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In the following pages you will find descriptions and illustrations-either drawings or photographs-of 126 medicinal plants that grow in the Appalachian region. Here you will find the names of the plants, a description that will help you identify the plant, information about when the plant flowers, where t o look for it, what part t o harvest, and what it has been used for.
ACER SPZCATUM LAM.
(ACERACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Mountain maple, goosefoot maple, low maple, mountain maple bush, spiked maple. DESCRIPTION:* A tall shrub or small tree that grows t o 30 feet in height. Bark is drabcolored, flaky, or furrowed. Young branchlets are downy near tips. Leaves are thin, downy beneath, 3-lobed or sometimes 5-lobed, with coarsetoothed margins. Flowers are small, greenish-yellow, and generally in upright narrow spikes 3 t o 5% inches long. Fruit, which is red or yellow, matures from July through October; it is about % inch long at maturity. FLOWERING PERIOD: Late May t o early October. HABITAT: Cool woods. HARVEST: Bark. USES: The bark o f t h i s plant is used as an anthelmintic, tonic, and opthalmiatric. In Colonial times the bark was used for a rose-tan dye.
*See glossary (page 21) for definitions of terms used to describe the plants and their uses.
ACER SPZCATUM L A M .
(ASTERACEAE) .ACHZLLEA MZLLEFOLIUM L.
(ARACEAE) .ACORUS CALAMUS L.
HABITAT: Moist. or stems of small leaflets. and astringent. . Rhizomes are creeping. humus-rich woods. maidenhair. The pale green leaflets are fanshaped with blunt lobes on outer curved edge. catarrh. this plant has been used for an expectorant. In Europe a tea of the herb is used to treat coughs. and respiratory infections as well as menstrual discomfort. DESCRIPTION: A perennial fern with fronds. HARVEST: Roots and leaves. shaded. USES: According to existing sources. lady's hair. venus' hair fern. tonic. FLOWERING PERIOD: Non-flowering plant.ADZANTUM CAPILLUS-VENERZS L a (POLYPODIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Southern maidenhair. and limy rocks or steep banks. black maiden's hair fern. Stems are deep red-brown t o shiny black. arranged alternately along a continuous stem.
ADZANTUM CAPILLUS-VENERZS L. (POLYPODIACEAE) .
Rhizomes are creeping. HARVEST : Leaves. DESCRIPTION: A perennial fern with fronds.ADIANTUM PEDATUM L . maidenhair fern. expectorant. and hoarseness. (POLYPODIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: American maidenhair. nasal congestion or catarrh. USES: This herb is used as a refrigerant. or stems of small leaflets arranged alternately along a continuous stem. FLOWERING PERIOD: Non-flowering plant. and limy rocks or steep banks. and tonic. . hair fern. sweet fern. HABITAT: Moist. rock fern. The pale green leaflets are fanshaped with blunt lobes on outer curved edge. Stems are deep red-brown to shiny black. shaded. A tea of this herb is used to treat coughs. maidenhair. humus-rich woods.
(POLYPODIACEAE) .ADZANTUM PEDATUM L.
AESCULUS HZPPOCASTANUM L. ( H IPPOCASTANACEAE) .
devil's bit. FLOWERING PERIOD: May t o July. agueroot. HABITAT: Moist locations in woods and meadows. unicorn's horns. starwort. aloe. white colicroot. HARVEST: Rhizomes and roots in fall. huskwort. false unicorn root. colicroot. stargrass. mealy starwort. ague horn. The plant is known as colicroot because it has been used t o treat colic. blazing star. crow corn. rheumatism root. DESCRIPTION: A perennial with wide. In Appalachia a mixture of roots and brandy or whisky is drunk as a treatment for rheumatism. Flowers have 6 lobes.4LETRZS FARZNOSA L . USES: The rhizomes and roots are reported t o have therapeutic use as a diuretic tonic and sedative. and ague-root because of its value in treating rheumatism. White to yellow tubular flowers are arranged along the stem. aloeroot. (LILIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: whitetube stargrass. unicorn plant. backache root . grass-like leaves spreading in a flat rosette around the base of a spike-like stem. often called ague in Colonial times. ague grass. huskwood. unicorn root. true unicorn root. aletris root . Plant has a short thick root or rhizome. .
(LILIACEAE) .ALETRIS FARINOSA L.
erect. brownishgray bark. speckled alder. The finely sawtoothed leaves are somewhat leathery. stream margins. wet woods. female flowers in small. Male flowers are borne in drooping catkins. American alder. common alder. the chewed bark is used to treat wounds and ulcers.ALNUS SERRULATA (AIT. DESCRIPTION: A shrub or small tree 4 to 25 feet in height with smooth. and moist areas. . USES: The bark has been used as an alterative and the powdered drug as an opthalmiatric. alder. oval in shape. red alder. 2 t o 4% inches long. (CORY LACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Hazel alder. HABITAT : Swamps. tag alder. In Appalachia. swamp alder. green alder. HARVEST: Bark of stems in early spring or late fall. black alder. oval cone-like catkins that turn hard and woody and remain on the shrub throughout winter. smooth alder. notch-leaved alder.) WILLD. and broadest at the middle. candle alder. FLOWERING PERIOD: February to May. which is strongly aromatic. The bark has also been used for brown dye.
ALNUS SERRULATA (AIT.) WILLD. (CORY LACEAE) .
ovate or rhombic. cultivated fields. Taproot is long. hairy. (AMARANTHACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Smooth pigweed. slender pigweed. amaranth. fleshy. slim amaranth. with greenish or red terminal panicles. wild beet. HARVEST: Leaves and herb. rough. dull green. branched above. spleen amaranth. this plant has been used in treating dysentery. prince's feather. ulcers. . green opened amaranth. red cockscomb. HABITAT: Waste places. FLOWERING PERIOD: June to October.AMARANTHUS HYBRZDUS L. DESCRIPTION: An annual 1 to 6 feet in height. erect. red or pink. pigweed. Flowers are small. green amaranth . love lies bleeding. Leaves are alternate. with wavy margins. hybrid amaranthus. careless. 3 to 6 inches long. USES: Because of its astringent quality. petioled. and barn yards. and hemmorrhage of the bowel.
(AMARANTHACEAE) .AMARANTHUS HYBRZDUS L.
high angelica. common angelica. Leaves are alternate and compound.ANGELICA ATROPURPUREA L. dead nettle. Aunt Jerichos. Some sources list it as an expectorant. A confection prepared by sugaring the boiled stems is considered a gourmet favorite. in rich low grounds. angelica. Stem is purplish. archangel. and near streams and swamps. great angelica. masterwort aromatic. FLOWERING PERIOD: June to August. HARVEST: Root in fall. USES: The drug contains volatile oil that is used as a flavoring agent and in treating colic and flatulence. . DESCRIPTION: A shrub that grows t o 7 feet in height. White or greenish flowers occur in terminal clusters at the end of stalk. (UMBELLIFERAE) COMMON NAMES: Purplestem angelica. HABITAT: Mostly cultivated in gardens. alexanders. bellyache root. masterwort. leaflets are 3-parted with serrate margins. Stalks and clusters are arranged in a semicircle or umbel. American angelica. In Europe a root infusion is used to treat dyspepsia and stomach diseases and is considered diuretic and expectorant. Three saw-toothed leaves occur at the tip of each leaf-stem.
ANGELICA ATROPURPUREA L. (UMBELLIFERAE) .
HARVEST: Roots in fall. broad. (ORCHI DACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Puttyroot.APLECTRUM HYEMALE ( M U H L . . elliptical pointed leaf at the base. Adam-and-Eve-root . ) TORR. Flower spike. The plant has a single. Flower is purplish toward its base and brown toward its summit. which arises from the root. USES: Plant is reputed to have value in treating bronchial ailments. DESCRIPTION: A perennial orchid that grows from a series of bulb-like roots attached by narrower roots. has small leaflike structures enclosing the stem. HABITAT: Moist shaded woods and in set soil of flood plains. with white lip. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to June.
(ORCHIDACEAE) . ) TORR.APLECTRUM HYEMALE ( M U H L .
nearly sessile. western wallflower. Flowers large. diuretic. and whitish. The plant produces a milky juice. is a cardioactive drug. rheumatism wood. The pods are double. milk ipecac. HABITAT: Open woods. and slender. which is extremely poisonous. meadows. Leaves opposite.APOCYNUM ANDROSAEMZFOLZUM L . dogbane. oval. American ipecac. Indian hemp. USES: This plant. roadside banks. colicroot. FLOWERING PERIOD: June to August. wild ipecac. honey bloom. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows to 3 t o 6 feet in height. bitter-root. It has been used also as a tonic. (APOCYNACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Spreading dogbane. fly trap. catch fly. bitter dogbane. wandering milkweed. 4 to 6 inches long. and is widely spread from horizontal rootstock. and stream banks. black Indian hemp. and purgative. common dog's-bane. thickets. HARVEST: Roots and rhizomes in late fall. milkweed. .
APOCYNUM ANDROSAEMZFOLZUM L. (APOCYNACEAE) .
The pods are double. bitter-root. silkweed. (APOCYNACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Hemp dogbane. . HABITAT: Dry waste places and forest borders. Bowman's root. milkweed. 4 to 6 inches long. it has been called dropsy weed. It has large elliptical. wild cotton. Indian physic. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to J U ~ ~ . Indians also used the tough fibrous bark to make fishing nets. and a milky juice. Canadian hemp. DESCRIPTION: This perennial is generally 3 t o 6 feet in height. opposite leaves with short stalks. The plant exhibits cytotoxicity but no antitumor activity. rheumatism weed. and is unbranched except near the top. &abrous hemp. HARVEST: Roots and rhizomes in late fall. and slender. expectorant. USES: This plant is a cardiotonic drug that is extremely poisonous. It produces whitish-green flowers borne on terminal clusters. choctaw root. and some western Indians chewed dried bits of the latex. diaphoretic.APOCYNUM CANNABZNUM L. Indian hemp. American hemp. It has been used as a diuretic. Because of its use by American Indians in treating dropsy. The seeds are tufted. amyroot. and emetic.
APOCYNUM CANNABZNUM L. (APOCYNACEAE) .
sweetroot. (ARALIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Wild sarsaparilla. Flowers are small and greenish-yellow in 3 clusters of 12 to 30 flowers on the stalk. Virginian sarsaparilla. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to July.ARALZA NUDICAULZS L. small spikeweed. sarsaparilla root. rabbit's foot. Plant produces purplish-black berry-like fruits. spignet. spikenard. DESCRIPTION: A short-stemmed perennial that grows to 1 foot in height. shotbush. diaphoretic. and cough remedy. American spikenard. false sarsaparilla. wild licorice. American sarsaparilla. small spikenard. HABITAT: Deep mountain woodlands. . HARVEST: Roots in late summer and fall. sarsaparilla. USES: The roots and rhizomes have been used as a diuretic. sarsaparil.
ARALZA NUDZCAULZS L. (ARALIACEAE) .
Leaf is divided into 3 parts. with a single leaf stalk. old man's root. FLOWERING PERIOD: June to August. HARVEST: Roots in summer and fall. Indian root. HABITAT: Bluffs. coughs. COMMON NAMES: American spikenard. Root is larger than the root on nudicaulis. each with five leaflets. . and shortness of breath. pigeon weed.ARALZA RACEMOSA (ARALIACEAE) L. life-of-man. spignet. DESCRIPTION: A perennial 1 to 9 feet in height. American sarsaparilla. with small greenish-yellow flowers in clusters. petty morrel. Flowering stalk is elongated. spikenard. syphilis. and river banks. Produces a blackish or purplish berry. USES: Roots and rhizomes have been used to treat rheumatism. a tea made of roots is used for backache. In Appalachia. deep woods.
ARALZA RACEMOSA L. (ARALIACEAE) .
but in the past it was quite popular for treating many ailments. round.ARCTZUM LAPPA L . Big brown. broad. DESCRIPTION: A biennial or perennial 3 to 8 feet in height. In Spain and France it has been used to purify the blood and to cure skin blemishes and minor wounds. In Appalachia. can be harvested anytime. Leaves are large. (ASTERACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Great burdock. USES: The United States Dispensatory no longer lists this herb as medicinally valuable. a tea of roots or seeds is used to treat rheumatism and to purify the blood. beggar's but tons. FLOWERING PERIOD: July to October. or white. with many flowered heads. In 18th Century America it was prescribed as a cure for gonorrhea and syphilis. HARVEST: Root of plant's first year of growth. clotbur. The tube-shaped flowers are pale pink. and rounded-like those on rhubarb. bristly burrs are a common characteristic of the plant. lappa. HABITAT: Fields and roadsides. . deep purple. burdock.
(ASTERACEAE) .ARCTIUM LAPPA L.
with many flowered heads. burdock. and minor wounds. (ASTERACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Common burdock. bristly burrs are a common characteristic. deep purple. DESCRIPTION: A biennial or perennial 3 to 8 feet in height.ARCTZUM MINUS ( H I L L ) BERNH. Leaves are large. clotbur. FLOWERING PERIOD: June to October. The tube-shaped flowers are pale pink. or white. skin irritations. seeds the second year of growth. alterative. broad. cuckoo button. It is used externally in salves or as a wash for burns. and depurative. brown. diuretic. smaller burdock. HABITAT: Fields and pastures. . Big. HARVEST: Roots in the fall of plant's first year of growth. USES: Plant is a diaphoretic. and rounded-like those on rhubarb. round.
(ASTERACEAE) .ARCTZUM MINUS (HILL) BERNH.
irritant. The pulpit stalk has brilliant crimson berries in dense clusters.ARZSAEMA TRZPHYLLUM (Lo) SCHOTTo (ARACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Indian Jack-in-the-pulpit. -lords and ladies. wake robin. priest's pintle. and grows another stalk topped with a green tubular pulpit. cuckoo plant. which has a hood turned down over it that protects an inside green or dark purple tube. dragon turnip. dragon root. The plant has been used as an expectorant. Because of the needle-like calcium oxalate crystals. starchwort. HARVEST: Corm in summer or fall. Indian turnip. swamp turnip. the raw corm is extremely irritating and toxic. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to June. pepper turnip. Jack-in-the-pulpit. . memory root. HABITAT: Rich damp woodlands and bogs. small Jack-in-the-pulpit. bog onion. meadow turnip. USES: The boiled corms of this plant were a mainst ay in the diet of the American Indians. and diaphoretic. wild turnip. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that has 2 stalks of 3 leaves each. thrice-leaved arum.
(ARACEAE) .) SCHOTT.ARZSAEMA TRZPHYLLUM (L.
. It has an erect stem and heart-shaped leaves that taper to a point at the tip. birthwort. and emmenagogues. Brownish pipe-like flowers grow from base of the plant stem. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to June. DESCRIPTION: This perennial is 1 to 2 feet in height. snakeweed. and stream banks. Dutchmanspipe. sangrel-root. thick birthwort. woodlands. as antispasmodics. diaphoretics. HARVEST: Rootstock and roots in fall. HABITAT: Forests. sangrel. pelican flower. serpentary root. snakeroot. USES: Preparations from this herb have been used as aids in dyspepsia. (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Virginia snakeroot. serpentaria.ARZSTOLOCHZA SERPENTARZA L.
A R Z S T O L O C H Z A S E R P E N T A R Z A L. (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE) .
ASARUM CANADENSE L. (ARISTOLOCHIACEAE) .
silkweed. HABITAT: Thickets. silky swallow-wort . orchards. It is also a source of glucoside and alkaloid. common silkweed. Leaves are broadly oval. and measure 4 to 8 inches long. wild cotton. milkweed. (ASCLEPIADACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Common milkweed. meadows. co ttonweed.ASCLEPZAS SYRZACA L. USES: Reputedly this plant is valuable as an expectorant. diaphoretic. antirheumatic. pubescent beneath. FLOWERING PERIOD: June to August. . The white juice of this plant is extremely irritating to the eyes. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that generally grows t o 4 t o 5 feet in height. and along roadsides. and diuretic. opposite. HARVEST: Roots in fall. In Appalachia it is used t o treat warts and moles. Dull greenish-purple flowers are clustered in a head. fields. or whorled.
(ASCLEPIADACEAE) .ASCLEPZAS S Y R Z A C A L.
ASCLEPIAS TUBEROSA L.
(ASCLEPIADACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Butterfly milkweed, butterfly weed, Canada root, chigger flower, fluxroot, Indian nosy, orange apocynum, orange milkweed, orangeroot, orange swallowwort, pleurisy root, rubber root, silkweed, swallow-wort, tuberous-rooted swallow-wort, tuber root, white root, wind root, wind weed, wine tree. DESCRIPTION: A very leafy, slightly hairy perennial that grows to 2 to 3 feet in height. Leaves are 2 t o 6 inches long, narrow, alternate, and short petioled. Orange-yellow flowers are in umbels. Fruit is a pod. Seeds have white silky hairs. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to August. HABITAT: Sandy, dry open soils, pastures, and roadsides. HARVEST: Roots in fall. USES: The plant has been used as an expectorant, diaphoretic, and emetic, and to treat rheumatism. Indians of Appalachia made a tea of the leaves to induce vomiting.
ASCLEPZAS T U B E R O S A L.
BAPTZSZA TZNCTORZA ( L . ) R. BR.
(FABACEAE) COMMON NAMES : Wild indigo, clover bloom, dyer's baptisia, false i n d i p , horsefly weed, indigo broom, indigo weed, rattlebush, rattleweed, yellow broom, yellow wild indigo. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows 2 to 4 feet in height. Stem is erect, and has alternate branches that contain several whorls of 3 clover-like leaflets. Each branch has a whorl of 3 leaflets where it attaches to the stem. Leaves are nearly sessile. Yellow flowers, which are arranged at the tops of the highest branches, are '/z inch long, and form brown %-inch cylindrical pods. FLOWERING PERIOD: April t o August. HABITAT: Mostly in dry open woods and clearings. HARVEST: Roots in fall, herb in summer. USES: Most authors agree that the herb has value as a febrifuge, tonic, purgative, and antiseptic.
) R. (FABACEAE) .BAPTZSZA TZNCTORZA ( L . BR.
HABITAT: Pastures. barberry. has been used to treat diarrhea. jaundice berry.BERBERZS VULGARIS L. leaves on young sprouts are spiny. a root infusion is used to treat chronic dyspepsia. (BERBERIDACEAE) COMMON NAMES: European barberry. guild tree. dragon grape. Fruit is oblong. In Europe. common barberry. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to July. Bark is gray. and fruit in fall. root bark. Leaves are small. DESCRIPTION: A perennial shrub that grows t o 8 feet in height. Inner wood is yellow. dysentery. sow berry. ovate. scarlet to purple. The root bark. # HARVEST: Root and stem. Yellow flowers are in racemes 1 to 2 inches long. wood sour. USES: The fruit is rich in Vitamin C and has been used in treating certain vitamin deficiencies. which is astringent. grayish below. American barberry. pepperidge bush. and jaundice. having sharp spines at nodes. . yellow root. jaundice barberry. and fence rows. thickets.
BERBERIS V U L G A R I S L. (BERBERIDACEAE) .
they are also finely toothed on the edges. Birch beer is also made from this tree. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to mid-May. and antirheumatic. USES: The bark of this plant contains small quantities of methyl salicylate and has a pleasant aromatic flavor similar to wintergreen. HARVEST: Bark and twigs from May to late September. antipyretic. black birch. DESCRIPTION: A tree that grows to 80 feet in height. Tree bears both male and female flowers in catkins or caterpillar-like spikes % inch long. (CORY LACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Sweet birch. Bark and leaves are sweet and aromatic. The bark has been used as an astringent. HABITAT: Rich woods and moist. and rounded at the base. Leaves are 2% to 5 inches long and 1% to 3 inches wide (widest near the base). river birch. mountain mahogany. cherry birch. close-fissured into thick plates on old trunks. . The sap may be made into vinegar. spice birch. well-drained to shallow soils. Bark is dark reddish-brown.BETULA LENTA L. antiseptic.
(CORY LACEAE) .BETULA LENTA L.
USES: This herb has been called papoose root or squaw root because of its use by American Indians t o facilitate childbirth. Rootstock is knotty and matted. HABITAT: Richly wooded mountains and hardwood glades.) MICHX. and leaflets are either 2.CAULOPHYLLUM THALZCTROZDES (L. HARVEST: Rhizomes and roots in the fall. squaw root. bronchitis. . The rhizome has been used to treat chronic rheumatism. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows t o 3 feet in height. yellow ginseng. In spring. plant sends up a small. elongated axis of yellowish-green flowers. papoose root. (BERBERIDACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Blue cohosh. blueberry cohosh. and colic. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to early June.or %lobed. It has an almost sessile leaf at top. blueberry root. blue ginseng.
CAULOPHYLLUM THALZCTROZDES ( L . ) MICHX. (BERBERIDACEAE) .
ovate. HARVEST: Bark of root. red root. stimulant. New Jersey tea. and leaves. (RHAMNACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Jersey tea ceanothus. DESCRIPTION: A shrub that grows to 2 t o 3 feet in height. wild snowball. HABITAT: Upland deciduous forests. root. The leaves are used for a tea. and sedative. finely-toothed leaves that are pale green below and dark green above. It has straggling. expectorant. the root is also used t o treat respiratory ailments. USES: The root is reportedly used as an astringent.CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS L . In Europe it has been used t o reduce high blood pressure and to treat enlarged spleen. . downy. FLOWERING PERIOD: May t o September. roadsides. alternate. The plant produces white flowers on long stalks at upper axils. According to one authority. dry open woods. and rocky banks. antispasmodic.
CEANOTHUS AMERICANUS L. (RHAMNACEAE) .
) GRAY (LI LIACEAE) COMMON NAMES : Fairywand. devil's bit. starwort. . DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows to 4 feet in height. blazing star. Male and female flowers are on different plants.CHAMAELZRZUM LUTEUM (L. star root. and tonic. and thickets. yellowish. meadows. purgative. The male flowers are white and. the female flowers are greenish. FLOWERING PERIOD: April t o July. HARVEST: Rootstock in fall. diaphoretic. helonias. Plant produces a rosette of basal leaves from which a spike rises. grub root. anthelmintic. A few narrowly linear leaves may be found on the spike. rattlesnake root. when dried. HABITAT: Bogs and wet places in woodlands. false unicorn. USES: This herb *has been used as a diuretic.
) GRAY (LI LIACEAE) .CHAMAELZRZUM LUTEUM (L.
woodland. beard-like structure is found within the turtlehead flower tube. Flowers are rose-white and about 1 inch long. USES: The leaves have been used for reducing inflammation. turtle bloom. bitter herb. HARVEST: Herb at flowering time.CHELONE GLABRA L . narrow. and as an anthelmintic and tonic. and 2 t o 6% inches long. HABITAT : Low grounds. true snakehead. Leaves are opposite. snakehead. shellflower. smooth snakehead. fishmouth. margins of streams. and wet thickets. FLOWERING PERIOD: August t o October. salt-rheum weed. (SCROPHULARIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: White turtlehead. leaves in spring. balmony. A pale. turtlehead. . snakemouth. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows to 3 feet in height.
CHELONE GLABRA L. (SCROPHULARIACEAE) .
and in Europe it is used as an infusion. ambrosia. (CHENOPODIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Mexican tea. American wormseed. leafless spikes in the axils of the leaves. both in humans and animals. Spanish speaking people use a tea made of the leaves to encourage milk flow and to relieve post-delivery pains. DESCRIPTION: An annual that grows to 3% feet in height. jesuit tea. Branches sprout profusely from the base.CHENOPODZUM AMBROSZOZDES L. abandoned fields. HABITAT: Waste places. USES: Primary use is in the manufacturing of chenopodium oil. cultivated pound. In New Mexico. ovate to lanceolate in shape. wild wormseed. wormseed goosefoot. goose foot. HARVEST: Fruit in summer. In Mexico it is cooked and eaten as a vermifuge. stickweed. The pollen is allergenic. Spanish tea. Small. geenish flowers grow along small. . which is used to treat intestinal worms. Jerusalem tea. stinking weed. ambrosia-like chenopodium. Jerusalem oak seed. and about 5 inches long. Leaves are alternate. entire plant or seed from August to November. wormseed. FLOWERING PERIOD: July to October.
(CHENOPODIACEAE) .CHENOPODZUM AMBROSZOZDES L.
fleshcolored. ratsbane. according to other authorities. acute rheumatism. HARVEST : Leaves.) PURSH. Still other uses are as an aromatic and alterative. this plant is used as a diuretic. certain types of cancer. spotted pipsissewa.CHIMAPHICA MACULATA (L. HAB1TAT:Coniferous and hardwood forests. pepsissewa. (PYROLACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Spotted wintergreen. Leaves are dark green. dragon's tongue. USES: According to at least two authorities. and astringent. and wedge-shaped. It is used also. wintergreen. wild arsenic. rheumatism root. blunt-toothed. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to June. Flowers are about Y2 inch in size. to treat skin eruptions. tonic. with violet pollen sacs. . and syphilis. DESCRIPTION: An evergreen perennial that grows to 10 inches in height.
) PURSH. (PYROLACEAE) .CHIMAPHILA M A C U L A T A ( L .
Leaves are dark green. bitter wintergreen. and acid woodlands. pyrole. waxflower. USES: The dried leaves are reportedly used as a diuretic.CHZMAPHZLA UMBELLATA (L. love-innoble pine. with violet pollen sacs. princess green. NAMES: Common pipsissewa. pine. pipsissewa. astringent. ground holly. rheumatism weed. and wedge-shaped. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to June. . tonic. HARVEST: Leaves and herbs in late summer or early fall. fleshcolored. wintergreen. prince's pine. winter- DESCRIP'~ION: An evergreen perennial that grows to 10 inches in height.) NUTT. HABITAT: Coniferous and hardwood forests. Flowers are about ?4 inch in size. pine tulip. (PYROLACEAE) COMMON fragrant winter. blunt-toothed. and antirheumatic. king's cure.
CHZMAPHZLA UMBELLATA (Lo) NUTTo (PY ROLACEAE) .
CHZONANTHUS VZRGZNZCUS L . it is also used t o reduce fever. and dry woods. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to May. Berries are fleshy. diuretic. bluffs. DESCRIPTION: A shrub or tree about 35 feet in height. USES: The bark is used as a tonic. HARVEST: Root bark and fresh bark of trunks in the fall. white fringe tree. thickets. in panicles. . HABITAT: Damp woods. old man's beard. and purple. flowering ash. American fringe tree. and astringent. shavings. white fringe. graybeard tree. Produces many white flowers on long stems. snowdrop tree. (OLEACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Fringe tree. Leaves are opposite. In Appalachia a liquid of boiled root bark is applied t o skin irritations. globular. poison ash. snowflowers.
(0 LEACEAE) .CHZONANTHUS VZRGZNZCUS L.
) . (RANUNCULACEAE) COMMON NAMES: American bugbane. HARVEST: Rhizomes and roots at end of growing season. FLOWERING PERIOD: July to September.CZMZCZFUGA AMERICANA MICHX. mountain rattle-top. bugbane. racemosa (L. USES: This plant is used as an antispasmodic in some areas. DESCRIPTION: A perennial shrub that grows t o 3 t o 4 feet in height. racemosa.) Nutt but is not as tall. HABITAT: Moist woods. white flowers plus a terminal spike. summer cohosh. mountain bugbane. (See C. and it has shorter lateral spikes of small. The plant resembles C.
CZMZCZF UGA AMERICANA MICHX. (RANUNCULA-CEAE) .
rattle-top. and bitter tonic. blue ginseng. In Appalachia. white flowers. open woods. The plant is also used as an expectorant. (RANUNCULACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Cohosh bugbane. black cohosh. astringent. rattleweed. battle weed. The plant is topped with a slender spike of small. columbine-leaved leontice. Each of the leaf stems holds 2. cohosh. a tea made from the root is used to treat sore throat . cordate rattle-top. 3. . meadow rue leontice. squaw root. rattle root. DESCRIPTION: A perennial shrub that grows t o 8 feet in height. HABITAT: Rich. HARVEST: Rhizomes and roots in the fall. or 5 leaflets.) NUTT.CZMZCZFUGA RACEMOSA (L. USES: The roots and rhizomes are considered valuable in treating chronic rheumatism. The rhizome or root is knotted. heart-leaved rattle-top. FLOWERING PERIOD: June to August. false cohosh. yellow ginseng. blueberry. bugbane. heart-leaved snakeroot. black snakeroo t. emmenagogue. papoose root. richweed. rattlesnake root.
(RANUN(ZU LACEAE) . ) NUTT.CZMZCZFUGA RAC :EMOSA ( L .
Benedict's thistle. (ASTERACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Blessed thistle. bitter thistle. HABITAT: Roadsides and waste places. toothed. ripe seed. St. blessed carduus. ground parts of the plant are mixed with wine for use as an aperitif. and spiny. bitterweed. USES: The upper portion of this plant has been used to treat worms. ourlady's thistle. and it is also used in an emmenagogue. tonic. FLOWERING PERIOD: April t o August. carduus. and emetic. DESCRIPTION: This annual grows t o about 2 feet in height. lobed.CNZCUS BENEDZCTUS L. Because it is hemostatic. spotted thistle. . Leaves are thistle-like. Plant produces many flowered yellow heads. holy thistle. In Europe. stimulant. cursed thistle. the seed is also useful as an emetic. HARVEST: Herbs and tops in bloom. spotted carduus.
CNZCUS BENEDZCTUS L. (ASTERACEAE) .
astringent. HARVEST: Herb at flowering. ox balm. FLOWERING PERIOD: July to September. Strongly scented lemon-yellow flowers are arranged vertically along opposite branches of the main stem. and tonic. heal-all. coarsely toothed. USES : Roots are used as a sedative and antispasmodic. richweed. broadleaf collinsonia. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows to 3 feet in height. knob grass. Plant rises from a thick. horse balm. woody rhizome. root in fall. (LAMIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Citronella horse balm. . Canadian collinsonia. hard hack. Leaves are opposite. HABITAT: Rich. and roughly ovate in shape. large. diuretic. stone root. horseweed. moist woods. knobroot.COLLINSONIA CANADENSIS L. citronella.
COLLZNSONZA CANADENSIS L. (LAMIACEAE) .
) COULT. (MYRICACEAE) .COMPTONZA PEREGRZNA ( L .
Rhizomes are coral-like. with yellow. FLOWERING PERIOD: July to September. or purplish flowers arranged along the stem. DESCRIPTION: A perennial saprophytic orchid that has no green foliage. ) (ORCHI DACEAE) COMMON NAMES : Coralroot. HARVEST : Root.CORALLORHZZA ( C H A T . coniferous and deciduous woods. USES: The plant is diaphoretic. . swamps. HABITAT: Uplands. and is used as a sedative. dragon's claws. and clustered. thickets. Produces spike-like flowering stem. crawleyroo t .: brown. damp woods.
CORALLORHZZA ( C H A T . ) (ORCHIDACEAE) .
. lower petals range from greenish yellow to purplish brown. Ovate. DESCRIPTION: An aromatic ~erennialthat grows to 4 to 28 inches in height. ladyslipper. . yellow Indian shoe. a root tea is used to treat nervous ailments and headaches. var.CYPRZPEDZUM CALCEOLUS L. alternate leaves grow from sheaths around stem of plant. yellow moccasin. nerve root. small moccasin flower. small golden slipper. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to June. USES: The plant is used as a sedative and in treating neuralgia. (ORCHIDACEAE) COMMON NAMES : Yellow lady's slipper. It has large. American valerian. sac-like yellow "slippers". :small yellow lady's slipper. HARVEST: Roots in fall. PARVIFLORUM (SALISB.) FERN. In Appalachia. HABITAT: Bogs and moist places.
CYPRZPEDZUM CALCEOLUS L. var. PARVIFLORUM (SALISB.) FERN. (ORCHIDACEAE) .
HARVEST: Leaves and tops when plant is in flower. apple Peru. where the plant has been known for centuries. unevenly and largely toothed. also. Flowers are long. . (SOLANACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Jimsonweed. DESCRIPTION: An ill-scented annual weed that grows 1 to 5 feet in height. The dried leaves are frequently mixed with saltpeter and burned in a treatment for asthma. apple of Peru. Jamestown weed. a poultice made from blossoms is used to treat wounds and to kill pain. broad. and waste ground. roadsides. tubular. Plant produces large prickly capsules as fruit. FLOWERING PERIOD: ~ u l y October. stramonium. Leaves are 4 to 6 inches long. fields. jimsonweed datura. to HABITAT: Forest edge. and anodyne sedative. stinkwort. mad apple. dried leaves are smoked in a pipe to relieve asthma. devil's trumpet. In Europe. stink apple. In the Southwest.DATURA STRAMONZUM L. And legend has it that the Delphic Oracle inhaled smoke from burning Datura leaves to induce visions. the plant is used by Zuni Indians as a hallucogenic. nervous afflictions. and nymphomania. In Appalachia. stinkweed. thorn apple. it is used to treat pulmonary disease. USES: This extremely poisonous plant is used as an antispasmodic. seeds when mature. antiasthmatic. pale blue in leaf axils or stem forks.
DATURA STRAMONZUM L. (SOLANACEAE) .
and stems of tiny. HABITAT: Deciduous woods. HARVEST: Roots in fall. antispasmodic. wild yam. thickets. rheumatism root. DESCRIPTION: A twining perennial vine that grows to 15 feet in height. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to J U ~ ~ . Bottom 3 leaves are sometimes whorled. Produces triangular capsules as fruit. USES: This herb is used as an expectorant.DZOSCOREA VZLLOSA L. infrequently branched. emetic. and wet woods. greenish flowers grow opposite some of the leaves. devil's bones. yam. . China root. Rootstock is slender. colicroot. . dioscorea. and diaphoretic. (DIOSCOR EACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Atlantic yam. swamps. Plant has an alternate heart-shaped leaf base.
DZOSCOREA VZLLOSA L. (DIOSCOREACEAE) .
ECHZNACEA PURPUREA (L.) MOENCH (FABACEAE) .
water eryngo. The plant bears fruit from September t o November. USES: In large doses. upper leaves are sessile. (APIACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Button snakeroot eryngo. rattlesnake master. feverweed.ERYNGIUM AQUATICUM L. HABITAT: Fresh to brackish marshes. . ponds and bogs. FLOWERING PERIOD: Late July t o September. Also used as a diaphoretic and expectorant. infusions have been used as emetics. ~erennial that grows to % t o 5 feet in height. corn snakeroot. rattlesnake flag. HARVEST : Rootstock in fall. and wet pinelands. DESCRIPTION: An erect. coarse-branched. rattlesnake weed. eryngo. button snakeroot. streams. It has firm elongate-tolanceolate lower leaves.
ERYNGZUM AQUATZCUM L. (APIACEAE) .
wahoo. stream banks. skewerwood. (CELASTRACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Eastern wahoo.EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS JACQ. swamps. spindle tree. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to July. pegwood. Produces seeds in prominent scarlet 4-lobed fruit. strawberry bush. bleeding heart. arrow-wood. bursting heart. bitter ash. purple strawberry bush. and forests. burning bush. American spindle tree. . HARVEST: Bark of root and stem any time of the year. Indian arrow-wood. DESCRIPTION: A shrub or small tree that grows to 25 feet in height. USES: The bark is reported to be of value as a drastic purgative. It has green 4sided branches and purplish flowers. HABITAT: Rich woods and thickets.
(CELASTRACEAE) .EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS JACQ.
leaves and flowering tops in late summer (Avoid coarse stems. a tea made of the leaves is used to treat coughs and consumption. Leaves are opposite. (ASTERACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Boneset. thoroughwax. feverwort. febrifuge. . crosswort. ague-weed. vegetable antimony. low ground. damp areas. and restore body tone. common boneset. thorough-stem. alluvial woods. and grow completely together at the base. Produces flat heads of white. Indian sage. strengthen the viscera. FLOWERING PERIOD: Late July to October. It is also considered sudorific. ' ~ o e ~ sweating plant. and it is used as a laxative. teagel. Heavy stems are lightly hairy. wild Isaac. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows to 1 to 5 feet in height. alterative. marshes. HABITAT: Swamps. throughstem. HARVEST: Herb in spring. and astringent. emetic. diuretic. In Appalachia. antiseptic. sweating weed.EUPATORZUM PERFOLZATUM L. and pastures.) USES: This plant is used as a stimulant to promote digestion. ~ e . wild sage. cathartic.or purple-tinged flowers. thoroughwort .
EUPATORIUM PERFOLIATUM L. (ASTERACEAE) .
EUPATORZUM PURPUREUM L. (ASTERACEAE) .
(ROSACEAE) .FRAGARZA VZRGZNZANA DUCHESNE.
In Appalachia. and one-seeded. Bark is ashy gray and furrowed. biltmore white ash. astringent. HARVEST: Inner bark of trunk and roots. USES: The bark of this plant is tonic. antiarthritic. with 5 to 9 (mostly 7) leaflets 3 to 5 inches long. biltmore ash. HABITAT: Rich upland to lowland woods. and alterative. cathartic. Leaves are 8 t o 12 inches long. flat. and they occur in clusters. narrow. diaphoretic. ash. The winged seeds are from 1 to 3 inches long. and a tea made from the buds is used for snakebite. It has been prescribed for headache followed by fever. and stem in the spring. smallseed white ash. rounded at the base and about half as wide as they are long. lower t o middle slopes. American white ash. . fever sores of the lips. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to May. the chewed bark is used as a poultice on sores. cane ash. a febrifuge.FRAXZNUS AMERICANA L. diuretic. and constipation. (OLEACEAE) COMMON NAMES: White ash. American ash. DESCRIPTION: A tree that grows to 120 feet in height.
FRAXZNUS AMERICANA L.
GALIUM APARZNE L .
COMMON NAMES: Catchweed bedstraw, bedstraw, catchweed, cheese rennet herb, chicus, clabbergrass, cleavers, cleaver's herb, cleaves, cleverwort, goosegrass, goose's hare, milksweet, poor robin, savoyan, scratchweed, spring cleavers, turkey grass. DESCRIPTION: An annual that has a weak, reclining, bristly 4angled stem, with hairy joints. Leaves occur in whorls of 8. Flowers are white in cymes. Fruit is very bristly. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to J
U ~ ~ .
HABITAT: Rich woods, thickets, seashores, waste ground, and shady areas. HARVEST: Herb in May and June, during flowering. USES: The U. S. Dispensatory lists the plant as an anti-scorbutic. The herb is also a diuretic, tonic, astringent, antispasmodic; and it is used to treat inflammation of the kidneys and bladder. The seeds are used as a coffee substitute in Sweden; and the dried plant is used as a tea in some countries.
GALZUM APARZNE L.
winterberry. creeping wintergreen. commonly found growing with rhododendron. mountain tea. partridge berry. spring wintergreen. HARVEST: Herb and leaves in fall. red pollom. ivory plum. astringent. counterirritant. and other members of the heath family. three-leaved wintergreen. roxberry. aromatic wintergreen. pigeonberry. deerberry. wax cluster. and carminative. HABITAT: Sterile woods and clearings. which is used as a flavor. mountain laurel. dry wooded areas. Produces bright red berries in fall and winter. grouse berry. boxberry. with 2. nodding flowers are in racemes in axils. dewberry. clink. checkerberry. hillberry. evergreen shrub. mountain teaberry. mountain berry.GAULTHERZA PROCUMBENS L. spicy wintergreen. Canadian tea.to 6-inch branches. USES: The plant is primarily a source of true wintergreen oil. . (ERICACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Checkerberry wintergreen. DESCRIPTION: A low. red-berry tea. trailing gautheria. chequerberry. Wintergreen oil is extremely toxic if consumed internally. teaberry. Leaves are shiny and waxy. spiceberry. Single white. berried tea. FLOWERING PERIOD: June to August. creeping. chidkerberry. ground ivy. aromatic. ground holly. wintergreen.
GAULTHERZA PROCUMBENS L. (ERICACEAE) .
) AIT. (LOGANIACEAE) .GELSEMZUM SEMPERVZRENS ( L .
GENTZANA VZLLOSA L.
GERANIUM MACULATUM L.
(GERAN IACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Spotted geranium, alum bloom, alumroot, American kind, American tormentil, astringent root, chocolate flower, common crane's bill, cranesbill, cranesbill geranium, crowfoot, dove's foot, old maid's-nightcap, shameface, spotted cranesbill, stork bill, tormentil, wild cranesbill, wild geranium. DESCRIPTION: A perennial 1 to 2 feet in height, with a single stem and thick rhizomes. Leaves are 3 to 6 inches across, and deeply cleft. Produces 3 to 5 loose, rosy-purple to white flowers, 1inch across. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to June. HABITAT: Rich woods and meadows. HARVEST: Leaves and rhizomes in spring, just before plant flowers, or in late summer. USES: The leaves have been used as a vulnerary. However, the roots and rhizomes, which contain much tannin, are very astringent, antiseptic, styptic, and diuretic; and they have been used to treat diarrhea. In Appalachia, a tea made from the whole plant is used to treat dysentery and sore throat.
GERANIUM M A C U L A T U M L.
striped alder. when they burst open and eject shiny black seeds. and bark in fall. hamamelis. Fruits occur in clusters along the stem and mature the following season. (HAMAMELIDACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Witch hazel. 3 to 5 inches long.HAMAMELZS VZRGZNZANA L. and bark are used to prepare witch hazel extract. snapping hazel-nut. USES: The twigs. HABITAT: Dry t o moist woods. pistachio. which makes them very astringent. winterbloom. long boughs. twigs. leaves. common witch hazel. tobacco wood. snapping hazel. . Yellow. The leaves are roundish to round-oval. thick. thread-like flowers appear in late fall or early winter after the leaves have fallen. white hazel. spotted alder. HARVEST: Leaves. with forking branches and smooth. DESCRIPTION: A crooked tree or shrub usually 8 to 15 feet in height. southern witch hazel. and borne on a short stalk. brown bark. FLOWERING PERIOD: September to November. which has been used in shaving lotions and to treat bruises and sprains. The fresh leaves of the plant contain high concentrations of tannin. wood tobacco.
HAMAMELIS VIRGZNIANA L. (HAMAMELIDACEAE) .
woodlands. tiny. Leaves are erect. . with the broad end at the base. DESCRIPTION: A branched annual that grows to 18 inches in height. stinking balm. FLOWERING PERIOD: July to ~ e ~ t e m b e r . mock pennyroyal. and meadows. tickweed. flowering tops and small stems in full bloom. pennyroyal of America. squaw mint. A tea is used in Appalachia for treating pneumonia. (LAMI ACEAE) COMMON NAMES: American pennyroyal. pennyroyal. plants just before flowering USES: This herb is used as an antispasmodic. HABITAT: Dry soils. pudding grass. American fdsepennyroyal.) PERS. small. bluish flowers about 114 inch long. rubifacient.HEDEOMA PULEGIOIDES (L. thickweed. and ovate. HARVEST: Leaves. pastures. and stimulant. hairy. Produces clusters of aromatic.
) PERS. (LAMIACEAE) .HEDEOMA PULEGZOZDES (L.
liverleaf. Produces a single white to purplish flower in spring. liverwort. hepatica. I HABITAT : Rich calcareous woods. and each leaf stalk has one leaf. heart liverleaf. (RANUNCULACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Sharplobe hepatica. noble liverwort. USES: This herb has been used as a tonic. and diuretic. mild astringent. FLOWERING PERIOD: March to A ~ r i l . . sharplobed liverleaf. HARVEST : Leaves in the spring.HEPATICA ACUTZLOBA DC. Liver-shaped leaves have 3 to 5 lobes. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows to 9 inches in height.
HEPATICA ACUTZLOBA DC. (RANUNCU LACEAE) .
DESCRIPTION: A perennial shrub that grows to 10 feet in height. (SAX1FRAGACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Smooth hydrangea. and tonics. It has large. Some authorities say that the drug has value in preventing kidney stones. HARVEST: Root in the fall. sevenbark.HYDRANGEA ARBORESCENS L. wild hydrangea. Many varieties are recognized. calcareous rocky slopes. and produces white or greenish flowers at top of branches. USES: The roots and rhizomes have been used as diuretics. with stems rising from base of the plant. opposite. banks of streams. ovate leaves. HABITAT: Rich woods. cathartics. FLOWERING PERIOD: May to July. .
(SAXI FRAGACEAE) .HYDRANGEA ARBORESCENS L.
jaundice root . Indian paint. Ohio curcuma. and as a hemostatic. . hydrastis. and as an astringent for treating certain eye conditions. yellow paintroot. Indiana dye. which is topped with 1 geenish-white flower.HYDRASTZS CANADENSZS L. tumeric. y ellowwort. DESCRIPTION: A perennial that grows to 1 foot in height. after seeds ripen. HARVEST : Rootstock in fall. In Appalachia. (RANUNCULACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Goldenseal. HABITAT: Rich woods. yellow eyewright. leaves or tops in late summer or fall. Several single leaf stocks topped with flowers that have no petals rise from the roots. Indian plant. USES: The pulverized rhizomes and roots have been used a long time to treat mouth ulcers. eyeroot. ground raspberry. goldenroot. eyebalm. yellowroot. yellow puccoon.to 7-lobed leaves near the apex. Indian turmeric. This preparation has also been used as a diuretic in catarrhal conditions. a root tea is used as a tonic. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to May. Fruit looks like a raspberry but is inedible. eyebright. wild turmeric. It has 1 stem with two 5. orange root.
(RANUNCULACEAE) .HYDRASTZS CANADENSZS L.
alterative. opposite. and antispasmodic. ) PERS. in large doses it is an emetic. USES: The rhizomes and roots have been used t o treat chronic rheumatism. shaded woods. 1 inch across. Fruit is a large capsule. damp. and as a gargle. HABITAT: Rich. the drug is an expectorant. In small doses. dropsy. spasms. half-ovate leaf segments. HARVEST : Root in fall. It also has been considered a diuretic. DESCRIPTION: An erect shrub that grows to 2 feet. . helmet pod. ground squirrel pea.JEFFERSONZA DZPHYLLA ( L . Stdk is topped by 2 identical. yellow root. twinleaf. (BERBERIDACEAE) COMMON NAMES: American twinleaf. FLOWERING PERIOD: March to April. rheumatism root. Flowers are white.
JEFFERSONIA DZPHYLLA ( L . (BERBERIDACEAE) . ) PERS.
In Appalachia. thick. Leaves are compound with 11 t o 17 leaflets arranged opposite each other. from 2 to 3 inches long. oilnut. with light gray bark divided into broad. leaves and nuts in the fall. (JUGLANDACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Butternut. HABITAT: Rich woods and along rivers on well drained soils. white walnut.JUGLANS CZNEREA L. Oil extracted from the fruit is reportedly valuable in treating tape worms and fungus infections. a tea made from the bark is used as a laxative. deeply furrowed shell. USES: The bark has been used as a rubifacient and cathartic. DESCRIPTION: A tree usually 40 to 60 feet in height. sticky husk is covered with hairs and contains an edible nut that has a hard. lemonnut. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to June. and with very short stems. The strong smelling. HARVEST: Inner bark of root any time of year. . of 2 to 5 or singly. flat ridges by moderately deep furrows. Elliptical pointed fruit is 1% to 2% inches long and occurs in cluster. fdnut .
(JUG LANDACEAE) .JUGLANS CZNEREA L.
(JUGLANDACEAE) COMMON NAMES : Black walnut. FLOWERING PERIOD: April to June. eastern black walnut. A leaf infusion is used as an astringent and against bedbugs. narrow furrows. edible. The fruit occurs singly or in clusters of 2 or 3. somewhat fleshy. walnut. aromatic husk. DESCRIPTION: A valuable tree that often grows to more than 120 feet in height. and has a hard. deeply furrowed shell. Leaflets are alternate. HARVEST: Inner bark of root. and 3 t o 3% inches long. HABITAT: Rich woods and limestone soils. rough. with almost black bark divided into rough ridges by deep. USES: The root bark is cathartic. about 1% to 2 inches in diameter. leaves and nuts in fdl. and has a thick. finely toothed. the fruit is roundish. commonly 1 2 to 23 per stem. American walnut. .JUGLANS NZGRA L .
(JUG LANDACEAE) .JUGLANS NZGRA L.
prostrate juniper. (PI NACEAE) COMMON NAMES: Common juniper. fleshy. low and spreading or upright. ridged. juniper. and has value as a diuretic and urinary antiseptic. Needles are straight. Dark purple fruit is round. and about f/a inch in diameter. sharppointed. gorst. . The bark of trunk is shreddy and reddish brown. USES: The fruit is used commercially in flavoring gin. DESCRIPTION: A small evergreen shrub or tree 1 2 to 30 feet in height. dwarf juniper. and nearly at right angles to branchlets. hackmatack. berry-like. HARVEST: Fruit in fall and winter. juniper bush. it is used to treat arteriosclerosis. HABITAT: Dry soil.JUNIPERUS COMMUNZS L. ground juniper. horse savin. In Europe. FLOWERING PERIOD: March.
JUNZPERUS COMMUNZS L. (PINACEAE) .
buttressed. and has thin. cedar apple. USES: The leaves have been used as a stimulant. Foliage has needle and scale form. round. cedar. savin. red cedar. FLOWERING PERIOD: February to March. HARVEST: Leaves and mature fruits. . and twigs is boiled and inhaled as a treatment for bronchitis. fibrous. Carolina cedar. dry. Trunk is lobed. red juniper. rarely wet. Produces smooth. berry-like bluish fruit with 1 or 2 seeds. and taeniafuge.JUNZPERUS VZRGZNZANA L. open woods. DESCRIPTION: A small erect evergreen tree 20 to 50 feet in height. or calcareous rocky slopes and barrens. red-tinged. HABITAT: Pasture land. (PI NACEAE) COMMON NAMES : Eastern redcedar. emmenagogue. a mixture of nuts. juniper. pencil cedar. peeling bark. leaves. some Spanish-speaking people use a boiled mixture of bark and water to treat skin rash. evergreen. Virginia cedar. In Appalachia. red savin. In New Mexico.
(PI NACEAE) .JUNIPERUS VIRGINZANA L.
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