# BS 5950-1: 2000 Technical details

Colin Taylor
It is clearly not possible to give meaningful details of all the changes, so a few fairly major ones have been selected for illustration, mainly by examples. As many of these indicate an advantage in using the new edition, it is important to recall that the prime purpose of the amendments was safety, thus there are some cases where the new version is more conservative. and from Table 24 sheet (3) the value of p cs is 147 N/mm 2. So the compression resistance Pcs = Aeff pcs = 79.7×147/10 = 1172 kN. The new method is as given by EC3.

1. Moment capacity. The moment capacity of class 3 semi-compact and class 4 slender sections is increased by using two new parameters Seff and Zeff in 4.2.5. The effective plastic modulus Seff is found in 3.5.6 and answers the question of what happens if a section is only just outside the limits for class 2 compact. The effective section modulus Zeff is found in 3.6.2 and covers class 4 slender sections. Figure 1 shows how the moment capacity of a welded section varies with the d/t ratio of the web. The solid curve between d/t values of 100 to 120 represents Seff /Z and the solid curve beyond d/t = 120 represents Z eff /Z. The dotted lines show the equivalent moment capacity according to the 1990 edition. The new method for slender sections is a variant of that given in EC3. For rolled sections, the flange is more likely to be slender, not the web. The value of Seff will then be based on the flange b/T ratio (or b/t for an RHS). In 3.5.6.2 and 3.5.6.3 two values are given for Sx.eff . The first applies when the web is slender and the second applies when the flange is slender.

Figure 2: Effective area

Figure 1: Variation of moment capacity with web slenderness ratio d/t

2. Compression member with a slender section. The new method for class 4 slender sections under axial compression, see 4.7.4(b), uses the effective area A eff . For example, the web of a 457×191×67 UB with d/t = 48.0 may be slender, depending on the load. For any value of axial compression, the basic limit in Table 11 is 40ε. For S275 steel, using 3.6.2.2, Aeff = A - (d - 40tε) t = A - (d/t - 40ε) t 2 , see figure 2. So Aeff = 85.5 - (48 - 40)(8.5/10)2 = 85.5 - 5.8 = 79.7 cm2. If the slenderness λ = L/ry = 100 then using 4.7.4(b) the reduced slenderness is λ [Aeff /A]0.5 = 100(79.7/85.5)0.5 = 96.5. From Table 23, curve (b) applies

3. Classification. Classification now depends on the axial load in some cases. Due to this, although the compression resistance in (2) is about 20% more than given by the 1990 edition, it is still an underestimate. Even under a load of 1205 kN, from 3.5.5(a) the ratio r2 = 1205×10/85.5/275 = 0.5125 so the other expression in Table 11 gives an increased d/t limit of 120/(1 + 2×0.5125) = 59.26 which is greater than 48.0 and thus the section is not slender after all. If the member slenderness λ is 100 then p c is 141 N/mm 2 and the compression resistance Pc = Apc= 85.5×141/10 = 1205.5 kN. If the member slenderness λ is 60 and it is assumed that the section is not slender, then p c = 221N/mm 2 and the compression resistance Pc would be 1890 kN. However a check under this load will show that the section is now slender. Provided that the member slenderness is low enough, the section will become slender when 120ε/(1 + 2r2 ) exceeds 48.0, which happens for S275 steel when the load exceeds 1763 kN. For simplicity, to avoid doubt whether the section is slender or not, the limit of 40ε is useful. On the other hand, for maximum economy the expression using r2 is more appropriate. Most rolled sections will not become slender except when the member slenderness λ is low. Thus a practical design strategy is to initially assume that sections are not slender, but include a check that this is the case. 4. Equivalent uniform moment for lateral-torsional buckling. In the new edition, the shape of the bending moment diagram is always allowed for by new equivalent uniform moment factors mLT instead of using either m or n factors, depending on the type of loading, as in the 1990 edition. Table 18 gives values of mLT for common cases. In addition, it gives a simple formula to allow the appropriate value of mLT to be estimated for any shape of moment diagram. It should be noted that, in each case, the relevant pattern of moments is that over the

New Steel Construction, March/April 2001

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then check the shear buckling resistance of the web to see whether any intermediate web stiffeners are required. unless the critical shear resistance Vcr is also more than Fv . i. a/d = 2. This is off-set to some extent by using a reduced slenderness.e. Try a stiffener at a point A* located 1200 mm from A.5M3 + 0.2 + but mLT ≥ 0.15×1554 = 0. Page 26 New Steel Construction. 6. as for axial compression of a slender section. see 4. see 4. From 3. March/April 2001 . All loads are factored. The maximum shear is 1240 kN and the shears at B and C are 1224 kN and 608 kN respectively.4 Vcr = (9Vw . the web is adequate. All loads are factored. by basing it on the effective plastic modulus or effective elastic modulus.5 = uvλ[Sx.339/0. the reduced equivalent slenderness = uvλ[βw ]0. as for the moment capacity.72.15M2 + 0. which is more than the applied shear Fv . a 152×152×23 UC has a b/T ratio of 11. given sufficient stiffeners. 10 and 15 for S275 steel. it will need an end post. so from Table 21(1) qw = 102 N/mm2 thus from 4. The maximum shear Fv in the 1800 mm panel A*-B is 1234 kN. Secondary beams at B. They also provide the main beam with lateral restraint at those points.eff = Z x + (S x . consider the beam shown in figure 3. the ratio a/d = 3000/1200 = 2.4.904×1650 = 1492 kNm. see 4. For the panel A-B.2×1980)/7 = 1409 kN > 1240 kN.5 = 98.4.5. So the beam needs to have a buckling resistance moment Mb of at least 1492 kNm and a moment capacity Mc of at least 1650 kNm. The moments in segment BC are shown in figure 4.2 compared to the limits of 10ε for class 2 compact and 15ε for class 3 semi-compact. with a web 1200mm × 10mm and flanges 400mm × 40mm. The beam shown in figure 5 is a plate girder in S275 steel.eff/Sx]0. Assume initially that load carrying or bearing stiffeners will be required at A and F to resist the end reactions and at B. For example.5×1453 + 0. For example.5 and qw = 111 N/mm2 .STEEL DESIGN length L LT of a segment of the member between adjacent lateral restraints.7.4. so q w = 128 N/mm2 and Vw = 1200×10×128/1000 = 1536 kN. C. Plate girders.4. see figure 6.2 . D and E apply loads to the web of the main beam through the top flange.5.44 mLT = 0.6.0. Fv = 624 kN.5 = 100×(176/182)0.3.6. If the equivalent slenderness λLT = uvλ = 100. As an end panel. hence Vw = 1332 kN > 1234 kN.904 1650 mLT = 0.3.5 and d/t = 120. see (2).Z x )(β 3f /(b/T) .5 Figure 4: Moment diagram for segment BC. In the panel B-C. C.15×1348 + 0. Figure 3: Main beam supporting secondary beams at 3m centres. the ratio a/d = 1200/1200 = 1.2 the effective plastic modulus S x.1) = 164 + 18×0.5.1)/(15/10 .2 + Thus the equivalent uniform moment mLT Mmax is 0.3.6×275×1200×10/1000 kN = 1980 kN.15M4 Mmax 0. From Table 18. The shear capacity Pv = 0. The segments from B to C and from C to D have the largest moments and are therefore critical. The 1200 mm end panel is therefore satisfactory.2Pv)/7 = (9×1536 . the value of Vcr would be less than the applied shear Fv . Therefore an intermediate stiffener is needed between A and B. For the end panel A-A*.78 which is more than 0. The secondary beams provide lateral restraint to the main beam at B.2 the shear buckling resistance of the web Vw = dtqw 1200×10×102/1000 = 1224 kN which is less than the applied shear Fv of 1240 kN. 5.1) = 164 + (182 . Figure 5: Plate girder The maximum bending moment is 5550 kNm (at the centre of the span) and the moments at B and C are 3696 kNm and 5544 kNm respectively.5. the equivalent uniform moment factor mLT is given by: 0. D and E to resist the loads applied through the top flange. so this panel is also satisfactory. The ratio Vw/Pv = 1536/1980 = 0. Thus. see (1). so from 4. C and D.6. but note in passing that for a 1500 mm panel due to putting the stiffener A* mid-way from A to B. whereas the 1990 edition uses the plastic modulus. The buckling resistance moment Mb of a class 3 semi-compact or class 4 slender section is reduced.164)×(15/11.5 = 176. the ratio a/d = 1.1)/(β 3f /β 2f . Buckling resistance moment.4.