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1 From 2G to 3G

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Objectives
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Objectives: To be able to describe the 2G-to-3G systems evolution.

Content: 1.1 2G Limitations / 3G Requirements 1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution 1.3 IMT-2000 1.4 3GPP

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In this section, we are going to determine what the 2G limitations are and what implies the evolution to a 3G network. Then we will see how the 2G-to-3G evolution has been carried out. Next, we will explain the role of the IMT-2000. Finally, we will focus on the 3GPP recommendations.

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1 From 2G to 3G
1.1 2G Limitations / 3G Requirements

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Why evolving from 2G to 3G networks? And what does this evolution imply?

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1.1 2G Limitations / 3G Requirements

What Are the 2G Limitations?


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2G limitations

Rate 9.6 Kbps


CU N S OO

SMS

Waste of radio ressource (before GPRS)

Not adapted for new services such as video streaming

Large number of 2G systems

=> lack of Compatibility

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1.1 2G Limitations / 3G Requirements What Are the 3G Requirements?


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3G requirements

High speed :
144-384kbps: full coverage and mobility 2 Mbps: limited coverage and mobility

Better spectrum efficiency Worldwide roaming Single system for


the following environments: cellular office satellite residential

Flexibility to introduce new services


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High Data Transmission Rates The bit rate targets have been specified according to the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN). Indeed, the 144-kbps data rate provides the ISDN 2B+D channel, the 384-kbps provides the ISDN H0 channel and the 1920-kbps provides the ISDN H12 channel. Even though 2Mbps is generally used as the upper limit for IMT-2000 services, the exact service is specified to be 1.92 or 2.048 Mbps. Typically, for fast mobile, voice + 144kbps data are provided for high mobility (car speeds, etc.) in outdoor environment. For slow mobile, 384kbps are provided for limited mobility (pedestrian, etc.). For non mobile, 2Mbps are provided for stationary terminals in indoor environment. Flexibility to Introduce New Services Variable bit rates are used to offer "Bandwidth on Demand" (BoD) and it should be possible to multiplex on the same connection services with different quality requirements (speech, video, etc.). Note that different backward compatibility requirements influence the technology applied to 3G systems.

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1 From 2G to 3G
1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution

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Let's now consider how radio networks have evolved from 2G to 3G.

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution

Evolution of the Radio Access Network


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2G RAN
R97/98/99 (GSM) BSS GSM Up to 160kbps Internet services FDMA+TDMA Radio technique CDMA R99/R3/R4 (3GPP) UTRAN UMTS Up to 384kbps Multimedia AMR voice UMTS R5 (3GPP) UTRAN 3G/HSDPA Up to 10Mbps DL Multimedia AMR voice then VoIP HSDPA GPRS R99 (GSM) BSS EDGE Up to 384kbps Internet services E-GPRS

3G RAN
R5 (3GPP) GERAN EDGE Up to 384kbps Multimedia VoIP

EDGE

R6 (3GPP) UTRAN 3G/HSUPA Up to 2Mbps UL Multimedia VoIP

HSUPA

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GSM systems have evolved in 4 ways: GPRS, EDGE, UMTS and HSDPA/HSUPA. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) GPRS is an evolution of GSM systems using the already existing BSS with additional packet control functions and a new packet Core Network. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) EDGE is deployed in existing GPRS networks (2.5G) by adding new transceiver equipment in the Base Stations. EDGE for 3G will be the (G)ERAN solution. EDGE Adaptations IS-136 specifics to EGPRS will provide TDMA networks with 3G service and convergence path. Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) UMTS is one of the IMT-2000 3G standards, specified by ETSI as an evolution of GSM systems. Different releases are forecast: R99, R4, R5, R6. High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) increases DL speeds to over 14Mbps at the physical layer and 10Mbps at the application layer whereas High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) increases UL speeds to up to 2Mbps.

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution

General Packet Radio Service (GPRS)


8

CS

BSS with PCU

VMS /VLR

GMSC

POTS

BSC
PCU

HLR

BTS

iGGSN SGSN GPRS Bakbone IP network

PS

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4 Coding Schemes are used in GPRS: CS1 with 9.05kbps (8.8kbps), CS2 with 13.4kbps (11.2kbps), CS3 with 15.6kbps (14.8kbps) and CS4 with 21.4kbps (17.6kbps). A GPRS backbone network is added between the BSS and the existing packet data networks (X.25, Internet, etc.). BSS is used for voice and data. It serves 2 network nodes: the MSC/VLR, for Circuit-Switched services (A interface) and the GPRS backbone network, for GPRS (Gb interface). Among the 3 new network entities, we find the Packet Control Unit (PCU) that handles the Um interface low layer functions (Radio Link Control and Medium Access Control protocols, Multiplexing, Scheduling, Power control). Then the Serving GPRS Support Node (SGSN) acting as an interface to the BSSs, manages GPRS mobility, encryption, paging and charging. Finally, the Gateway GPRS Support Node (GGSN) interfaces the packet data networks.

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution

Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE)


9 8PSK Constellation diagram
(0,1,0) (0,0,0) (0,1,1) (1,1,1)

New radio modulation

Up to

384kbps

(0,0,1) (1,0,1) (1,0,0)

(1,1,0)

Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution


2.5G E-GPRS Evolution of GSM radio part 2 generations 3G GERAN Insertion in UMTS solutions

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Data Rates Up to 384kbps per carrier is forecast, but physically 473kbps would be possible using Modulation and Coding Scheme 9 (MCS9) on 8 Time Slots. 9 Modulation and Coding Schemes: MCS1: 9.05kbps (8.8kbps) (GMSK) MCS2: 13.4kbps (11.2kbps) (GMSK) MCS3: 15.6kbps (14.8kbps) (GMSK) MCS4: 21.4kbps (17.6kbps) (GMSK) MCS5: (22.4kbps) (8PSK) MCS6: (29.6kbps) (8PSK) MCS7: (44.8kbps) (8PSK MCS8: (54.4kbps) (8PSK) MCS9: (59.2kbps) (8PSK) Solutions One solution is the 2.5G with Enhanced GPRS (E-GPRS). E-GPRS is a simple upgrade of existing equipment (2.5G). GSM release 99 is completed and approved by 3GPP (see later in the document) in December 99. The other solution is the 3G with the GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN). (G)ERAN is an all-IP network. Note: Evolium BTSs are ready for both solutions.

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1.2 2G-to-3G Evolution

GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN)


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GSM BSC Iu EDGE GSM UMTS Core Network (All IP)

EDGE GSM BSC EDGE GSM Iu

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GSM EDGE Radio Access Network (GERAN) connects a mobile station toward the GSM or UMTS core network. GERAN is characterized by a 3G technology, an all-IP solution keeping only one plane for both data and control and the use of the Iu interface (RANAP protocol).

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1 From 2G to 3G
1.3 IMT-2000

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What is the role of IMT-2000 in the standardization of radio networks?

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1.3 IMT-2000

3G Standardization Bodies
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Members: ETSI (Europe), T1 (USA), TTA (Korea), ARIB/TTC (Japan), CWTS (PRC) Goal: Global specifications for UMTS networks

Members: TIA (USA), TTA (Korea), ARIB/TTC (Japan), CWTS (PRC) Goal: Global specifications for CDMA2000 networks

3G.IP

Members: AT&T Wireless (USA), BT (UK), Omnitel (Italy), etc. Goal: Specifications of an all-IP core network standard

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Several groups are working to facilitate the development of global specifications for 3G systems: the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specifies the UTRA radio interface, the 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) specifies the CDMA2000 radio interface and the 3G.IP specifies the all-IP core network. ETSI - European Telecommunications Standards Institute T1 - Standard Committee T1 Telecommunications: Committee T1 develops technical standards and reports regarding interconnection and interoperability of telecommunications networks. It is sponsored by the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) and is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). ARIB - Association of Radio Industries and Businesses, Japan TTA - Telecommunications Technology Association, Korea TTC - Telecommunication Technology Committee, Japan TIA - Telecommunications Industry Association, USA ANSI - American National Standards Institute, USA ANSI-41 - American National Standard ANSI/TIA/EIA-41 UWCC - Universal Wireless Communications Committee provides standardization input for UWC-136 that goes to TIA and ETSI CRs. Internet Sites http://www.3GPP.org/ http://www.3GIP.org/ http://www.umts-forum.org/ http://www.etsi.org/

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1.3 IMT-2000

Radio and Core Network Subsystems


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4 radio accesses
IMT-DS UMTS TDD IMT-TC UMTS FDD-DS IMT-SC EDGE TDMA IMT-MC CDMA 2000 FDD-MC

GSM MAP

ANSI-41

2 Core Networks

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IMT-DS for Direct Sequence is also called UMTS FDD (Wideband-CDMA). IMT-TC for Time Code is also called UMTS TDD (Wideband-CDMA + TDMA). IMT-MC for Multi Carrier is also called CDMA2000 (Multicarrier-CDMA). IMT-SC for Single Carrier is also called EDGE (UWC-136 TDMA). There are 4 radio accesses. UMTS supports 2 CDMA radio modes. The first mode is FDD-DS (Frequency Division Duplex) using Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA with Direct Sequence (*)) for wide coverage and capacity. This mode is also called FDD1. The second mode is Time Division Duplex (TDD) using Time Division & Code Division Multiple Access (TD-CDMA) for intensive downlink interactive services. Another type of radio access is CDMA2000 (for ANSI-41 territories, USA, Americas, Part of Asia) supporting one CDMA radio mode which is FDD-MC (Frequency Division Duplex) using Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA with Multi-Carrier (**)). This mode is also called FDD2. The last radio access is EDGE (UWC136) for the 3rd generation of D-AMPS network. (*) Direct Sequence - The modulated information-bearing signal is directly modulated by a digital, discretetime, discrete-valued code signal. The resulting signal modulates the wideband carrier. (**) Multi Carrier - The multicarrier approach has been proposed since it might provide an easier overlay with the existing CDMA systems. 2 kinds of core networks interface the radio subsystems. The first core network, MAP for 3G (FDD1 and TDD), is an extension of GSM network. There is probably no market for FDD2. The second core network, ANSI-41 for CDMA2000 (FDD2) is an extension of CDMAOne network (All ANSI-41). There are some applications possible for TDD mode and also some possibilities for FDD1 if a new spectrum is allocated.

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1.3 IMT-2000

Subsystems Distribution
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US & Canada: GSM (12%) EDGE UMTS

Western Europe: GSM (100%) TDMA (36%) EDGE EDGE

China: GSM (95%) EDGE UMTS

CDMA (52%) CDMA 2000

CDMA (13%) CDMA 2000

UMTS Japan: IMT-2000 PDC (65%) UMTS CDMA 2000

Rest of the World: GSM (41%) EDGE UMTS

CDMA (35%) CDMA 2000 UMTS

CDMA (35%) CDMA 2000 UMTS

TDMA (24%) EDGE

EDGE UMTS

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GSM leads the worlds total market with more than 65% of market share and 392 GSM networks on-air developed in 147 countries (Jan 2001). GSM subscribers are in constant evolution with more than 80% in 2 years leading to 435M subscribers (Jan2001), what corresponds to 1 new subscriber every 2s. The part of GSM subscribers is 41% in Europe (255M) and 20% in Asia-Pacific (110M). For information, in 1999, the total market (including analog systems) represented 41.8 B$ (US & Canada = 8.9 B$ Western Europe = 8.8 B$ China = 4.8 B$ Japan = 4.6 B$). 2005 data users forecast was 1.2 Billion worldwide (8%~282 MSbs in Asia/Pacific, 83%~224 MSbs in the US and 91%~409 MSbs in Europe).

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1 From 2G to 3G
1.4 3GPP

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Let's now shortly turn towards the 3GPP recommendations that specify the UTRA radio interface.

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1.4 3GPP

Radio Access Ranges


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Zone 4: Global
ell Sa t ite
c Ma c ro-

Zone 3: Suburban
ell

ll -ce cro i

Zone 2: Urban
ce oll

c Pi

Zone 1: In-Building

MSS

EDGE

UMTS/FDD

UMTS/TDD

or
HSDPA/ HSUPA

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1.4 3GPP

Recommendations (1/2)
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Series 21 to 23 21: Requirements Specifications 22: Service aspects 23: Technical realization TR: Technical Reports TS: Specification

Series 24 to 26 24: Signaling protocols (UE-CN Network) 25: UTRA aspects 26: Codecs (speech, video, etc.)

Exemple : 3GPP ETSI TS 23.002 Network Architecture TS 123.002

But be careful

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21-Series: Requirements Specifications


These specifications are often transient and contain requirements leading to other specifications. They may become obsolete when technical solutions have been fully specified. They could then, e.g., be replaced by reports describing the performance of the system. They could be deleted without replacement or be kept for historical reasons but turned into background material. When found necessary and appropriate, the transient or permanent nature of a requirement specification may be expressed in its scope.

22-Series: Service Aspects


Specifications in this series specify services, service features, building blocks or platforms for services (a service feature or service building block may provide certain generic functionality for the composition of a service, including the control by the user. A platform may comprise a single or more network elements, e.g. UIM, mobile terminal, auxiliary system to the core network etc.). Stage-1 specs that are felt appropriate belong to this series. Reports defining services which can be realized by generic building blocks etc. also belong to this series.

23-Series: Technical Realization


This series mainly contains stage-2 specifications (or specifications of a similar nature describing interworking over several interfaces, the behavior in unexceptional cases, etc.).

24-Series: Signaling Protocols (UE - CN Network)


This series contains the detailed and bit-exact stage-3 specifications of protocols between Mobile Station/User Equipment and the Core Network. 25-Series: UTRA Aspects 25.100-series: UTRA radio performance aspects (radio performance of UTRAN). 25.200-series: UTRA radio aspects ((physical) layer 1 of UTRA). 25.300-series: UTRA radio interface architecture, layer 2 and layer 3 aspects (layer 2/3 of the UMTS radio). 25.400-series: UTRA network aspects (Iub, Iur and Iu interfaces within UTRAN). 26-Series: Codecs (speech, video, etc.) - (speech codecs and other codecs (video, etc.)
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1.4 3GPP

Recommendations (2/2)
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Series 27 to 31 27: Data 29: Signalling Protocols (NSS) 30: Program Management 31: User Identity Module

Series 32 to 35 32: Operation and Maintenance 33: Security Aspects 34: Test Specifications 35: Algorithms

TR 21.905 Vocabulary and abbreviations in 3GPP networks

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27-Series: Data (functions necessary to support data applications). 28-Series: Reserved for future use. 29-Series: Signaling Protocols (NSS) This series contains the detailed and bit-exact stage-3 specifications of protocols within the Core Network. 30-Series: Program Management This series contains the 3GPP 3rd Generation Mobile System, project plans / project work programme and standalone documents for major work items. 31-Series: UIM This series specifies the User Identity Module (UIM) and the interfaces between UIM and other entities. 32-Series: Operation and Maintenance This series defines the application of TMN for the 3GPP 3rd Generation Mobile System and other functions for operation, administration and maintenance of a 3rd Generation Mobile System network. 33-Series: Security Aspects This series contains specifications of security functions. 34-Series: Test Specifications This series contains test specifications. 35-Series: Algorithms This series contains the specifications of encryption algorithms for confidentiality and authentication, etc.

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