BS 5950-1: 2000 Technical details

Colin Taylor
It is clearly not possible to give meaningful details of all the changes, so a few fairly major ones have been selected for illustration, mainly by examples. As many of these indicate an advantage in using the new edition, it is important to recall that the prime purpose of the amendments was safety, thus there are some cases where the new version is more conservative. and from Table 24 sheet (3) the value of p cs is 147 N/mm 2. So the compression resistance Pcs = Aeff pcs = 79.7×147/10 = 1172 kN. The new method is as given by EC3.

1. Moment capacity. The moment capacity of class 3 semi-compact and class 4 slender sections is increased by using two new parameters Seff and Zeff in 4.2.5. The effective plastic modulus Seff is found in 3.5.6 and answers the question of what happens if a section is only just outside the limits for class 2 compact. The effective section modulus Zeff is found in 3.6.2 and covers class 4 slender sections. Figure 1 shows how the moment capacity of a welded section varies with the d/t ratio of the web. The solid curve between d/t values of 100 to 120 represents Seff /Z and the solid curve beyond d/t = 120 represents Z eff /Z. The dotted lines show the equivalent moment capacity according to the 1990 edition. The new method for slender sections is a variant of that given in EC3. For rolled sections, the flange is more likely to be slender, not the web. The value of Seff will then be based on the flange b/T ratio (or b/t for an RHS). In and two values are given for Sx.eff . The first applies when the web is slender and the second applies when the flange is slender.

Figure 2: Effective area

Figure 1: Variation of moment capacity with web slenderness ratio d/t

2. Compression member with a slender section. The new method for class 4 slender sections under axial compression, see 4.7.4(b), uses the effective area A eff . For example, the web of a 457×191×67 UB with d/t = 48.0 may be slender, depending on the load. For any value of axial compression, the basic limit in Table 11 is 40ε. For S275 steel, using, Aeff = A - (d - 40tε) t = A - (d/t - 40ε) t 2 , see figure 2. So Aeff = 85.5 - (48 - 40)(8.5/10)2 = 85.5 - 5.8 = 79.7 cm2. If the slenderness λ = L/ry = 100 then using 4.7.4(b) the reduced slenderness is λ [Aeff /A]0.5 = 100(79.7/85.5)0.5 = 96.5. From Table 23, curve (b) applies

3. Classification. Classification now depends on the axial load in some cases. Due to this, although the compression resistance in (2) is about 20% more than given by the 1990 edition, it is still an underestimate. Even under a load of 1205 kN, from 3.5.5(a) the ratio r2 = 1205×10/85.5/275 = 0.5125 so the other expression in Table 11 gives an increased d/t limit of 120/(1 + 2×0.5125) = 59.26 which is greater than 48.0 and thus the section is not slender after all. If the member slenderness λ is 100 then p c is 141 N/mm 2 and the compression resistance Pc = Apc= 85.5×141/10 = 1205.5 kN. If the member slenderness λ is 60 and it is assumed that the section is not slender, then p c = 221N/mm 2 and the compression resistance Pc would be 1890 kN. However a check under this load will show that the section is now slender. Provided that the member slenderness is low enough, the section will become slender when 120ε/(1 + 2r2 ) exceeds 48.0, which happens for S275 steel when the load exceeds 1763 kN. For simplicity, to avoid doubt whether the section is slender or not, the limit of 40ε is useful. On the other hand, for maximum economy the expression using r2 is more appropriate. Most rolled sections will not become slender except when the member slenderness λ is low. Thus a practical design strategy is to initially assume that sections are not slender, but include a check that this is the case. 4. Equivalent uniform moment for lateral-torsional buckling. In the new edition, the shape of the bending moment diagram is always allowed for by new equivalent uniform moment factors mLT instead of using either m or n factors, depending on the type of loading, as in the 1990 edition. Table 18 gives values of mLT for common cases. In addition, it gives a simple formula to allow the appropriate value of mLT to be estimated for any shape of moment diagram. It should be noted that, in each case, the relevant pattern of moments is that over the

New Steel Construction, March/April 2001

Page 25

then check the shear buckling resistance of the web to see whether any intermediate web stiffeners are required. unless the critical shear resistance Vcr is also more than Fv . i. a/d = 2. This is off-set to some extent by using a reduced slenderness.e. Try a stiffener at a point A* located 1200 mm from A.5M3 + 0.2 + but mLT ≥ 0.15×1554 = 0. Page 26 New Steel Construction. 6. as for axial compression of a slender section. see 4. see 4. From 3. March/April 2001 . All loads are factored. The maximum shear is 1240 kN and the shears at B and C are 1224 kN and 608 kN respectively.4 Vcr = (9Vw . the web is adequate. All loads are factored. by basing it on the effective plastic modulus or effective elastic modulus.5 = uvλ[Sx.339/0. the reduced equivalent slenderness = uvλ[βw ]0. as for the moment capacity.72.15M2 + 0. which is more than the applied shear Fv . a 152×152×23 UC has a b/T ratio of 11. given sufficient stiffeners. 10 and 15 for S275 steel. it will need an end post. so from Table 21(1) qw = 102 N/mm2 thus from 4. The maximum shear Fv in the 1800 mm panel A*-B is 1234 kN. Secondary beams at B. They also provide the main beam with lateral restraint at those points.eff = Z x + (S x . consider the beam shown in figure 3. the ratio a/d = 3000/1200 = 2.4.904×1650 = 1492 kNm. see 4. For the panel A-B.2×1980)/7 = 1409 kN > 1240 kN.5 = 98.4.5. So the beam needs to have a buckling resistance moment Mb of at least 1492 kNm and a moment capacity Mc of at least 1650 kNm. The moments in segment BC are shown in figure 4.2 compared to the limits of 10ε for class 2 compact and 15ε for class 3 semi-compact. with a web 1200mm × 10mm and flanges 400mm × 40mm. The beam shown in figure 5 is a plate girder in S275 steel.eff/Sx]0. Assume initially that load carrying or bearing stiffeners will be required at A and F to resist the end reactions and at B. For example.5×1453 + 0. For example.5 and qw = 111 N/mm2 .STEEL DESIGN length L LT of a segment of the member between adjacent lateral restraints.7.4. so q w = 128 N/mm2 and Vw = 1200×10×128/1000 = 1536 kN. C. Plate girders.4. see figure 6.2 . D and E apply loads to the web of the main beam through the top flange.5.44 mLT = 0.6.0. Fv = 624 kN.5 = 100×(176/182)0.3.6. If the equivalent slenderness λLT = uvλ = 100. As an end panel. hence Vw = 1332 kN > 1234 kN.904 1650 mLT = 0.3.5 and d/t = 120. see (2).Z x )(β 3f /(b/T) .5 Figure 4: Moment diagram for segment BC. In the panel B-C. C.15×1348 + 0. Figure 3: Main beam supporting secondary beams at 3m centres. the ratio a/d = 1200/1200 = 1.2 the effective plastic modulus S x.1) = 164 + 18×0.5.1)/(15/10 .2 + Thus the equivalent uniform moment mLT Mmax is 0.3.6×275×1200×10/1000 kN = 1980 kN.15M4 Mmax 0. From Table 18. The shear capacity Pv = 0. The segments from B to C and from C to D have the largest moments and are therefore critical. The 1200 mm end panel is therefore satisfactory.2Pv)/7 = (9×1536 . the value of Vcr would be less than the applied shear Fv . Therefore an intermediate stiffener is needed between A and B. For the end panel A-A*.78 which is more than 0. The secondary beams provide lateral restraint to the main beam at B.2 the shear buckling resistance of the web Vw = dtqw 1200×10×102/1000 = 1224 kN which is less than the applied shear Fv of 1240 kN. 5.1) = 164 + (182 . Figure 5: Plate girder The maximum bending moment is 5550 kNm (at the centre of the span) and the moments at B and C are 3696 kNm and 5544 kNm respectively.5. the equivalent uniform moment factor mLT is given by: 0. D and E to resist the loads applied through the top flange. so this panel is also satisfactory. The ratio Vw/Pv = 1536/1980 = 0. Thus. see (1). so from 4. C and D.6. but note in passing that for a 1500 mm panel due to putting the stiffener A* mid-way from A to B. whereas the 1990 edition uses the plastic modulus. The buckling resistance moment Mb of a class 3 semi-compact or class 4 slender section is reduced.164)×(15/11.5 = 176. the ratio a/d = 1.1)/(β 3f /β 2f . Buckling resistance moment.4.

and to CHS.5. the anchor force produces a longitudinal shear force Rtf in the end panel of 0. It should also be noted that.3 mm. using the option for Fv < Vw . Try a pair of stiffeners each 100 mm × 10 mm (b/(εts) < 13. this 93 kN should be added to the end reaction of 1240 kN. A pair of 100 mm×10 mm stiffeners could also be used for the intermediate stiffener in the end panel. Including 300 mm of web.1. As the end panel is square.3.1 should be used.1. the simplified method given in 4.2(a). The m factor to be used in each case is related to the pattern of moments about the axis being considered. see the next example.1.7×1200/39. There is also a balancing tension of 93 kN in the next-to-end stiffener at A*.15Hqd/ae = 0. so no stiffener is needed to prevent crushing of the web.4. m y and myx). in some cases. py = 265 N/mm2 .15×621×1200/1200 = 93 kN.4. see 4. Combined axial load and bending.3.3. see 4.4. However. Bearing now comes first.1106)/(1332-1106))×[1 . so the ratio Fv /Vw = 624/1224 = 0.0 for I and H sections only.5 = 621 kN.6. see 4.9)2 /Pv = (1332/0.5 = 320 kN which is less than 600 kN and thus a stiffener is required to prevent web buckling.3 and Figure 13 of BS 5950-1: 2000. For other sections. However in other cases. From H.3.1. will have 2 × 2 = 4 different m factors (m LT. such as channels. combined with the maximum shears in the adjacent web panels.8.5×1200×10×275/1000×((1234 .51 < 0.5 . Checks are also needed on the moments at C and B. its resistance Vcr.8. and this imposes extra forces on the stiffeners bounding it.2 and 4. At C. At B. depends on the cross-section geometry of the member that applies the load. the longitudinal anchor force H q = 0. Thus the moment capacity at C is not reduced by shear buckling. Figure 6: Web stiffeners of welded plate girder The bearing capacity Pbw of the unstiffened web of a welded I section. in this case. So P x = 25×10×715/[(60 + 5×40×)1200]0. see 4. nor needing to anchor any tension fields. The most important change in 4. NOTE: This example has been devised to illustrate various provisions of the code.4. so no intermediate stiffener is needed.10)×103/12 = 7741667 mm4 and hence rs = (7741667/5000)0.5.and Vw = 1224 kN. The design of the load carrying stiffener is given in 4. In this case b1 = 60 mm. but the stiffeners at B and C need to be designed to resist a local load of 600 kN applied through the flange. is given by 25εtP bw /[(b 1 + 5T) d ] 0. An innovation is the recognition that a sufficiently large moment in one plane can. A check is also needed on lateral-torsional buckling between the lateral restraints.4. the ratio Vw /Pv = 1332/1980 = 0. If the end of the girder is supported from beneath.4. if the web plate is made 12 mm thick instead of 10 mm. subject to checking the details of the bolted connection. but a smaller stiffener would seem disproportionate. The stiff bearing length b1 . pc = 268 N/mm2. However. This is much more than 600 kN.8 is that the use of equivalent uniform moment factors m has been clarified. The panel C-D does not need checking. except at the end of the member. 9. Figure 6 shows one end of this girder. reduce the resistance of a member to buckling in the perpendicular plane due to axial compression. 8. see 4. It should be noted that the use of the more exact method for the member buckling resistance of compression members with moments is now limited to I or H sections with equal flanges. is unchanged.3. The top flange is restrained in position and direction in the plane of the stiffener by the secondary beam. if the girder is supported by bolting its end plate to the supporting member.2 and 4. with 2 axes of bending and two possible planes of buckling. Then from H. In addition the web stiffeners have to be sized. the m factor for in-plane buckling can now be estimated approximately for any pattern of moments by using the general method given in Table 26 of the code. Also because the web d/t ratio is increased to 100. see 4. this does not apply.3 = 21. taken over the length betwe en lateral restraints against the form of buckling being considered. giving a required Is for the stiffener (using the actual web thickness t for simplicity) of 900000 mm4. the section is just class 3 semi-compact and so the section modulus Zx should be used. m x. New rules are given for the web bearing capacity and buckling resistance under point loads and end reactions applied to the web through a flange.2. see 4. the required shear buckling resistance can be achieved without introducing an additional stiffener at A*.2).V cr /P v ] 0. so again no reduction is needed for shear. With a web d/t ratio of 120.3.8. Is about the centreline of the web is 10×(2×100 + 10)3/12 + (300 . The buckling resistance Px of the unstiffened web.5. producing a tensile stress of 93×1000/10/200 = 47 N/mm2. which is sufficient. leading to a reduction in the weight of steel used.3. see 4. 7. From H. the 0. a 250 mm×15 mm end plate is probably suitable.75Hq = 466 kN. including the intermediate stiffener added between A and B. RHS and box sections. the complete cruciform area As of the stiffener is 5000 mm2 . For the panel A*-B. The plate girder used in (6) will be used again here.3.5dtp y ((F v .3.1106/1980] 0. There are a number of important changes concerning the design of bolted and welded connections. Connections. but this is omitted here for brevity. Thus a member subject to biaxial bending. For 40 mm flanges. but both are liable to be more conservative. the moment capacity of the flanges alone is 400×40×1240×265/10 6 = 5258 kNm which is more than the applied moment of 3696 kN.9)2/1980 = 1106 kN.V cr )/(V w . Web bearing and buckling. because the bearing capacity is now used in determining the buckling resistance.5.5 factor in the expression for in-plane buckling about the minor axis has been increased to 1. The rule in 4. which is less than the 7717500mm 4 contributed by the stiffeners alone.1.5 = 39. New Steel Construction. These stiffeners also serve as intermediate stiffeners. Assuming this applies here.4 and using curve (c) of Table 24.4. March/April 2001 Page 27 . is given by (b1 + 5T)tpyw . which is more than the maximum applied moment of 5550 kNm. So the buckling resistance is 5000×268/1000 = 1340 kN.3.3.ep = Vcr = 1409 kN. That for buckling is simpler than before.5 = 0. the method for interaction between buckling about two axes can be more severe and has therefore been retained alongside the new method. in the more exact method.3. which is less than 275 N/mm2 and is therefore satisfactory. so the moment capacity Mc = py Zx = 265×21477/1000 = 5691 kNm. which it is intended to cover in detail in a subsequent article. The ends of the girder have end plates.8. Thus Pbw = (60 + 5×40)×10×275/1000 kN = 715 kN which is more than 600 kN.5. the section becomes class 2 compact and smaller flange plates can be used to obtain the same moment capacity.V cr ))[1 . The tension field in the 1800mm panel A*-B needs to be anchored by the end panel A-A*.5. thus λ = 0.4 the additional compression in the end stiffener Ftf = 0.4.67 so the value of Vcr is given by (Vw /0. panel B-C applies. As for lateral-torsional buckling.

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