Ci:lI.IJH~rji us a~,~,nbkld l'H"'lfi'ti("tJ1s, of different (:lJilil.ll~l)i!liliLTi~~, rhe K(jtanirct. h un
Th~lr L.'~I'~ct dJi"i~iolfl is due t-o Prof (J, (:;1rtl~~lla (1X:~I~a1 oommLlllic-:1lillll). TIle same i:n~~L.:llilJD. IJfa!'lu!.~1,1]ii ~~ a1,,-0 be fumrid I!Il !.h~ t\l[~g~il,;;1:1 tratlito ham oaHesnacandra's ,5k("dr-:rJ~!!,~&~;:;i/j(,j (sec the qll!Jlil1iulL Irom lhe fklimCJ.IJI_·~ i;r:r!ir.r. iI~icL)..

79

'l1L'oruat the same time, [hal is, r,,-v~] d.itlere.nr 'i,!!,enIds ~ if th~y were one, Pfhil3 as probably one of the ID():;.i . ref ned i!U'H.J extreme eKaIDp~~ of 'l'antrlc ex.{:g~js. 'I'h I! use of the. term dlh7ra1Ja is certai Irtay l'tm.rc 1~mitOO than thai!. of Ka#crJlw_ \Vht::n K~emarllij.a mentions it in the S.sV (p, 21). he· a~~d&thai the 'cui r<)~5eS' ~ll'C (:al!cd dh~l'(Jl!ii 'iu s.c rrne' traditions' (Cif.im(:tye.$JI), Since: this .£.m~ recurs in two scriptures like the Af1S and the I.' 1', it hijS been hyputhesized thf~, th is. term .Kl1Id rhe doctrines related to it have 'been borrowed from the :Pffi'ic~~ratm tion Cr.ad.i But I ha \'1; looked through the main Naearai'.ro. S~lhj [ii.;!j WWI o~nt sucecss. 'Ihe term iWflcuiw OCC1lT8 OJ1C~ in the St1i'Vata , hut ft MS no Icchn~(;..tIll .mt::'..tIlning:9.I, TfI(: LT [k .. with the Jhiira~'ltlS in Chf:Lp";;'I:ls ~.r xmx. devoted Iio the arising of phoneracs (1IilJ'~m:p(~/ti), or the path of phiLJnemel'o: {"_'.(l11W.fihv(.m). The Ol~tlook, and scm d.u[Ie-~ ~\'C.D ~he wordillg, ~U'C very close to those f[)~md in Aihhinavagu pta '8 shL)1f1,. commentary On 111!ePT.'J.~ The ,dhfir:a~Ir:1.8 - numeJ} Ihe principles kalti; virlvil, 11.J'.:l_}.'(:i and n~ga - are so L:~.nedbecause they hold the soul (pul'uqa) mi<k\'ay between the' highest and d~e ~owe:4 state, 'They correspond 11'0 Y -wind, R~t1I-e., .l~It-Hl1hand V -w.wfer ..;o.:.

-,L1

x~x. 12: ti.Ilf.W1kdi.('#ki2trim·mkla~ J
Il,( lahil/ud.aJ:''jII.J.fI

m1:l1.iMrallj!

(iatirlfl. gcftant I :mw-

11'&'RatIJlirmi2IJ'(ig.ruU;!

par«

pr:u.:k //

~~.A.PPu(!m.lily hurra!I;'io'iRg tinlH (I~rlCI; l\.b.hlill~""B.gLlpttJJ'::; Wl'lor.k::;(Tl\ and iP.72 f[].l!:2), .~ 1..T, in ;9. r~her ambiguous 'pa:s..~ge .. seems tD CL'mEid'..:!~ ~mn-emc:s R ~ L L ~uclJ fortn ~tlc hlls.i;; of the Ilflifl/Yl1tirii.r R. m.: lhe 81: <I InfldHlC3.tilJIll of Iccha (J) ete, {''':l'C-'?); Xl X.';-;"b: l~i.IJ!..f:;t{;jtrl madJr,y¥mralta )'i~l rail i(X'lIiiilrw eI!Il !--i.b'i_l.ii, em [IJ~ ool~trL.I(r),", Itfile ASS l.ilU.iI'f:!: iIlmt tih~ pLan::ly "iQi:3irio:,: element round in R ~ 'f,.. t censists Clf ,I[] A sound, IM~<: .ddT.ercnl,,)!:" (j.lOinrtecl DLl~ in Sfu.ir'l I i;l9~: 6~~.64) cali lbe. c:\:pJlI!Incc! QD the bn;;,i:'.uf II. differenee fOlJJ\d j[] tllc phenetic ~rei!li5es ~h~m!Ic1'1/~~.lile' A iIf1e:;is oo~ the 1[l(}J[:' t "",jdc~i .:tOCGpl<ed {I,'i,[: e.g ... VqJ~me}'1:J 17wtl.#i1dU4' f\l.14R. cit, i~l Allen 19S.~: ('2 n.ti], 01') .be varitrty uf tlta pbOl1{!~I!.:' il)t~lp.retaJ1l,julil;;of 1M=~a VhOI)a::I~1.t:5 see alro Vunna 1% i:: Cio-8, S~-;f~, Inc identally, ~.W>I1IlJdo.l;;,u Uiloc til point out tll"'~ tlL-e c-..Js tc DC=(: of a .Lon.;;:lL i~ :far fi'.iJJliI be I!.ing en tnm em]Y accepted b~' rn0.,t lIMJiari authoeilies (I;{ c.g, Ka.l:iM·I>'ftli 1. p. M10. Ol~ 'f·I.U9~ {.... ~r!'IJ(IS)~ drrgli.i i'U~ ,sul:rti), wih~,rom;di[[]C5; replace it wil.ru tl!1e' plutu fuml twha:;111 dlil,iU€ld; o ;:;~blot!~iml!:" ootll are dD~ta:d).

pry:

,;:eL~." 00w

~ '.I'M- ia.o.;.l t'Il.rr~~Lli~'a:ll..!oC(':i are ~[]'I,rc.11~ w~lb respect io 'tlCK~ liJ.un~j in aI~ l'TLV,. 'wb('n~ m~ru i~ linkcrl to V-'~... ater, al~ri '''fJliC/. (0 r .-enrtll. A [""c 0.1din~ 10 a ..... ~U-i:;i.1ahiislled [r;sdit~tl, ',>,iL.k·h recurs 'bll!Jl in the S.:aj'l!(Il and
tbe TA

,00

R. l'rll"o:~r J.iL

(rcprc~nil.e·d 'by the four spirants S is S H! plus K.S~)and the material state (the phonemes from K to Hh, namely the groos elements de, 11p to ~hc Immanifest), 'Ihe soul is enabled to run along in, own way - porentLr:lHy leading to enjoyment or J lberatlon as well precisely by these dhiiral)'m., which leave it, so-to-speak, free to take either dircctiou, Without them, the soul would, simply sink inro either of these poles, and there would be no ,~aiftsii!'ll at all,

l.i\tc.r on, Iii! the' 5.1m~chapter (X[L."'{,34~j 7)~ we meet wi th a further variation ()u the ~I:lTTl.~ t'ot!mo::::.here t!vel'll rnnre integruted ~nlil) the }lEiiicarntn":l scheme. This time, the- ,Jhi"irtuj.t"i.s~(111:t{J'''sl}rus are equatcd with the four staGes (al!"Q..~rhif)- waking and &0 011 - which hold the l-mrU$(l {the phoneme 1ij J.TIJ:i,<lWiiLY between the Brahman s~'a~'C

A 1:;.0 the: A T1S, in Ih~·same .;;:i,mLej,:L ~ the LT, bridl]' de.Hl:-: with the ,({hti.1'"(1!~I~s-tmtQ:II!SlIrilS, Jn describing the 'p::.th of pliOnernea' ,ut mentions the f{JiUI semi vowels and lists the three dilfer"''TIl dl;:numim.!.lioo.s ~hat we have .i u st met 'with iim the LT, addind ... :-,:'ht)rt x plaTUll'i(li1l fur each ofthem (XVl,.86-8,7}: "From 8 ,iU1SCS V, e from 'v arises L, frrvr"n '~. ari:o;t::~ R, fn:JI!ri R uri s,e:;, Y _ These pliunemes {Y etc.) are termed "dhiirwj.iis' in rhat tbey susraia the un i,verse: 'a:1lt-ab..!Jthas· jill. that they reside in the soul which a bides inkrnally;~~ .Ilnd, ~:tl!!j,lly" 'a wt'J.lhJ!J, in '!h~:J4 Ihl;:)' ~LI':': the !j,la~~, in the process of the Lord's. manlfcstation ."The iiliS docs. not explicitly connects nll;;sc Iour phonemes w~th four particular tattvas. In de~ribin~ the impure creation (iudl'.fht:!tm'ii :snm/1 OF' bhutil;). the i'LE'S .;-.t1ril1~~~;:;!j three b5ol,;otial forms ttl lhe ~idi.ti!:hat presides over Ll: ]YMnl!ja, /4ilr./. snd gol:'l'm', Her body rmtdt= nf k41~ (kiilii'miJ.yaf.!! lJ{J-'
PU~!) L:-;' cnnsli Luted b~: .!'ll}'GiUand Mfa._ The.tottner

i~ the pri ~il::i te> p

that subtly that is, ietemal ~y and unnotieeably controls everything (su4mall !Wr'w.miYfmJ'(1kall) and establishes the forms, JUIIl:tions and natures of all realities, From Pfiya1i aTi:-,:~ kiilu. 'ti me'.
V.!lj~I}8 a reX~8, Y R L V plus ~I ooo~~ilult:: lhe "s~£d~' (fJij'::') .... the five gru~~ ... f clements, III IT XX.2S-27;;r1lJ. the Iour ~U:J(im.¢i~ arc identified witb Aniruddll~'"1;~akti ("i), MaIlaJd~~mi (L). M"bihiinL (R) and Man~!L (Y).

~, The oenception whidt ~lJrul~l,:l-.;; these pjl~~ mans isalso ~b~ by 'I~ P'l' ilJl'l~ j\RS..

'LI'it!h. tIte tii...e

UJ:<Lh-

~j Th i~, reminds om' of K~ernuJiij~·:s. ilL'!£llYc4-ation of the ~(:rt.n ill .bc SSV (p.'. J!); ~/.rJ~(j~IFNJ_r'lttlrum.(1N t., J ~ll~(Iu~i'l(ij_

81

which ri]N.tlJ:;'w. dr~.... cs/measures e'liEirything, just ali the oonks. of a river [hlve:/iTIcasl!llre its streams (d. ASS V1.46cd-5 lab). N(vmi i1iiId kiihl (taken alone, that is, ·w ithout [ilile otheli ka;k:UKQ."S) are also to be tcund in fhe hst of l"atrl':{I,~given in LT tef VT.441a), m.!'J So ~o i\ns and the LT urc llkely 10 be the 0,1'I1yV.ai~ga... ra texts d'eulmrngwl [ih 'the dhJra~i:t7'1i'" Therefore, si nee both !ihow obvi[_jus 5[g~l:-lof the iaflueuce of tht:: Sai va tradition, i:t is tli1uch Mkcdi'Cr that the conception offuc; dh(l.f'tl~~a5 m,igratOOi from the ,S~iv.L:I to (he V .aJ~!I)al'li texts IrNJlllerHlM vice v (.':1:S<1. If the Ueulmen( nl the ft111l!.C[ in the ABS .i So concise and. rt[)t withe u'l: II certain (~h!lCll.dry, the more di~ru,~e tP,re~Cll!ta:ti~m it iiil the Lf allow us to ~liim~e an of original! y Sa~v<l! cere, p[)!;.sibly (:[)II!5thlllte4 by the ".!,o1orl\;!oj. .of ~\ bhi,n.lll""~lgiLl pta

himsel I".

~n cceclusion, tht:: docn~iI1e of tnt: dhara,~rii5., IS P,hl btl DIy in be JI5.cr.ibed !:i]X:dfjc:.~ly to ihc Irika sehoo~ of rhe PI _ Also the 'I ost rantra,~·iim. ,~Jj,a!;. ,'Ij..,iJliflisora 0.- r!'ik(.t.(antrasiir(~, nmst have conlamed references to tht::1D.;.L"1Swe can B~.(.'1herfrom an exJiilllIt verse where the verb JJrJiYJyall1i oceurs with .II, certain technical
IDC3ltl!itmg_llYl

~ I read

p.RC'Tru:t.FJ~

(WitJL ~SS R F] m~t,~(l ofpiiw~~mL

IIII h}I a Sili,yB. ji.;1[,ilkl see ~bo li~l or the j!(m~\:H in cbc !Vi§wJi3i1.iu.rir,nsioImlJitu ~Ul'lm'(J,17rlm. lM.l!4If.f1. I): [,lrakr,ii, prl1l'I~ioI, ~-\lll., Irri'{G. o?uir>'li. ~'idJ';';, .lilwru. &rdijirb'(J, df:'JuWlcltli~~. tilklf mill ~j'VU; (qlJ.()~ in (luoo_"n I Q~:5: Xn{ [0. :S 1).

11;.!IfltrM_lii~

pii!Wr~ fr.!rLIL;(711~1rnalJfi!.o:.VI'iIIM ~o:.IlliaI l...=d)'tfIJliljl'i~~o.1hyii~ 1<e1;1o:1 Pfflj"GIll.Jf~talr: qlto;'b:::d in ['"1"'V~',225Kinol i &.I,). &8 ~rS1' above fh, ·tS.
I~I 411Iil'(J.J~fl~i p12J(!~

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