MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATIONS

A Report on

Photonic band-gap calculation of photonic crystals

Implemented by:

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Pierre R Villeneuve. PLANE WAVE EXPANSION METHOD……………………………………….& Shanhui Fan Nature|vol 386|march 1997 CONTENTS 1.6 6.D Jaunnopolis.5 5... IMPLEMENTATION……………………………………………… ………………….Anto ny Jose Arikkatt 110915001 DEAC Based on the paper. APPLICATIONS…………………………………………………… …………………. ‘The photonic crystals: Putting a new twist on light’ By J. INTRODUCTION………………………………………………… ……………………4 3.7 2 . THEORY OF PHOTONIC CRYSTALS……………………………………………4 4. ABSTRACT……………………………………………………… ………………………3 2.

SUMMARY………………………………………………………… ………………….9 8.. REFERENCES…………………………………………………… ………………………10 3 .7.

Abstract The photonic crystals are the one of the major thrust areas of research in the fields of physics and engineering. The structures manufactured periodically varied dielectric constants are found to exhibit unique properties which will be very useful in the advancement of technology in the future. 4 .1. In the present report a brief study of photonics crystals and the calculation of photonic band gap in different photonic crystals are studied.

2.Theory of photonic crystals Photonic band gap The maxwells equation governing the flow of electromagnetic waves in dielectric materials with ρ = 0. Photonic crystals offer a completely different mechanism for the control of light. The difference lies in the concept of photonic band gap – the optical analogue of electronic band gap in semiconductor crystals. Traditionally the manipulation of optical photons has relied in general on the mechanism of total internal reflection.Introduction: Photonic crystals are materials patterned with a periodicity in dielectric constant which can create a range of forbidden frequencies called a photonic band gap. 2. This provides the opportunity to shape and mould the flow of light for photonic information technology. Light propogating in a high-dielectric material is reflected at the interface with a low-dielectric material. This severely limits the degree of miniaturization of optical components because the interface must be with respect to the wave length of light. Photons with energy lying in the band gap cannot propagate through the medium. Ј = 0 is given by 5 .

Specifically.∙= ∙D=0 ×=−/ ×=/ Master equation 1/(∈() ) ××=^2/^2 The above master equation is an ordinary eigen value problem. Hence the plot between the eigen value and propogation constant gives the dispersion diagram of the photonic crystal . a calculation method is necessary to determine how light will propagate through a particular crystal structure. There are several capable techniques. The analysis of dispersion diagram is used to find the photonic band gaps in the photonic crystal. 3. we must find the allowable frequencies (Eigen frequencies) for light propagation in all crystal directions and be able to calculate the field distributions in the crystal for any frequency of light. In which the eigen value is the ^2/^2. It was used in some of the earliest 6 . but one of the most studied and reliable methods is the plane wave expansion method. given any periodic dielectric structure. In order to design photonic crystals to take advantage of their unique properties.Plane wave expansion method.

Fig no:1 the typical dispersion diagram of a two dimensional photonic crystal. 4.studies of photonic crystals and is simple enough to be easily implemented.Applications Waveguide 7 . The method allows the computation of eigen frequencies for a photonic crystal to any prescribed accuracy. commensurate with computing time.

The extreme miniaturization of the optical fibres are not possible since the refractive index gradient must be very large compared to the optical wavelength. The main advantage of such a waveguide is that a bend of 90 degrees still can transmit 98 % of the power injected without reflection where in the case of optical fibres its only 30 %. Cavity A defect created at a point or a unit cell in photonic crystal can be used as a high quality cavity provided the 8 . These two properties makes it very appropriate to incorporate them into the integrated circuits and helps in realizing the dream of photonic computers.The photonic crystals can be used to guide the light of particular frequency along an intentionally made line defect in the crystals. Fig:2 The 2-D photonic crystal with line defect as a waveguide.

Implementation The present project I consider to implement as apart of technical paper presentation is to simulate one dimensional and two dimensional photonic crystals in matlab. And conduct a study upon the dispersion curves is effected by the change in the periodicity and filling factor of photonic crystals. The master equation for electric field reduces to one dimensional one in 1-D photonic crystals 9 .dimension allows the existence of a particular mode of electromagnetic wave. Presently working on the plotting of the dispersion diagrams of 2-D photonic crystals in matlab. Using dispersion diagrams the photonic band gaps were found out. Phase 1 I have already modelled one dimensional photonic crystals and plot the the dispersion diagrams using matlab. 5. The modelling of 2–D photonic crystals is compeleted.

10 .1∈r-∂2∂z2Ey=w2c2Ey Transforming the periodic permittivity factor and electric field factor to harmonic fourier series we can create a matrix equation and its eigen values are plotted for different propogation constants is the dispersion diagram. The plot of dispersion diagram of 1-D photonic crystal in matlab. Results.

D.” Ph. 2. Shumpert. University of Michigan. dissertation. 1995. J. J. Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light. Meade and J. Winn. Aaron Danner. ‘An introduction to the plane wave expansion method for calculating photonic crystal band diagrams’ 11 . 2001. Princeton.Phase 2(yet to be implemented) By the end of the project term I aim to model and plot the photonic band gaps of 2-D and 3-D photonic crystals. References 1. D. 7. The 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional photonic crystals band gap is to be calculated as the remaining project. Joannopoulos. R. NJ: Princeton University Press. “Modeling of periodic dielectric structures (electromagnetic crystals).Summary The photonics crystals principles are understood and the 1. D.dimensional photonics crystals modelling and plotting the dispersion diagrams are done. D. 3.N.

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