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ProIessoroIOeology, Un|vers|tyCollegeoI5wonseo,Woles
HEkßEkT 5. Z|N
ProIessoroIArt, Univers|tyoI lllinois
Thi s g ui de to l i fe of the past di fers from other Gol den
Natu re Gu i des. In stead of deal i ng wi th a si ngl e group of
pl ants or an i mal s, i t deal s wi th them al l . Instead of bei ng
concer ned onl y wi th t he i mmedi ate present, i t s scope
covers over hal f a bi l l i on years. I nstead of deal i ng wi th
l i fe frst hand, t hi s gui de must rel y on onl y scant cl ues­
bi ts of shel l , bone, or sundry fossi l i mpressi ons. Such
cl ues are scarce, so each must be stud i ed mi n utel y. De­
tai l s are i mportant and they have been stressed i n the
systemati c su rvey of fossi l forms. Most fossi l s have onl y
sci enti fc names and these often refer t o grou ps rather
t han to speci es.
We have many i n sti tut i ons and i n d i vi dual s t o t hank for
ai d wi th th i s book. Di oramas and mu ral s of the Chi cago
Nat. Hi st. Museum are the basi s for many of our restora­
t i ons. The Un i versi ty of Il l i noi s, the I l l i noi s Geol og i cal
Su rvey, the U. S. Nat i onal Museum, the Un i versi ty Col l ege
of Swansea, the Ward' s Natu ral Hi story Establ i shment,
I nc. l oaned us speci mens. So di d M. W. Sanderson, A. F.
Hag ner , W. W. Hay and F. J. Koen i g. Angel a Heath and
Sh i rl ey Osbor ne have assi sted the seni or author , and many
more of our col l eag ues have g i ven us photog raphs, speci ­
mens, comments, and suggesti ons.
F. H. T. R.
H. S.Z.
P. R.S.
©Copyright 1962 by Western Publishing Company, Inc. All rights reserved,
including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, in­
cluding the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or
mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or
visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge retrieval system or device,
unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietor. Pro­
duced in the U.S.A. by Western Publishing Company, Inc. Published by
Golden Press, New York, N.Y. library of Congress Catalog Card Number:
The eart h, its l i fe and how l i vi ng
t hi ngs have evol ved.
What fossi l s are. How they are
formed. Diferent types of fossi l s.
Equi pment needed. Where, when
and how to col l ect. Museums and
other exh i bi ts.
A survey of l i fe era by era.
Pal eozoi c Era . . . . . . . . . .. . 34
Mesozoi c Era . . . 49
Cenozoi c Era . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
A systemati c su rvey of typi cal
Protozoans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Sponges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Coel enterates ; coral s . . 77
Bryozoans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Brachi opods . . . . . . . . .. . . . 82
Annel i ds ; worms . . . . . . . . . 92
Arthropods ; tri l obi tes . . . . 93
Echi noderms . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 04
Mol l usks . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 0
Graptol ites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 31
VERTEBRATE FOSSILS . . . . . . 132
A l ook at some common gr oups.
Fi sh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 32
Amphibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - 1 39
Repti l es - . - - . . . . . . . . • . . . . 1 41
Bi rds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 46
Mammal s . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . 1 47
PLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
A bri ef survey of some common
fossi l plants, thei r evol uti on and
thei r i denti fcati on.
INDEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
The earth teems wi th l i fe. Mou ntai ns, prai r i es, deserts,
beaches, l akes, ri vers and seas -every part of l and, sea
and ai r i s i n habi ted by l i vi ng t hi ngs. The n umber of d i ferent
speci es of l i vi ng t hi ngs i s enormous. More than 350, 00 spe­
ci es of pl ants and 1, 120,00 speci es of an i mal s are known .
How di d these many speci es ori gi nate? Has l i fe al ways
been the same as i t i s now? Men have asked these ques­
t i ons for t housands of years. To answer them we must
tu rn to foss i l s and to a knowl edge of l i vi ng organ i sms and
t hei r structu re. On l y an u n derstandi ng of l i vi ng an i mal s
can p ut l i fe i n the fragments of bones and s hel l s mi l l i ons
of years ol d.
The el ephant i s t he l argest l i vi ng l and ani mal . But the
study of fossi l s shows not onl y that el ephants are a recent
g roup i n the l ong h i story of l i vi ng th i n gs but al so that earl y
el ephants l ooked more l i ke hogs. As geol ogi sts trace
el ephant fossi l s from ol der to you nger rocks t hey pi ece
together the h i story of el ephant evol ut i on. Fossi l bones
and teeth reveal the struct ure of earl y el ephants, but p
studyi ng t hese fossi l s i n the l i ght of the anatomy of l i vi ng
el ephants, compl ete recon structi ons of exti nct el ephants
can be made wi th reasonabl e accuracy. Some u n usual
occur rences of mastodon fossi l s wi th cr ude fi nt weapons
prove that t hese el ephants were h u nted by our ancestors.
U. Mi ocene-L. Pl i ocene
1 0-20 mi l l i on years ago
Li vi ng elephants are survi vors of an an­
ci ent, more wi despread and vari ed group,
whi ch evol ved f r om pi g-si zed ancestors
of the Upper Eocene. (See the geol ogic
cl ock, pp. 30-31 . ) Onl y a few of the many
exti nct el ephants and thei r ki n ar e shown.
OVER 1,0 ,0 
1 . Arth ropods-90,0 
2. Mol l usks-45,0 
3. Chordates-45,00
·.4. Protozoans -30,00
5. Worm- l i ke phyl a-3,0 
6. Other i nvertebrates -21 ,00
Approxi matel y 1 ,00,0 
ALL FORMS OF LI FE have evol ved from earl y beg i n­
n i n gs, some th ree bi l l i on years ago. Fr om rel ati vel y few
pri mi ti ve for ms, the maj or grou ps of pl ants and an i mal s
devel oped. Li vi ng th i ngs became more compl i cated and
adapted t o many di ferent ways of l i vi ng. The n u mber of
d i ferent s peci es g radual l y i ncreased u nt i l t hey reached
the tremendous d i versity of today. The study of fossi l s
( pal eontol ogy) traces the vari ous paths by wh i ch an i mal s
and pl ants evol ved to t hei r present forms. Some, l i ke el e­
phants and horses, have changed g reatl y ·th rough the
ages. Others, l i ke the horseshoe crab and cockroach,
have not changed i n hundreds of mi l l i ons of years. Sti l l
other fossi l s show l i nes of devel opment that came to a dead
end. Gi ant Sl oth s, once pl enti f ul , are known onl y as fossi l s.
GL YPTODONT, 9f. , an armored mam­
mal from the l ate Cenozoi c, is a fossil
that shows spectacul ar and obvi ous
adaptati on. Thi s rel ati ve of the armadi l l os
was protected agai nst carni vores and
other enemi es by a thi ck, sol i d, domed
armor, whi ch reached 5 f. in l ength i n
some forms. The head and tai l were al so
armored, and i n some speci es the tai l
ter mi nated i n a spi ked, mace-l i ke cl ub.
Yet despi te, or because of , t hese unusual
adapti ons gl yptodonts became exti nct.
ABOUT 3,0 
1 . Fl oweri ng P l ants-250,00
2. Ferns, Coni fers, etc. -10,00
3. Mosses and Li verworts-23,00
4. Al gae, Fung i , etc.-60,000
About 350,000 pl ant speci es
ADAPTATI ON Most pl ants and an i mal s ex i st on l y be­
cause t hey are successfu l l y adapted to t hei r env i ron ments.
Each di sti n ct envi ron ment such as a desert, pond or mou n ­
tai n t op supports a more or l ess di sti nct popu l ati on of a n i ­
mal s and pl ants. Those whi ch, over l ong per i ods of t i me,
have become fitted t o cope wi t h l ocal con di t i ons have s u r­
vi ved. Al l the rest have become exti nct. Many l i v i n g th i n g s
are u n i quel y adapted to parti cul ar env i ron ments. Th e
streaml i ned shape of a fish a n d the struct ure and f un ct i on
of i ts fns an d tai l are adaptat i ons t o l i fe i n the water. The
feshy stems of a cactus are adaptati on s that con serve
water i n t he desert. Such adaptati ons su cceeded, but the
fossi l record i s strewn wi th the remai ns of those t hat fai l ed.
The sl ogan of l i fe may wel l be -adapt or per i sh .
Survi val i n ani mal s depends o n adapta­
t i ons as vari ed and as i ntri cate as t he
ani mal s t hemsel ves. Vi rtual l y every struc­
t ure of a pl ant or ani mal may be regarded
as adapti ve. Many ani mal s have protec­
tive col or i ng and a few forms, such as the
bottom-l i vi ng flou nder, are abl e to change
t hei r col or t o conf or m to thei r back­
ground. Such an i ntri cate adaptat i on is
rarel y di scerni bl e in fossi l s. However, if
the adaptati on afects bone or shel l , it
may show up cl earl y i n the fossi l record.
Adapted f rom W. K. Gregory
fcu l t to trace because the fossi l record is i ncompl ete.
Enough i s known to suggest the general pattern of evol u­
t i on and t o reconstr uct i n some detai l h i story of g roups i n
t hose areas where fossi l s occur abun dant l y. The chart
shows rel at i ons h i ps among maj or grou ps of vertebrates.
Those an i mal s wi th i n a gi ven col or probabl y devel oped
from common ancestors.
Fossils are the remains of prehistoric life or some other
direct evidence that such life existed. To become fossil­
ized a plant or animal must usually have hard parts, such
as bone, shell, or must be buried quickly to prevent
decay and must be undisturbed throughout the long proc­
ess. Because of all this very few plants or animals that die
are preserved as fossils.
In rare cases whole animals may be preserved. In Siberia
and Alaska fossil mammoths have been found in the
frozen ground, completely refrigerated for some 25,00
years. In Galicia (Poland) an Ice Age Woolly Rhinoceros
was well preserved in asphalt. In semi-arid South America,
parts of mummifed Ground Sloths have been preserved
in caves. In each of these cases an unusual condition­
cold, chemical action and dryness-was involved.
! 0
Carbon ized l eaf
I n sect preserved
i n amber
SOFT PARTS are rarely found intact but insects' exo­
skeletons and minute appendages have been preserved
in amber, the hardened resin of ancient trees. Leaves and
small, soft marine animals buried in mud which hardened
into shale have sometimes left behind a thin flm of carbon
outlining their form and preserving delicate details of their
structure. And, in western Canada, sandstone casts of
dinosaur skins have been preserved.
HARD PARTS are often preserved with little or no
alteration. Teeth of sharks and mammals are examples,
and small jaws of ancient sea worms have been found.
Bones may be preserved but more often have been altered
and replaced by dissolved mineral matter. Shells fre­
quently remain intact and in a few places logs and stumps
have been preserved in peat or coal.
Foss i l b rach i opod
wi th ori g i nal
pearl y l ust er
J aw of mari ne wor m
Cross sect i on of petr i fed wood
ALTERATI ON of hard parts preserved as fossils is
common. Circulating water dissolves chemicals from
shells and bones and leaves them light and spongy. More
often as chemicals are dissolved they are replaced by
others. Silica, lime and iron compounds are commonly
deposited in fossils. Sometimes this replacement pre­
serves the original structure of the plant or animal com­
pletely. In some petrified wood, silica has replaced the
original woody structure so perfectly that the cells and
annual rings show clearly. In most petrifed wood and
most replacement fossils, the replacement is less perfect
and shows only the general form.
Brachi opod shel l
replaced by dol omi te
! 2
2. Sand hardens to rock.
3. S h e l l mat e r i a l di s -
Sh el l i nteri or untl l ed. sol ved. Cavity wal l i s
mol d of shel l .
4. Di ssol ved chemi cal s
tl l mol d to form cast.
5. Both mol d and cast
are fossi l s, repl i cas of
the or i gi nal su rface.
MOLDS AND CASTS Not all fossils are bones, shells
and other remains. Some are mere indications of pre­
historic life. All the original plant or animal material may
be dissolved away so that only a cavity remains-the walls
of which are a natural mold of the fossil. Later, dissolved
substances may fll the cavity, forming a natural cast of
the original. Such casts are common fossil forms. Foot­
prints or trails of animals may harden as a mold. Filled
with fresh mud, casts are formed and both may be pre­
served, as in the red sandstone (Triassic) of the Con­
necticut Valley which contains tracks of dinosaurs.
mol l usk borings
coprol ite
Aurignacian hand axe
! 4
Neolithic scraper
include some curious forms, all of
which are evidence of ancient life.
BORI NGS of worms and mol­
lusks indicate that these animals
lived millions of years ago. Such
fossils are common. Sometimes
petrifed wood shows borings also.
GASTROLI THS are smooth,
rounded pebbles found in rib
cages of dinosaurs. These stones
probably aided the dinosaurs' di­
gestion just as gravel in their giz­
zards helps chickens crush grain.
Polished gastroliths are found
only in "dinosaur country."
COPROLI TES are fossil excreta
and give a clue to the diet of an­
cient animals. These lumpy fossils
are usually associated with land
animals of the past 50 million years.
ARTIFACTS are stone tools or
weapons made by ancient man.
Found in many parts of the world,
the oldest have been found with
bones of animals now extinct. The
frst stone artifacts were crude
and difcult to recognize. More
recent ones were chipped and
polished to make beautiful im­
tai n nearl y al l the fossi l s that are
found. These rocks are formed of
sediments -mud, sand, cl ay-de­
posi ted mechan i cal l y, chemi cal l y
or by organ i sms, i n seas, l akes,
caves, deserts and ri ver val l eys.
STRATA or l ayers are a charac­
teri sti c of sedi mentary rocks. The
bottom l ayers are nat ural l y the
ol dest. But not al l sedi ments are
evenl y or cl ear l y bedded.
LI MESTONE, mai n l y cal ci um
carbonate, common i n warm, shal ­
l ow seas, often has fossi l s.
SHALE i s a fne-g rai ned rock
formed from si l t and cl ays. It pre­
serves fossi l s wel l .
SANDSTONE i s wi despread i n
desert deposi ts and i n shal l ow
water sedi ments.
CRACKS character i ze many
sed i mentary r ocks for med i n shal ­
l ow waters. Ri ppl e marks are com­
mon i n s hal e. Mudcracks may
form as mud and cl ays dry. These
i mpl y the presence of sunl i ght,
water and moderate temperatu res
-condi t i ons rel ated to the possi ­
bi l i ti es of l i fe.
Gr and Canyon strata
l i mestone
-� -�;
� ^
¯r ¯

North Ameri can sed i mentary formati ons deposi ted dur i ng the past 60 mi l l i on
years. Smal l l ocal beds of sedi mentary rock are al so found wi th i n areas of
i gneous and metamor phi c rock.
SEDI MENTARY ROCKS, often r i ch i n fossi l s, occur
over much of North Amer i ca. But i n many pl aces t he sol i d
rocks are covered wi th soi l or gl acial deposi ts, or the
fossi l -beari ng l ayers l i e deep beneath other rocks. Hence
fossi l h u nt i ng i s restri cted to outcrops -pl aces where the
sedi mentary rock i s exposed at the su rface, as i n cl i fs,
ri ver banks, roadcuts or quarr i es.
The fact that foss i l s are found i n sed i mentary rocks i s
no coi nci dence. Other rocks are su bj ected to forces or
condi t i ons whi ch destroy fossi l s easi l y. The processes

Fossi l bony fsh from Eocene Green Ri ver formati on, Wyomi ng.
that wear down the eart h' s su rface prod uce the sed i ments
from whi ch sed i mentary rocks are for med. These wear i ng
down processes (deg radat i on) i nvol ve rai nfal l , evapora­
t i on, wi nd, ru n n i ng water and transportati on among other
th i ngs. And the fossi l fsh pi ctu red above n ot onl y proves
that fshes l i ved i n t he di stant past, but that condi t i ons i n
the l ake in whi ch it l ived were not great l y diferent from
those i n many areas today. Th i s and ol der fossi l s provide
evidence that basic physi cal conditi ons maki ng l i fe possi bl e
today existed not on l y > mi l l i on years ago when th i s fsh
became a fossi l but pr obabl y go back about two and a hal f
bi l l i on years. Every fossi l , even the most common, tel l s a
fasci nati ng story of the changi ng su rface of the earth
and the devel opment of l i fe u pon i t.
concret i on
septar i an nodul e
dol omi te
"pseudo-coral "
Pseudofossi l s, often shaped l i ke fossi ls,
lack detai l ed fossi l str uctures.
PSEUDOFOSSI LS are rock str.uctures that resemble
fossils. They may have any shape and often look like
parts of plants or animals. Þ geologist will usually recog­
nize a pseudofossil at once, but an amateur may be misled.
Pseudofossils resemble fossils only in external form.
They never have the detailed structure of true fossils.
They may occur in improbable situations, as for instance
a "footprint" in rock formed long before any creatures
walked on land.
Pseudofossils are formed in many ways. Some are
water-worn fragments of rock. Concretions which form
in sedimentary rock may contain a fossil, though most do
not. Concretions, harder than the rock in which they occur,
are often found on the surface. Some minerals form den­
drites or fernlike deposits on or in rocks. Moss agates
are dendrites, not fossil moss.
pyrol usi te dendri tes on dol omi te
pol ished moss agate
those of human bei ngs. Thi s j aw­
bone unearthed in Afri ca i n 1 91
pushed the ori gi n of humans or
near- human, tool - usi ng ani mal s
back to near l y 1 , 750,00 years ago.
Collecting and studying fossils can be an interesting
hobby as well as an important science. Only during the
past two centuries has paleontology, the study of fossils,
moved to the professional level. Amateurs have collected
and studied fossils much longer and today they enjoy
field trips and collecting as much as ever. Major dis­
coveries have been made by amateurs and many have
won acclaim from professional geologists.
Unless the ground is covered with snow, collecting
fossils is an all-year occupation. It takes you out-of-doors
and of the beaten track. You learn to know your region
intimately and enjoy the company of other local "rock­
hounds. " No other hobby can open such wide vistas of
time and space. The study of fossils still has many un­
solved problems which a serious amateur can tackle
with some chance of personal success. Such a person
will understand fossils better if he also keeps up a con­
tinued interest in living animals and plants.
! º
They enabl e sci enti sts to pi cture
accu ratel y many ki nds of l ong­
exti nct plants and ani mal s.
They i ndi cate anci ent l and and
water areas and show the changi ng
conti nents.
WHY COLLECT FOSSI LS? Most peopl e col l ect for
the si mpl e fu n of i t -for the fun of trampi ng and expl ori ng ;
for the exci tement of a rare fnd ; for the chal l enge of "work­
i ng out" a perfect speci men. But i n the cou rse of doi ng
al l t hi s, the l ayers of sed i mentary rocks u nfol d l i ke pages
of a g i ganti c book, reveal i ng the fasci nat i ng story · of the
eart h' s l ong and exci ti ng past. Events 50, 1 00 or 50 m' i l l i on
years ago become real because t he fossi l s y ou have fou n d
provi de a cl ear con necti on wi th bygone ages.
Wi th the ai d of fossi l s the reconstr ucti on of prehi stor i c
pl ants and ani mal s was possi bl e, and the . story of the
evol ut i on of l i fe became cl ear . Wi thout the evi dence of
foss i l s, evol uti on wou l d sti l l be a theory, not a fact. Fossi l s
hel p deter mi ne whether sed i ments were formed i n shal ­
l ow or deep seas, i n r i ver s, i n swamps or i n deserts. Thus
they g i ve a cl ue tb t he geog raphy and ecol ogy of t he past
and show how the conti nents and seas have changed.
Fossi l s prove that Al aska was once con nected wi th Si beri a
and Austral ia wi th Mal aya. The d i st r i buti on of shal l ow­
water mol l usks ai ds i n traci ng anci ent shorel i nes.
STRATA I ndex fossi l s establ i sh
the t i me rel ati onshi p between rocks
of di ferent areas.
bui l di ng
petrol eum
diatoms for
fl ters
SOURCES Fossi l s are a sou rce
of coal , oi l , l i me, phosphate and
bui l di ng stones.
Fossi l s, i n addi t i on to bei ng clues to anci ent geog raphy,
are al so cl ues to the cl i mate of the past. Fossi l coral s
show that war m, shal l ow seas once covered New Yor k.
And pl ant fossi l s show that the cl i mates of Antarcti ca
and Green l and were once mi l d.
Certai n fossi l s of l i mi ted t i me di stri but i on cl ear l y mar k
certai n beds or strata of r ocks. These are i ndex fossi l s
and thei r occu rrence i n rocks l ocated mi l es apart proves
these rocks were for med at the same ti me. Th i s u se of
fossi l s to correl ate strata i s i mportant i n mappi ng rock
formati ons and i n l ocati ng val uabl e mi neral deposi ts.
Fossi l s t hemsel ves or rocks l ocated by fossi l s provi de
nat ural resou rces val ued at b i l l i ons of dol l ar s. Near l y al l
our f uel s are fossi l f uel s. Coal and oi l are t he remai ns of
anci ent pl ants and an i mal s. Fossi l l i mestones make ex­
cel l ent bu i l di n g stones. Some are cut for or namental u se.
Mi cro-fossi l s are used as f l ters, fl l er s, i n pol i shes and
f or many other pu rposes. Some phosphate beds are asso­
ci ated wi th l arge deposi ts of fossi l bones. Amber and j et
are fossi l s u sed as j ewel ry.
i n a quarry
STUDYI NG FOSSI LS is someth i ng l i ke maki ng a rab­
bi t stew-you frst must get a rabbi t. Consi der i ng t he
earth as a whol e, fossi l s ar e rare. Many ar e bu ri ed be­
neath t he sea. Fo rests, grassl ands, swamps, deserts, soi l
and r ock debr i s cover many more. Yet despi te al l t hi s,
fossi l s are often easy t o fnd.
WHERE TO LOOK for fossi l s is eas i l y sett l ed. Look i n
sed i mentary r ocks, for these are t he pr i nci pl e rocks whi ch
may contai n fossi l s. Occasi onal l y fossi ls are found i n
beds of vol cani c ash or are even preserved i n l ava, but
t hese are rare. Sed i mentary rocks ( mai n l y sandstone,
shal e and l i mestone) ar e common, but not al l of them
contai n fossi l s. Maps i n t hi s book show where such sed i ­
ments are exposed but t hi s rough data must be su ppl e­
mented by detai l ed maps and state geol ogi cal pu bl icat i ons
(see p. 25) .
I n general , fresh exposu res of rock are best for col l ect­
i ng. Look i n road or rai l road cuts. Vi si t mi ne d u mps, quar­
ri es and pl aces where rock i s bei ng excavated for new
constr ucti on. Cl i fs, ri ver banks, head l ands and other
natu ral exposu res ar e good pl aces al so. Remember that
al l t hese pl aces . i nvol ve a certai n el ement of danger. Watch
for t rafc at roadcuts and get permi ssi on before enteri n g
quarri es. Loose rocks can be a dan ger t o y ou and t o any­
one bel ow you .
TOOLS for col l ecti ng fossi l s are si mi l ar to those used
by any rockhound. A geol ogi st's, pl asterer's or br i ck­
l ayer's hammer is essenti al . So i s a knapsack or stout
shoul der bag for carryi ng speci mens. Fossi l s are often
del i cate. Take news paper and wrap each speci men sepa­
ratel y as soon as i t i s col l ected. Put a l abel or sl i p of paper
wi th each speci men gi vi ng l ocati on, for mati on, date, and
i denti ficat i on i f known.
A l arge and a smal l col d ch i sel are needed t o remove
speci mens, for hammeri ng al one i s rarel y enough. A
smal l shovel and a steel wrecki ng bar may al so prove
handy. You wi l l often need road maps and more detai l ed
topog raphi c or geol ogi cal maps to l ocate your outcrops.
A magn i fyi ng g l ass or hand l ens (5 to 10 power) i s worth
havi ng. Carry a compass, a frst-ai d ki t and a pocket kn i fe.
You may need to carry you r own food and water too.
HOW TO COLLECT Take ti me to su rvey the area. Look
for rock su rfaces where weather i ng has exposed fossi l s.
Weathered-out speci mens are easy t o col l ect and may be
i n excel l ent condi t i on. Turn over rock fragments and
study al l si des. Break open concreti ons i f t hey occur.
Shoul d you l ocate vertebrate bones or any fossi l you be­
l i eve rare, l eave i t i ntact and get professi onal hel p. Val u­
abl e fossi l s have been r ui ned by bungl ed attempts to
remove them.
PREPARATI ON AND CLEANI NG shoul d be done at
home after speci mens have been removed. The del i cate
task of cl eani ng and worki ng out a speci men is best done
on a stout tabl e wi t h good l i ght and adequate tool s. Ol d
dental tool s ar e excel l ent for th i s pu rpose. El ectri c-pow­
ered "hobby sets" often contai n smal l dr i l l s and g ri nders
whi ch make the task easy. Bone and other del i cate fossi l s
may req u i re a coati ng of a preservati ve such as shel l ac
or Al var to prevent cracki ng and deteri orati on .
l ecti on bri ng your wor k to a cl i max. Reg i onal vol umes on
fossi l s shoul d be consul ted for i denti fcat i on. Secure the
ai d of geol ogi sts at u n i versi ti es and museums. These
experts are usual l y g l ad to ai d an amateu r. Spot your
speci men wi th a d rop of qu i ck-d ryi ng enamel and put
your catal og n u mber in I ndi a i nk on the spot. Record t hi s
n umber and the name, l ocati on and other data on a card
and al so i n a separate catal og.
Fossi l s can be stored i n cardboard trays of varyi ng
si zes pu rchased f r om sci enti fc suppl y houses. Put you r
l abel i n the tray beneath the speci men. Keep smal l speci ­
mens i n vi al s. Bui l d exhi bi t cases or a bank of shal l ow
drawers to hol d trays and speci mens.
MAPS ARE I MPORTANT because so much informa­
tion is presented in them about sedi mentary formation s,
structu res and strata. Without maps the l ocation of fossil
deposits is i mpossibl e; use al l kinds.
Road maps: Obtain sets of several ki nds covering your area. Keep them up
t o date. Mark small back roads that may not appear on the maps. Keep one set
at home for reference. Take another set into the feld with you.
Topographic maps are produced by the U.S. Geological Survey. These are
more detailed than road maps and show the land and water feat ures as well
as cul ture (roads, bridges, towns, houses. etc.). An Index Map for your state
can be obtai ned from the U.S. Geolog1cal Su rvey. Washington 25. D. C.
Geological maps: These are often prepared by state geological surveys
either as a state geol ogical map or in relationship to specifc reports. Check
with your state survey and get their list of publications.
BOOKS wi l l hel p you identify fossi l s, u nderstand basic
geol ogy and the story of evol ution. Check the publ ications
and reports of y our state geol ogical su rvey. Write the
Su pt. of Doc. , Wash . 25, D. C. for a l i st of U. S. Govt. publ i ­
cations i n geol ogy. The fol l owi ng l ist of textbooks and
general references wi l l al so hel p.
York, 1 97. Backgr ound informati on on fossil plants.
Colbert. E. H .. EVOLUTION OF THE VERTEBRATES, John Woley. New York,
1 955. Useful for general reading.
Crone•s and Kr umbein, DOWN TO EARTH, An Introduction to Geology. Univ.
of Chicago Press. Chicago, 1 93. A readable, lavishly ill ustrated account
of geology on a col l ege level .
Fenton and Fenton. THE FOSSIL BOOK, Doubleday, Garden City. N.Y .. 1 958.
An t ntroduction to paleontology with fne illustrations.
Matthews, W. H., FOSSILS. Barnes and Noble, New York, 1 92. Excel l ent su rvey
and i ntroduction to prehistoric life.
Moore, Lal icker and Fi scher, INVERTEBRATE FOSSILS, McGraw-Hill, New
York, 1 952. Useful for fossil identifcati on.
New York, 1 958. A good source for the geologic history of North America.
Rhodes, F. H. T., THE EVOLUTION OF LIFE, Penguin Books, Bal ti more, Md. ,
1 92. An ill ustrated, readabl e account of the history of l i fe.
Si mpson, Pittend righ and Tifany, LIFE: An Introduction to Biol ogy. Harcourt,
Brace & Co., New York, 1 957. An i ntroductory text on biology. Comprehen­
sive and excellent.
MUSEUMS AND EXHI BI TS wi l l show you excel l ent
speci mens and i ntroduce you to fossi l s that do not occur
l ocal l y. Many u n i versi ti es and most l arge ci ti es have mu­
seums wi t h fossi l col l ecti ons. Some outstandi ng ones
are l i sted bel ow.
Ala., Un i versi ty -Al a. Museum of
Natu ral Hi story
Ariz., Hol brook - Petr ifed Forest
Nati onal Monument Museum
Cal., Los Angel es-L. A. Co. Mus.
Colo., Denver-Mus. of Nat. Hi s!. ,
Boul der-U. Col o. Mus.
Conn., New Haven-Peabody Mus.
of Nat. Hi s!. (Yal e Un i v. )
D.C., Wash i ngton - Smi thsoni an
I n s!. , U.S. Nati onal Museum
Fla., Gai nesvi l l e -Fia. State Mus. ,
Uni versity of Fl ori da
Ill., Chi cago -Chi c. Nat.
i s!. Mus. ,
Spr i ngfeld -I l l . State Mus.
Kansas, Lawrence-U. of Kansas
Mus. of Nat ural Hi story
Mass., Cambri dge-Museum of
parati ve Zool ogy
Mich., Ann Ar bor -Un iversity of
Mi chi gan Museum
Neb., Li ncol n -Uni v. of Nebraska
State Museum

New York, Al bany - N. Y. State
Mus. , Bufal o-Bufal o Mus. of Sci . ,
N. Y. City -Amer. Museum of Nat­
ural Hi story
Ohio, Cl evel and -Cl evel and Mus.
of Nat ural Hi story
Pennsylvania, P h i !adelph i a­
Acad. of Nat. Sci . , Pittsburgh­
Car negi e I ns!. Museum
So. Dakota, Rapi d City-Mus. of
So. Dako" ta School of Mi nes
Texas, Austi n - Texas Memori al
Utah, Jensen -Di nosaur Nat. Mon. ,
Vernal -Utah Fi el d Hse. of Nat. Hi s!.
Wash., Vantage-Gi nkgo Petri fi ed
Forest State Park Museum
CANADA, Otawa, Ontari o-Nat.
Museum of Canada
Toronto, Ontari o-Royal Ontari o
Montreal, Quebec-Redpath Mu­
l i vi ng
(di ameter about 6 i n. )
Fossi l s are al most al ways i ncompl ete. A fossi l horse i s
known by a sku l l and a few bones. Onl y t he shel l of a fossi l
shel l fsh i s fou n d, and an anci ent tree i s represented on l y
by l eaf frag ments. Yet ent i re pl ants and ani mal s are re­
const r ucted on a sci enti fc basi s that uses present l i v i ng
for ms as a key to i nterpret t he l i fe of t he past.
A study of l i vi ng pl ants and ani mal s i s essenti al to
understand fossi l s. Fossi l ammon i tes have been exti nct
for 70 mi l l i on years, but t hei r shel l s are very si mi l ar to t he
l i vi ng Pearl y Nauti l us. Geol ogi sts assume t hat t hei r soft
parts were al so s i mi l ar and make reconst r ucti ons accord­
i ngl y. A compar i son of l arge vertebrate fossi l s wi th l i v i ng
speci es shows how muscl es H t o bones. Thi s i n di cates
body structu re. Li v i ng pl ants hel p us u n derstand t hose
known onl y by fossi l frag ments. These reconst r ucti ons,
wi th other geol ogi c i nformati on, make i t possi bl e t o form
an accu rate pi ct u re of the ani mal and i ts envi ron ment.
Thi s i nt er pl ay of past and present i l l u st rates how man
uses sci ence to devel op new fronti ers-an i ncreased
u nderstand i ng of both past and present at the same t i me.
GRAND CANYON rock f orma­
t i ons are shown in cross sect i on
above, n u mbered i n order of age.
The l owest n u mbers are the ol dest.
Over 1 . 5 bi l l i on years of earth hi story
are recorded here.
GEOLOGI C TI ME is the fourth dimension of the earth's
past. Without it, objects and events cannot be placed in
their proper relationship. Only the almost incomprehen­
sible length of geologic time can explain the great changes
in life and in the earth itself. The development of a reliable
scale of geologic time is one of the great feats of the human
mind. Early steps were taken by observing the occurrence
of sedimentary rocks in horizontal layers and noting the
rate at which sediments formed in bays and basins. The
simple observation that younger layers formed on top of
older ones became the frst key to the long geologic time
Studies show that the earth includes a vast series of
sedimentary rocks, most with characteristic fossils. Even
when layers are tilted, folded and broken, or when erosion
has left only discontinuous remnants of strata, fossils re­
veal their order and relationships.
There are ways by whi ch t he age of a rock or fossi l can
be measu red d i rectl y i n years. One method i s based on
t he breakdown of rad i oacti ve el ements. These el ements
have u n stabl e atomi c n ucl ei that break down at a steady,
measu rabl e rate to form more stabl e el ement s. Thus,
uran i u m b reaks down i nto l ead and hel i um at a very sl ow
rate t hat is i n depen dent of heat, pressu re. or ot her condi ­
ti on s. One g ram of u ran i u m for ms 1 /7, 0  gram of l ead
every mi l l i on year s. So a chemi st who can accu ratel y
measu re t he rati o of u ran i u m to l ead i n a rock can get an
accu rate measu re of t he age of that rock. When u ran1 um
mi neral s occ u r i n rocks associ ated wi th fossi l s, t he age
of t he fossi l s can be i nferred. Thi s method and ot hers
l i ke it, usi ng thori u m, ru b i di u m, potass i u m and carbon,
requ i re the most accu rate chemi cal anal yses. But, as a
resu l t, t he geol og i c t i me scal e is becomi n g more rel i
bl e,
year by year.
Ot her data i nvol v i ng meteori tes and t he for mati on of the
sol ar system suggest t he earth i s four to fve b i l l i on years
ol d. Fossi l s two and a hal f bi l l i on years ol d have been
d i scovered, thoug h fossi l s di d not become abu n dant
u nti l about 600 mi l l i on years ago.
Geol og i sts know from t he rate that sed i ments form
today that much t i me was n eeded to make al l the sedi ­
mentary rocks that total over 75 mi l es i n t hi ckness.
Rad i u m 226
Polon i um 21 8
Thi s si mpli fed di agram s h ows one patlern
by wh i ch urani u m 23 c h anges to vari ous
i sot opes and fnal l y to l ead 206.
Astati ne 21 8
Polon ium 210
• LEAD 206
Even t hi s t i me esti mate fal l s short because there were
l ong per i ods d u ri ng whi ch sedi ments were worn away.
Yet despi te these di fi cu l ti es the study of u nal tered, fossi l ­
bear i ng sedi ments shows that they ft i nto th ree g reat eras
of t i me. These eras, i n t ur n, are d i vi ded i nto 12 geol ogi c
per i ods whi ch al so have been d i vi ded ard red i vi ded u nt i l
each formati on can be g i ven a name and a pl ace i n the
geol ogi c ti me scal e. Thi s record goes back about 60
mi l l i on years and provi des a rel ati ve dat i ng for fossi l s.
Yet th i s t i me scal e ( see chart, p. 31) can be and i s u sed
every day. We speak of a J u rassi c fossi l just as we speak
of a Col on i al mansi on and know roug h l y where both ft
i nto hi story. Peri ods are di vi ded and red i vi ded when con­
d i ti ons per mi t u nt i l each strata i s i denti fed.
The l arger ci rcl e represents
onl y the last 60 mi l l i on
years. Each '' hou r'' repre­
sents 5 mi l l i on years.
The smal l er ci rcl e represents the age of t he eart h, about 5 bi l l i on
years. Li fe has exi sted about hal f t hat t i me and t he smal l segment i s
60 mi l l i on years-the per i od of abundant fossi l s.
A dot i ndi cates exti ncti on.
�An arrow i ndicates that the
� group persi sts to present.
1 1
PRE-CAMBRI AN TI ME i ncl udes t he vast per i od of
earth h i story whi ch el apsed before t he deposi t i on of t he
Cambri an fossi l -bear i ng rocks. I t covers a per i od of about
4, 500,000, 000 years -or approxi matel y 9/10 of t he total age
of t he eart h. Thi s g reat per i od of t i me wi tnessed t he de­
vel opment of t he eart h, seas and atmosphere, t he or i gi n
of l i fe, and t he earl y devel opment of l i vi ng th i ngs. But very
few fossi l s of organ i sms even from t he l ate Pre-Cambri an
have been found. Most of those are pl ants. Li me-secret i ng
al gae fou r i shed i n t he seas of Montana, Al berta and
Rhodesi a. Pre-Cambri an deposi ts of anth raci te and some
l i mestones are i n di rect evi dence of t he exi stence of l i fe.
Pr i mi ti ve aquat i c f ungi and al gae have been fou n d i n
Pre-Cambri an cherts from Ontar i o, an d i n rocks of Mi ch i ­
gan, Mi n n esota, Eng l and and Scotl and.
Pre-Camb ri an an i mal fossi l s are rare. A j el l yfsh i s
known f r om t he Grand Canyon and some t rai l - l i ke mark­
i ngs from rocks i n Montana. Recentl y di scovered Au st ra­
l i an deposi ts have reveal ed more ani mal fossi l s.
I t seems l i kel y t hat Pre-Cambr i an an i mal s were soft­
bodi ed and t herefore poorl y preserved as fossi l s. By earl y
Cambri an t i mes, a n u mber of di ferent g roups devel oped
har d parts and fossi l s became more common .
Th e di st r i but i on of Pre-Cambri an rocks i s wor l dwi de.
They ar e most extensivel y exposed i n t he sh i el d areas,
whi ch appear to have remai ned more or l ess stabl e, posi ­
t i ve l and areas t hroughout geol ogi c t i me. The l ands of
t hese Pre-Camb ri an days mu st have been startl i ngl y d eso­
l ate -a barren wi l der ness of bare rocks. I n t he shal l ow
seas that l apped these anci ent wastel ands, l i fe evol ved,
al though fossi l s g i ve but few cl ues to t he ori gi n of l i fe and
i t s ear l y devel opment. However, bi ochemi cal exper i ments
suggest ways that earl y organi c materi al s may have formed.
Late Pre-Cambri an fossi l s from Edi ­
acara Hi l l s, South Austral i a, are the
ol d e s t we l l - p r e s e rved a n i ma l s .
(After Gl aessner)
{oundersi, 1 . 5 i n.
cos/ala, 2. 5 i n.
mawsoni, about 1 i .
A Mi ddl e Cambri an sea, based on
speci mens from the Burgess Shal e
of Bri ti sh Col umbi a. 1. j el l yfi sh ; 2.
tri l obite Neolenus and 3. skel etal
remai n s ; 4. arachnid Sidneyia; 5.
crustacean Marella; 6. sponge Vaux­
ia; 1. worm Mis/wia; 8. inarti culate
brach i opod Acrothel e.
THE CAMBRI AN PERI OD (60 mi l l i on years ago, frst
peri od of the Pal eozoi c) i s named from Wal es (Lati n,
Cambria) , where rocks of t hi s age were frst stud i ed . I n
the Lower Cambr i an, the frst common an d wi despread
foss i l s occur: al gae, art hropods, brach i opods, sponges,
coel enterates, wor ms, mol l u sks and ech i noder ms. Al l
l i ved i n t he sea. I t i s sur pr i si ng to fnd so many rel ati vel y
compl ex g roups i n the ol dest fossi l -bear i ng rocks. But i n
many ways Cambri an ani mal s are pr i mi ti ve. Brach i opods
are represented by the i narti cul ate forms (p. 82) and the
ech i n oderms by pr i mi ti ve ed ri oasteroi ds. Most tri l obi tes
were l arge, b ut a few (the agnost i ds and eod i sci ds, pp.
94-95) were among the smal l est and l east ornamented. The
frst ostracods appeared i n the Lower Cambri an . Mol l u sks
were mostl y represented by t i ny sea snai l s (gastropods),
Two un usual ly wel l - preserved Mi d­
dl e Cambri an tri l obi tes (Oienoides)
with i mpressi ons of antennae and
l egs. Larger carapace 3.2 i n. l ong.
From a photo by
Smithsonian Institution
but bi val ves ( pel ecypods) appeared in the Upper Cam­
bri an. Cambr i an al gae were very si mi l ar to thei r very si mpl e
Pre-Cambri an ancestors.
Mi ddl e Cambri an Bu rgess Shal e in Bri ti sh Col umbi a
contai ns remarkabl e fossi l s -i ncl udi ng soft-bodi ed wor ms
and sea cucumbers. The seas i n whi ch t hese creatu res
l i ved occupi ed two great subsi di ng bel ts ( geosyncl i nes)
i n North Ameri ca. Cambri an rocks have a thi ckness of
over 12,00 ft. i n parts of the Rocky Mountai ns.
See pp. 72-74 and p. 75 onward for more examples and details of the animals and
plants shown in the habitat groups of this section.
A Mi ddl e Ordovi ci an sea foor,
showi ng strai ght-shel l ed, nauti l oi d
cephal opods 1. Endoceras, 2. Saclo
ceras; 3. tr i l obi te Flexicalymene;
b rachi opods 4. Ra{nesquina, 5.
Rhynchotrema; coral s 6. Strepte­
l asma, 7. Favistella; gastropods 8.
Maclurites, 9. Cyclonema; 1 0. pel ec­
ypod Byssonychia; 1 1 . bryozoans
THE ORDOVI CI AN PERI OD (425 to 50 mi l l i on years
ago) was named for the Ordovi ces, an anci ent Cel ti c
tri be. The Or dovi ci an Peri od saw the r i se of new an i mal
g roups of g reat i mportance. Bony fragments f r om t he
Mi ddl e Or dovi ci an of Col orado and Wyomi n g are evi dence
of the ol dest vertebrates, but we do not yet know much
about these fsh-l i ke creatu res. Tetracoral s, g raptol i tes,
ech i noi ds, asteroi ds, cr i noi ds and b ryozoans al l appeared
for the frst ti me, wh i l e the arti cu l ate b rach i opods (p. 82)
far outn u mbered the i nart i cu l ate. Most of the tri l obi tes
were d i ferent from those of the Cambr i an. Some cepha-
l opods reached a l ength of 13 feet.
I n parts of Nort h Amer i ca and Eu rope, Or dovi ci an seas
covered areas that had been l and d u ri n g Cambr i an ti mes.
Vol canoes bel ched l ava l ocal l y. Upl i ft and mou ntai n
bu i l di ng occurred i n eastern North America. Not al l the

A fragment of bony armor of an
ostracoderm fsh (Astraspis), the
ol dest known vertebrate. Middl e Or­
dovi ci an, Col orado.
rocks l ai d down i n those anci ent seas contai n the same
fossi l s. Li mestones and shal es around Ci nci n nati , Ohi o,
contai n beauti ful l y preserved brach i opods, coral s, bryo­
zoans, mol l usks, tri l obi tes and cri noi ds. Bl ack shal es of
the same age i n New York, Quebec and Wal es contai n
graptol i tes and occasi onal tri l obi tes. Di ferent Ordovi ci an
envi ron ments enabl ed d i ferent ani mal s to prosper i n
each reg i on. Most common were shal l ow-water l i me and
mud deposi ts n oted f or t hei r wel l -preserved fossi l s.
The repeated and wi despread i nvasi on of Nort h Amer i ca
by Ordovi ci an seas has pr oduced extensi ve Ordovi ci an
sed i ments. Outcrops of these rocks occur wi del y over
much of t he cont i nent. Some Ordovi ci an sed i ments are
i mportant oi l p roducel!, and Ordovi ci an sl ates are q uar­
ri ed i n Ver mont.
Out cr ops of Ordovi ci an r ocks.
Si l uri an coral reef showi ng cri noi ds
1. Scyphocriniles, 2. Eucalyptocri­
niles; 3. starfsh ; 4. a eurypteri d
Euryplerus, 8 i n. l ong ; coral s 5. Favo
sites, 6. Halysiles, 7. Xylodes; 8.
cephal opod Cyrtoceras; 9. gastro­
pod Beraunia (Cyclolropis); 10. tri lo­
bi te Cheirurus.
THE SI LURI AN PERI OD (for Si l ures, an anci ent t r i be
of the Wel sh borderl and) l asted from 425 to 405 mi l l i on
years ago. Its fau nas d i fer from those of the Ordovi ci an i n
t he presence of new fami l i es and genera, rather t han i h the
appearance of compl etel y new groups of an i mal s. In fact,
the most i mportant newcomers are not ani mal s, but pl ants.
Fossi l s of the ol dest l and pl ants come from the Upper
Si l u ri an of Austral i a ( p. 1 51 ) . Fragments of what may be
sti l l earl i er l and pl ants have recentl y been found i n the
Ordovi ci an of Pol and and southeastern Un i ted States.
Some of the best Si l uri an fossi l s ( i ncl udi ng al gae,
coral s, stromatoporoi ds, brachi opods, cr i noi ds and tri l o­
bi tes) come from the anci ent reefs i n Si l u rian l i mestones,
such as those near Chi cago. Scorpi on- l i ke eu rypter i ds,
J AMOYTIUS, 10 i n. , a pr i mi- ��� 
ti ve agnathan fsh (p. 1 32) wi th
scales, l ateral eyes, and a •
termi nal mouth. Si lu ri an.
BIRKENIA, an agnathan fsh
about 4 i n. long. lacks pai red
fns and true jaws. Si l uri an,
some ni ne feet l ong, l i ved i n estuar i es and l agoons. Sev­
eral types of fsh are wel l preserved i n parts of the Upper
Si l u ri an. Si l u ri an vol cani c act i vi ty occu rred i n many areas,
and i n Scandi navi a and Bri tai n mountai n bu i l di n g took
pl ace at the cl ose of the Per i od. I n other pl aces, deserts
and l and- l ocked seas were present i n wh i ch sal t deposi ts
accumu l ated, s uch as those of New York, Ohi o and Mi chi ­
gan. These deposi ts are sti l l worked as i mpo rtant com­
merci al sou rces of sal t.
Outcrops of Si l u ri an rocks are common i n eastern Norh
Amer i ca. As i n t he Ordovi ci an Per i od, t he character of the
rocks and of the fossi l s i s evi dence of wi despread and
general l y shal l ow seas.
Devoni an fi s hes. A composite d i ora­
ma sh(wi ng 1. Bothriolepis, a placo­
derm about 1 4 i n. long, 2. Dinichthys,
a gi ant 30-ft. mari ne pl acoderm,
largest vertebrate of thi s peri od, and
3. C/adosel ache, a 3-ft.-long pri mi ­
ti ve shark.
THE DEVONI AN PERI OD began about 405 mi l l i on
years ago and ended about 60 mi l l i on years l ater. I t saw
the g reat expansi on of fshes, l and pl ants, and the fi rst
l and ani mal s,. pri mi ti ve amphi bi ans. The fs hes ( pp. 132-
138) i ncl uded several ki nds ofjawl ess fi s h ( ostracoder ms) ,
plate-skinned fsh (placoderms), sharks and the frst bony
fshes (ostei chthyes) . From one gr oup, the l obefn fshes
(crossopteryg i ans) , the frst amphi bi a ( i chthyosteg i ds)
arose. These s how a mi xtu re of fsh and amphi bi an char­
acters. These un usual fossi l s, from a war m, moi st envi ­
ronment, were fou nd i n mountai ns of Green l and.
Skul l s of a Devoni an fish, Eusthenop­
teron, and a pr i mi ti ve amphi bi an,
l chthyostega. Correspondi ng bones
are i n same col or. Note simi l ar bony
plates i n both skul l s but al so l arger
eyes, nostri ls, stouter jaws, and l oss
of gi ll cover i ng i n the head and skull
of the amph i bi an.
A Devoni an for est wi th 1 . a t ree ter n,
Eospermalopleris; 2. a smal l pr i mi ­
t i ve l eafl ess pl ant , Psilophylon; 3. a
scour i ng r ush, Calamophylon; 4.
a pr i mi t i ve l ycopod Protolepidoden­
dron; and 5. t he ol dest- known am­
phi bi an and fi rst l and vertebrate,
/ chlhyoslega, 2Y ft. l ong.
The ol dest spi ders, mi l l i pedes and i nsects appear i n the
Devon i an, as do fresh-water cl ams. Ear l y l and pl ants
were si mpl e, l acki ng true roots and l eaves, but wi th the
vascu l ar or conduct i ng system found i n al l l ater l and
pl ants. Late i n t he Devon i an, great forests of scal e trees
and seed fern s were wi despread.
A Devoni an coral reef. Coral s 1 .
Heliophyllum, 2 . Cylindrophyllum, 3.
Hexagonaria, 4. Synaptophyllum, 5.
Heterophrentis,- 6. Pleurodictyum, 7.
Chonophyllum; 8. bryozoan Fenes-
trellina; brachiopods 9. Leptaena,
1 0. Atrypa; 1 1 . gastropod Platyceras;
12. cephal opod Michelinoceras; tri ­
l obites 1 3. Ca/ymene, 1 4. Anchiopsis;
1 5. cri noi d Dolatocrinus.
Devonian coral reefs include large cup corals two feet
high and compound corals eight feet across. Horn corals
were numerous and varied. Brachiopods and mol lusks
continued to fourish; the frst common ammonites ap­
peared, but true graptolites were already extinct and
trilobites were greatly reduced in numbers. In many con­
tinental areas thick deposits of red sands and muds ac­
A colony of Mi ssi ssi ppi an cr i noi ds 1 . Cyalhocriniles, 2. Taxocrinus, 3.
Batocrinus, 4. Barycrinus, 5. Scylalocrinus; 6. a bri ttle star Onychasler.
THE MI SSI SSI PPI AN PERI OD is named for t he l i me­
stone bl ufs al ong the Mi ssi ssi ppi Ri ver where typi cal
outcrops occu r. It was a per i od (345 to 31 0 mi l l i on years
ago) of shal l ow, warm seas, i n whi ch coral s, brach i opods,
cri noi ds, bl astoi ds, bryozoans and forami n i fera fou ri shed.
I n pl aces t hese fossi l s are so abundant t hat t hey make up
most of t he rocks. On l and, amphi bi a conti n ued to devel op,
wh i l e l and pl ants spread i n al l moi st areas and anti ci pated
the g reat coal swamp forests of the Pen nsyl van i an. Much
of North Ameri ca except t he far west and t he east coast
was u nder water d u r i ng Mi ssi ss i ppi an t i me.
A Pennsyl vani an coal swamp. Trees
i ncl ude l ycopods 1 . Sigillaria, 2.
Lepidodendron; 3. sphenopsi d Cal­
amites; 4. seed fern s ; 5. Cordaites;
6. a l abyri nthodont amph i bi an ; 7.
Meganeura, an i nsect with a 30-i n.
wi ng span rel ated to the modern
d ragonfi es.
THE PENNSYLVANI AN PERI OD- (31 0 to 280 mi l l i on
years ago) was named after t he great coal -bear i ng strata
of Pennsyl van i a. It saw the devel opment of l owl ands,
g reat swamps, and del tas su rrou nded and often covered
by shal l ow seas. Some of the l and was barren san d deserts
( Engl i sh Mi dl ands) , or sal t basi ns (Col orado) . Great t rees,
some 1 50 feet h i gh , formed the coal forests i n l ow swampy
l and that was often fooded. Most common were the scal e
trees ( l ycopods) , seed fer ns (pteri dosper ms) , horsetai l s
and cordai tes. Here l i ved g i ant "d rago nf i es, " wi th a 30-
One of the ol dest known and si mplest rep­
til es, Tudilanus punctulatus. Mi ddl e Penn­
syl vani an from Ohi o. 4 i n.
i nch wi ngspan, and many ki nds of amphi bi ans. Pen nsyl ­
van i an ri vers and del tas were i n habi ted by cou ntl ess
cl ams, other shel l fsh and fshes. Thi s peri od al so saw
the emergence of the repti l es from amph i bi an ancestors.
I n add i t i on to Tuditanus ( above) , foss i l s represent i ng fou r
groups of pr i mi ti ve rept i l es have been f ound i n t h e shal es
of Kansas. The seas conti n ued to support ri ch i nvertebrate
l i fe, wh i ch i ncl uded abundant spi nd l e-shaped f orami n i fera
(fu s u l i n i ds) , coral s, brach i opods, mol l usks, bryozoans,
cri noi ds, ostracods and a few tri l obi tes.
Outcrops of Penn syl vani an rocks.
A Permi an l andscape. Repti les i n­
clude 1 . Dimetrodon, 1 0 f. l ong, a
"sai l-backed" car ni vor e ; 2. Sey-
mouria, 2 f. long. Amphi bi a i nclude
3. Eryops, 6 f. long and 4. Diplo
caulus, 2 f. long,
THE PERMI AN PERI OD (28 to 23 mi l l i on years ago)
began wi th typi cal coal -forest pl ants, wh i ch were l ater re­
pl aced by pri mitive conifers, especial l y i n semi-arid u p­
l and regi ons. I n parts of the Southern Hemi sphere the
most common pl ants were a di sti ncti ve grou p of t ongue
f er ns (Glossopteris) . Many new i nsects appeared, i ncl ud­
i ng beet l es and tr ue dragonfi es.
Streams and ponds contai ned a vari ety of fshes. Am­
phi bi ans fl ou r i shed al ong thei r ban ks, b ut were over shad­
owed by newer, more act i ve repti l es. Ear l y repti l es d i fered
from amphi bi a on l y in detai l s of the skul l and vertebrae.
Seymouriamorphs were sq uat, l u mberi ng rept i l es about
two feet l ong, with fat, ' massive h eads. Fossi l eggs from
the Lower Permian of Texas, the ol dest l and eggs known,
may bel ong t o t hem. Ot her repti l es were q u ite d i ferent.
Dimetrodon, the sai l - backed l i zard, was a savage carn i -

MESOSAURUS, a needl e-toothed aquat i c
r ept i l e. Pen n syl vani an- Permi an. 1 6 i n .
vore, about 10 feet l ong. Edaphosaurus, a vegetar i an, was
al so a sai l back. The pu rpose of t hese sai l s i s obscu re.
They may have served as pr i mi ti ve temperatu re control s.
Other Per mi an rept i l es i ncl uded mesosaurs, smal l , l ong­
snouted, aq uati c creatu res, and other speci es s i mi l ar ,
but u n rel ated, to moder n l i zards. Another g roup, t he
t her i odonts ( beast teet h) , known f r om South Afri ca and
Russi a, were smal l , agi l e car ni vores, f r om whi ch mam­
mal s are descended. Cynognathus was a typi cal t her i o­
dont, about 6 feet l ong, wi th a dog l i ke sku l l , and d i fer­
enti ated teet h. I ts l egs, pl aced bel ow the body, l i fted i t
cl ear of the g rou n d. Thi s was a better adaptat i on to a
A Permi an reef in west Texas.
Br achi opods 1 . Diclyoclostus. 2.
Dielasma; 3. p rod uct i d ; 4. Leptodus
shel l s ; spon ges 5. Girlyocoelia,
6. Heliospongia; cephal opods 7.
Stenopoceras, 8. Coperoceras.
more acti ve l i fe t han t he sprawl i ng l egs of amphi bi ans
and pr i mi ti ve rept i l es.
The cl ose of the Permi an marked the end of the Pal eo­
zoi c Era -the frst great chapter i n the recorded h i story
of l i fe. By t hen, many ani mal s and pl ants whi ch had domi ­
nated t he Pal eozoi c scene had become exti nct. Fusu l i n i d
forami n i fera, vari ous bryozoans, r ugose coral s, product i d
brach i opods, t ri l obi tes and bl astoi ds al l van i shed , as
wel l as many cri noi ds and cephal opods. Gi ant scal e trees
dwi nd l ed i n n u mbers.
Most horsetai l s and many fer ns
became ext i nct. Amph i bi a and some fsh u n derwent a
d rast i c red ucti on. Why t hi s happened i s not cl ear, but i t
may have been connected wi th extreme cl i mati c changes
d u ri n g t he l ate Permi an when seas were very restri cted
and l arge, h i gh conti nents emerged. I n many areas, coral
reefs fri nged t he shores of deserts and vast i n l and sal t
l akes for med. Extensi ve gl aci ers covered parts of the
Souther n Hemi sphere. New mou ntai n chai ns sl owl y rose,
the Appal achi ans and the Ural s among them.
TYRANNOSAURUS, the l argest
carni vorous d i nosau r, was about
50 f. l ong wi th a 4- to 5-ft. skul l .
Cretaceous of Montana.
The Mesozoi c ( Mi ddl e Li fe) Era covers a peri od of about
1 65 mi l l i on years, d u ri ng whi ch rept i l es so overshadowed
al l ot her ani mal s t hat i t i s often cal l ed t he "Age of Rep­
t i l es. " Great changes took pl ace i n some i nvert ebrates
too. New forms repl aced those whi ch had become exti nct
at t he end of t he Pal eozoi c. Ammon i tes devel oped rapi dl y
unt i l cou ntl ess n u mbers l i ved i n t he seas. Bi rds, mam­
mal s, fower i ng pl ants and many modern i nsects appeared
for the frst t i me. El m, oak, mapl e and other moder n broad­
l eaved trees became common. The devel opment and
spread of some fower i ng pl ants depended on t he paral l el
devel opment of i n sects whi ch pol l i nated t he fowers.
Ot her i mportant geog raphi c changes were al so taki ng
pl ace. New patter ns of l ands and seas for med. New mou n­
tai n r anges sl owl y emerged. As t he resu l t of several re­
l ated geol og i c processes, great mi n eral deposi ts were
formed. Si xty mi l l i on years l ater, we sti l l depend on many
of these deposi ts f or ou r metal s and our f uel s.

A Tr i assi c semi -ar i d l andscape. The
repti l es i ncl ude 1. Cynognalhus, a
7-ft. mammal - l i ke car ni vore ; 2. Ma­
chaeroprosopus, an al l i gator -l i ke
phytosaur ; 3. Salloposuchus, a 4-ft.
thecodont ; 4. Kannemeyeria, a 6-ft.
herbi vorous di cynodont more com­
mon i n the upl ands.
THE TRI ASSI C PERI OD (230 to 1 80 mi l l i on years ago)
was named from a th reefol d di vi si on of i ts rocks. I n many
pl aces Tri assi c rocks resembl e those of the Permi an
Per i od -th i ck seq uences of r ed shal es and sandstones,
deposi ted i n temporary l akes, deserts and basi ns. Vol ­
can i c acti vi ty was consi derabl e, as i n eastern North
Amer i ca from Vi rg i n i a to Con necti cut.
Agai nst th i s backg rou n d the repti l es devel oped and
establ i shed thei r mastery. Thei r advanced body structu re
and shel l - protected eggs enabl ed them to s u rv i ve chang­
i ng and often adverse cl i mates, and to col on i ze new areas
wh i ch were for bi dden to the water-ti ed amphi bi a. The
frst d i nosaur s appeared ; thei r footpr i nts are abundant
i n some rocks, as i n the Connecticut Val l ey.
Nor was the domi nance of repti l es confned to l and, for
i n open oceans dol phi n- l ike i chthyosau rs swept th rough
t he water. Later 15- t o 20-foot l ong pl esi osau rs padd l ed
thei r way t h rough Tri assic seas.
New types of sponges and protozoans devel oped. The
modern hexacoral s appeared, and new grou ps of brach i o­
pods repl aced t hei r Permian forebears. Gastropods and
pel ecypods i ncreased i n n u mbers. Ammonites fou ri shed
and underwent consi derabl e change. Lobster-l i ke art hro­
pods and modern ech i noi ds and cri noi ds f rst appeared
i n the Triassi c.
Cycads and pr i mitive con i fers fouri shed on u pl and
areas. The Pet rifed Forest of Ari zona contai ns fossi l s
of t hese trees. Fer ns and scouri ng r ushes prospered i n
l ower, moi st areas.
² ¬

General i zed di orama of Jurassi c mari ne repti l es showi ng 1 . Ichthyo­
saurus, 1 0 f. l on g ; 2. Plesiosaurus, about 1 2 to 20 f. l ong ; 3. Eurhinosau-
THE JURASSI C PERI OD is named from the J u ra
Mou ntai ns. It began about 180 mi l l i on years ago and l asted
about 45 mi l l i on years. Of al l i ts abundant and exoti c l i fe,
none was more typi cal than the di n osaurs of wh i ch there
were th ree mai n J u rassi c grou ps : frst, the sau ropods,
l ong- necked, l ong-tai l ed, four- l egged monsters, wh i ch
i ncl uded the l argest l and ani mal (Diplodocus, 87 ft. l ong) ;
second, stegosau rs, ar mored repti l es that wei g hed up to
1 0 tons (wi th onl y a 3-oz. brai n) ; th i rd, the car n i vorous
theropods whi ch wal ked on thei r h i nd l egs, i ncl u di ng
Allosaurus, a savage, 35-ft. creatu re. Others were more
sl ender, and some were onl y 3 feet l ong. A few earl y,
rus, about 1 7 f. l on g ; 4. Cryplocleidus, about 1 0 ft. l ong, Upper J u ras­
si c ; 5. squi d- l i ke bel emni tes feei ng i n a protecti ve cl oud of " i nk. "
duck-bi l l ed her bi vorous di n osau rs l u mbered across the
swampy l owl ands.
Fl yi ng repti l es g l i di ng t hrough t he ai r i ncl uded spar row­
si zed speci es and others up to 4 feet l ong wi th sl ender
cl ub- l i ke tai l s. I chthyosau rs and pl esi osau rs were the
car n i vor ous masters of the oceans. Hosts of ammon i tes
( some up to 6 feet i n d i ameter) t hronged the shal l ow seas,
together wi th gastropods, pel ecypods, squi ds ( bel em­
n i tes) , ech i noi ds, cri noi ds and forami n i fera.
The J u rass ic al so saw the devel opment of two g roups
that were l ater to establ i sh thei r domi nance. The ol dest
mammal s are known from foss i l f rag ments of rat-si zed
Shore of a J u rassi c l agoon at Sol en­
hofen, Ger many. 1 . fi rst bi rd, Archae­
opteryx; 2. fyi ng repti l es, Rhamph�
rhynchus; 3. smal l bi pedal d i nosau r,
Compsognalhus about 2 ft. l on g ;
a n d 4. cycadeoi d pl ants.
jaws and teeth from western Un i ted States and Europe.
The Sol en hofen J u rassi c l i mestone of Bavari a contai ns
remai ns of Archaeopteryx, t he ol dest known bi rd .
J u rassi c pl ants i ncl uded the now exti nct cycadeoi ds
wi t h short, th i ck t r unks. These were crowned wi th frond­
l i ke l eaves and ornate reproducti ve st ructu res wh i ch
cl osel y resembl ed modern fowers. Cycads, coni fers, ferns
and g i n kgos were common. Gi nkgos were wi despread al l
t hrough t he Mesozoi c but l ater became al most ext i nct.
Today on l y a si ngl e speci es s u rvi ves but t hi s i s wi del y
pl anted. Over a t housand speci es of i nsects are known,
i ncl udi ng many modern for ms.
A Ju rassi c swamp wi th her bi vorous
d i nosau rs. 1 . Brontosaurus, a 67-lt.
l ong saur opo d ; 2. Diplodocus, a
si ml l ar , but more sl ender , 87-ft . - l ong
ani mal ; 3. Stegosaurus, a 20-ft. -l ong
armored d i nosaur .
A di orama of Cretaceous repti l es.
Di nosaurs i ncl ude 1 . Triceratops,
young and adu l t, 20 f. l ong ; 2. Trach-
odon, a 40-f. ducK-bi l l di nosau r ; 3.
Tyrannosaurus, a powerf ul car ni­
vore, 5 f. l ong ; 4. ostri ch-l i ke Slru-
THE CRETACEOUS PERI OD (named f rom chal k, i ts
most character i sti c depos i t) began about 135 mi l l ion
years ago and l asted some 70 mi l l ion years. It was one
of t he most i mportant of al l geol og i c peri od s, mar ked by
a maj or advance of the sea i n many parts of t he worl d,
and by t he great t hi ckness of both mari ne and conti nental
sed i ments. A g reat depress i on connected the Arcti c
Ocean wi th the Gu l f of Mexi co. Mi ddl e Europe was al so
submerged except for a central land mass. Towards the
cl ose of th i s per i od earth movements p roduced mountai n
ranges whi ch are now the Andes and the Rocki es, as
wel l as mou ntai ns i n Antarct i ca and northeastern Asi a.
The Cretaceous Per i od marked both the c u l mi nati on of
Mesozoi c l i fe and the foreshadowi ng of ani mal s and
lhiomimus, 5 ft. hi g h ; 5. Brachio­
saurus ( Lower Cretaceous) ; 6. Pter­
anoon, a fyi ng r ept i l e wi th a 25-ft.
wi ng span. Pl ants i ncl ude 7. cyca­
deoi ds and 8. pr i mi ti ve angi osper ms
or foweri ng pl ants.
pl ants that were l ater to di spl ace i t. The most i mportant
new ar r i val s were the foweri ng pl ants ( an gi osper ms) .
They frst ap peared i n the Lower Cretaceous, but eventu­
al l y t hey became the domi nant pl ants on every conti nent.
Many fami l i ar l i v i ng trees and sh r ubs, i n cl u di ng th e popl ar,
mag nol i a, oak, mapl e, beech, hol l y, i vy and l aurel ap­
peared d u r i n g t he Cretaceous. The spread of the fower­
i ng pl ants al so had i mportant efects on an i mal l i fe, for
they provi ded new sources of food for mammal s, bi rds,
rept i l es and i nsects. The su bseq uent expansi on of mam­
mal s and bi rds depended very l argel y u pon these new
food suppl i es.
Di nosaurs extended thei r domi nance acr oss Cretaceous
l ands. They are known from every conti nent, and i ncl uded
In a Cretaceous seascape 1 . Tylo­
saurus, a 26-ft. mosasaur, chases
2. Archelon, a 1 2-ft. mari ne t urtl e.
Hammerheaded fl yi n g repti l es, 3.
Pter anodon, wi th a 25 ft. wi ngspan,
are overhead.
many u n usual types. Horned di nosaurs (ceratopsi ans)
were common, as wer e t he ar mored ankyl osau rs, and the
bi zar re d uck-bi l l s wi th t hei r stri ki ng amphi bi ous adapta­
t i ons. The g reat q uadr u ped di n osau rs decl i ned i n t he
Cretaceous but savage carn i vores wer e common. Tyran­
nosaurus stood 20 feet h i gh and had a sku l l over 3 feet
l ong. Other car ni vores were much smal l er. Fl yi ng rept i l es
were represented by Pteranodon, a tooth l ess, hammer­
headed creatu re wi th a wi ngspan of 25 feet, the l argest
ani mal ever to fy.
I n the seas, g i ant t urtl es ( Archelon) reached a l engt h
of 1 2 feet, and some pl esi osaurs grew over 40 feet l ong.
I chthyosau rs decl i ned. Savage, serpent-l i ke mosasau rs,
some 35 feet l ong, were sea-goi ng l i zar ds.
A late Cretaceous sea foor showi ng
a ri ch vari ety of mol l usks. Ammo­
n i tes 1. Heliocer as, 2. Baculites, 3.
Placenlicer as; gastropods 4. Turri­
lella, 5. other ; pel ecypods 6. oysters,
7. Pecten.
Two wel l -known types of fossi l bi rds occu r i n Creta­
ceous rocks. /chthyornis, a sl ender, ter n- l i ke bi rd about
8 i nches h i gh , was a strong fi er. Hesperornis, i n compl ete
contrast, was about 4 X feet hi gh, a di vi ng b i rd, wi th power­
ful swi mmi ng l egs but on l y vesti ges of wi ngs. I t al so had
l ong, toothed j aws.
Mammal s were smal l and rel ati vel y i nsi g n i fcant. Thei r
remai ns are rare, represented by smal l pr i mi ti ve for ms
that survi ved f r om t he J u rassi c and al so by two new
grou ps, t he opossu m-l i ke pouched marsu pi al s and t he
i nsecti vores, foreru n ners of the sh rews. The fossi l s ar e
mostl y teeth and parts of l ower j aws, wh i ch, because of
thei r un i que structu res, are sufci ent to di st i n gu i sh t hese
true mammal s from mammal - l i ke rejt i l es.

I n the shal l ow seas i nvertebrates l i ved i n great di versi ty.
The domi nant group was the ammon i tes, whi ch showed
many un usual for ms. Bel emn i tes, pel ecypods and gastro­
pods of rat her modern appearance, coral s, sea u rch i n s
an d forami n i fera al so fou r i shed. Moder n bony fs h (tel e­
osts) were common. The coral s, abundant l ocal l y i n
Cretaceous beds, show a basi c si xfol d symmetry. Cr i ­
noi ds al so devel oped new for ms, i ncl udi ng a free- swi m­
mi n g, steml ess cri noi d wi th sl ender arms u p t o 4 ft. l on g.
Inoceramus mol l u sks ( p. 1 1 8) , someti mes 3 t o 5 f. across,
were wi del y di stri buted .
The cl ose of the Cretaceous saw t he wi despread ex­
t i nct i on of many of t he domi nant ani mal s of t he Mesozoi c
Era. Di n osau rs, pterosau rs, i chthyosau rs, pl esi osaur s,
mosasaurs, ammon i tes, true bel emn i tes, many pel ecypods
and coral s al l became exti nct. I t was as t r ul y t he end of
an era i n the l ong hi story of l i fe as was t he Per mi an, and
t he causes for t hi s wi despread decl i ne are no l ess di fcu l t
to i denti fy. It is probabl e, however, that t he great geo­
l ogi cal changes, and the changes i n pl ants exerci sed a
profou nd efect on many groups of ani mal s.
BRONTOTHERIUM, an 8-ft . - hi gh
North Ameri can graz i ng mammal ,
one of t he ext i nct ti tanotheres. Ol i­
gocene of South Dakota.
The Cenozoi c Era i ncl udes the l ast 70 mi l l i on years of
earth h i story. It i s far more fami l i ar t han previ ous eras,
for al though some an i mal s and pl ants di ed out other
ki nds have surv i ved wi thout drasti c change and are al i ve
today. Sl ow but stri k i ng changes i n cl i mate took pl ace
du ri n g t hi s ti me. Pol ar reg i ons cool ed and the general
warm temperate cl i mate gave way t o a wi der cl i mati c
range. The conti nents were si mi l ar to those of today,
al though t here was mou ntai n bu i l di n g, conti nental warp­
i ng and vol can i c acti vi ty. Cenozoi c strata i n t he Gu l f
Coast, Cal i for n i a, t he Mi ddl e East and the East I n di es
are now i mportant petrol eum producers. Cenozoi c l i fe
(the Age of Mammal s) is domi nated by t he mammal s
and foweri ng pl ants. Mammal s repl aced the ru l i n g rep­
t i l es of the Mesozoi c i n every envi ronment. The foweri ng
pl ants became broad l y s i mi l ar t o l i vi ng f or ms. Amph i bi a
and repti l es became rel ati vel y i nconspi cuous. Bi rds con­
t i n ued t o expand i n n u mbers and vari ety. The bony fsh
(tel eosts) o utn u mbered al l other fsh by twenty t o one.
Mar i ne i n vertebrates took on a moder n l ook. Gastro­
pods and pel ecypods became the most abu n dant, and
cephal opods and brachi opods were g reatl y red uced. Thi s
t hen i s the l ast g reat era i n t he l ong h i story of l i fe-the
· prel ude to t he present.
A d i orama of Lower Terti ary l i fe.
1 . Diatryma, a 7-ft . - hi gh carni vorous
bi rd. Mammal s i ncl ude2. Notharctus,
a l emur - l i ke pr i mate ; 3. Coryphodon,
a 3-ft. -h i gh ambl y pod ; 4. Hyracothe
rium ( Eoh i pp us) the ancestral 4-
cene, and Ol i gocene) i n North Amer i ca i s represented by
g reat conti nental , bad l and deposi ts wh i ch contai n many
mammal i an fossi l s. Th i ck mar i ne deposi ts formed i n
south-eastern U. S. and al ong t he Paci fi c Coast where
vol canoes al so er upted.
Lower Teri ary fossi l s are stri k i ngl y di ferent from those
of t he Cretaceous. Mammal s i ncreased expl osi vel y,
spreadi n g i nto al l envi ron ments and becomi ng adapted
to many ways of l i fe on l and, water and i n the ai r. Mam­
mal i an h i story var i ed. I n i sol ated Terti ary South Ameri ca
a great di versi ty of marsupi al mammal s devel oped. Other
marsupi al s sti l l s u rvi ve i n t he i sol ati on of Au st ral i a.
Earl y Tert i ary mammal s i ncl uded pr i mi ti ve rodent-si zed
for ms, i nsecti vores and marsupi al s, t hat had persi sted
toed, 1 2- i nch- hi gh horse ; 5. Uinla­
therium, a rhi noceros-si zed hor ned
mammal . Trees are pal ms and broad-
l eaved angi osper ms si mi l ar to mod­
ern temperate or semi -t ropi cal
speci es.
from the Cretaceous. New speci es i ncl uded two mai n
g rou ps, hoofed mammal s and carn i vores.
Creodonts, forer unners of the carni vores, and condy­
l arths, foreru n n ers of hoofed mammal s, were somewhat
s i mi l ar, p i feri ng mai nl y i n detai l s of teeth and feet. Both
were squat, heavy- l i mbed, about t he si ze of a col l i e, wi th
dog- l i ke heads and fve b l u ntl y cl awed toes on each l i mb.
Thei r brai ns were smal l and pri mi t i ve. Other n ew arri val s
were ancest ral rodents and pr i mates, represented by
l emur- l i ke ani mal s.
Ambl ypods were heavy, cl umsy, hoofed mammal s, wi th
broad feet. The earl y ones were sheep-si zed, b ut the l ater
ki nds ( ui ntatheres) were seven feet h i gh , as bi g as a l arge
rhi nocer os, wi t h t h ree pai rs of bl unt hor ns. The mal es had
l arge down-curved t usks.
An Ol i gocene l andscape i ncl udes
1 . Mesohippus, a th ree-toed h orse,
2 ft. hi gh ; 2. Bronlops, a 1 4 f. hor ned
ti tanothere ; 3. Orecdon, a sheep­
si zed herbi vor e; 4. Baluchilherium,
a 1 8-ft.- hi gh r hi noceros, the l argest
l and mammal ; 5. Prolapiris, a tapi r ;
6. Hyaenodon, a creodont car ni vore ;
and, 7: l and tortoi ses. Slylemys,
(feed i ng on grasses) .
Du ri ng Eocene t i mes more advanced mammal s di s­
pl aced many ol der forms i n North Ameri ca and Europe.
These new ar r i val s i ncl uded true rodents, mai n l y squi rrel ­
l i ke speci es, and a vari ety of rh i n oceroses ( one Ol i gocene
g i ant, Baluchitherium, measured 18 feet h i gh at the shoul ­
der s) . Ancestral tapi rs, ti tanotheres and t he frst even­
toed hoofed mammal s al so appeared. The earl y ti tano­
theres wer e Sfal l , hor n l ess browsers wi th cl u msy bodi es
and t i ny b rai ns. Condyl art hs, creodonts and u i ntatheres
persi sted for a t i me, but l ost out to l ater arri val s such as
earl y horses (the th ree-toed, col l i e-si zed Mesohippus) ,
gi ant pi gs, ancestral camel s, oreodonts, mastodons and
l ar ge saber-toothed cats.
Oreodonts were sheep- si zed, l ong-tai l ed herbi vores
that survi ved u nt i l the Pl i ocene. Ti tanotheres were h uge,
grotesq ue horned beasts. The cat fami l y frst appeared
i n the form of the earl i est saber-toot h, Hoplophon eus,
about the s i ze of a mountai n l i on.
Lower Terti ary bi rds were modern i n appearance, but
i ncl uded n u mbers of l arge, g round-l i vi ng genera, one of
wh i ch , Dialryma, was 7 feet hi gh. Fi sh, too, were of moder n
aspect. The fne fresh-water sedi ments of the Green Ri ver
beds of Wyomi ng have yi el ded t housands of beauti f ul ,
wel l - preserved fsh fossi l s.
Mar i ne i n verteb rates were very much l i ke modern for ms.
Large forami n i fera ( "Nummulites") aboun ded i n the shal ­
l ow seas of the Medi terran ean and Cari bbean. Pl ants re­
sembl ed l i v i ng forms, b ut pal ms grew i n Canada, and
temperate oak and wal n ut forests i n Al aska. There was
mou ntai n b u i l di n g and cru stal di stu rbance i n the Al ps,
Carpath i ans, Pyrenees, Apen n i nes, and Hi mal ayas. The
Coast Range of western North Ameri ca was the scene of
mou ntai n b u i l d i ng too, wi th vol can i c acti vi ty.
A Mi ocene l andscape. 1 . a wi l d pi g,
Dinohyus; 2. a smal l r hi noceros,
Diceratherium; 3. horse- l i ke Moro-
pus; 4. a four-tusked mastodon,
T rilophodon; 5. a her d of pr i mi ti ve
camel s, Stenomylus.
Pl i ocene) l asted about 25 mi l l i on years, endi ng about a
mi l l i on years ago. It is marked by the conti n ued ri se of
modern mammal s. Changes i nvol vi ng brai n , l i mbs and
teeth and the accompanyi ng expansi on of mammal s as
a group were cl osel y rel ated t o cl i mat i c changes. Over
wi de areas of Nort h Ameri ca conti nental u pl i ft produced
d ri er cl i mates, and converted l ush l owl and forests i nto
grassy prai r i es. The ol dest common grasses come f rom
t h e Mi ocene. Many mammal i an changes were associ ated
wi th the change from browsi ng to g raz i ng habi ts.
Changes of t hi s ki nd are parti cu l ar l y wel l i l l u strated i n
the horse fami l y. Some of t hese changes were correl ated
wi th i ncrease i n overal l si ze, but others were not. Th us
horse teeth became l arger and deeper, but they al so be­
came hi g h-crowned, wi th a square, i nfol ded, chewi ng
su rface. The l i mbs became l onger and changed i n rel ati ve
pr oporti ons, but the n u mber of grou nd-touch i ng toes was
redu ced. Thi s refects a radi cal change from a fat-footed
to a ti p-toe, spr i ng-hoofed postu re. Feedi ng on tough
prai ri e grasses demanded toug her teeth, and t he advan­
tage of s peed on the har d, open prai ri es favored t he new
foot structu re.
Wi despread changes al so took pl ace i n ot her g rou ps of
mammal s. Ancestral el ephants, camel s, r h i n oceroses,
dogs and smal l er carn i vores abou nded. Other forms have
no l i vi ng descendants. Moropus resembl ed a cl u msi l y
constructed horse wi t h cl aws. One gi ant pi g had a sku l l
four feet l ong. There were g i rafes, camel s, a n d the pa­
theti c antel ope, Syndyoceras, wi th the strangest hor ns of
any of i ts tr i be. Saber-toothed cats cont i n ued, and ape­
l i ke creat u res (Dryopithecus) spread across Eu rope and
Afri ca. Many of the ol der type mammal s became exti nct
towar ds t he cl ose of Pl i ocene t i mes.
Most Upper Terti ary mari ne i nvertebrates and pl ants
are barel y di st i ngu i shabl e from modern speci es. Re­
newed earth movements i n the Al ps, Hi mal ayas and al ong
t he Paci fc Coast of North Ameri ca compl i cated and ex­
tended exi sti ng mountai n ranges.
Our h u rri ed excu rsi on t hrough geol ogi c t i me has taken
us, wi th g i ant steps, over a peri od of more than hal f a
bi l l i on years from the l ate Pre-Cambri an to t he end of t he
Tert i ary. The l ate Terti ary wor l d i s moder n except for
mi nor speci es devel opment i ncl udi ng the expl osi ve domi ­
nance of man. Though fossi l cl ues are meager, the pano­
rama of l i fe i s u nderstandabl e because of t he l ength of
geol ogi c t i me. The sl ow organi c changes whi ch l ed to
ext i ncti on or s u rvi val are the bui l di ng bl ocks of evol ut i on
and, f or t hei r operati on , ti me i s needed. Man' s devel op­
ment i s a matter of onl y a few mi l l i on years , but a bi l l i on
years of preparati on l i e beh i nd i t.
A Pl ei stocene l andscape wi th 1 . wool l y mammoth, Elephas primi­
genius, 12 ft. h i gh ; and, 2. a wool l y r hi noceros, Coe/odonla, 6 ft. hi gh.
THE QUATERNARY PERI OD i ncl udes the moment i n
whi ch we now l i ve, together wi t h the Pl ei stocene Epoch,
whi ch began about one mi l l i on years ago. Cont i nental i ce
sheets, up to ten t housand feet t hi ck, spread over much of
the Norther n Hemi sphere in at l east fou r g l aci al advances,
the l ast of wh i ch retreated about 1 1 ,0 years ago i n North
Amer i ca. Antarct i ca and the mou ntai ns of the Southern
Hemi sphere were al so g l aci ated.
There i s evi dence of repeated foral and fau nal mi g ra­
t i ons i n response to cl i mati c changes. Du ri n g the col der
epi sodes vast her ds of wi l d pi gs, camel s, bi son and el e­
phants ranged across Nort h Ameri ca, Eu rope and Asi a.
There wer e fou r Ameri can speci es of el ephants, i ncl udi ng
t he I mper i al Mammot h, 1 4 feet h i gh at t he shou l der, wi th
curved t usks 13 feet l ong.
SMILODON, l argest of saber­
toothed cats, had upper cani ne
teeth 8 i n. l ong. North Amer i ca.
Pl ei stocene.
Maj esti c wool l y mammoths, wh i ch roamed across the
tu n dra of Europe, Asi a and North Ameri ca, are pi ctu red
in earl y cave pai nt i ngs. Most of these l arge mammal s be­
came ext i nct near the end of the Pl ei stocene. Car n i vores,
i ncl u d i n g wol ves, foxes, badgers, and the terri bl e saber­
tooth Smilodon, are wel l known from the Pl ei stocene tar
pool s of Cal i forn i a. Huge armadi l l o- l i ke g l yptodonts and
g i ant (20 ft. hi gh) g rou n d sl oths had evol ved i n South
Ameri ca and spread i nto North Ameri ca when the l and
br i dge between t he t wo cont i nents was re-establ i shed i n
l ate Pl i ocene ti mes. I n th i s ar i d and partl y fr ozen wor l d ,
man emerged.
CRO-MAGNON man, fnel y bui l t,
tal l , muscul ar, wi th modern brai n
and faci al feat ures, r epl aced Nean­
derthal . He manufactured fnel y
worked tool s fr om stone, i vory and
bone, practi ced ceremoni al buri al
and was pr obabl y advanced soci al l y
as wel l . Cro-Magnon cave pai nti ngs,
d rawi ngs and scu l pt ure are beauti­
ful l y executed .
NEANDERTHAL man l i ved over a
wi de area of Eur ope and North Afri ca
d u ri ng the l ast g l aci al advance. He
was short, stocky, stooped, wi th
heavy brows, retreat i ng forehead
and a promi nent but chi n l ess j aw.
A cave dwel l er and ski l l ed h unter,
he practi ced cer emon i al buri al . He
became ext i nct after about 1 0, 00
years. Not ancestral to moder n man,
but pr obabl y from same stock.
man) i s known from speci mens
about 500,00 years ol d from Java
and Chi na. Hei ght about 5 ft. , semi ­
erect posture, heavy brows, power­
ful j aws wi th man l i ke teeth and a
brai n capacity between that of the
l arge apes and modern man. Charred
bones found wi th si mpl e stone tool s
suggest canni bal i sm.
Afri ca and hi s rel ati ve, Zinjan­
lhropus, of Ol duvai Gorge, E. Afri ca,
are more than 1 Y mi l l i on yrs. ol d. A
recent Ol duvai d i scovery i s an ad­
vanced fossi l man, Homo habilis, a
hunter who pr obabl y bui lt si mpl e
shel ters and made most of the tool s
found wi th t h e spl it bones of game he
ate. Other di scoveri es have pushed
the age of man' s di rect ancestors
back to about 20 mi l l i on years.
scr aper
hand axe kn i fe
7 !
The fossils described on pages 72-1 29 all represent ani­
mals that lack backbones (invertebrates). Most lived in the
sea, and most are now extinct. For these reasons they are
less familiar than most vertebrates and plants, and the
terms used to describe their structure are not widely
known. However, small structures are important in iden­
ti fcation of invertebrates  The following diagrams (pages
72, 73, 74) show structures of the most common inverte­
brate fossils. They provide a guide to ten major groups,
and indicate the meanings of terms used later in the text.
|o| ¤o|e JbouI | ¤v e|Ieb |JIeIoss| | s |aJd .
Buchsbaum, R. AN I MALS WI THOUT BACKBON ES, Rev. Ed. , Uni v . of
Chi cago Pr ess, 1 959. A very cl ear and readabl e col l ege text.
AMATEURS, Pal eont ol ogi cal Res . I n st. , I t haca, N. Y. An ol der gu i de wi th
emphasi s on New York State.
Moo re, Lal i cker & Fi scher , I NVERTEBRATE FOSSI LS, McGraw-Hi l l , N. Y. ,
1 952. A compl ete and aut hor i tat i ve advan ced col l ege text.
McGraw- Hi l l , N. Y. , 1 953. A moder n , compr ehensi ve refer ence.
col umel l a
coral l i te
aper t ur e of
zooec i u m
hi nge
l i ne
r i bs
tr ansver se ornament
anter i or
scar s
pal l i al l i ne
exter nal vi ew
i nter nal sect i on

i a

l s


u r


spi ne
g l abel l a
tu bercl e
u n i seri al bi ser i al
PROTOZOANS are mi n ute, aq uati c or parasi ti c an i ­
mal s whose s i n gl e cel l performs al l t h e l i fe f unct i ons. A
few speci es are vi si bl e, but most are mi croscopi c. Of t he
many d i f�re
t g roups of protozoans, onl y forami n i fera
and radi ol ar i a ( Cl ass Sarcodi na) are common as fossi l s.
Forami n i fera (Ordovi ci an- Recent) usual l y have tests or
shel l s of cemented forei gn parti cl es, or of l i me. The shel l s
of radi ol ar i a (Cambri an- Recent) are of si l i ca or of stron­
t i um sul phate.
Forami n i fera ( i l l ustrated bel ow) and rad i ol ari a (above)
are so abu n dant that t hei r t i ny shel l s cover t housands of
square mi l es of ocean foor and form g reat deposi ts of
ooze. Some l i mestones are composed l argel y of foram­
i n i fera. Petrol eum geol ogi sts use forami n i fera to i denti fy
and cor rel ate strata.
Globigerina Hyperammina Endothyra
Triticites Camerina Dentalina
SPICULES serve as a HYDNOCERAS, Dev. -
" skel eton " i n many Mi ss. , an octagonal ,
sponges. They are con i cal si l i ca sponge.
common mi crofossi l s. Length about 5 i n.
SPONGES or Por i fera ( pore-bearers) are t he si mpl est
mu l ti cel l u l ar an i mal s. Water i s drawn i nto the sac-l i ke
body t hrough many mi n ute pores and is swept al ong by
the whi p- l i ke fagel l a of t he col l ar cel l s. Mi croscopi c food
parti cl es are taken from the water, wh i ch i s expel l ed
t hrough the top openi ng of the sponge.
The sponge' s su pport comes from a skel eton of need l e­
l i ke spi cul es, made of l i me or si l i ca, or from a fexi bl e
skel eton of s pongi n, as i n t he bath sponge. Spi cu l es are
common mi crofossi l s. Most spon ges are mar i ne, grow­
i ng attached to the bottom. Some may be as smal l as a
pi nhead, others more than 40 i nches l ong. Fossi l sponges
are found i n Cambri an t o Recent rocks.
Si l ur i an. Saucer- shaped Cret. Coni cal sponge, Ord. - Dev. Gl obul ar t o
sponge, wi t h pr omi nent with i rregul ar, perforated di sh-shaped. Afni ti es
spi cul es. Di ameter 2 i n. wal l s. Length 4 i n. obscure. Di ameter 6 i n.
Common Sea Anemone
Fossi l Cor al
COELENTERATES are si mpl e aq uati c an i mal s i ncl ud­
i ng coral s, sea anemones, sea pens and fans, t he t i ny
hydra and t he exti nct stromatoporoi ds. Most coel enterates
l i ve i n the sea ; many are col oni al . Thei r sac- l i ke bodi es
have a two-l ayered wal l and a si ngl e open i n g su rrou nded
by tentacl es. They have sti n gi n g cel l s ( nematocysts) but
l ack advanced or gan systems, such as t he respi ratory,
excretory, ci rcu l atory and nervous systems of h i g her ani ­
mal s. Jel l yfsh l ack hard parts, but coral s and t hei r k i n
secrete hor ny or l i my "skel etons. " The body pl an of coe­
l enterates has a radi al symmetry. Thei r repr oduct i on often
al ternates a sexual stage, the f ree-swi mmi n g medusa,
wi th an asex ual stage, the attached pol yp.
Cor al s are i mportant rock bu i l ders. Many t r opi cal i sl ands
are whol l y or part l y coral l i mestone. Li vi ng reef- bu i l di n g
coral s are confned t o an equatori al bel t of war m, shal l ow
waters. Most requ i re a mi n i mu m water temperat ure of
70°F. and do n ot g row on mu ddy bottoms o r, because of
darkness, at dept hs g reater than about 1 50 feet. Fossi l
coral reefs are more wi del y di str i buted. Some of t hem are
i mportant petrol eum reservoi rs. Thei r presence i n both
the Arcti c and Antarcti c i n dicates cl i mati c con di t i ons
very d i ferent f r om t he present. Coel enterate fossi l s are
found from t he Pre-Cambri an to Recent.
i nter nal vi ew
showi ng l ayers
external vi ew s howi ng pores
matopor oi ds, ext i nct spong e-l i ke col oni al
forms wi th spheri cal , branchi ng or encr usti ng
s kel etons of l i me. Cambr i an- Cretaceous.
The coral s (Cl ass Ant hozoa) i ncl ude fve
mai n gr oups, t hree of whi ch are exti nct. Tabu­
l ate coral s ( Ord. - Ju r. ) are compound wi th
strongl y devel oped tabu l ae, weak or absent
septa and no col umel l a. Schi zocoral s ( Ord.­
J u r. ) , often cl assi fed u nder tabu late coral s,
mul t i pl i ed by fi ssi on and usual l y l acked true
septa. T etraco ral s or r ugose coral s have the
mai n septa devel oped i n four q uad rants. Sol i ­
tary speci es are cal l ed horn coral s ( Ord. ­
Per m. ) . The two l i vi ng sub-cl asses of coral
are the col oni al octocoral s ( al cyonari ans,
Tri as. -Rec. ) , wi th horny or l i my skel etons and
ei ght tentacl es, and hexacoral s ( Tri as. -Rec. ),
wi th a si x-fol d septal pattern, i ncl ud i ng reef
bui l di ng coral s.
STREPTELASMA, Or d. - Dev. Deep cal yx.
Septa numerous, al ternatel y l ong and short,
th i ckened at peri pher y; di ssepi ments weak.
Length about 2 i n .
HAL YSITES, U. Ord. -L. Dev. Compound
"chai n-coral , " sl ender coral l i tes arranged in
branchi ng rows. Septa weak or absent ; tab­
u l ae str ong. Di ameter of col ony about 2 or 3 i n.
LITHOSTROTI ON, Mi ss. - Penn. Col oni al
coral wi th cyl i ndri cal or pr i smati c cor al l i tes,
strong septa, central tabul ae, col u mel l a and
peri pheral d i ssep i ments. Max. di am. of coral ­
l i tes about 0. 5 i n .
CYSTI PHYLLUM, Si i . -Dev. Si mpl e or com­
pound coral s of vari abl e shape ; i nteri or fi l l ed
wi th vesi cu l ar d i ssepi ments. Length about 2 i n.
SYRI NGOPORA, Si i . - Penn. , i s compound;
coral l i tes d i sti nct wi th transverse con nec­
t i ons, tabu l ae f u n n el -shaped, septa spi ne-l i ke.
Di ameter of col ony about 3 i n.
LOPHOPHYLLI DIUM, Penn. -Perm. Si ngle
coral wi th proj ect i ng col u mel l a ; septa al ter­
nate in l ength ; a rched tabu l ae; no di ssepi ­
ments. Length about 1 i n.
NEOZAPHRENTIS, Mi ss. Smal l , sol i tary
coral wi th one mai n sept um l ong, opposi ng
one short ; obl i que f ossul a on convex si de of
coral . I ncompl ete tabul ae. No di ssepi ments.
Length about 1 i n.
MONTLIVAL TIA, Tr i assi c to Ter­
ti ary. A si ngl e coral , con i cal or fl at­
tened, wi th a wr i nkl ed su rface, nu­
mer ous
septa, outer edges toothed
or ri dged, n u mer ous d i ssepi ments.
Length fr om 1 to 3. 5 i n .
STYLASTER. An Eocene t o Re­
cent genus of col on i al hyd rozoan
wi th sl ender branchi ng and wi th
radi ati ng apertures. Al so, pi ts wi th
bul gi ng margi ns are present. Length
of typ i cal branch 2-3 i n .
THAMNASTERIA, Tri assi c to
Tert i ary. Compound coral with de­
pressed, fl ower- l i ke s u rface ; wal l s of
coral l ites i ndi st i nct ; septa strong,
j oi ni ng adj acent cor al l i tes ; smal l
col u mel l a. Di am. of col ony 3-4 i n.
EUSMILIA, Ol i gocene to Recent.
A col oni al , branchi ng, stony cor al .
Septa are pr omi nent and are seen i n
t he wal l s. No col umel l a. One of an
i mportant and nu mer ous group.
Length about 1 . 5 i n.
BUGULA. A bushy col ·
ony of a recent bryoz oan.
Each br anch consi sts of
4 chambers ( zooeci a) .
Br anches 2·3 i n. hi gh.
retracto r
muscl es
BRYOZOANS or Moss An i mal s are aq uati c, col on i al
ani mal s wi th encr usti ng, branch i ng, or tan- l i ke growt h.
The su pporti ng structu res are hor ny or l i my, and t he
mi n ute i n di vi d ual ani mal s are housed i n t i ny cups. Bryo­
zoans resembl e coral s b ut are more compl ex. They have
nervous and mu scul ar systems and compl ete, U-shaped
di gesti ve tracts. Most bryozoans are mari ne and are rel a­
ti vel y common fossi l s. I nconspi cuous bryozoans are use­
f ul i n correl at i ng st rata. Ordovi ci an-Recent.
Per m. Lacy col ony,
growi ng fr om a screw­
l i ke axi s. 2 speci es
shown. Length 1 -2 i n.
Or d. · Per m. Sl ender
br anches, often spi ny;
conspi cuous apertu res.
Length about 0. 3 i n.
Si i . -Per m. Fan- or f un­
n el -shaped col ony; two
rows of apertures on one
face. Length about 2 i n.
BRACHI OPODS or Lamp Shel l s are smal l mar i ne i n­
verteb rates. Thei r var i abl e shel l s encl ose the soft body
and other i nternal str uct u res i mportant i n i denti fcati on.
The shel l i s made of two u neq ual val ves. At t he poster i or
end of one ( the pedi cl e val ve) i s an open i ng t hrough whi ch
a fl eshy anchori n g stem (the pedi cl e) emerges. The other
val ve i s t he brachi al val ve. One g roup, t he i nart i cu l ate
brach i opods ( bel ow) , has val ves of c h i t i n and cal ci um
phosphate hel d toget her onl y by muscl es. The second
and l ar ger grou p, arti cul ate brachi opods, has shel l s of
l i me hel d together by teeth al ong the h i nge as wel l as by
muscl es. There are about 200 speci es of l i vi ng brachi opods
and about 30,000 fossi l forms, found fr om the Cambri an to
the present. Cambri an brachi opods are mai n l y i narti cu­
l ate. Later, arti cul ate for ms became much more common
whi l e i nart i cul ate for ms decl i ned.
Brach i opods are among the most abundant Pal eozoi c
fossi l s. Some grew u p to 9 i nches acr oss. Most were
about an i nch i n d i ameter. Al though adu l ts l i ve mai nl y
attached, t hey begi n l i fe as free-swi mmi ng l arvae, wh i ch
LI NGULA, Ordovi ci an t o Recent. Thi s l i vi ng fossi l , a
wi del y di st r i buted bur rowi ng form, has a thi n phos­
phate shel l and a l ong ped i cl e. Length about 1 to 1 . 5 i n.
OBOLELLA, Lower Cam b. ; LINGULELLA, Cam b. t o
equal , sub- ci r cul ar L. Ord. i s broadl y tear-
val ves marked by fne shaped wi t h a groove i n-
concentri c g rowth l i nes. si de the pedi cl e val ve.
Length about 0.2 i n. Maxi mu m l ength 1 i n .
Art i cul ate brachi opod, Magellania,
shows ( 1 ) the pedi cl e val ve above
and brachi al val ve bel ow. The red
dot marks the end of the hi nge l i ne.
I nteri or structures ( 2) i ncl ude t he
brachi di a ( bl ue) , muscl es ( r ed) ,
muscl e scars ( gray) a n d pedi cl e
(yel l ow). The i nteri or of t he brachi al
val ve ( 3) shows t he l ooped brachi di a
( bl ue) , muscl e scars ( gray), and
h i nge sockets ( bl ack) . Fossi l s show­
i ng i nteri or struct ure may occur.
accou nts for t hei r wi de geographi c di st r i buti on. Lack of a
ped i cl e open i ng i n the shel l i ndi cates that some fossi l
brach i opods di d not have a f uncti onal pedi cl e. Near l y al l
fossi l for ms l i ved i n shal l ow water. So do most of the l i vi ng
speci es, t hough some have become adapted t o g reater
Superfci al l y, brach i opods resembl e
pel ecypods ( p. 1 1 6). Bot h have 2-
si ded or bi l ateral symmetry. I n
brachi opods a l i ne di vi di ng the shel l
i nto t wo si mi l ar hal ves r uns t hr ough
t he val ves (as shown above). I n
pel ecypods t he l i ne r uns between
t he two val ves.
pedi cl e v i ew
pedi cl e v i ew
br achi al vi ew
br achi al v i ew
p rofi l e
DI NORTHI S, Mi ddl e t o Upper Or­
dovi ci an, is an exampl e ot a l arge
common gr oup ( ort hi ds) . Al l have
b i con vex p rof l e, a strai ght h i n ge
l i ne and fne radi al r i bs. Length 1 i n.
HEBERTELLA, Mi ddl e t o Upper
Or dovi ci an, i s a massi ve shel l wi t h
ped i cl e val ve r at her fat . Brachi al
val ve stro ngl y convex, somet i mes
wi t h a st r ong f ol d ; fi ne radi al r i bs.
Lengt h 1 . 2 i n.
ZYGOSPI RA, Mi ddl e Or dovi ci an
to Lower Si l ur i an, i s a smal l , st rongl y
nbbed shel l wi t h a s u b rou nded o ut­
l i ne and bi convex profi l e. Pedi cl e
v al v e deeper t han b rachi al , wi t h a
st r ong fol d. Common t hr oughout
ped 1 cl e v 1 ew
t he Ohi o Val l ey and in the Appal a-
c h i ans. Lengt h 0.3 to 0.7 i n.
p rofl e
to Up per Or dovi ci an, is a
l a rge, fat, semi ci rcul ar shel l
wi t h a l ong, strai g ht h i nge
l i ne. Br ac hi al val ve i s fat or
concave ; t he pedi cl e val ve
i s convex. Fi ne r i bs, some­
t i mes al t er nat i ng in si ze.
Th i s br ach i opod apparentl y
l ost i ts pedi cl e at matu r i ty.
Length 1 . 3 to 1 . 7 i n.
dovi ci an to Mi ddl e Si l ur i an, has a
massi ve, strongl y ri bbed shel l wi th
a convex out l i ne and a l ong, strai ght
h i nge l i ne. Length to 1 .7 i n .
PETROCRANIA on Ra{nesquina,
Mi ddl e Or dovi ci an to Per mi an. A
smal l , l i my i nart i cu l ate brachi opod.
Pedi cl e val ve cemented (often to an­
other shel l ) ; br achi al val ve l ow,
coni cal . Length 0. 3 to I i n .
LEPIDOCVCLUS (Rhyncolrema) .
Mi ddl e to Upper Or dovi ci an, has a
r i bbed shel l often wi th " her r i ng­
bone" pattern. Strongl y i nfated,
sub- ci r cul ar pr ofl e. Short h i nge l i ne
Brachi al val ve has a f ol d. Parti cu­
l ar l y common i n the Ohi o Val l ey.
Length 0.3 to I .3 i n .
t o Upper Or dovi ci an. Out­
l i ne si mi l ar to Ra{nesquina,
but with a concave pedi cl e
val ve and a convex brach i al
val ve. I t has i ts str ongest
cu rvat ure near t he anteri or
edge ; fa ne r i bs. Li ke Ra{nes­
quina, i t pr obabl y l ost i ts
pedi cl e at matu ri ty · and
rested on t he bottom.
Length 0. 6 to 1 .4 i n .
p rofl e

profl e
ATRYPA, Mi ddle Si l uri an to lower
Mi ssi ssi ppi an. Ventral val ve sl i ghtl y,
and brachi al strongl y convex ; ri bs
vari a. bl e, someti mes fri l l ed. A wi de­
spread fossi l . Length 1 to 1 . 3 i n.
poster i or
vi ew
DALMAN ELLA, Lower Si l uri an. A
smal l brachi opod wi th a sub-ci r cul ar
out l i ne. Val ves convex, pedi cl e
strongl y so. Fi ne r i bs and growth
l i nes. Other characteri sti cs i nternal .
Length about 0. 4 i n .
profl e
EOSPIRIFER, Mi ddl e Si l uri an to
lower Devoni an. An earl y, not ver
typi cal spi r i fer. Sub-oval outl i ne,
convex val ves wi th a broad fol d and
very fne ri bs. Has spi ral b rachi di a.
Lengt h 1 to 1 .3 i n.
DICOELOSIA, f or mer l y cal l ed Bi l obi tes, Upper Or dovi ci an to lower
Devoni an, has a strongl y bi l obed outl i ne, nar row hi nge and very fne
r i bs. Lengt h about 0. 3 i n.
anter i or vi ew
ni an to Per mi an, i s a brach i opod
wi th a wi de h i nge l i ne; val ves ftat or
gent l y curved ; fne r i bs. Ot her char­
acters are i nter nal . Length about 1 i n.
p rofl e
MERI STI NA, Mi ddl e Si l u r i an, has
a l arge, strongl y convex shel l wi t h a
l ow fol d in t he br achi al val ve. Smooth
su rface. Other i denti fyi ng featu res
are i nternal . Length about 1 i n.
PENTAMERUS, Mi ddl e Si l ur i an.
A l arge, strongl y convex shel l wi th
smooth val ves and a strong beak.
I nteri or casts, as i l l ustrated, show a
strong verti cal pl ate in the pedi cl e
val ve. Max. l ength 3 i n .
i nt er nal cast
brachi al vi ew
RHYNCHOTRETA, Si l ur i an, i s t ri angular in out l i ne wi th a shar p
beak, pr omi nent ped i cl e openi ng and ver y st r ong r i bs. Length 0. 5 i n.
p rofl e
prof l e
pedi cl e
vi ew
LEPTA ENA is a common and wi de­
spread brachi opod of Mi ddl e Ordo­
vi cian to Mi ssi ssi ppi an age. The
pedi cl e val ve i s convex and the
brachi al val ve i s concave, gi vi ng the
Semi -ci rcul ar outl i ne wi th a wi de
h i nge. Brach i al val ve i s gently con­
cave, pedi cl e val ve convex ; fi ne r i bs.
Has l arge muscl e scars and other
featu res i nternal . Maxi mum l ength
about 1 i n.
ped i cal vi ew
shel l an u nusual profi l e. Val ves are
strongl y bent near the anter i or edge
and al ong the si des. The surface i s
covered wi th very fne radi ati ng ri bs
and concentri c g rowth l i nes. Length
1 to 1 . 5 i n.
CYRTINA, Mi ddl e Si l u ri an to
Lower Mi ssi ssi ppi an, has a l arg e,
flat, tri angu l ar area between hi nge
l i ne and beak of arched pedi cl e val ve.
Large pedi cl e openi ngs. Smal l , con­
vex b rachi al val ve. Length 0. 7 i n.
pedi cl e vi ew
LI NGULA, Ordovi ci an to Recent.
I narti cul ate brachi opod has dark,
broadl y tear-shaped shel l wi th rather
fat profi l e. Strai ght anteri or margi n.
See page 8 f or l i vi ng speci es.
Length 1 to 1 . 5 i n.
DIELASMA, Mi ssi ssi ppi an to Per­
mi an, has a l ong oval out l i ne. Both
brach i al and pedi cl e val ve are gentl y
convex. Surface smooth wi th few
marki ngs. Length to 0. 8 i n.
SPIRIFER, Mi ssi ssi ppi an to Lower
Penn syl van i an, i s the typi cal mem­
ber of the spi ri feri d g roup of brach­
i opods, whi ch are common i n many
Pal eozoi c strata. Spi ri fers s how
g reat vari at i on in form but have i n­
ternal spi ral brachi di a, a more or
l ess tri ang u lar outl i ne, and most
have rad i al r i bs. Spirifer i tsel f has a
wi de h i nge l i ne, strong ri bs and a
convex profl e, wi th a conspi cuous
f ol d. I n some speci es i nt er nal struc­
t u res are i mportant i n i denti fcat i on.
Length about 1 i n.
prof l e
MUCROSPIRIFER, Mi dd l e to Up­
per Devoni an, i s much wi der h i nged
than Spirifer, with shel l often
wi nged. Conspi ci ous ribs and fol d
present ; other feat ures i nternal .
Length about 1 i n.
ORBICULOIDEA, Ordovi ci an to
Per mi an. I nart i cul ate. Dark, s h i ny,
coni cal brachi al val ve wi th ci rcul ar
outl i ne and f ne ri ngs. The t i p of thi s
val ve i s frequentl y a bi t of-center.
Di ameter u s ual l y about 0. 5 i n.

NEOSPI RI FER, Pen nsyl vani an to
Per mi an, a l arge, massi ve spi ri ter
wi th a wi de shel l , i s convex i n pro­
fi l e. Note the pr omi nent hi nge,
pedi cl e val ve
exter i or i nteri or
profl e br achi al v i ew
pedi cl e vi ew
brachi al vi ew
profl e
strong r i bs, and strong but vari ­
abl e fol d. Neospiri{er i s common
t hrough out the mi d-cont i nental area.
Length 1 to 1 .3 i n.
MESOLOBUS, Lower Pennsyl ­
vani an, has a wi de, strai ght h i nge,
semi - ci r cul ar out l i ne, and a de­
pressed profl e. Note the shal l ow
fol d on the brach i al val ve and the
very fne ri bs. Length about 0. 3 i n.
DI CTYOCLOSTUS, Mi ssi ssi p­
pi an to Per mi an. Large shel l s wi th
wi de hi nge and strong beak. Pr omi ­
nent r i bs, wi t h some concentr i c
growth l i nes and a few spi nes.
Pedi cle val ve i s convex. Length 1 to
1 . 5 i n.
CHONETES, Mi ddl e Si l uri an to
Per mi an, has a semi -ci r cul ar out l i ne
and a wi de h i nge wi th spi nes al ong
marg i n. Brach i al val ve concave ;
pedi cl e convex. Fi ne r i bs and growth
l i nes. Length 0. 4 to 0. 9 i n.
COMPOSI TA, Mi ssi ssi ppi an to
Per mi an, i s sub- ci r cul ar i n out l i ne
and convex i n pr ofl e. The shel l i s
fai r l y smooth with fne gr owth l i nes.
Pedi cle val ve has a sul cus. Max i mum
l ength about 1 i n.
JURESANIA, Pennsyl vani an to
Per mi an, has a shel l whi ch is semi ­
ci r cul ar i n outl i ne, wi th a strai ght
hi nge. Beak is pr omi nent ; pedi cl e
MARGt NI FERA, Mi ss. - Per m. , i s a
smal l shel l wi th a wi de h i nge. , Pedi ­
cl e val ve strongl y convex ; brachi al
val ve concave. Medi um r i bs. Shel l
may have some spi nes and a pr omi ­
nent sul cus. Length 0. 5 to 1 i n.
LI NOPRODUCTUS, Mi ss. -Per m.
Very l ong pedi cl e val ve, often
wri nkl ed near the h i nge and strongl y
curved near t he bea k ; flatter at front.
Ri bs are pr omi nent and si nuous.
Spi nes may be present. Length about
1 i n.
ENTELETES, Pennsyl vani an to
Per mi an. A smal l shel l , gl obul ar i n
outl i ne an d i n profl e. The surface
of the shel l i s wavy wi th very fne
r i bs super i mpos
ed. Other feat ures
are i nternal . Length about 0.5 i n .
RHYNCHONELLA i s t h e overal l
name · for a group of common brach­
i opods ( r hynchonel l i ds) of t r i angul ar
ou l i ne and with a short h i n ge. Most
i n the gr oup have a convex profl e
and strong r i bs and a sul cus. Length
0. 5 to 1 . 5 i n. Ordovi ci an to Recent.
val ve strongl y convex ; brachi al val ve
concave. Spi nes or spi ne scars are
found on both val ves. Max i mum
l engt h about 1 . 5 i n .
pedi cl e vi ew profi l e
p rofl e br achi al vi ew
p rofl e br achi al vi ew
ANNELI DS ( above) and rel ated wor ms are u ncommon
fossi l s. They pl ay an i mportant part i n geol ogi cal proc­
esses by passi n g sand and soi l t hrough t hei r al i mentary
tracts. Fossi l wor m bori ngs, casti ngs, and trai l s are found.
Mi n ute jaw pi eces ( scol ecodonts) of mar i ne wor ms are
common mi crofossi l s. Some mar i ne wor ms secrete l i my
tu bes whi ch may become fossi l s, and t he coni cal and
pyrami dal fossi l s, Tentaculites and Conularia, may repre­
sent remai ns of wor m- l i ke ani mal s. Wor ms are found i n
rocks from Pre-Cambri an t o Recent.
" � - . . '  /
• ) `

SCOLECODONTS, Ordovi ci an to
Recent, are mi n ute ch i t i nous fossi l s,
representi ng t he jaw parts of mari ne
annel i d worms. Hi g h ly magn i fed.
CONULARIA, l ength to 6 i n. , Ordo­
vi ci an to J u rassi c and TENTACUL­
ITES, l ength to 2 i n. , Oraovi ci an to
Devoni an, are obscure ext i nct f or ms;
possi bl y wor ms.
SERPULA, Si l uri an to Recent, i r­
r egul ar cal careou s t ubes, shown
here on a brachi opod, a re secreted
by smal l worms. Length to 0. 2 i n.
WORM BORINGS are somet i mes
f ound in sedi mentary rocks. Often
t hey are perpendi cul ar to the beddi ng
of the rocks. Bor i ngs are al so made
by mol l usks.
ARTHROPODS are a great and successfu l phyl um of
i nvertebrates. They have segmented bod i es and pai red,
j oi nted l i mbs, a hard external coveri ng, wi th fl exi bl e j oi nts,
and wel l -devel oped ci rcul atory, nervous, d i gesti ve and
reproducti ve systems. Seven groups of art hropods (spi ­
ders, ti cks, mi l l i pedes and centi pedes, l obsters, crabs, bar­
nacl es, i n sects) i ncl ude over a mi l l i on s peci es of great
di versi ty. Thi s tremendous phyl um i s vari ousl y d i vi ded by
experts i nto cl asses -the four most i mportant of whi ch
ar e bel ow.
TRILOBITES ( pp. 94-97) , Cambr i an to Per­
mi an, are common th ree- l abed mar i ne
art hropods, conspi cuousl y segmented, and
have three body d i vi si ons. Length Y to 27 i n.
See p. 74 for names of external parts.
CRUSTACEANS (pp. 98-1 00), Cambri an to
Recent. Common, mostl y aq uati c wi th two
pai rs of antennae and usual l y several pai rs
of two- branched appendages. I ncl udes
crabs, l obsters, shr i mps and ostracods.
CHELICERATES ( pp. 1 01 - 1 02), Cambri an
to Recent. Lack anten nae. Appendages may
be modi fed to form pi ncers. The gr oup i n­
cl udes ai r breathers ( scor pi ons, mi tes, ti cks
and · spi ders) and water breathers ( euryp­
teri ds) .
INSECTS ( p. 1 03), Devoni an to Recent.
Wi nged art hropods, general l y wi th 3 pai rs
of wal ki ng l egs. The most nu merous arth ro­
pods both i n ki nds and i nd i vi d ual s. Thri ve
on l and and i n fresh water.
TRI LOBI TES, Cambri an to Permi an, are ext i nct mar i ne
arth r opods of great di versi ty ana i mportance as Pal eozoi c
gu i de fossi l s. The body has th ree maj or di vi si ons and the
t horax has th ree l obed seg ments (see p. 74 for detai l s of
structure) . They were probabl y bottom-feedi n g scavengers
and predators.
�OLENELLUS, Lower Cambri an. A tri ­
l obi te wi th semi -ci r cul ar cephal on, l arge
crescent-shaped eyes and a l ong, seg­
mented gl abel l a. The l ong thorax had
many segments ; fi rst 15 normal , t he rest
narrow; some wi th spi nes. Length 9 i n .
AGNOSTUS, Cambri an. Mi nute ceph­
al on and pygi d i um si mi l ar in si ze ; no
eyes ; thorax of two seg ments. Length
about 0.2 i n .
CALLAVIA, Lower Cambri an from
mari ti me Canada and W. Europe, has an
oval outl i n e; semi -ci r cul ar cephal on, l ong
and narrow g l abel l a, wi t h l ong spi ne.
� Crescent-shaped eyes. Very smal l py­
gi di um. Maxi mum l ength about 6 i n.
ELRATHIA, Mi ddl e Cambr i an, has an
oval outl i ne; semi - ci rcular cephal on wi th
broad, bl unt, short g l abel l a ; pygi di um
fat, semi -ci rcul ar wi t h a smooth mar gi n.
Length 1 t o 2. 5 i n.
OGYGOPSIS, Mi ddl e Cambri an, a Cor- �
di l l eran form, has a l arge cephal on and
pygi di um, semi - ci r cul ar i n outl i ne, and
smal l eyes. Grooved t horaci c segments.
Pygi di um segmentati on i s conspi cuous.
Max i mum l engt h about 3 i n.
PTYCHOPARIA, Mi ddl e Cambr i an,
has a br oad, semi -ci r cul ar cephal on wi t h
taper i ng g l abel l a ; eyes smal l . Body nar­
rows posteri orl y. Length about 3.5 in .
EODISCUS, Lower and Mi ddl e Cam­
br i an, mi nute, si mi l ar to Agnostus, but
wi th short gl abel l a and neck spi ne and
di sti ncti ve pygi d i um. Length about 0. 3 i n.
CONOCORYPHE, Mi ddl e Cambr i an of �
eastern N. Ameri ca and Europe, is super­
fci al l y si mi l ar to Ptychoparia but has no
eyes; 1 4 or 15 t horaci c segments ; smal l
and smooth pygi di um. The gl abel l a i s
shor and tapered. Length about 2 i n.
BATHYURISCUS, Mi ddl e Cambri an
of W. North Ameri ca, has the gl abel l a
furrowed ; crescent- shaped eyes ; 7 to 9
t horaci c segments ; semi -ci rcul ar, wel l ­
segmented pygi di um. Length about 1 . 5 i n.
PARADOXIDES, Mi ddl e Cam­
bri an, i s l arge wi th semi -ci r cul ar
cephal on and forwardl y expand­
i ng g l abel l a. I t has heavy t horaci c
segments and a smal l pygi di um.
Length 1 0 i n .
DALMANITES, Si l uri an to Lower
Devon i an. Gl abel l a expanded and
furrowed. Eyes are l ar ge, rai sed, wi t h
many facets. 1 1 grooved, spi ned
thoraci c segments. Maxi mum l engt h
about 6 i n. ; usual l y about 3 i n.
FLEXICALYMENE, Ordovi ci an to
Si l uri an, i s si mi l ar to Calymene but
wi th a l i p-l i ke pre-gl abel la margi n.
Common i n Eu rope and North
Amer i ca. Max i mum l ength about
2 i n.
anter i or and dorsal vi ews
of en rol l ed speci men
br i an, has a broad cephal on wi th a
wi de br i m and short, bl unt, f ur­
rowed gl abel l a; 1 2 t horaci c seg­
ments ; pyg i di um wi th two spi nes.
Maxi mum l ength about 6 i n.
TRINUCLEUS, Ordovi ci an - a
group of tr i l obi tes. Large cephal on
wi th br oad pi tted border and an i n­
fated gl abel l a. No eyes. Lengt h 1 i n.
CAL YMENE, Si l uri an t o Mi ddl e
Devoni an, i s a smooth t r i l obi te wi th
a f u rrowed gl abel l a; 13 grooved
t horaci c segments ; pygi di um semi ­
ci rcu l ar. Length 1 . 5 to 3 i n.
BUMASTUS, Or dovi ci an t o Si l u­
r i an, has an oval outl i n e; wi de axi al
l obe. Gl obul ar cephal on and pygi d­
i um l ack seg mentat i on. Ki dney­
shaped eyes. Maxi mum l engt h about
4 i n.
ASAPHUS, Ordovi ci an ( an "en­
r ol l ed" speci men) , has a l arge semi ­
ci r cul ar cephal on and i ndi st i nct gl a­
bel l a ; 8 t horaci c segments, grooved
but bl unt. Broad axi s. Length about
GRIFFI THIDES, Mi ssi ssi ppi an,
has an oval , smooth outl i n e; gl a­
bel l a expanded forward and f ur­
rowed. Eyes smal l ; 9 t horaci c seg­
ments. Pygi di um wi th 13 to 1 6
segments. Length t o 2 i n .
ISOTELUS, Ordovi ci an, has both
cephal on and pyg i di u m smooth and
sub-triangu l ar i n shape; gl abel l a
bl unt and u nfu rrowed. Thoraci c seg­
ments wi th wi de axi s. Length about
4 i n . ; a few for ms much l arger.
PHACOPS, Si l uri an to Devoni an,
has a semi - ci r cul ar cephal on wi th
rou nded corners and i nfated gl a­
bel l a. I t has 1 1 g rooved t horaci c
segments. Length usual l y 2 to 3 i n.
Note the l arge, rai sed
mul ti -faceted eyes.
CRUSTACEANS are a maj or group of mar i n e, f resh­
water, and l and art hropods. Mar i ne for ms, most common
and i mportant today, i ncl ude crabs, l obsters, sh r i mps and
barnacl es. Crayfsh l i ve i n fresh water ; sow bugs on l and.
Cr ustaceans devel op t hrough several l arval stages, mol t­
i ng t hei r shel l s as they grow. Al l have two pai rs of anten­
nae ; most breat he t hrough gi l l s. Ostracods are i mportant
fossi l cr u staceans.
LEPERDITIA, Lower Si l uri an to
Upper Devoni an. Large, obl ong
shel l ; strai ght, short h i n ge; val ves
u nequal . Length about 0. 4 i n .
DREPANELLA, Mi ddl e Ordovi ci an
to Lower Si l uri an. Strai ght h i n ge;
l on g margi nal ri dge and two or more
i solated l obes. Length 0. 1 i n.
OSTRACODS are smal l , bi val ved cr ustaceans abun­
dant i n oceans but al so l i vi ng i n fresh water. The ani mal
occupi es a l ateral l y compressed shel l , h i nged al ong t he
u pper margi n . One val ve ofen over l aps the other . Shel l s
have l obes, pi ts, spi nes and r i bs. Ostracods mol t as they
g row, and i mmat u re mol t stages often occur as fossi l s.
Because t hey are common, ostracods are wi del y used i n
correl at i on o f strata of Cambr i an to Recent Age.
DIZYGOPLEURA, Si l uri an t o Devo­
ni an. Has a sub-oval outl i n e; four strong
verti cal l obes, the i nner ones conti nuous
ventral l y. The l eft val ve overl aps t he
ri g ht. Len gth 0.04 i n.
BOLLIA, Or dovi ci an t o Devoni an, usu­
al l y has a swol l en, l ong outer r i dge,
wi t hi n whi ch is a paral l el central , horse­
shoe r i dge. The surface i s gener al l y
pitted . Length 0. 04 i n .
KIRKBYELLA, Mi ddl e Si l ur i an t o Penn­
syl vani an. An equi val ved ostracod wi th a
central , dorsal , n otch- l i ke sul cus. I t i s
sub-oval to f our-si ded i n outl i n e; s urface
netted or pi tted. Length 0.04 i n.
GLYPTOPLEURA, Mi ssi ssi ppi an to
Per mi an. Has a s ub-oval outl i ne wi th
strai ght h i nge. Val ves u nequal wi th ri ght
overl appi ng l eft ; medi an pi t and pr omi ­
nent hori z ontal r i bs. Length 0. 0 i n.
CYTHEREIS, Cretaceous. Fr ont end i s
deep ; back end i s compressed and
rounded. Val ves are u nequal ; top and
bottom margi ns strai ght. Or nament of a
vari abl e amount. Compl ex hi nge struc­
ture. Length 0. 03 i n .
CYTHERELLOIDEA, J u rassi c t o Re­
cent, has a sub-oval out l i ne wi th a strai ght
hi nge. Or nament vari abl e, but usual l y a
few strong, hor i zontal r i dges. Length
0. 03 i n.
BALANUS, Eocene to Recent. The
acorn barnacl e has a pyrami dal ­
shaped shel l , made of si x fxed and
t wo smal l movabl e pl ates. Gr ows at
ti de l evel on rocks. Maxi mum hei ght
about 2 i n . ; often smal l er.
attached by l ong stal ks. Pl ates are
si mi l ar to t hose of acorn barnacl es,
but a re l arger, thi n, and smooth. May
be a more pr i mi ti ve form.
BARNACLES are u n u sual cr ustaceans. Free-swi mmi n g
l arvae settl e head down an d grow overl appi ng l i my pl ates.
The ani mal feeds wi th i ts fri n ged feet. Fossi l s not com­
mon thou gh known from earl y Pal eozoi c. Some parasi ti c
forms l ack a shel l .
to sow bugs, crayfsh and many other for ms. Al l mol t
and shed th.ei r shel l s as they grow. An i mportant group
today but l ess common as fossi l s.
AEGER, J u rassi c, i s shri mp- l i ke
wi th a l ateral l y compressed body
and a proj ect i ng "beak. " Di st i ncti ve
l i mbs and a l ong abdomen. Maxi mum
l ength about 6 i n.
! 00
ERYON, J u rassi c, is a smal l
l obster-l i ke decapod wi th a very
broad carapace, about equal i n
l ength to t he abdomen. Length about
4 i n.
EURYPTERI DS, most cl osel y rel ated to horseshoe
cr abs, are fou n d from the Or dovi ci an to the Permi an. Most
common i n the Or dovi ci an and Si l u ri an, some g rew 9 ft.
l ong to become the l argest Pal eozoi c art hropods. Thei r
fattened, segmented bod i es were covered wi th ch i ti n .
The cephal ot horax (fused head an d t horax) had two pai rs
of eyes and si x pai rs of appendages -one pai r of pi ncers,
four pai rs of wal ki ng l egs and one oar- l i ke pai r. Beh i n d
the cephal ot horax came twel ve taper i ng segments usual l y
endi ng i n a spi ke. Eu rypter i ds were powerf ul swi mmers of
bracki sh waters. They were probabl y car ni vorous, feed i ng
on smal l er i n vertebrates.
STYLONURUS, Si l uri an t o De­
voni an, has pr omi nent, central
and g reatl y el ongated appendage&.
The head ( prosoma) i s angul ar to
semi -oval i n outl i ne and the sl ender
taper i ng body has a l ong, poi nted
tai l . Length about 8 i n .
HUGHMILLERIA, Ordovi ci an to
Permi an. Has a semi - ci rcu l ar head
and wi del y spaced compound eyes.
Bl untl y rou nd ed body outl i ne; ap­
pendages short, t he l ast pai r l argest
and pi ncer-l i ke. Bl ade-l i ke tai l .
Length about 3 i n .
! 0 !
ARACHNI DS AND MYRI APODS are h i g h l y devel ­
oped gr oups of art hropods common now b ut not as fos­
si l s. Centi pedes and mi l l i pedes are myr i apods. Arachni ds
are rel ated t o eu rypter i ds and i ncl ude spi ders, daddy- l ong­
l egs, and scorpi ons.
Scorpi ons are smal l ( 2 t o 8 i n. ) , segmented l and an i mal s
wi th fve pai rs of appendages ; t he f r ont pai r are pi ncers,
the rest are wal ki ng l egs. They have a l ong, j oi n.ed tai l .
Foss i l s occur from t h e Si l u ri an , bu t i t i s not certai n i f the
o l dest were ai r breathers.
Spi ders have on l y ei ght l egs. Most have ei ght eyes and
poi son fangs to paral yze thei r prey. The body i s d i vi ded
i nto a cephal ot horax and abdomen. Al l l i vi ng forms have
spi n nerets, but not al l make webs. Fossi l forms occur
from t he Devon i an t o Recent.
! 02
ARCHITARBUS, Pennsyl vani an,
i s an archai c spi der ; a member of a
gr oup wi th broadl y j oi ned cepha­
l ot horax and shortened abdomen.
Carapace shape i s di st i ncti ve.
Length about 3 to 4 i n.
PALAEOPHONUS, from t he Si ­
l uri an, i s a pr i mi ti ve scor pi on, wi t h
characteri sti c short, wi de append­
ages. I t may have been an aquati c
form rat her· than terrestri al . Length
1 . 5 to 2 i n.
vani an, i s a gi ant mi l l i pede wi th short
di vi ded l egs. The ent i re g roup i s
conservati ve and has changed very
l i ttl e. Max i mum l ength about 8 i n.
I NSECTS, t he l argest g roup of art hropods, compri se
about th ree-quarters of al l l i vi ng ani mal s -over 90,0 
speci es are known. Some are enor mousl y abundant and
pl ay an i mportant rol e i n h uman afai rs. I nsects ar e adapted
to many d i ferent envi ron ments and are successfu l i n
most of t hem. They have a di st i nct head, tho rax and abdo­
men, one pai r of anten nae, th ree pai rs of l egs, and one or
two pai rs of wi ngs. Some are wi ngl ess.
I nsects are rare as fossi l s. The ol dest are wi ngl ess
forms from t he Devoni an. I n Pennsyl vani an ti mes ( Age
of I nsects) some i nsects g rew to g i ant pr oporti ons and
more than 40 speci es are known. Many l i vi ng i nsects
show l i ttl e change from anci ent forms i n the l ate Pal eozoi c.
Mesozoi c speci es are more common ; over a t housand have
been descr i bed.
wi ng from the J u rassi c. Lacewi ngs
( neuropter i ds) , whi ch are di sti n­
gui shed by t hei r tne wi ng venati on,
range f r om Per mi an t o Recent.
Length about 1 i n.
COCKROACHES ( bl attoi ds) are
an anci ent and wi despread gr oup
( Pennsyl vani an to Recent). Some
wer e up to 4 i n. l ong. 80 Upper
Pal eozoi c speci es ar e known.
dragonfy wi  h a wi ngspan of about
2 i n. Outstretched wi ngs are typi cal
of the group, whi ch occurs from
Permi an to Recent.
Li v i ng ech i n oder ms ( 1 -5). Fossi l for ms (6-8) .
ECHI NODERMS are a phyl um of mar i ne an i mal s cov­
ered wi th l i my pl ates or spi nes. Pl ates are fxed i n sea
u rchi ns (ech i noi ds) , fexi bl e i n some starfsh (asteroi ds) ,
and i sol ated i n sea cucumbers ( hol ot h ur i oi ds) . Edr i oas­
teroi ds, cystoi ds, bl astoi ds and cr i noi ds l i ved attached ;
the rest are free movi ng. Th i s phyl um consi sts of ei ght
common cl asses i l l ustrated above. Bel ow are typi cal
i nternal str uct ures. Di gest i ve system i s green ; water­
vascul ar system orange. Exoskel eton is pu r pl e. These
an i mal s al so have a wel l -devel oped nervous system.
\ O4
EDRI OASTEROI DS are ext i nct, attached ech i n oder ms
wi th round or fl attened, often asymmetri cal bod i es cov­
ered wi th smal l , i r regu l ar, fexi bl e pl ates. Each had a cen­
tral mouth s u rrou nded by fve sl ender, s i n u ous, attached
ar ms. Cambr i an to Mi ssi ssi ppi an.
CYSTOI DS, another exti n ct group of ech i noder ms, al so
had rou nded bodi es made u p of many i r regu l ar pl ates
wi th tri an gu l ar pore open i ngs. They l acked the s i n u ou s
arms of t h e edr i oasteroi ds. Or dovi ci an t o Devon i an .
ci an. A gl obose cystoi d of many
i r r egul ar pol ygonal pl at es. Central
mouth wi th short ambul acral
grooves. Pyrami dal anal coveri ng
near mouth. Bou ndari es between
pl ates often i n di sti nct. Di ameter 1 to
2 i n.
CARYOCRINITES, Or dovi ci an to
Si l ur i an, a cystoi d, wi th a g l ob­
u l ar body of l arge, regu l arl y arranged
pl ates. Mouth and ambul acral
g rooves conceal ed bel ow pl ates. 6-13
feebl e arms. Pyra mi dal anal pl ates ;
l ong stem. Di ameter about 1 i n .
Mi ssi ssi ppi an. An edr i oasteroi d
wi th fve narrow, si nuous ambu­
l acral grooves ; t h ree c urved ri ght,
two l eft. Peri phery has promi nent
r i ngs of smal l pl ates. Di ameter about
1 . 5 i n.
HEMICYSTITES, Or dovi ci an to
Devon i an. An ed ri oasteroi d wi th a
t hi n, flatten ed body and fve short,
radi ati ng ar ms, sur rou nded by a
r i ng of l arge pl ates and margi nal
r i ngs of s mal l er ones. Di ameter
about 0. 8 i n .
! 05
BLASTOI DS ( Ordovi ci an to Per mi an) , an ext i nct cl ass .
of ech i noderms, are especi al l y common i n Mi ssi ssi ppi an
rocks. The fossi l s consi st of a X- to 1 - i n. , cupl i ke body
wh i ch was attached at the base to a short stem. Each
"cup" has 1 3 pl ates, symmetri cal l y ar ranged, wi th fve
petal -shaped ambul acral g rooves. The l i vi ng an i mal g rew
i nsi de t he cu p as shown on pages 74 an d 1 04.
CODASTER, Si l . t o Penn. , has a
pyrami dal cup, sharpl y poi nted be­
l ow and fve-si ded i n cross secti on.
Pl ates arou nd base and on the si des
are l ong ; t hose near mouth are short.
Ambul acral g rooves are short and
tri angul ar. Hei ght 0. 5 to 1 i n.
PENTREMITES, Mi ss. t o Penn. ,
has a smal l , bud- l i ke cup wi t h smal l
basal pl ates and very l ong si de
pl ates ar ound t he broad and petal ­
l i ke ambul acral g rooves. Common
i n Mi ssi ssi ppi Val l ey. Hei ght about
1 to 2 i n.
radi al pl ates
! 0ó
sj de
Mi ssi ssi ppi an, has gl obul ar cup
wi th very l ong ambul acral grooves
whi ch l ack pores on outer edges.
Pl ates al ong the si des are l arge and
overl ap those ar ound t he mouth.
Hei ght about 0. 5 i n .
SCHIZOBLASTUS, Mi ssi ssi p­
pi an to Per mi an, has an ovoi d c u p.
Pl ates ar ound mouth are l arge, wi th
promi nent pai rs of openi ngs near
the top. Base i s usual l y depressed.
Ambul acral grooves are l ong and
narrow. Hei ght 0. 8 i n.
si de
CRI NOI DS, or sea l i l i es, are fower- l i ke ech i noder ms,
often beauti f ul l y col ored, whi ch grow i n col on i es on t he
sea foor. Some fossi l f or ms were free swi mmi n g b ut
most were fxed by a stem formed of var i ousl y shaped
di scs or col umnal s ( p. 74) su r mou nted by a ci rcl et of ar ms.
Al l have a fve-f ol d rad i al symmetry, but vary i n shape,
pl ates and ar ms. Ordovrci an to Recent.
cup, composed of a few pl ates, often
with a roug h surface. The l ong ar ms
are branched. Mi ssi ssi ppi an to Per­
mi an. Maxi mum hei ght of crown of
t hi s cr i noi d about 2.8 i n. , but i t i s
often smal l er.
ISOCRI NUS, Tr i assi c - Terti ary,
and the si mi l ar Pentacr i ni tes, have
l ong, branched arms and star­
shaped col umnal s. Both of these
stem-bear i ng, arti c u l ate cr i noi ds are
characteri zed by a l ar ge crown and a
smal l dorsal cup. Cr own to 2.5 i n.
GL YPTOCRINUS, Ordovi ci an to
Si l uri an. The cup of t hi s cr i noi d
wi t h i t s star- shaped or nament i s
smal l i n compar i son wi th r est of
crown. The ar ms are l ong, sl ender
and branchi ng. Maxi mum hei g ht of
crown 2. 5 i n .
TAXOCRINUS, Devoni an t o Mi s­
si ssi ppi an, has a smal l cup s ur­
mounted by massi ve, branchi ng,
embraci ng ar ms. The di sc- l i ke pl ates
of the stem of t hi s and si mi l ar forms
are the most common cr i noi d fos­
si l s. Hei ght of crown about 2 i n .
I S -
col umnal s
STARFI SH ðn0 BRI TTLE STARS ( Asteroi ds and
Ophi uroi ds) ar e free- movi ng ech i noderms. Starfsh have
fve broad arms wi th t ube-feet al ong the g rooves on t hei r
l ower s u rface. Bri ttl e stars have a wel l -defned central
di sc and sl ender arms formed of d i screte "vertebrae".
Both gr oups ar e rare as fossi l s.
HUDSONASTER, Mi ddl e t o Up­
per Ordovi ci an, i s an earl y starfi sh
wi th t hi ck, short, taperi ng arms cov­
ered wi th l arge, regul arl y arranged
pl ates. I t has pr omi nent ambul acral
g rooves on the l ower surface. Di am­
eter about 1 i n.
ASTER) i s an Or dovi ci an-Devoni an
starfi sh wi th sharpl y poi nted arms
and regul ar radi at i ng ornament on
the upper surface. I t has a central
d i sc with many smal l pl ates. Ambu­
l acral g rooves pr omi nent. Di ameter
about 1 . 5 i n .
URASTERELLA i s an Ordovi ci an
to Pen nsyl vani an starfsh wi th l ong,
sl ender, fexi bl e arms but wi th no
obvi ous central di sc. I t has promi ­
nent ambul acral grooves on the
l ower surface and smal l , i rregul ar
pl ates. Di ameter about 2 i n .
AGANASTER i s a Mi ssi ssi ppi an
bri ttl e star wi th a l arge, fower- l i ke
central di sc and short, sl ender arms.
Bri ttl e stars devel oped i n the Ordo­
vi ci an but were not common u nti l
the Mesozoi c. Often represented by
i solated arm pl ates. Di am. about 1 i n.
ECHI NOI DS ( sea u rch i ns, sand dol l ars and t hei r ki n)
have spi ny, gl obu l ar, fattened or heart- shaped shel l s or
tests made of smal l , l i my pl ates. The test often has fve­
fol d rad i al symmetry. Al l Pal eozoi c echi noi ds (as Lovene­
chinus) were reg u l ar ; many l ater forms (as Micraster) are
irregu l ar . Fou n d from t he Ordovici an to Recent.
LOVENECHINUS, Mi ssi ssi ppi an,
has a l arge spheri cal test, wi th l ong,
ambul ac ral areas, each made of
four col u mns of smal l pl ates. Be­
tween the g rooves are four to seven
col umns of l arger pl ates. Di ameter
3 to 4 i n.
CIDARIS, Upper Tri assi c t o Re­
cent, i s a gr oup name for ech i noi d•
wi t h a r ound test and mout h and
anus at opposi te pol es. Ambul acra
l ong and narrow; the spaces be­
tween are broad, wi th l arge tubercl es
and spi nes. Maxi mum d i ameter
about 3 i n .
CLYPEUS, J u rassi c, i s an i rreg­
ul ar sand dol l ar wi th fattened test
and a ci rcul ar or fve-si ded out­
l i ne beari ng petal - l i ke ambul acral
areas. The mouth i s at the central
poi nt of the test whi ch i s covered by
very smal l t uber cl es. Di am. to 4 i n.
MICRASTER, Cretaceous t o Mi o­
cene, has a t hi ck, heart-shaped test.
The ambul acral areas are su nken
and the spaces between are fl l ed
wi th l arge pl ates. The mouth i s near
the anter i or border. Surface a ran u­
l ar. Length about 2 i n.
! 0º
= di gesti ve
F = foot
MOLLUSKS i ncl ude fve cl asses of si mi l ar struct ure but
d i ferent external appearance, as shown above. Mol l u sks
are an ol d and successf ul g rou p ; most are mari ne, many
fresh-water, and some l i ve on l and. A few aquati c forms
are free foat i ng or free swi mmi ng but the maj ori ty are
bottom dwel l ers i n sand or mud . Some b urrow i nto rocks
or t i mbers. About 150, 00 l i vi ng speci es and thousands
of fossi l f or ms have been descri bed. Mol l u sks range i n
si ze f r om 60-ft. Gi ant Squ i ds and Tridacna cl ams wei g h i ng
over 50 pounds down to al most mi croscopi c speci es.
Shel l structu re vari es from the coi l ed form of snai l s to the
symmetri cal bi val ves of cl ams and the ei g ht pl ates of
chi tons. Two l i vi ng cl asses, the pel ecypods (cl ams, oys­
ters, mussel s) and gastropods (whel ks, snai l s, l i mpets) ,
are abundant. Fossi l s of these grou ps and cephal opods
are common but chi tons and tusk shel l s are rare, though
both occu r i n t he earl y Pal eozoi c. Many mol l usks are
excel l ent i ndex fossi l s.
! ! 0
GASTROPODS have a broad, muscul ar foot, a wel l ­
devel oped head wi th eyes, mout h, and tentacl es. Some
have a fl e- l i ke tongue ( rad u l a) wh i ch can bore t hrough
t he shel l s of other mol l usks. Most gastropods have l i my
spi ral shel l s. Of over 50, 00 s peci es, 35, 00 a re l i vi ng. The
shel l open i ng may be cl osed by a l i d ( opercu l u m) when
the ani mal d raws i n . Once confi ned to seas, l ater snai l s
became adapted t o l i fe i n ponds, i n streams and on l and.
br i an to Lower Or dovi ci an, is a pr i m­
i ti ve gastropod wi th a hi gh, con i cal ,
uncoi l ed shel l , the apex of whi ch i s
often of-center. Form vari abl e.
0. 7 i n .
HORMOTOMA, Or dovi ci an t o Si ­
l uri an, i s a wi del y d i stri buted, hi gh­
spi red shel l , wi th whor l s rou nded
and separated by deep notches.
Apert ure notched ; s urface qui te
smooth. 2 to 2. 5 i n.
MACLURI TES i s a nearl y fat
Ordovi ci an gastropod wi th low but
strongly rounded whorl s and a
broad, deep cent ral depressi on on
t he u pper si de. Su rface smooth.
2 to 3 i n.
vi ew
BELLEROPHON, Ordovi ci an to
Tr i assi c. A fatl y coi l ed gastropod
wi th t he outer whorl embraci ng
ear l i er ones. Br oad apertur e, wi th
si nus. Si mpl e or nament. Max i mum
d i ameter about 2 i n .
PLATYCERAS, Si l ur i an t o Per­
mi an. A l oosel y coi l ed form often
wi th i r reg ul ari ti es i n the shel l due to
cementat i on to other obj ects. Spi ral
or transverse or nament. Max i mum
di ameter about 1 . 5 i n .
PLATYOSTOMA, Si l uri an to De­
voni an, i s a form of Platyceras wi th
a l ow- spi red, gl obul ar shel l . Several
whor l s, the l ast much t he l argest,
are al l i n contact. Hei ght about 1 . 5 i n .
WORTHENI A, Mi ssi ssi ppi an to
Per mi an, has a wi de, l ow-spi red
shel l . The outer l i p has a shal l ow
si nus whi ch becomes tl l ed i n around
the whor l s. Vari abl e but wel l devel ­
oped or nament. Hei ght about 1 . 3 i n.
� STRAPAROLLUS or Euompha­
lus, Si l ur i an to Per mi an, i s fatl y con­
i cal or n ear l y fat wi th a broad central
depressi on. Whor l s are round to
tr i angul ar ; feebl e or nament. Di am­
eter about 2 i n .
NERINEA, J u rassi c t o Cretaceous, �
is a hi gh- spi red, often sl ender shel l .
Whor l s often concave ; apertu re
wi th short notch. Vari abl e or nament.
Max i mum hei ght about 5 i n.
MURCHISONIA, Si l u ri an t o Per­
mi an, i s anot her hi gh- spi red shel l ,
rat her l arge, wi th whor l s r ounded t o
angu l ar . Growth l i nes present. Outer
l i p wi th a si n us. Hei ght f rom 1 to 2 i n.
( f ar r i ght ) .
PLEUROTOMARIA, J u rassi c t o
Cretaceous, has an acutel y coni cal
shel l wi th a pr omi nent sl i t on outer
l i p and si nus fl l ed i n on whor l s.
Consi derabl e ornament. Max i mum
hei ght about 2. 5 i n .
CERI THIUM is a g roup name for
Ju rassi c to Recent gastropods wi th
h i gh- spi red, many- whorl ed shel l s,
often t ur reted and wi t h consi der abl e
ornament. Maxi mum hei ght about
5 i n.

TURRITELLA, Cretaceous to Re- �
cent, is a gr oup name for sl ender,
hi gh- spi red shel l s wi th i nci sed su­
tu res and wi t h spi ral or transverse
ornament. Si mpl e aperture. Maxi ­
mum hei ght about 4 i n .
cross secti on
CONUS, Cret. -Rec. A gr oup of
acutel y coni cal , short- spi red shel l s.
Whor l s wi t h strai g ht si des. Long,
narrow apertu re. Maxi mum hei ght
about 2 i n.
DENTALI UM, Or dovi ci an t o Re­
cent. A scaphopod ( p. 1 1 0) . Tusk­
shaped shel l , curved, t aper i ng, wi th
both ends open. Maxi mum l ength
� about 5 i n. ; usual l y smal l er.
POL YGYRA, Pal eocene to Recent.
A l and snai l . Ti g htl y coi l ed, l ow­
spi red sh
el l , fattened bel ow. I n­
dented aperture. Max i mum d i ameter
about 1 i n.
VOLUTA, Terti ary t o Recent. A
g roup of moderatel y spi red shel l s
wi th angul ated, ri bbed whorl s and
  narrow apertu re. Maxi mum hei
about 4 i n.
FUSUS, Cret. -Rec. A gr oup of nar­
row, l ong shel l s, wi th hi gh spi re and
r ounded whor l s. Long, narrow ante­
r i or canal . Ornament vari abl e. Maxi- �
mum hei ght about 2.5 i n.
VI VIPARUS, J u rassi c t o Recent.
A fresh-water gastro pod wi th a l ow­
spi red shel l . Whorl s are rou nd or
fattened and the s utu res are i n­
dented. Maxi mum hei ght about 1 . 5 i n.
! ! 4
PLANORBI S, J u rassi c t o Recent.
A g roup of fresh-water speci es.
Flatl y coi l ed, wi th enti re spi re en­
cl osed i n body whorl . Maxi mum
di ameter about 0. 9 i n.
VERTI GO, Eocene to Recent. Land
snai l wi th bul bous, oval outl i ne;
few smooth whorl s ; apert ure con­
stri cted. Hei ght about 0.05 i n .
NATICA, Tri assi c t o Recent. A
gr oup of l ow-spi red forms, wi th
l arge, bul bous fnal whor l ; surface
general l y smooth. Maxi mum hei ght
about 2 i n.
CREPI DULA, Upper Cretaceous
to Recent. Sl i pper shel l s ; beak
twi sted ; apert ure l arge, partl y cov­
ered by a t hi n pl atform. Maxi mum
l ength about 2 i n .
bottom vi ew
si de vi ew
"LITTORI NA, Pal eocene to Re­
cent, i s a thi ck, l ow- spi red and ovoi d
shel l wi th l ast whor l l arger than rest
of shel l . Smooth or weak spi ral orna­
ment. Max i mum hei ght about 1 i n.
! ! 5
PELECYPODS, " hatchet-foot" or bi val ved mol l usks,
ar e mostl y mari ne, but some l i ve i n fresh water. Oysters,
mussel s, and cl ams are l i vi ng types. The two val ves of the
shel l , usual l y si mi l ar, are j oi ned al ong a h i nge l i ne and
are hel d together by teeth and muscl es, wh i ch l eave i m­
pressi ons on the i nsi de of the shel l . The compressed
body of t he ani mal i s encl osed by the shel l . The shel l can
open to expose the foot and the si phons by whi ch the
ani mal takes food and oxygen from the water.
Most pel ecypods are bottom dwel l ers but some are
acti ve swi mmers. Others bu rrow i n sand and mud, some
are borers and some cement themsel ves t o fxed obj ects.
Pel ecypods (Ordovi ci an- Recent) are common fossi l s i n
mar i ne a n d some non-mari ne rocks. I n Europe pel ecypods
are known as l amel l i branchs, or pl ate-gi l l ed mol l usks. I n
other areas, al l pel ecypods are known as cl ams, though
some types may be cal l ed mussel s, scal l ops or oysters.
CTENODONTA has equ i val ved,
oval shel l s wi th smooth surfaces,
someti mes wi th fi ne, concentri c �
g rowth l i nes. Numerous si mi l ar
teeth al ong hi nge pl ate. Or d. -Si l .
l ength about 1 i n.
BYSSONYCHIA has a sharp,
steepl y i ncl i ned beak near end of
hi nge; usual l y strong rad i al ri bs.
These equi val ved shel l s are com­
mon i n Upper Ordovi ci an. Length
about 1 i n.
GRAMMYSIA has a pr omi nent,
bl u nted, i ncurved beak and a sub­
oval outl i ne. A deep, obl i que fol d
runs across the val ves. Si l uri an
to Mi ssi ssi ppi an. Maxi mum l ength
about 2 i n.
PTERINEA has a wi de hi nge l i ne
whi ch extends i nto "ears. " Oppo­
si te val ves di ssi mi l ar and l ack sym­
metry ; or nament of fne, concentri c
l i nes. I t has two unequal muscl e
scars. Ord. - Penn. Maxi mum l ength
about 1 . 5 i n.
GONIOPHORA, Si i . - Dev. A l op­
si ded shel l with promi nent beak
from whi ch a r i dge extends to t he
r ear margi n. Max i mum l ength about
2 i n.
MODIOLOPSIS has a t hi n, oval
shel l . Asymmet r i cal val ves are
c rossed by an obl i que depressi on.
Or d. - Si l . Two unequal muscl e scars.
Max i mum l ength about 1 . 5 i n.
! ! 7
CONOCARDIUM i s a stri ki ng fos­
sil of doubtf ul afn iti es. Beak prom­
i n ent ; hi nge l i ne l ong and strai ght.
Unequal t ri angul ar val ves have
MYALINA, Devon i an to Permi an,
has a poi nted, strongly i ncl i ned
beak, and fai nt concentri c ornamen­
tati on. Hi nge l i ne often promi nent.
Length to 4 i n . ; u s ual l y smal l er.
ALLORISMA, Mi ss. -Perm. , has an
el ongated, oval outl i ne. Margi n i s
fattened beh i nd the bl unted, ante­
ri or beak. Val ves gape posteri orl y.
Max i mum l ength a bout 2. 5 i n .
strong radi al ri bs an d often concen­
tri c growth l i nes. Anteri or short wi th
posteri or obl i que. Ordovi ci an to
Permi an. Length 1 to 2 i n.
DUNBARELLA are flattened, scal ­
l op-shaped shel l s, wi th fai rl y promi ­
nent wi ngs and branchi ng ri bs.
Feebl e concentri c ornament. Penn­
syl van i an. Length 1 to 2 i n.
CARBONI COLA has i nequi l ateral
shaped, el ongated val ves, oval i n
outl i ne. A fresh-water genus wi th
h i gh, thi ck anter i or. Ornament of
concentri c growth l i nes. Penn.
Length 1 to 1 .5 i n.
! ! 8
NUCULA is a "l t vmg fossi l , " show­
i ng al most no change si nce Si l uri an
ti mes. Su rface commonl y has con­
centri c growth l i nes. Numerous
smal l teeth and sockets. Max i mum
l ength about 1 . 5 i n .
LI MA i s obl i quel y oval i n outl i n e;
equ i val ved and i nfl ated, wi th rad i al
ri bs. The pr omi nent beaks are
poi nted. Val ves often gape. Penn­
syl van i an to Recent. Lengt h 3. 5 i n.
TRIGON I A, Jur. -Rec. , has a tri an­
gu l ar or c rescenti c outl i ne. Thi ck
val ves have a sharp r i dge from the
beak to the margi n. Conspi cuous
and var i abl e or nament. Max i mum
l ength about 3. 5 i n .
N, Si l u ri an to
Per mi an, has a strai ght h i nge wi th
pr omi nent wi ngs and no teet h.
Val ves unequal , wi t h strong r i bs
and someti mes g rowth l i nes. Length
about 1 i n.
PARALLELODON, Devoni an to
Teri ary, i s angul ar in outl i ne, el on­
gate, wi th a l ong, strai ght h i nge l i ne.
Has concentri c growth l i nes. Length
about 1 .2 i n .
PTE RIA, J u r. -Rec. , has t hi n, i nequi ­
l ateral shaped val ves wi th a l ong,
strai ght h i n ge merg i ng i nt o l arge,
u nequal wi ngs. Fi ne concentri c or
radi al or nament. Max i mum l ength
about 3 i n.
EXOGYRA, J u rassi c t o Creta­
ceous, l i ke Gryphaea bel ow, but wi th
a l arge, massi ve, spi ral l y twi sted
l eft val ve. One val ve was attached
and the other served as a l i d. Orna-
! 20
ment i s vari abl e but usual l y very
stro ngl y devel oped ei ther as g rowth
l i nes i n speci es to the l eft above or
as ri bs i n s peci es to t he ri g ht. Maxi ­
mum l ength about 5 i n .
PINNA, J u rassi c t o Recent. These
Pen- shel l s are tri angul ar, l arge,
thi n and equi val ved, wi th a l ong
h i nge. The val ves ar e gapi n g ; h i n ge
teeth absent. Attach ment to t he
bottom i s by horny th reads. Fossi l s
often fragmentary. Maxi mum l ength
about 9 i n .
I NOCERAMUS, Ju rassi c t o Cre­
taceous, i s oval in out l i ne, with a
promi nent beak and a strai ght hi nge
l i ne wi thout teeth. I t has con centri c,
corrugated growth l i nes. Several
speci es have pr oduced fossi l pearl s.
Length up to 4 ft.
GRYPHAEA, J u rassi c to Eocene,
i s cal l ed Devi l ' s t oenai l s. Val ves are
grossl y u nequal ; l eft val ve l oosel y
coi l ed, r i ght smal l , fat and l i d- l i ke;
growth l i nes conspi cuous. Deg ree
of coi l i ng i s vari abl e. Max i mum
l engt h about 3. 5 i n.
ARCA, Jurassi c to Recent, has an
angul ar outl i ne. Beak bl unt but con­
spi cuous; teeth and sockets smal l .
Promi nent rad i al ri bs. Length 2 to
3 i n.
HIPPURITES, Cretaceous, i s a
wi despread con i cal , coral - l i ke shel l .
The ri ght val ve i s ver y th i ck, deepl y
coni cal and grows attached to rocks.
The l eft val ve i s thi ck and l i d- l i ke.
Val ves move on thi ck teet h. Hei ght
about 5 i n.
OSTREA, Tri assi c t o Recent. Oys­
ters grow attached by l eft val ve,
whi ch i s concave, r i bbed and l arger
than ri g ht val ve, whi ch i s fat and
often smooth. Or nament may i n­
cl ude deep fol ds and growth l i nes;
shape very vari abl e. Length 2 to 6 i n.
ASTARTE, Tri assi c t o Recent, has
al most equal val ves, i s oval t o tri an­
gular i n outl i ne and has a promi nent
beak. It i s s mooth or has scul pt ured
growth l i nes whi ch form concentri c
ri dges. Length about 0. 8 i n.
GL YCIMERIS, Cretaceous to Re­
cent. Val ves i ndi vi dual l y symmetri ­
cal , nearl y ci r cul ar i n outl i ne; poi nted
beak, wi th a stri ated area between
beak and h i n
ge. Length 1 to 2 i n .
! 2 !
! 22
CARDIUM, Tri assi c t o Recent, i s
a very common bi valve of nearl y
ci rcular outli ne. I t i s equi valved wi th
a convex profle ; promi nent, i n­
curved beak and a curved hi nge l i ne.
Valve margi ns wavy. Strong radi al
r i bs someti mes sculptured l i ke
lappi ng ti les. Length 1 to 2. i n .
UNIO, Tri assi c t o Recent, i s a
fresh-water cl am, oval in outli ne
and equ i valved wi th a bl unt but
promi nent beak. Surface i s smooth
or has concentri c g rowth l i nes.
  Hi nge wi th rel ati vely few, di verse,
l arge teeth. Length 2 to 3 i n.
PECTEN, Mi ss. -Recent, i s the
g roup name for many wel l -known
bi val ves. Val ves i ndi vi dually sym­
metri cal except for u nequal wi ngs
at end of the l ong, strai ght hi nge,
whi ch has a tri angular l i gament pit
on the i nsi de. Strong rad i al r i bs ;
� si ngl e muscle scar. Length 1 to 8 i n.
ENSIS, Terti ary t o Recent, i s t he
common, wi despread razor shel l,
with an ol d-fashi oned razor outl i ne.
The margi ns are al most strai ght and
t he beak i s termi nal . Ornament i s
si mpl e, of fne, concentri c l i nes.
Length 1 to 1 0 i n.
e � elemnites
0 ¬¬¬ �



�   �--
Muensterocer as
Di agram shows t he devel opment of
cephal opods and the diversi ty of
1- each group in geol ogi c ti me. li vi ng --
f or ms are at the t op.
CEPHALOPODS are hi ghl y devel oped mar i ne mol l usks,
represented by the l i vi ng nauti l us, octopus and squi d. The
shel l may be exter nal , i nter nal or absent, and i t may be
vari ousl y coi l ed. Li vi ng for ms have a wel l -devel oped head,
eyes, and tentacl es. Most fossi l forms had wel l -devel oped
shel l s. Th ree mai n g roups exi st. Ammonoi ds and nauti ­
l oi ds are fou r-gi l l ed cephal opods wi th an exter nal shel l
di vi ded i nto chambers by transverse pl ates or septa. The
ani mal l i ves i n t he outermost chamber. A feshy stal k
perforates the septa. The j u nction of the septa wi t h the
shel l wal l for ms the sutu re li n e.
Col eoi d cephal opods (octopus and squ i d) have two
gi l l s and have ei ther an internal shel l or none at al l . The
most common fossi l for ms, Mesozoi c ci gar- l i ke bel em­
n i tes, are the i nter nal skel etons of squi d-l i ke speci es.
! 23
Cephal opods have been traced back to t he mi d-Cambr i an,
and i n the earl y Pal eozoi c had al ready become wi de­
spread. The l argest of these earl y forms reached a l ength
of 1Dfeet, wit h strai ght or gentl y cu rved, l ong shel l s show-
secti on
ENDOCERAS ( Acti noceras), Or­
dovi ci an. A gr oup of l ong, more or
l ess strai ght, con i cal shel l s, wi th a
l arge cal ci fed si phuncl e (shown
above), whi ch has i nternal f unnel ­
l i ke structures, nauti l oi d sutures and
promi nent recu rved septal necks.
Max. l ength about 10 f.
! 24
si de vi ew
GOMPHOCERAS, Ordovi ci an to
Devoni an, refers to a gr oup of stout,
bul bous nauti l oi ds, wi th strai ght or
sl i ghtl y curved shel l s and a l arge
body chamber. They had si mpl e
septa, T-shaped apertures and
smooth or stri ated surfaces. Length
about 3 i n.
i ng si mpl e nauti l oi d sutu res ( p. 36) . More ti ghtl y curved
forms wi th sharpl y fol ded (ammonoi d) s utu res began to
appear i n the Si l uri an. After the Devoni an the nauti l oi ds
persi sted, but they decreased i n numbers, whi l e l ater
ammonoi ds had wavy (strongl y fol ded) sut ure l i nes.
DAWSONOCERAS, Mi ddl e Si l uri an t o Lower Devoni an, has a strai ght
coni cal shel l , wi th a r i nged surface and wri nkl ed growth l i nes. Smal l central
si phuncl e. Length about 5 i n.
PHRAGMOCERAS, Si l u ri an, has
a strongl y curved, lateral l y com­
pressed shel l . Aperture l ong but
restri cted and wi th a l i pped margi n
( B) and fgure 8-shaped outl i ne.
Si phuncl e on concave si de. Trans­
verse stri ati ons. Length usual l y 4
to 5 i n.
secti on
vi ew
Pennsyl vani an, has a strai ght, con­
i cal , smooth shel l , ci rcul ar i n cross
secti on. The sut ures are transverse
and sl i ghtl y si nuous. Has a central
si ph uncl e. Feebl e concentri c or
transverse or nament. Length about
4 i n.
l ateral vi ew
ventral vi ew ventral vi ew
AGONIATITES has a fattened,
ti ghtl y coi l ed shel l wi th fai nt growth
l i nes. The ventral si phuncl e goes
t hrough strai ght septal necks. Suture
very si mpl e, wi th ventral l obe. Mi ddl e
Devoni an. Di ameter about 6 i n.
CYRTOCERAS i s a short, curved,
coni cal nauti l oi d. The shel l i s
rounded i n cross secti on and has a
promi nent ventral si phuncl e. Ordo­
vi ci an to Devoni an. Length 2 to 3 i n.
! 2ó
BACTRITES has a strai ght and
sl ender shel l whi ch i s rounded i n
cross secti on. Sutures very si mpl e,
wi th smal l ventral l obe. The si phun­
cl e i s ventral . Possi bl y ancestral t o
ammonoi ds. Ordovi ci an t o Permi an.
Length about 1 . 5 i n .
GASTRIOCERAS h as a shel l
whi ch var i es f r om gl obul ar to fat,
wi th a promi nent depressi on at cen­
ter of the whorl s, wi th a ri bbed mar­
gi n. Suture wi th si mple pr i mar
f ol di ng. Pennsyl vani an. Di am. 1 . 5 i n.
l ateral vi ew
Suture patterns adapted from
Moore, Lalicker and Fischer
MEEKOCERAS is a fattened ceph­
al opod, gener al l y smooth, wi th a
fat exteri or edge. The suture has
some secondary fol di ng i n the l obes.
Lower Tri assi c of I daho, Cal i forn i a
and Asi a. Di ameter about 2 i n.
COLUMBI TES i s a flattened,
ti ghtl y coi l ed shel l wi th an arched
outer edge. Or nament i s feebl e. I t
has a suture wi th mi nor secondary
fol di ng of the l obes. Lower Tri assi c.
Di ameter about 1 . 5 i n .
l ateral vi ew
Bl ue d i agrams show wavy sut ure
l i nes i mporant in i denti fyi ng
ammonoi ds ; r ed ar row poi nts t o
apert ure ( p. 73) .
l ar t o fattened shel l wi t h a pr omi ­
nent depressi on at the center of the
whor l s. Sutu re has deep ventral
l obe, with strai ght si des. Mi ssi ssi p­
pi an. Di ameter about 1 i n .
GONI ATI TES i s a cephal opod
wi th a gl obul ar, smooth shel l sur­
roundi ng a smal l but pr omi nent
depressi on at the center of the
whorl s. Sutu re l i ne very di st i ncti ve.
Mi ssi ssi pPi an. Di ameter about 1 i n.
! 27
CERATITES, Mi ddl e Tri assi c, i s
a ti ghtl y coi l ed, robust shel l , wi th the
l ast whorl feebl y embraci ng earl i er
ones. The coarse r i bs do not extend
to fat or broad l y arched edge of the
shel l . Sutu res are di sti ncti ve. Di am­
eter about 2 i n.
SAGENITES, Upper Tr iassi c, has
a gl obul ar but compressed, ti ghtl y
coi l ed shel l . It has spi ral and radi al
ornament, the l atter extendi ng over
the shel l edges. Compl ex suture. It
may have short spi nes. Di ameter 2
to 3 i n.
HI LDOCERAS, Lower Ju rassi c,
has a fattened shel l that i s some­
what square in cross secti on. I t has
three promi nent ri dges on the outer
edges of the whorl s and a wi de
central depressi on. Strong si ckl e·
shaped ri bbi ng on si des and com­
pl ex sutu res. Diameter 2 to 3 i n.
HAMITES, Lower Cretaceous, i s
l oosel y coi l ed i n one pl ane, wi th
one short and two l ong shafts whi ch
are ci rcul ar i n cross secti on. The
promi nent r i bs extend across the
outer edge of the whor l s. Compl ex
suture l i nes. Length 2 to 3 i n.
si c, a ti ghtl y coi l ed, flat ammonite
with numerous whorl s. Many ri bs,
the l ater ones branchi ng. The ri bs
extend over the rounded outer edges
of the whorl s. Long body chamber
and compl ex sutu re. Di ameter 2 to
3 i n.
PACHYTEUTHIS, Jurassi c to
Lower Cretaceous, i s a bel emn ite
with short, stout, bl unt guard (sl en­
der i n young forms) . Fossi l i s sub­
oval , eccentri c i n cross secti on and
often l arge, wi th a g roove down one
si de. Length 3 to 4 i n.
thi ck and ti g htl y coi l ed, wi t h t he l ast
whorl feebl y embraci ng the others ;
ri bs pr omi nent, conti nuous across
the edge and branchi ng at mi ddl e of
whorl . Long body chamber. Aper­
t ure may have hood-l i ke l i ps. Maxi ­
mum di ameter a bout S i n. , but usual l y
smal l er.
TURRILITES, Cretaceous, has a
hi gh-spi red shel l wi th whor l s barel y
i n contact. I t l ooks l i ke a gastropod,
but i s di sti ngui shed by presence of
septa and a compl ex pattern of su­
tures. Conspi cuous transverse ri bs
or tubercul es. Length about 5 i n.
SCAPHITES, Cretaceous, i s a
fattened spi ral coi l wi th the earl y
whorl s i n contact and the l ast one
free, wi th short strai ght shaft and a
hooked end. Ornamented wi th ri bs
whi ch often branch ; some bear
tu bercul es. Length 1 . 5 to 2 i n.
Cretaceous, i s a t i ghtl y coi l ed shel l
wi th the l ast whor l g reatl y expanded,
and often extended i nto an oval
shape. Promi nent ri bs and often
nodes. Very compl ex sutu re pattern
i s character i sti c. Di ameter usual l y
2 to 4 i n.
BACULITES, Upper Cretaceous,
has a strai ght shel l except for a smal l
spi ral i ni ti al stage. Surface smooth
or with curved striae or low, rounded
r i bs. Suture symmetri cal wi th i ntri ­
cate fol di ng. Speci men' s posi ti on
i n total shel l shown above. Max i mum
l ength about 6 ft. but usual l y 3 to 6 i n.
BELEMNI TES, Mi ss. -Cret. , are
common Mesozoi c cephal opods.
They consi st of l ong, bul l et-l i ke
i nternal skel etons (guards), wi th a
coni cal str u cture or depressi on at
one end. One si de of the guard may
have a furrow and it may al so have
b ranched marki ngs. Length 2 to 5 i n.
GRAPTOLI TES are ext i nct mar i ne, col o n i al organ i sms
rel ated t o t he protochordates, a group cl osel y rel ated t o
t he vertebrates. The typi cal graptol i te consi sts of one or
more ch i ti nous branches (sti pes) bear i ng cup- l i ke struc­
tu res (thecae) . See p. 74. They are i mportant ear l y Pal eo­
zoi c i ndex fossi l s.
DENDROIDS, Upper Cambri an
to Mi ssi ssi ppi an. Branch i ng fan­
l i ke g raptol ites wi th numerous thi n
sti pes. May have a root- l i ke base.
Maxi mum l ength about 4 i n.
DI PLOGRAPTUS, Mi ddl e Ordo­
vi ci an to Lower Si l u ri an, has a si n­
gl e sti pe, wi th two rows of cl osel y
spaced, obl i que, curved thecae.
• Length usual l y about 2 i n.
MONOGR,PTUS, Si l uri an, has
a si ngl e strai ght or cu rved sti pe,
wi th one row of thecae, whi ch are
very vari abl e i n form. Length usual l y
1 to 2 i n.
Mi ddle Ordovi ci an, have two sti pes
di vergi ng at angl es u p to 1 8, and
each has one row of cyl i nd ri cal
thecae. Length of sti pe 1 to 2. 5 i n.
dovi ci an to Lower Si l uri an, has a
si ng l e, strai ght sti pe, wi th two rows
of sharpl y curved thecae. Outer
wal l s paral l el to axi s of stipe. Length
1 to 2 i n.
NEMAGRAPTUS, Mi ddl e Ordo­
vi ci an, is an i mportant and wi de­
spread g u i de fossi l . The two S­
shaped sti pes gi ve ri se to n umerous
short branches. Length 1 . 5 i n.
CEPHALASPIS i s a typi cal mem­
ber of a g roup of cl osel y rel ated
ostracoder ms ( pri mi ti ve, j awl ess
fi sh) , ran g i ng from the Upper
Si l uri an through t he Devon i an. Most
cephal aspi ds had a fattened, bony
head shi el d, and a scal e-covered
body. Length 6 i n. to 1 f.
Vertebrates (fsh, amph i bi a, repti l es, bi rds and mammal s)
and a few mi nor, pr i mi ti ve gr oups bel ong to t he Phyl um
Chordata. Al l have a dorsal nerve cord with a s u pport i ng
rod ( notochord) l ater repl aced by t he vertebral col u mn i n
vertebrates. Al l have g i l l sl i ts i f onl y at some stage of
their l ife history.
Fishes, the ol dest vertebrates, are divi ded into four
cl asses : agnatha, the j aw l ess fsh ; pl acoder ms, the pl ate­
ski nned fsh ; chond ri cht hyes, the sha rks and rays ; and
ostei chthyes, the bony fshes.
The agnatha, the most pr i mi ti ve verteb rates, l ack pai red
fns and true j aws. The ol dest fossil vertebrates are Or do­
vician bony fragments from Wyomi ng and Col orado.
Most fossi l agnatha were ostracoder ms, which were
covered by an ar mor of bony pl ates or scal es. They i n­
cl uded both mari ne and fresh-water speci es. Both are
widespread in Devoni an st rata. No agnatha are known
in post- Devonian rocks. Thei r l i vi ng representatives (the
parasiti c l amprey and hag fsh) suggest the l ater for ms
may have been soft-bodi ed.
! 32
PTERASPI S, an Up per Si l ur i an
t o Devoni an ostracoder m, i s a smal l
streaml i ned fi sh. The head i s en­
cl osed i n t wo l ar ge oval pl ates, wi t h
a r ear spi ne and gi l l openi ngs.
Length about 6 i n .
THELODUS, Mi ddl e Si l ur i an to
Lower Devoni an. The ent i re body of
t hi s ostracoder m i s covered wi th
stud- l i ke, i nterl ocki ng dent i cl es.
Smal l l ateral eyes ; mouth bel ow;
fattened body. Length 3 to 8 i n.
ANGLASPI S i s a Devoni an ost ra­
coder m, has a l ar ge oval head shi el d,
and wi del y spaced eyes. The t r unk
and tai l ar e covered by di st i ncti ve
scal es. Length about 6 i n .
ni an, has a very l ar ge, fattened h ead
shi el d of l arge and smal l f used
pl ates. Vertebrate f ossi l s are usual l y
i ncompl ete u n l i ke whol e speci mens
shown her e. Lengt h 1 f.
PLACODERMS (pl ate-ski nned) are an ext i nct ( Upper
Si l uri an to Permi an) cl ass of fshes with pr i mi ti ve jaws
and pai red fns. A vari ety of forms i ncl udes acanthodi ans
( spi ny sharks) , smal l , spi ny-fi n ned, streaml i ned, fresh­
water fsh, whi ch were covered by t hi ck scal es ; art hrod i res
(j o i nted- necks) , wi th a heavi ly armored head and shou l der
regi on, and wi de gapi ng jaws ; and anti archs, smal l , ar­
mored , box- l i ke bottom dwel l ers, wi th powerf ul , arm­
l i ke fns, abundant i n the mi d-Devoni an.
PTERICHTHYS, Devoni an. Front
part of body covered wi th hi ghl y
arched, fused pl ates ; rear wi th
scal es. Cl osel y spaced eyes. Strong
"arms. " Length 6 i n.
BOTHRIOLEPIS, Devoni an, an
anti arch wi th front heavi l y armored
by a shor head shi el d and a l ong,
box- l i ke body shi el d. Long, j oi nted
"arms. " Length about 9 i n.
COCCOSTEUS, Devon i an, a j oi nt­
ed neck art hrodi re with armored
head and thorax. Rest of body naked.
Exposed bony pl ates serve as teeth.
Length 18 i n .
CLIMATIUS, Upper Si l uri an t o De­
voni an. A spi ny acanthodi an "shark"
covered wi th rhomboi d scal es, 2
spi nes on back ; 5 pai rs of ventral
fns. Length 3 i n.
SHARKS AND RAYS ( Chondri chthyes) have a skel e­
ton of carti l age and open gi l l sl i ts. Most are mari ne preda­
tors wi th wel l -devel oped teeth and are protected by bony
scal es. These and an occasi onal spi ne are usual l y t he
onl y fossi l s found. I n contrast t o pl acoderms, sharks have
two pai rs of pai red fns, and more speci al i zed jaws and
teet h. The ol dest sharks ( Devoni an) underwent g reat ex­
pansi on i n the Upper Pal eozoi c. Mesozoi c and Cenozoi c
for ms were wi despread.
ni an. Wel l -devel oped, broad fns
and streaml i ned, wi t h naked body.
Teeth n umerous, poi nted. Maxi mum
l engt h about 4 f.
SHARK TEETH are common fos­
si l s i n some rocks of the Mi ocene.
Largest are those of Carcharodon, a
40- to 50-f. shark. Most fossi l teeth
are wel l -preserved.
Perm. , is a fresh-water shark, wi th
greatly el ongated dorsal fi n and
poi nted tai l . Pai red, leaf-shaped ven­
tral fns. Spi ne at back of head.
Length usual ly about 2.5 f.
RAYS AND SKATES, J u rassi c
to Recent, are bottom dwel l ers, wi th
fattened bodi es, huge pectoral fns
and heavy, shel l -cr ushi ng teeth. Rare
as fossi l s.
From a photo by
Smi thsoni an I nstituti on
BONY FI SHES (Ostei chthyes) are t he most abundant,
di verse and compl ex group of fshes. They out nu mber al l
other fshes twenty to one and i ncl ude more speci es than
al l other vertebrates combi ned. Bony fshes have a bony
skel eton and sl i my, scal e-covered bodi es. Some fossi l
and a few l i vi ng bony fshes have l ungs; t he rest have an
ai r bl adder that control s buoyancy.
Most of the earl y bony fshes had . streaml i ned bodi es
and wel l -devel oped fns. These featu res per mi tted acti ve
swi mmi n g wi th mi n i mu m di stu rbance of the water and
contr i buted t o the fi shes' rapi d expansi on. Large eyes
and mout hs, ai ds i n evasi on and food gather i ng, al so
hel ped bony fi shes to fl our i sh i n l akes, streams and seas.
Speci fc adaptat i ons to u n i que envi r on ments devel oped.
The ol dest (Mi ddl e Devon i an) bony fshes had th i ck
enamel scal es, wh i ch became l i ghter i n l ater forms. I n
the ray-fn n ed (act i nopteryg i an) forms the fns are sup­
ported by many sl ender ray- l i ke bones. Pal eozoi c ray­
fnned forms were a smal l fresh-water grou p, wh i ch l ater
grew abundant i n the seas. Onl y a few survi vi ng fsh , such
as stu rgeon, represent these pr i mi ti ve ray fns. Earl y forms
were repl aced i n Mesozoi c ti mes by hol eost ray fns, wi th
more compl ex and efci ent skel etons, j aws and scal es.
Survi vi ng hol eosts i ncl ude the garpi ke and bowfsh. I n
Cretaceous ti mes most of the hol eosts were repl aced by
the more advanced tel eost r ay fns, wh i ch i ncl ude al most
al l l i vi ng fsh .
The other mai n group i s the l obe fns ( Choan i chthyes) .
I n t hi s g rou p, the fns are su pported by a strong bony
axi s and the nostri l s open i nto the mout h. Lobe fns i n­
cl ude l u ng fsh ( Di pnoi -Devon i an to Recent) and t he
fri nge fns (crossopterygi ans) . I n t ur n, the fri nge fn s
i ncl ude coel acanths an d the smal l , powerfu l , car ni vorous
fshes of t he Devoni an from wh i ch t he amph i bi a arose.
! 3ó
RAY FIN, showi ng typi cal struc­
t ure of supporti ng bones, charac­
teri sti c of most l i vi ng fsh.
CHEIROLEPIS i s a Mi ddl e De­
voni an ray-fn ned fsh. I t i s probabl y
si mi l ar to the forms that were an­
cestral to al l l ater bony fshes. Length
about 11 i n.
LEPIDOTUS, a Jurassi c hol ostea.
ray fn, is a deep-bodi ed speci es wi th
dorsal fi n set far back and wi th 'tw
pai red fns and anal fn bel ow. I t had
strong cr ushi ng teeth and heavy en­
amel ed scal es. Length 12 i n.
LOBE FIN, showi ng typi cal struc­
t ure of strong, supporti ng bones
from whi ch feet devel oped ( p. 1 38) .
OSTEOLEPIS, Mi ddl e Devoni an,
a pr i mi ti ve fr i nge fn (p. 1 38), wi th
thi ck, rhombi c scal es ; wel l -spaced
medi an fi ns, short, l obed, pai red fns
and si mpl e teeth. Length 9 i n.
Devoni an speci al i zed fri nge fn (p.
1 38) , wi th the medi an fi n set wel l
back on the body and wi th l ong,
l obed, pai red fi ns bel ow. Scal es are
r ounded. Length about 2. 5 f.
DIPTERUS, Devoni an, i s a pri mi ­
ti ve l ung fsh wi th streaml i ned body, .
strong pai red fns, heavy cr ushi ng
teeth, scal es and a rather red uced
bony skel eton. Length 15 i n.
LOBE FI NS, Choan i chthyes, (l ung fsh and fri nge fns)
are ai r- breath i n g bony fi sh (Devoni an to Recent) wi th i n ­
ternal nostri l s an d strongl y supported fn s. Th ree genera
of l u n g fsh ( Di pnoi ) su rvi ve. The fri nge fns (crossopte­
rygi ans) , ancestors of amphi bi a, i ncl ude l i vi ng coel a­
canths and abu ndant Devon i an for ms.
Devoni an, i s a powerful carni vorous
fri nge fi n or crossopterygi an. I t has
an advanced structure and charac­
teri sti cs and i s cl osel y rel ated to the
ancestors of the amphi bia. Length
2 f.
COELACANTHUS, Mi ss. -Perm. ,
i s a typi cal deep-bodi ed, l obate­
fnned coel acanth, such as were
common in the Mesozoi c. Thought
to be exti nct, the frst l i ve coel acanth
was caught of Madagascar i n 1 9.
Length usual l y l ess than 1 .5 f.
pri mi ti ve amphi bi an, with many fi sh­
l i ke characters ( bones of skul l , ver­
tebrae, tai l ) , but others al ready
amphi bi an ( strong shoul der and hi p
gi rdl es, l i mbs, r i bs) . Length 3 f.
AMPHI BI A are the si mpl est tetrapods, the fi rst cl ass of
vertebrates to i nvade the l and. They are onl y partl y adapted
to l and l i fe, as nearl y al l l ay eggs i n water and l arvae are
gi l l - breath i n g, aq uati c creatu res that onl y l ater devel op
l u ngs and fou r l i mbs. Most l i vi ng forms (frogs, toads,
sal amanders) l i ve i n damp envi ron ments.
The o l dest amph i bi a ( i chthyostegi ds) come from the
Upper Devon i an of Greenl and and retai n many characters
remi ni scent of t hei r cr ossopterygi an ancestors (p. 1 37) .
Most earl y amphi bi a were l abyri nthodonts wi th i nfol ded
enamel i n t hei r teeth . These were sprawl i ng carn i vores,
u p to 1 5 f. l ong. Mi ssi ssi ppi an to Tr i assi c.
ERYOPS, Permi an, i s a l arge
carni vorous l abyri nthodont; heavy­
bodi ed and squat wi th a large tri ­
angu l ar skul l ; short powerful l i mbs.
Wel l adapted to l and l i fe. Length 5 f.
! 3º
EOGYRINUS, Pennsyl vani an. The
deep powerful body and weak l i mbs
of thi s very l arge sal amander show i t
was l argel y aquati c i n its habits.
Length 1 5 f.
DIPLOCAULUS, Permi an, i s a
wedge-headed sal amander wi th
weak l egs. The spaci ng of the eyes
and body shape suggest a l ife that
was l argel y aq uati c. Length 2 f.
an, are l arval l abyri nthodonts, wi th
external gi l l s and l ess bony skel eton
than adul ts. Properl y known by
generi c names. Length 2 to 3 i n.
CACOPS, Permi an, i s a smal l l and
l abyri nthodont wi th wel l -devel oped
l egs, armor plates on back, short tai l
and heavy skul l . Length to 16 i n.
Penn. , a
smal l pri mi ti ve amphi bi an wi th a
l ong body but l i mbs very weak i n
compari son wi th l ater forms. Skul l
quite si mi l ar to crossopterygi an fsh.
Length 3 f.
REPTI LES ( Pennsyl van i an to Recent) are col d- bl ooded,
egg-l ayi ng vertebrates i ncl udi ng crocodi l es, t urtl es. l i zards
and snakes. Fossi l for ms, more n umer ous and wi despread,
domi nated Mesozoi c l i fe.
Repti l es are better adapted to l and l i fe than amphi bi ans.
Fert i l i zati on i s i nternal ; eggs are l ai d on l and and i ncl ude
a food suppl y and a protecti ve cover i ng. Repti l es are pro­
tected by a ski n wi t h scal es or pl ates. They b reathe ai r
t hr ough l ungs.
Some of t he ear l i est repti l es ( seymou ri amorphs) showed ·
d mi xtu re of amphi bi an and repti l i an characters. Other
earl y repti l es i ncl uded parei asau rs, pel ycosaurs, mam­
mal - l i ke theraspi ds, and aquati c mesosau rs. The r ul i ng
Mesozoi c repti l es i ncl uded di nosau rs on t he l and, ptero­
sau rs i n the ai r and si x g rou ps i n the seas.
Repti l es decl i ned g reatl y at the cl ose of the Mesozoi c
Era. Onl y fou r of ffteen maj or rept i l e g roups sti l l survi ve.
Al l groups, exti n ct and survi vi ng, have characteri sti c
sku l l str uctu res.
skul l ed vegetari an pel ycosaur devel ­
oped a vertebral "sai l " l i ke Dimetro­
don, a l arger-skul l ed carni vore.
Compare t hem on p. 1 42. Permi an.
SEYMOURIA, Permi an, i s a very
pr i mi ti ve repti l e, wi th many amphi b­
i an characteri sti cs but with di sti n c­
ti ve repti l i an vertebrae and wel l ­
devel oped l i mbs. Length 2 f.
car ni vorous pel ycosaur. Length
about 8 f.
OPHIACODON, Permi an, a
fsh-eat i ng repti l e. Maxi mum
· l ength about 8 ft.
After E. H. Col bert
EARL Y MESOZOI C REPTI LES i ncl ude a great vari ety
of for ms, most of wh i ch arose in the Permi an from an
ancestor not g reatl y d i ferent from Seymouria. Mesozoi c
forms i ncl ude sea-goi ng t urtl es, pl acodonts and i chthyo­
saurs as wel l as many terrestri al for ms. Among the l and
repti l es were sai l - backed pel ycosau rs, mammal - l i ke rep­
t i l es and smal l bi pedal thecodonts, whi ch were the an­
cestors of di n osaurs, bi rds, crocodi l es, snakes and fyi ng
pterosau rs. The repti l i an conquest of l and, sea and ai r
i s one of the maj or events of earth hi story. No other g roup
of an i mal s except t he mammal s have shown such a range
of adaptat i ons to vari ed cl i mates and envi ron ments.
! 42
sea serpents, probabl y evol ved
from l i zard- l i ke ancestors. Pow­
erul , crocodi l e- l i ke bodi es,
strong jaws and teeth, and wel l ­
devel oped paddl es. Length 3ft.
ICHTHYOSAURS, or fish l i zards,
are carn i vorous mari ne repti l es (Tri ­
assi c to Cretaceous) , wi th stream­
l i ned fsh- l ike bodi es. Wel l - pre­
served fossi l s show they gave bi rth
to live you ng. Len gth up to 3 ft.
PLACODONTS are Tri assi c,
mol l usk-eati ng repti l es, wi th
wal rus-l i ke bodi es and hi ghl y
speci al i zed teet h. Some forms
had bony armor on the back.
Length about 11 ft.
ancestors of present l and and
sea forms, arose i n the Tri as­
si c. Some Cretaceous t urtl es
reached 1 2 ft.
PLESIOSAURS, Ju rassi c to Creta·
ceous, were mari ne carni vores. They
were active swi mmers propel l ed by
powerful padd l es. Some were l ong'
necked, wi th smal l heads and l ong
tai l s ; others were short-necked and
l ong-headed. Len gth 15 to 40 ft.
NOTHOSAURS are sl i m,
fsh-eati �g amphi bi ous repti l es
from the Tri assi c, rel ated and
perhaps ancestral to the pl esi o­
sau rs. Length 4 ft.
After E. H. Col bert
oceans as d i n osaurs di d the l and. Usi ng paddl es and
l ungs i nstead of fns and g i l l s, these descendants of
former l and ani mal s became h i gh l y adapted to sea l i fe.
Turtl es and mosasaurs devel oped from d i ferent ancestral
stock than other mar i ne repti l es.
! 43
DI NOSAURS, the terri bl e l i zards, are the best known
of al l repti l es. They domi nated l i fe on the l and d u ri ng
most of t he Mesozoi c Era, a peri od of about 1 40 mi l l i on
years. Di nosaurs arose from a g roup of Tri assi c theco­
dont repti l es and are represented by two mai n types. One
group, the sau r i sch i ans, had a rept i l i an h i p structu re.
The other g roup, the orni t hi schi ans, were bi rd- hi pped
di nosau rs.
Sau r i schi ans devel oped i nto two di st i nct g roups of
di nosau rs. The most pr i mi ti ve were the ther opods, the
ol dest of wh i ch were smal l (5 ft. ) , sl ender, bi pedal crea­
tu res, wi th a l ong bal anci ng tai l . Later for ms i ncl uded the
g i ant carn i vores. The second g roup were the saur opods,
most of whi ch were l arge, fou r-footed, l ong- necked herbi ­
vores. The l argest of these g rew up to 87 ft. l ong. Teeth,
sharp i n carn i vores and bl unt i n her bi vores, usual l y ex­
tended the l ength of both jaws.
Orn i t hi sch i an di n osau rs i ncl uded fou r g roups. Stego­
sau rs were 20-ft. her bi vores wi th a h i gh -arched, armored
back from wh i ch heavy bony pl ates rose in a doubl e row,
and a spi ked tai l . Orni thopods were semi -aquati c, duck­
bi l l ed, bi pedal di nosaurs wi th webbed feet. The l argest
were about 25 ft. l ong. Some orn i th opods had crested ai r­
storage str uctu res on the sku l l .
An kyl osaurs were armored, tank- l i ke di nosau rs; wi th
strongl y cu rved r i bs, whose b road backs were covered by
overl appi ng bony pl ates, some modi fed i nto spi kes. They
were 20 ft. l ong.
Ceratopsi ans were horned di nosaurs rangi ng from 5 to
20 ft. i n l ength, wi th t hi ck head and neck ar mor. They were
wel l - protected pl ant-eaters.
Di nosau rs were worl dwi de i n d i stri buti on and i n habi ted
a vari ety of di ferent envi ronments. The reason for thei r
exti ncti on at the cl ose of Cretaceous ti mes i s not known .
! 44
After E. H. Col bert
Ancestors of the
di nosaurs
! 45
ARCHAEOPTERYX, Jurassi c, a pri mi ti ve
crow-si zed bi rd wi th many rept i l ian features.
Known from the Sol enhofen l i mestone quarri es
i n Germany. 18 i n.
BI RDS are wi nged, feathered, war m-bl ooded, egg- l ayi ng
vertebrates. The ol dest known bi rd, Archaeopteryx, shows
many repti l i an character i sti cs ( such as teet h, cl awed
wi ngs and a repti l i an tai l ) . Bi rds pr obabl y arose from
thecodont ( socket-toothed) rept i l es, from whi ch d i no­
saur s, crocodi l es and pterosau rs al so evol ved. Thei r del i ­
cate skel etons and way of l i fe make bi rds uncommon as
fossi l s. Cretaceous forms i ncl ude sea bi rds and di vers.
The Cenozoi c i ncl udes a n umber of gi ant, f i g htl ess, car­
n i vorous b i rds, some 1 0 f. h i gh .
HESPERORNIS, a Cretaceous
toothed, l oon-l i ke, fi ghtl ess sea bi rd,
wel l adapted for swi mmi ng and di v­
i ng. Note the smal l , al most usel ess
wi ngs. Maxi mum l ength about 6 f.
PHORORHACOS, a heavy- bi l l ed,
fi ght l ess Mi ocene l and bi rd from
South Ameri ca. Hei ght about 5 f.
MAMMALS ( J u rassi c to Re­
cent) are warm- bl ooded verte­
brates that suckl e t hei r young.
Most mammal s have hai r or f ur ,
strongl y d i ferenti ated teeth and
h i gh l y devel oped senses. They
are the domi nant g roup of l i vi ng
ani mal s t he worl d over.
Monotremes are pr i mi ti ve, egg­
l ayi ng mammal s that i ncl ude the
tocene gr ound sl oth. Length
20 ft.
d u ck- bi l l ed p l atypus and spi ny anteater. No monotreme
fossi l s are known before the Pl ei stocene, b ut t hey prob­
abl y devel oped much earl i er .
Marsu pi al mammal s ( kangaroos, opossu ms) have young
whi ch are i mmat ure at bi rth and are s hel tered i n the
mother' s pouch. Marsupi al s ( Upper Cretaceous to Re­
cent) were common i n South Amer i ca. Geographi c i sol a­
ti on ai ded t he devel opment of th i s uni que fau na there and
al so i n Au stral i a where t hey sti l l persi st.
Pl acental mammal s (Cretaceous to Recent), the l argest
g roup, have an i ntermed i ate structu re (the pl acenta) by
wh i ch the embryo i s nouri shed. Car ni vores ( dogs, cats,
seal s) are fesh-eat i ng pl acental mammal s. Fossi l forms
i ncl ude creodonts, fssi peds and pi n n i peds. Creodonts,
archai c Terti ary carn i vores, were mostl y rather smal l ,
sl ender and l ong-tai l ed. Fi ssi peds, spl i t-footed car n i vores,
repl aced the cr eodonts. They probabl y arose from weasel ­
l i ke ancestors. Modern fssi peds ( dogs, bear s, weasel s
and cats) evol ved at vari ous ti mes d u ri ng the Tert i ary.
Most have good fossi l recor ds. Pi n n i peds, web-footed
carn i vores, i ncl ude seal s and wal r uses, whi ch probabl y
evol ved fr om dog- l i ke ancestors i n Mi ocene t i mes. Mam­
mal s range i n si ze f r om 2-i n . sh rews t o bl ue whal es, over
1 0 ft. l ong, the l argest known an i mal s.
! 47
OXYAENA, Pal eocene to Eocene,
i s a car ni vorous creodont. Com­
pare i ts str uct ure wi th Phenacodus,
bel ow. Length 3 ft.
HOOFED MAMMALS ( ungu l ates) are mai n l y rather
l arge her bi vores. They i ncl ude l i vi ng horses, catt l e, el e­
phants and h i ppos, as wel l as sea cows and a few fossi l
forms wi t h cl aws rather t han hoofs. The ol dest u n gu l ates
from the Pal eocene i ncl ude smal l condyl art hs, wi th onl y
part l y mod i fed teeth and ei ther cl aws or very r udi mentary
hoofs, ambl ypods, up to 4 ft. hi gh, wi th el ephanti ne l i mbs,
and the l arger u i ntatheres. I n Eocene t i mes t hese forms
were repl aced by odd-toed, exti nct ti tanotheres and chal i ­
cotheres as wel l as by pr i mi ti ve r hi nos, horses and tapi rs.
Even-toed u n gu l ates (deer, camel s, pi gs, catt l e) appeared
i n the Eocene, and i n l ate Tert i ary ti mes l argel y di spl aced
the once abundant odd-toed u n g u l ates. The horse and
rh i n oceros are the best known l i vi ng odd-toed u n gu l ates.
The evol ut i onary h i story of many hoofed mammal s i s
known i n consi derabl e detai l (pp. 5 and 67} ; some are
cl assi cs i n pal eontol ogy.
UINTATHERIUM, Eocene, i s the
typi cal si x- horned, herbi vorous ui n­
that here, of i nterest because of its
hi ghl y modified teeth. Length 1 2 ft.
! 4B
PHENACODUS, Pal eocene to Eo­
cene. An advanced condyl arth, but
sti l l retai ni ng a l ong tai l , five di s­
crete toes and a carn i vore- l i ke skul l .
Lengt h 6 f.
MOROPUS, a Mi ocene, horse­
si zed chal i cothere, wi th ti tanothere­
l i ke teeth. I ts t hree f uncti onaltoes
are devel oped i nto strong cl aws.
Hei ght about 6 ft.
8 f t. hi gh. The l argest of the ti tano­
t heres. Earl y ti tanotheres were sl en­
der, hornl ess c reatures, onl y about
2 ft. hi gh.
EDENTATES are a grou p of mammal s wi th much re­
duced teet h. They or i gi nated i n South Amer i ca and l ater
mi g rated i nto North Ameri ca. Two mai n groups have
devel oped. One, the armad i l l os, i s protected by heavy ar­
mor over t he shoul ders and h i ps, j oi ned by fexi bl e pl ates.
The ol dest forms come from the Eocene, and rel ated l ate
Cenozoi c for ms i ncl uded t he gi ant g l yptodonts wi th mas­
si ve sol i d armor.
The other grou p of edentates i ncl udes t he t ree sl oths,
anteaters and the ext i nct ground sl ot h�. Some of the
great Pl ei stocene g rou n d sl oths were up to 20 f. l ong.
They fed on l eaves and f r ui t browsed from trees.
NOTHROTHERIUM, Pl ei stocene.
A smal l ground sl oth, about 7 to 8 f.
l ong, was a contemporary of earl y
man i n the southwestern Uni ted
GL YPTODON, known f r om t he
Pl ei stocene, i s a speci al i zed eden­
tate wi th fused bony armor and a
heavy armored tai l , some endi ng i n
a spi ked cl ub. Length 9 ft.
! 4º
CRYPTOZOON "REEF", Cambri an. These and si mi l ar l y
shaped l i mestone featu res wer e probabl y made by si mpl e
al gae.
Pl ant l i fe has al ways been the basi s for an i mal l i fe but
pl ant fossi l s are l ess n u merous and pl ant l i fe of the past
i s l ess wel l known. Note the mar i ne and l and pl ants i n the
di oramas from p. 34 to p. 69.
Thal l us pl ants are si mpl e, l acki ng roots, stems, l eaves
and cond ucti ng cel l s. Al gae, thal l ophytes wi th chl oro­
phyl l , man ufact ure t hei r own food. Of seven l arge groups,
onl y a few are preserved as fossi l s. Some go back t o Pre­
Cambri an t i me. Thal l u s pl ants wi thout ch l orophyl l i ncl ude
fu ngi , sl i me mol ds and bacteri a. These have l eft even l ess
of a fossi l record.
CHARNIA ( l eft), Upper Pre-Cambri an, i s a di sputed
fossi l known from Engl and and Austral i a. It i s regarded
by some as an al ga and by others as a sea pen -one of
the coel enterates. Length 4 to 8 i n.
DIATOMS, Cretaceous t o Recent, are smal l un i cel l ul ar
al gae, usual l y mi croscopi c. They are free foat i ng and
have del i cate si l i ceous skel etons. Di atoms occur i n both
fresh and sal t water. These mi nute al gae form deposi ts of
di atomaceous earth as much as 3, 0  feet thi ck. About
1 0,00 l i vi ng speci es are known. Some of them seem
i denti cal with those of the Cretaceous.
ASTEROXYLON, a Devoni an psi ­
l opsi d, has a si mpl e branched stem,
wi th l eaf- l i ke appendages. More
compl ex than Rhynia. Length to 1 0 i n.
RHYNIA, a Devon i an psi l opsi d,
has a naked, branched stem beari ng
termi nal spore cases. One ofthe si m­
pl est vascul ar pl ants. Length to 8 i n.
I n thi s l arge and i mportant group of pl ants the fert i l i zed
egg devel ops i nto an embryo whi ch i s encl osed i n some
for m of protecti ve sac or coveri ng. Fi rst i n t hi s g roup are
the bryophytes, wh i ch i ncl ude mosses and l i verworts.
These are the onl y embryophytes wi thout speci al i zed
vascu l ar t i ssues (see bel ow) . These si mpl e l and pl ants of
moi st p l aces are rare as fossi l s. Pennsyl vani an to Recent.
These pl ants contai n speci al i zed conducti ng t i ssues
(xyl em and ph l oem) usual l y wi th true roots, stems and
l eaves. Fossi l s q u i te common and wi del y di stri b uted.
PSI LOPSI DS, the si mpl est vascu l ar pl ants, have smal l
scal e- l i ke l eaves or none at al l . Roots are l acki n g. Com­
mon i n the Devoni an, they i ncl ude the ol dest known l and
pl ants from the Si l u ri an of Austral i a. On l y fou r speci es
survi ve. Two fossi l s are shown above.
SPHENOPSI DS, or arth r ophytes, i n cl u de l i vi ng horse­
tai l s and scou ri ng r ushes. These pl ants wi th r i bbed,
j oi nted stems and ci rcl ets of l eaves bear spores i n cones
at t i ps or on stal ks. Pen nsyl van i an for ms (Calamites)
grew 40 ft. h i gh . Devon i an to Recent.
! 5 !
CALAMITES, Mi ssi ssi ppi an to
Permi an. A scouri ng
rush (
nopsi d) wi th r i bbed, j oi nted tr unk,
and l eaf whorl s at joi nts. Ht. to 40 ft.
Tr iassi c. Smal l wi th sl ender r i bbed
stems and ci rcl ets of fan-shaped
l eaves, 0. 3 i n. l ong pi nnul es.
LYCOPODS, Devon i an to Recent, are vascu l ar p l ants
wi th si mpl e l eaves i n spi ral s, never i n ci rcl ets. Stem i s
not j oi nted. Th i s g roup, whi ch i ncl udes l i vi ng cl u b mosses,
reach ed i ts zeni th as l arge trees i n the l ate Pal eozoi c. Some
l ycopods have two di sti nct types of spores. Fossi l s are
common, especi al l y associ ated wi th coal - bear i ng strata.
SIGILLARIA, Pennsyl vanian.
Stout trunk, wi th bladed leaves and
verti cal l eaf scars. Maxi mum hei ght
about 1 00 ft.
ni an. Tal l , branchi ng, wi th sl ender
l eaves and di amond l eaf scars.
Maxi mum hei ght about 1 0 f.
STIGMARIA, Pennsyl vani an ; the roots of l ycopod trees. Surface
pi tted wi th i rreg ul ar spi ral s of rootl et scars. Longest are 4ft. in l ength.
! 52
rootl et
projecti ons
FERNS are an ol d group of vascul ar pl ants often wi th
l arge, compl ex l eaves that may bear spore cases on the
undersi des. They became common i n the Pen nsyl vani an
and are sti l l common today. Many fern- l i ke fossi l s are n ot
true ferns, but seed ferns ( bel ow) .
GYMNOSPERMS, the si mpl est seed pl ants, prospered
because the mal e pol l en grai ns resi st d ryi ng, whi l e i n
si mpl er embryophytes the mal e cel l must be moi st. Gym­
nosperms have no fl owers and seeds are not fu l l y en­
cl osed. Li vi ng and exti nct gymnosper ms fal l i nto fve
groups, i l l ustrated on pp. 1 53-1 54. The seed ferns are an
ext i nct group wh i ch devel oped seeds on thei r l eaves,
never i n cones ( Devoni an-J urassi c) . The Mesm;oi c cy­
cadeoi ds and the cl osel y rel ated cycads had a ri ng of
narrow pal m- l i ke f ronds g rowi ng from a roun ded tr un k.
The . cycads di fer from the cycadeoi ds i n havi ng the
mal e and femal e cel l s i n separate cone-l i ke str uctu res
( Permi an-Recent) . The cordai tes were tal l trees wi th s l en­
der, strap- l i ke l eaves ( Pen nsyl van i an-Tri assi c) . Gi nkgos
( Tri assi c-Recent) , common i n the Mesozoi c, i ncl ude one
l i vi ng speci es. Con i fers, mai nl y needl e-l eaved, wi th cones,
are now most common. ( Pennsyl vani an-Recent. )
NEUROPTERIS, Mi ss. - Perm. ,
frond of a seed fern wi th curved
vein l ets ; oval l eafets al ternate on
ei ther si de of stem. Length of pi n-
nul es 0. 25 0.5 i n.
ALETHOPTERIS, Penn. , another
seed fern wi th l ong, bl ade- l i ke l eaf­
l ets, wi der at the base. Mi d-r i b vei n
i s very di sti nct. Length of pi nn ul es
0.5 i n.
! 53
actual fossi l
CYCADEOIDS ( Bennettital es) ,
Tri assi c to Cretaceous, domi nant
i n Mesozoi c, resembl e l i vi ng cycads
but reprod ucti on di sti nct. Hei ght
2 to 1 2 ft.
l eaf
to Tr i as­
si c, g rew worl dwi de in Late Pal eo­
zoi c. Possi bl y ancestral to con i fers.
Maxi mum hei ght about 1 0ft.
LEBACHIA, a Pen nsyl vani an to
Permi an coni fer, had a strai ght
tr unk and spi ral l y arranged needl e­
l i ke l eaves. Branch shown about
1 0 i n. l ong.
SPHENOPTERIS, Devoni an to
Pennsyl van i an. Frond of a seed­
fern ; smal l , symmetri cal , l obed l eaf­
l ets with rad i ati ng vei ns. Length of
pi nnu l es 0.4 i n.
WILLI AMSONIA, Tri assi c t o Cre­
taceous. Cycadeoi d pl ants wi th bul ­
bous stem covered wi th sunken leaf
bases. "Fl owers" on long stems.
Hei ght about 6 ft.
GINKGO, Tri assi c to Recent-a
l i vi ng fossi l , wi th l eaves on short
spurs. Wi despread in the Mesozoi c.
Leaves to 4 i n. i n l ength.
A Cenozoi c l andscape wi th
sperms and sofe cpnlfers ;
very si mnar to modern tr..
ANGI OSPERMS are the fower i ng pl ants, wh i ch i ncl ude
about a quarter mi l l i on l i vi ng speci es. The fower i s a
uni que organ. Pol l en grai ns spread by i nsects or wi nd
produce a t ube by wh i ch the egg cel l i s ferti l i zed. Seeds
are encl osed and protected. Angi osper ms devel oped i n
t h e Cretaceous an d l ater became s o i mportant that t he
new g rassl ands favored t he evol uti on of hoofed g razers
such as horses, antel ope and cattl e. An gi osper ms i ncl ude
the monocots (Monocotyledons) -grasses, l i l i es, sedges,
pal ms, pi neappl es and orc h i ds, and the d i cots (Dicotyle­
dons) -p. 1 56-wi th such fami l i es as t he rose,. mal l ow,
mustard , b uttercup, tomato, mi nt, carrot and dai sy. Fossi l s
of both g ro u ps are common i n f resh-water cl ays, vol cani c
ash and other fne sedi ments.
GRASS, known chi efy as fossi l
seeds, became wi despread i n the
Mi ocene and had a strong i nfuence
on mammal i an evol uti on. 0. 1 i n. l ong
SANMIGUELIA, Tri assi c, a pal m­
l i ke pl ant from Colorado. I f i t i s a
pal m, it is the ol dest known angi o­
sperm. Maxi mum l ength of l eaves
about 1 . 3 f.
! 55
MAGNOLIA, Cretaceous to Re­
cent. A wi despread and common
b ut very pri mi ti ve angi osperm. Grew
in Al aska and Greenl and in late

· �

t• �

. � ' i
- /
BIRCH (8etula) , Cretaceous to
Recent. Wi despread trees. Leaves
2 to 4 i n. l ong, oval, poi nted, edges
toothed. Common fossi l s i ndi cati ng
a cool , temperate cl i mate.
SASSAFRAS, Cretaceous to Re­
cent. Medi u m-si zed trees or shr ubs.
Leaves 4 to 6 i n. i n l ength ei ther si m­
pl e and oval or wi th 1 to 3 bul bous
l obes. Rel ated to l aurel .
WILLOW (.ali.), Cretaceous to
Recent. Long ( usual l y 3 to 6 i n. ) ,
sl ender l eaves ; edges fnel y toothed.
Common. Fossi l pol l en i s especi al l y
i mportant as a mi crofossi l .
FIG (licus), Cretaceous t o Recent.
Thi s fami l y, whi ch i ncl udes many
tropi cal frui t trees, i s typi cal of warm­
er regi ons. Wi despread i n Cenozoi c.
Leaves 6 to 1 2 i n. l ong.
MAPLE (Amr), Cretaceous to Re­
cent. Medi um to large trees. Wi de­
spread in temperate regi ons. Leaves
to 1 2 in. i n l ength, broad, l obed and
toot hed. Frui t wi nged.
Aste· ' sss (*) decote ' tems wa' ca a·e ' | | c st·ated , bo| d faca
' ad' cates ma[ o· t·eatmect.
Acantherpestes, 1 02*
Acanthoscaphites, 1 30*
Adaptati ons, 6*, 7•
Aganaster, 1 08*
Agel acri n i tes, 1 05*
Agnathas, 39*, 1 32*, 13*
Agnostus, 94*
Agon i ati tes, 1 26*
Al ethopteri s, 1 53*
Al gae, 32*, 33, 1 50*
Al l ori sma, 1 1 8*
Amber, 1 1 *
Ambl ypods, 62*, 6
Ammoni tes, 1 2*, 27*, 51,
5, 59*, 6, 1 23-1 3*
Amphi bi ans, 40*, 41 *,
44*, 1 39*-14*
Amphi chel ydi an, 1 43*
Amphi neura, 1 1 0*
Angi osperms, 62*, 63*,
1 55*, 1 5*
Angl aspi s, 1 33*
Ankyl osaurs, 1 45*
Annel i ds, 9*
Arachni ds, 34*, 1 0•
Area, 1 21 *
Archaeopteryx, 54*, 1 46*
Archel on, 5*
Archi medes, 81 *
Archi tar bus, 1 02*
Armadi l l os, 1 49
Arthrodi re, 1 3
Arthrophytes, 1 51
Arthropods, 93*-103*
Arti facts, 14* , 71 *
Asaphus, 97*
Astarte, 1 21 *
Asteroi d, 1 0*, 1 0*
Asteroxyl on, 1 51 *
Astraeospongi a, 76*
Atrypa, 86*
Austral opi thecus, 71 *
i cul opecten, 1 1 9*
Bactrites, 1 26*
Bacul ites, 59*, 1 30*
Bal an us, 1 0*
Bal uchither i um, 6*
Barnacl es, 10
Bathyur i scus, 95*
Bel emni tes, 53*, 1 30*
Bel l erophon, 1 1 2*
Bi l obites, 86*
Bi rch, 1 56*
Bi rds, 9*, 54*, 6, 1 4*
Bi rkeni a, 39*
Bi val ves, 1 16*
Bl astoi ds, 104*, 1 0*
Bol l ia, 9*
Bony fi shes, 1 7*, 40*,
1 32, 1 36-137*
Bori ngs, 14*, 9*
Bothri ol epi s, 1 3*
Brachi opods, 1 1 *, 1 2*,
3*, 42*, 47*, 73*,
8*-91 *
Branchi osaurus, 1 40*
Brittle stars, 43*, 108*
Brontops, 6*
Brontosaur us, 55*
Brontotheri um, 61 *, 1 49*
Bryophytes, 1 51
Bryozoans, 36*, 42*,
72*, 81 *
Bugul a, 81 *
Bumastus, 97*
Byssonychi a, 1 1 7*
Cacops, 1 40*
Cal ami tes, 44*, 1 52*
Cal l avi a, 9*
Cal ymene, 96*
Cambrian, 3*-35*
Camel s, 86*
Cani ni a, 78*
Carboni col a, 1 1 8*
Carcharodon , 1 35*
Cardi um, 1 22*
Caryocr i n ites, 1 05*
Casts, 13*
Cenozoi c Era, 61 *-71 *
Cephal aspi s, 1 32*
Cephal opods, 36*, 38*,
42*, 47*, 73*, 1 1 0* ,
1 23*-1 30*
Cerati tes, 1 28*
.Ceratopsi ans, 1 45*
Ceri thi um, 1 1 3*
Chaetetes, 78*
Chal i cotheres, 1 49*
Charni a, 1 50*
Chei rol epi s, 1 37*
Chel i cerates, 9*
Choani chthyes, 1 3, 13*
Chondr i chthyes, 1 35*
Chonetes, o•
Chordata, 1 32*-1 49*
Ci dari s, 1 09*
Cl adosel ache·, 1 35*
Cl ams, 1 1 6*
Cl i macog raptus, 1 31 *
Cl i mati us, 1 34*
Cl ypeus, 1 0•
Coccosteus, 1 �•
Cockroaches, �
Codaster, 1 00•
Coel acanthus, 1 3•
Coel enterates, 77•-80"
Coel odonta, 69*
Col l eni a, 32*
Col umbites, 1 27*
Composi ta, 9*
Compsognathus, 54*
Conifers, 1 5, 1 55*
Conocard i um, 1 1 8*
Conocoryphe, 95*
Conul ari a, 92*
Conus, 1 1 4•
Coprol i tes, 1 4*
Coral s, 36*, 38•, 42*, 72*,
Cordai tes, 44•, 1 53, 1 5•
Coryphodon, 62•
Creodonts, 63, 64•, 1 47,
1 48•
Crepi dul a, 1 1 5•
Cretaceous, 5•-6
Cr i noi ds, 38•, 42•, 43•,
74°, 1 04•, 107•
Cro-Magnon, 11 •
Crustaceans, 3*, 93*,
9•-1 o•
Cryptobl astus, t o•
Cryptocl ei dus, 53•
1 57
Cryptozoon "reef , " 1 5* Drepanel l a, 98* Gastrol iths, 14*
Ctenodonta, 1 1 7* Dunbarel l a, 1 1 8* Gastropods, 3* , 3* , 42* ,
Cycadeoi ds, 54* , 56*, 59* , 73*, 1 1 0*-1 1 5*
1 53, 1 54* Echi noderms, 1 0* Geol ogi c ti me, 231 *
Cycads, 1 53, 1 54 Echi noi ds, 74*, 1 0* , 10* Gi nkgos, 54, 1 53, 1 54*
Cymbospondyl us, 51 * Echi nosphaeri tes, 1 05* Gl obi geri na, 75*
Cynognathus, 47, 50* Edaphosaurus, 1 41 *, 1 42* Gl yci meri s, 1 21 *
Cyrti na, 8* Edentates, 149* Gl yptocr i nus, 1 07*
Cyrtoceras, 1 26* Edri oasteroi ds, 1 0*, Gl yptodont, 6*, 70, 1 49*
Cysti phyl l um, 79* 105* Gl yptopl eura, 99*
Cystoi ds, 1 0*, 1 0* El ephants, 4*-5*, 1 0*, 69* Gomphoceras, 1 24*
Cytherei s, 9* El k, 70* Goniatites, 1 27*
Cytherel l oi dea, 99* El rath i a, 94* Goni ophora, 1 1 7*
Embryophytes, 1 51 * Grammysi a, 1 1 7*
Dactyl i oceras, 1 29* Endoceras, 3*, 1 24* Grand Canyon, 1 5*, 28*
Dal manel l a, 8* Ensi s, 1 22* Graptol ites, 74*, 131 *
Dal mani tes, 9* Entel etes, 91 *
Grasses, 66, 1 55*
Dawsonoceras, 1 25* Eocene, 1 7*, 62, 6,
Grifthi des, 97*

Deer, 70* 1 48*, 1 49
Gr ound Sl oth, 1 47*, 1 49*

Dendri tes, 1 8* Eodi scus, 95*
Gryphaea, 1 20*

Dendroi ds, 1 31 * Eogyri nus, 1 40*
æ u
Dental i na, 75* Eohi ppus, 62-6*, 67*
153*-1 5*
Dental i um, 1 1 4* Eospi r i fer, 86*
Devonaster, 1 08* Equus, 67* Hal ysi tes, 3*, 79*
Devon i an , 4-2* Eras, geol ogi c, 30*-31 * Hami tes, 1 28*

Di atoms, 1 50* Eryon, 1 00* Hebertel l a, 84*
Di atryma, 6*, 65 Eryops, 46*, 1 39* Hel i oceras, 59*
Di cerather i um, 6* Eurhi nosaurus, 52* Hemi cysti tes, 1 05*
Di coel osi a, 86* Eurypteri ds, 3* , 101 • Hesperorni s, 59, 1 46*
Di cynodon, 1 42* Eusmi l i a, 8* Hexacoral , 78*
� Di ctyocl ostus, 9 Eusthenopteron, 40* , Hi l doceras, 1 2*

Di dymog raptus, 1 31 * 1 38* Hi ppuri tes, 1 21 *

Di el asma, 89* Evol uti on, 4*-9* , 3-31 * , Hol optychi us, 1 37*
Di kel ocephal us, 9* 67*-6, 1 23*, 1 42*, Hol othur oi d, 1 04*
Di metrodon, 46* 1 43*, 1 55
Homo habi l i s, 71

Di ni chthys, 40* Exogy ra, 1 2* Hormotoma, 1 1 1 *
Di nohyus, 66* Horse, 6-6*, 66, 67* ,
Oi northi s, 8* Favosi tes, 3*, 78* 6, 148, 1 49*
Di nosaurs, 1 1 *, 1 3*, 1 4*, Fenestrel l i na, 81 * Hudsonaster, 1 08*
49* , 50, 52, 54*, 55*, Ferns, 41 * , 44*, 15* Hughmi l l eri a, 1 01 *
5*-58, 1 414* Fi g, 1 56* Hyaenodon, 6*
Di notheri um, 4*-5* Fi sh, 8*-9*, 1 7*, 37*, 39*, Hydnoceras, 76*
Di pl ocaul us, 46* , 1 40* 4*' 65, 1 3-13* Hypsel oconus, 1 1 1 *
Di pl odocus, 2* , 52, Fl exi cal ymene, 36*, 9* Hyracotheri u·m, 62-63*, 67*
55*, 1 45* Forami ni fera, 6, 75*
Di pl ograptus, 1 31 * Fossi l s : I chthyosaurs, 51 , 52* ,
Di pl overtebron, 1 40* col l ecti ng, 19*-2* 5, 1 43*
Di pterus, 1 38* defned, 1 0 l chthyostega, 40*, 41 *,
Di zygopl eura, 99* i ndex, 21 * 1 39*
Dol atocri nus, 42* preservati on, 10*-15* I noceramus, 6, 1 20*
Dol orthoceras, 1 25* Fusus, 1 1 4* I nsects, 1 1 *, 44*, 93*, 103*
Dragonfi es, 4*, 1 03* I ri sh El k, 70*
Drepanaspi s, 1 3* Gastri oceras, 1 26* l socri nus, 1 07
1 5
l sotel us, 97* Mesopsychopsi s, 1 03* Or nithopods, 1 45*
Mesosaur us, 47* Or nithi schians, 1 44, 1 45*
Mesozoi c Era, 49"�60* Ostei chthyes, 1 36-1 37*
Jamoyti us, 39* Mi craster , 1 09* Osteol epi s, 1 37*
Jawl ess fi sh, 39* , 40, Mi crofossi l s, 21 , 76* Ostracoderms, 37*, 1 32*
132*, 13* Mi l l epedes, 1 0• Ostracods, 98*-99*
Jel l yfsh, 33* , 34* , 77 Mi ocene, 6*-6 Ostrea, 1 21 •
Jurassi c, 52*-55* Mi ssi ssi ppi an, 43* Oxyaena, 1 48*
Juresani a, 91 * Modi ol opsi s, 1 1 7* Oysters, 59*
Moeri theri um, 5*
Ki rkbyel l a, 99* Mol ds, 1 3* Pachyteuthi s, 1 29
Mol l usks, 59*, 1 1 0*-130* Pal aeophonus, .102•
Labyri nthodont, 44* ,
Monograptus, 1 31 * Pal eocene, 62, 1 48*
1 39*, 1 40* Monti val ti a, so• Pal eozoi c Era, 34*-4
Lacewi ng, 1 03* Mor opus, 66*, 68, 1 49* Pal ms, 62*, 63*, 1 55*
Lamel l i branchs, 1 1 6*
Mosasau rs, 58*, 1 43* Paradoxi des, 95*
Lamp shel l s, 82• Moschops, 1 42* Paral l el don, 1 1 9*
Lebachi a, 1 54* Moss agate, 1 8* Pecten, 59*, 1 22•
Leperdi ti a, 98* Moss ani mal s, 81 *
Pel ecypods, 36* , 59*,
Lepi docycl us, 85*
Mucrospi r i fer, 89* 73* , 83*, 1 1 0*,
Lepi dodendron, 44*, 1 52*
Muensteroceras, 1 23*, 1 1 6*-1 22*
Lepi dotus, 1 37* 1 27* Pennsyl vani an, 4*, 45*
Leptaena, 88* Mu rch i soni a, 1 1 3* Pentamerus, 87*
Li ma, 1 1 9*
Myal i na, 1 1 8* Pentremi tes, 1 06*
Li ngu l a, 82*, 8*
Myri apods, 1 02* Permi an, 46*-4*
Li ngul el l a, 82* Petri fed wood, 1 2•
Li nopr oductus, 91 *
Nati ca, 1 1 5* Petrocran i a, 85*
Li thostroti on, 79*
Nauti l oi ds, 27*, Phacops, 97*
Li ttori na, 1 1 5*
1 23*-1 30* Phenacodus, 1 48*
Lobe fi ns, 1 36, 1 37*, 138• Neandert
al , 71 *
Phororhacos, 1 46*
Lophophyl l i di um, 79* Nemagraptus, 1 31 *
Phragmoceras, 1 25*
Lovenechi nus, 1 0* Neol enus, 34*
Phytosaur , 50*
Lung fsh, 1 38* Neospi ri fer, 90*
Pi gs, 66*
Lycopods, 41 * , 44* , 1 52* Neozaph renti s, 79*
Pi nna, 1 20•
Nerei s, 92*
Pi thecanthr opus, 71 *
Macl u ri tes, 1 1 1 • Ner i nea, 1 1 3* Pl acoderms, 40* , 1 3*
Madrepora, 78* Neuropter i s, 1 53*
Pl acodonts, 1 43*
Magel l ani a, 83* Notharct us, 62*
Pl acodus, 51 *
Magnol i a, 1 56* Nothosaurs, 1 43*
Pl anorbus, 1 1 5*
Mammal s, 9*, 53, 57, 59,
Nothrotheri um, 1 49*
Pl ants, 7*, 38, 41 * , 44*,
61 *-71 *, 1 47*-1 49*
Nucu l a, 1 1 9*
5, 56*-57*, 63*,
Mammoths, 1 0*, 69* 1 50*-1 56*
Man, emergence, 7 1 * Obol el l a, 82
Pl atyceras, 1 1 2•
Mapl e, 1 56* Octocoral , 78
Pl atycri ni tes, 1 07*
Margi ni fera, 91 * Octopus, 1 23
Pl atyostoma, 1 1 2*
Mastodons, 5*, 66* Ogygopsi s, 95
Pl atystrophi a, 85*
Meekoceras, 1 27* Ol enel l us, 94* Pl ei stocene, 69*-70
Meganeu ra, 44* Ol enoi des, 35* Pl esi osaurs, 51 , 52*, 53,
Megather i um, 1 47* Ol i gocene, 62, 64* 1 43*
Meri sti na, 87* Ophi acodon, 1 42* Pl eurocanth us, 1 35*
Merychi ppus, 67*
Ophi uroi d, 1 04*, 1 08* Pl eurotomari a, 1 1 3*
Mesohi ppus, 6*, 67*
Orbi cul oi dea, 89* Pl i ocene, 6-6
Mesol obus, 90* Ordovi ci an, 36*-37* Pl i ohi ppus, 67*
Mesopal easter, 1 08* Oredonts, 64*, 65 Pol ygyra, 1 1 4*
Pori fera, 76'
Sedi mentar rocks, Trees, 5, 5*-57*, 63*,
. Pre-Cambri an, 32*-33*
1 5*-17*, 28 1 54*, 15*-15*
Pri mates, 62*-6, 71 '
Seed ferns, 41 *, 4', 1 53* Tri assi c, 50*-51 *
Protapi ri s, 64*
Serpul a, 92* Tri ceratops, .2' , 56*
Protozoans, 75*
Seymouri a, 46*, 1 41 '
Tri goni a, 1 1 9'
Pseudofossi l s, 1 8'
Sharks, 40*, 13*
Tri l obi tes, 34'-3*, 42',
Psi l ophyton, 41 '
Shri mps, 1 0' 74' ' 93'-97'
Psi l opsi ds, 1 51 *
Si gi l l ari a, 4* , 1 52* Tri l ophodon, 5* , 6*
Pteranodon, 57', 58*
Si l uri an, 38*-3' Tri nucl eus, 96'
Pteraspi s, 1 33'
Skates, 1 35' Tuditanus, 45*
Pteri a, 1 1 9*
Sl oths, 70, 1 49' Turri l i tes, 1 29'
Pteri chthys, 13*
Smi l odon, 70' Turritel l a, 59', 1 1 3'
Pteri nea, 1 1 7*
Sphenophyl l um, 1 52' Turl es, 58', 6', 1 43'
Ptychopari a, 9'
Sphenopsi ds, 44', 1 52' Tyl osaurus, 58*
Sphenopteri s, 1 5* Tyranosaurus, 49*, 56,
Quaternary, 69*-71' Spi ders, 1 02' 57*, 58
Spi rifer, 89'
Radi ol ari a, 75' Sponges, 3', 47', 76* Ui ntatheres, 6' , 1 48'
Rafnesqu i na, 36*, 8* Squi ds, 53*, 1 23' Ungul ates, 14*
Rays, 13* Starsh, 38*, 1 04', 1 01• Uni o, 1 22'
Receptacul ites, 76* Stegosau rus, 55*, 1 45* Urasterel l a, 1 0'
z Reconstructi on, 4*, 27* Stenomyl us, 6'
Repti l es, 8'-9', 45*-58, Stephanoceras, 1 29' Vascul ar pl ants,
141 *-14* Sti gmari a, 1 52' 151*-153

Rhamphorhynchus, 5* Straparol l us, 1 1 2' Ventr i cul ites, 76'

Rhi noceros, 6*, 66*, Strata, 1 5*, 21 ' Verebrates, 8'-9*, 37',
69*, 1 48 Streptel asma, 36*, 79* 4*, 41 *, 44*-71 *,
Rhombopora, 81 ' Stromatophoroi d, 78' 1 32*-14*
Rhynchonel l a, 91 ' Stropheodonta, 8' Veri go, 1 1 5*

Rhynchotreta, 87* Strophomena, 85* Vi vi parus, 1 1 4'
Rhyni a, 1 51 * Struth i omi mus, 56-57' Vol uta, 1 1 4*
Stylaster, s•
Saber-toothed cat, 64, Styl emys, 6' Wi l l i amsoni a, 1 54*
65, 6, 70' Styl onurus, 1 01 * Wi l l ow, 1 56*
: Sagenites, 1 28' Syri ngopora, 7' Wool l y mammoth, 69'
Sai l -backed l i zard, 46' Wool l y rhi noceros, 69'
Sanmi guel ia, 1 55' Tabul ate coral , 78' Worms, 1 1 *, 33*, 3*, 92*
Sassafras, 1 56' Tapi rs, 64*, 1 48 Worheni a, 1 1 2'
Sauri schi ans, 1 44, 1 45' Tarsophl ebi a, 1 03'
Sauropods, 55*, 5', 1 45' Taxocri nus, 1 07* Zi nj anthropus, 71
Scal e trees, 41 , 44' Tentacul i tes, 92* Zygospi ra, 8 •
Scal l op, 1 1 ' Tertiary :
Scaph ites, 1 23' 1 30* Lower, 62*-6*
Scaphopod, 1 1 0' , 1 1 4' Upper, 6*-6
Schi zobl astus, 1 0* Tetracoral , 78'
Schi zocoral , 78* Thal l ophytes, 1 50'
Schuchertel l a, 87* Thamnasteri a, s•
Scol ecodonts, 92' Thecodonts, 5' , 1 45*
Scorpi ons, 93, 102* Thel odus, 1 33'
Scouri ng rushes, 41 *, Theropods, 1 45'
1 51 , 1 52' Titanotheres, 61 *, 64*,
Sea anemones, 77* 65, 1 49'
Sea l i l i es, 107* Trachodon, 56-57'
Sea urchi ns, 1 04*, 1 09' Tree ferns, 41 '
A 0Ol0£N NA¡UR£ 0UI 0£
FRANK RHODES, Ph. D. , has done extensi ve
fel d study i n Europe and i n North America. He
has worked on research probl ems i n the Rock­
ies and has taught for several years at the
University of I l l i noi s. He i s the author of Îhe
cvoÍufton oÍ LtÍe and many techni cal papers.
At present he is Professor of Geol ogy, Univer­
sity of Wal es at Swansea.
MLKbLK1 S. ZI M, Ph. D. , outstandi ng aut hori ty
on sci ence educati on and formerl y Professor
of Educati on, Uni versity of I l l i noi s, i s wel l ­
known i n professi onal ci rcl es and to a wi de
readi ng publ i c. He i s co-author of the Gol den
Nature Gui des: Bi rds, Flowers, Insects, Stars,
Trees, Reptiles and Amphibians, Mammals,
Seashores, Fishes, Weather, Rocks and Mi n­
erals, Gamebirds, Fossils, and Zoology.
PAUL R. SHAFFER, Ph. D. , Professor of Geol ogy
at the Uni versi ty of I l l i nois, has wri tten many
geol ogi cal papers for sci enti fc j ournal s. Hi s
academi c and i ndustri al work takes hi m i nto
most regi ons of the Uni ted States, studyi ng
and col l ecti ng.
RAYMOND PERLMAN i s a Professor of Art at
the Uni versi ty of I l l i noi s. He hol ds degrees i n
fne arts from that uni versity, and i s a Master
of Professi onal Arts from the Art Center School
i n los Angel es. He has desi gned and i l l us­
trated many books on sci ence.
Î L b b Î L b
Here i s a fel d guide to the fasci nati ng study of fossi l s. Typi cal pl ant
and ani mal l ife of the maj or peri ods of geol ogi c ti me are shown i n
col or, and conci se text descri bes representative fossi l types of these
peri ods. FOSSI LS, a Gol den Nature Gui de, gives you maps whi ch
show the general areas where fossi l s may be found, pl us scores of
ful l col or i l l ustrati ons of common fossi l speci mens to hel p you i dentify
you r fnds. Fossi l remai ns, pri nts, and other i ndi cati ons of former
pl ant and ani mal l ife tel l the l ong and i nteresti ng story of the de­
vel opment of l ife on earth. Evol uti onary stages are treated from the
Pre-Cambi an to the Recent. Wi th 48 ! ful l -col or i l l ustrati ons and maps.

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