Sacripanti University of Rome Tor Vergata FILPJK – Italy
INTRODUCTION The various issues examined by the FILPJK in recent years include the preparation of a method for teaching judo to children that is more in h e with present needs and with the enormous advances made in scientific knowledge over the last 50-60 years. The overall approach adopted takes into account the following preliminary considerations of teaching methodology: the need to ensure logica1 and cultura1 continuity with the Classical Method by retaining the most effective features of this approach; the need to set up a structure offering the maximum flexibility to learners (children) in such a way as to cater for differences in motor capability; the need to outline guidelines for instructors whereby rigidity and pre-established rules are kept to a minimum while highlighting personal skills and inventiveness. On these premises, the authors have created an innovative methodology where conclusions stemming from the biomechanical analysis of judo, developed for the first time in Italy, are grafted onto the latest results obtained essentially in France, Great Britain, Holland, Japan and the USA. The resulting "open teaching method" thus encompasses the state of the art as regards the most advanced knowledge and practical results in the field of Judo the world level. The course produced and published in Italy (including two videotapes) is entitled ”Ju Do" as a scientifically organised exercise of percept ional and motor, skills (basic instruction from 6 to 10 years of age and initial specialisation from 11 t. 13) The content is organised as follows: I. Discipline, judo and teaching games II. The child (aged 6-10): general aspects and motor development III. The basis of good judo skills (general co-ordination capacities: balance, combination in movement, bilateral capacity, entry time) IV. Elements of general biomechanics (children aged 6-10)

V. Elements of child training VI. Elements of biomechanics as regards judo for children VII. Judo techniques and their gradual teaching: A) ground-combat techniques as a game B) fall-control techniques as a game C) throwing techniques as a game VIII. Didactic play and training IX. How to avoid traumas in children A) short period B) long period X. Conclusions THE NEW TEACHING PROGRAMME A BRIEF OVERVIEW The new programme is developed on the basis of two particular didactic assumptions which recur constantly especially in the most complex period (1st year): - appropriate distribution of training and instruction; - innovative structuring based initially on the Ne Waza and subsequently on the Tachi Waza. The motor skills that the pupils have to learn are in fact furnished by the group as a whole, where the techniques are of equa1 value, and not by the sequential order of the techniques. In the latter case, it is assumed that the techniques are arranged in order of increasing difficulty of movement, whereas our approach seeks to teach techniques with the same degree of motor difficulty in each group. In specific terms, pair exercises in the form of games are used during the first year of instruction (initiation phase). Inventing "teaching games" proves to be very easy. A classical exercise can in fact be transformed into a goal-oriented game by introducing suitable tasks or aims and establishing rules to award victory.

In this case, however, it is important to bear in mind the theory of gratification. In other words, the instructor must ensure the gratification of the weakest pupil by playing with him or her. In this way, the group will improve in more homogeneous fashion and pupils will not drop out through inability to derive adequate benefit from the motor evolution of the lessons. The need to "camouflage" the exercises as games stems from the comparative instability of attention span during childhood. It is therefore important not to demand concentration for unduly long periods but to exploit curiosity (interest in novelty) through suitable variation of exercises. At this age, play is a vital need and can be used to promote learning. In this way, the pupil with move gradually, from the phase of familiarization with the mat, to the standing phase in the space of 6-8 months. The initial techniques of Tachi Waza will then be learnt in 2-4 months. The schedule is thus as follows. Initiation to Judo (1st year) A) Familiarisation with the mat (6-8 months) through gradual development (supine, prone, on all fours, kneeling on both knees, kneeling on one knee, crouching). B) Familiarisation with projections (2-4 months) through gradual development (from standing still, taking one step forward, in rectilinear movement, in lateral rectilinear movement, in rotating movement, in free movement). After an initially passive period, Tori will come to guide the movement (tab. 2). The following years (basic preparation and specialization) The following five years are divided into two phases (basic preparation for pupils aged 810 and specialisation for pupils aged 10-13). The technical programme includes no fewer than 37 throwing techniques as well as 20 Ne Waza techniques, giving a total of 57 techniques, not counting combinations.

In order to ensure absorption of this substantial load of teaching and information, the method seeks to integrate the technical-classica1 Japanese teaching of technique mastery, the well-known 6 phases (Tandoku renshyu, Sotai renshyu, Uchi komi, Yaku soku geiko, Kakari gheiko and Randori), with other information regarding directionality, kumi kata as a means of transferring energy, the biomechanical principles of the techniques, and the more or less marked importance of imbalance with reference to the bio-mechanical group to which the technique belongs. The final phase of the programme, which can rightly be described as competition preparation, involves the careful and evolved study of a number of innovative concepts deriving from bio-mechanical analysis, which can be labelled as follows; 1) unified entry; 2) unified movement; 3) unified hold. The intrinsic purpose of these concepts is obviously that of providing pupils in the precompetition phase with tools that can be developed into various techniques depending on the contingent "situation" produced in the closed bio-mechanical "pair of athletes" system. The introduction of this teaching stems from the need to develop within pupils the maximum flexibility and adaptability so that they can tackle the variable and always different "situations" of competition with a reasonable probability of success. If it can be ensured that an athlete is capable of intellective and physical adaptation to the constantly changing "situations" of competition at the beginning of the competitive period, the benefits thus conferred wd be expanded through competitive experience over the years. Competitors will thus be able to express their full personal potential with the minimum of didactic interference.

CONCLUSIONS The description of the methodological didactic principles adopted by the authors to solve the problem of producing a more up-to-date method of teaching judo in the light of the most recent scientific and pedagogica1 findings provides some indication of the difficulties inherent in teaching the basics of combat sports. This new method for children, which is divided into the three phases of Initiation (for children aged 6 - 7), Basic Preparation (8 - 10) and Competition Preparation (11 - 13), presents various innovations and offers pupils a number of advantages. During the 1st year, the initial activities on the ground and the focus on Ne Waza offer advantages in terms of "safety" with regard to trauma: 1) The supporting musculature is freed of improper tasks. 2) The complementary musculature enjoys general development and strengthening. 3) Pupils learn to overcome to fear of the "fall". "Teaching games" are used in order to - promote awareness of one's physical capacity - satisfy the desire for action - preserve the joy of learning - carry out technical instruction - carry out physical training In the development of the Roku Kyo over the following years, the "open teaching" method seeks to give scope to the instructor's inventiveness and experience while ensuring the maximum respect for the pupil's individual character so as to combine the necessary growth of technical knowledge harmoniously with the maximum flexibility of application on the part of the pupil. This makes it possible to develop "aware" and "thinking" athletes unrestricted by a rigid and stereotyped didactic structure, which can only serve to stultify individuality. Time and application will make it possible to identify the less obvious limitations inherent in the method and the corrections required to ensure its adaptability to the ever-changing reality of a constantly evolving sport such as judo.

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.A.V.V. - Méthode franqaise d'enseignement du judo-jujitsu - FFJDA 1995 F. Draeger & T. Otaki - Judo for young men - Kodansha Int. Ltd. Tokio 1965 A. Geesink - Lo judo - Ed. Mondadori 1970 G. Gleeson - Judo games - A.&C. Black London 1989 G. Lehrnan - Il principio della multilateralità nell'allenamento giovanile di judo - SdS n31 - 1994 G. Lippiello & A. Sacripanti - Preparazione atletica essenziale e cenni di biomeccanica ad uso delle palestre di judo - Athlon 1993-94 A. Monti & A. Sacripanti - "Ju Do" Come esercizio percettivo motorio scientificamente organizzato (Apprendimento di base 6-10 anni ed inizio della specializzazione 11-13 anni) - FILPJK - 1996 G. Ruzzu - Avviamento al judo e preparazione fisica, scientificamente strutturata, di soggetti appartenenti a due classi diverse di età - Thesis - ISEF - Roma 1996. A. Sacripanti - Biomeccanica del judo - Ed. Mediterranee Roma 1989. A. Sacripanti - Biomeccanica degli Sport di combattimento - Ed. FILPJK - 1996 J. Sheedy - Fun and games for judo - Desipa Pty. Ltd. Villough by N.S.W. - 1988 U.S. Judo Federation - Judo for high school - Interscolastic Commitee - 1970

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