Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 04/2012

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)
12 February 2012
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Table of Contents: BOOKS ................................................................................ 4
Global Health Watch 3: An Alternative World Health Report .................................................. 4 ‘Good health at low cost’ - 25 years on ................................................................................... 4 Living Well with Chronic Illness: A Call for Public Health Action............................................. 4 The Dream of Inclusion for All ................................................................................................. 5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS .................................................... 5
Global Health................................................................................................................ 5
Moving Towards Universal Health Coverage: Health Financing Matters ............................... 5 What is ‘Global Health Diplomacy’? A Conceptual Review .................................................... 5 Global Health Initiative 2.0: Effective Priority-Setting in a Time of Austerity........................... 6

HIV - AIDS - STI ........................................................................................................... 6
Don’t stop now: How underfunding the Global Fund impacts on the HIV response ............... 6 The Global Fund and the Crisis of HIV Funding - A Severe Setback for HIV and Human Rights: Statement and Recommendations.............................................................................. 6 The effect of changes in condom usage and antiretroviral treatment coverage on human immunodeficiency virus incidence in South Africa: a model-based analysis .......................... 7 Getting in the Door: Home-Based HIV Testing and Counseling in Kenya.............................. 7 The role of non-formal education in combating the HIV epidemic in the Philippines and Taiwan ..................................................................................................................................... 7 The Long Walk: Ensuring comprehensive care for women and families to end vertical transmission of HIV ................................................................................................................. 8 Engaging Men in Prevention and Care for HIV/AIDS in Africa ............................................... 8 The HIV epidemic in South Africa: What do we know and how has it changed? ................... 8

Sexual & Reproductive Health ..................................................................................... 9
The Kenya Population Data Sheet 2011................................................................................. 9 Annual Report 2011 for the UNFPA/UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting..................................................................................................................... 9 Social science methods for research on sexual and reproductive health............................... 9 Family Planning: Pathway to Poverty Reduction .................................................................. 10

Maternal & Child Health ............................................................................................. 10
Improving maternal health when resources are limited: Safe motherhood in rural Rwanda 10 Guidelines on optimal feeding of low birth-weight infants in low- and middle-income countries ................................................................................................................................ 10 Recommendations for management of common childhood conditions ................................ 11 Topical application of chlorhexidine to neonatal umbilical cords for prevention of omphalitis and neonatal mortality in a rural district of Pakistan: a community-based, cluster-randomised trial......................................................................................................................................... 11 WHO guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of persisting pain in children with medical illnesses ................................................................................................................... 11

Malaria........................................................................................................................ 12 HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 1

Lack of Decline in Childhood Malaria, Malawi, 2001-2010 ................................................... 12 Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination ........................... 12 Strengthening the policy setting process for global malaria control and elimination ............ 12 Global malaria mortality between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis ............................ 13 Community-based Reduction of Malaria Transmission ........................................................ 13 How Do We Best Diagnose Malaria in Africa?...................................................................... 13

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................... 13
Antiretroviral treatment uptake and attrition among HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis in Kibera, Kenya........................................................................................................................ 13 Diagnostic management and outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis suspects admitted to a central hospital in Malawi ...................................................................................................... 14

Other Infectious Diseases .......................................................................................... 14
The Perpetual Challenge of Infectious Diseases .................................................................. 14 Policies for Eliminating Healthcare-Associated Infections: Lessons Learned from State Stakeholder Engagement...................................................................................................... 15 Progress in global measles control, 2000-2010 .................................................................... 15

Non-communicable Diseases..................................................................................... 15
Ethical tensions in dealing with noncommunicable diseases globally .................................. 15

Essential Medicines.................................................................................................... 15
Piloting the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria: what will “success” look like? ................ 15

Social Protection ........................................................................................................ 16
Spotlight on Publications: Conditional Cash Transfers ......................................................... 16 Productive Safety Nets for Women in Extreme Poverty: Lessons from Pilot Projects in India and Pakistan.......................................................................................................................... 16 Local to Global Protection in Myanmar (Burma), Sudan, South Sudan and Zimbabwe....... 17 Evaluating Social Protection Programs in Tajikistan............................................................. 17 Conditional Cash Transfers as Social Policy in Latin America: An Assessment of their Contributions and Limitations................................................................................................ 17 Does Expanding Health Insurance Beyond Formal-Sector Workers Encourage Informality? Measuring the Impact of Mexico’s Seguro Popular .............................................................. 17 The contribution of basic social protection measures to limiting and mitigating the impact of HIV......................................................................................................................................... 18 Social protection and children’s care .................................................................................... 18 RSBY-Connect - Issue No.1, February 2012 ........................................................................ 18

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene ...................................................................................... 19
Water for Life......................................................................................................................... 19 Inclusive design of school latrines - how much does it cost and who benefits? ................... 19

Health Systems & Research ...................................................................................... 19
Opportunities, Challenges and Good Practices in International Research Cooperation between Developed and Developing Countries.................................................................... 19 Strengthening Health Systems: Perspectives for economic evaluation................................ 20 Health workers at the core of the health system: Framework and research issues ............. 20 The emergence and current performance of a health research system: lessons from Guinea Bissau.................................................................................................................................... 20

Information & Communication Technology ................................................................ 21
Legal frameworks for eHealth ............................................................................................... 21 Shedding Light on Cloud Computing .................................................................................... 21

Education ................................................................................................................... 21
When Does Education Aid Boost Enrollment Rates? ........................................................... 21 The Role of Education in Peacebuilding ............................................................................... 22 Zehn Ziele für mehr Bildung .................................................................................................. 22

Harm Reduction and Drug Use .................................................................................. 22
Alcohol, Work, and Productivity ............................................................................................ 22 Impact of Alcoholism and Alcohol Induced Disease on America .......................................... 23 WHO Global Report: Mortality Attributable to Tobacco ........................................................ 23

Millennium Development Goals.................................................................................. 23
Between-Country Disparities in MDGs: The Asia and Pacific Region .................................. 23 Disability and the Millennium Development Goals ................................................................ 24

Development Assistance............................................................................................ 24
Pieces of the puzzle: evidence, dilemmas and the emerging agenda for budget support ... 24 Indicators as Interventions: Pitfalls and Prospects in Supporting Development Initiatives... 24

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 2

An Index of the Quality of Official Development Assistance in Health.................................. 25 Crises in a New World Order: Challenging the humanitarian project ................................... 25 Making Evaluations Matter: A Practical Guide for Evaluators............................................... 25 Program-for-Results Financing ............................................................................................. 26 Effective Development Aid: Selectivity, Proliferation and Fragmentation, and the Growth Impact of Development Assistance....................................................................................... 26 Innovative Financing in Early Recovery: The Liberia Health Sector Pool Fund ................... 26

Others......................................................................................................................... 27
Integrated Health Management at the Workplace ................................................................ 27 Guidelines on Integrated Health Management in the East African Hotel Industry................ 27 Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A future worth choosing ................................................. 27

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ............................................ 28
Global Fund Interactive Toolkit ............................................................................................. 28 Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 90, Nr. 2, February 2012 ............................ 28 AIDSinfo Data Visualization and Dissemination Tool ........................................................... 28 Knowledge Management for Health and Development ........................................................ 29 LinkedIn group Public Health Africa ...................................................................................... 29 Centre de Documentation Numérique du Secteur Santé Virtual - Cameroon ...................... 29 Unified Medical Dictionary: English - Arabic ......................................................................... 29

INTERESTING WEB SITES .............................................. 29
NGO Aid Map ........................................................................................................................ 29 EuroHealthNet’s Healthy Ageing Website............................................................................. 30 Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health: Results, Resources, Oversight ............ 30

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES............................................ 30
Capacity Building Course in Malaria Control Programs, with a focus on e-learning ............ 30

CARTOON ......................................................................... 31 TIPS & TRICKS ................................................................. 31
Ctrl+Y to Redo....................................................................................................................... 31 What Do Apple And Babies Have In Common?.................................................................... 31

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BOOKS
Global Health Watch 3: An Alternative World Health Report
by Amit Sengupta, Marion Birch, K.M. Gopakumar, Tim Reed et al. People’s Health Movement, Zed Books, October 2011 391 pp. 5.2 MB: http://www.ghwatch.org/sites/www.ghwatch.org/files/global%20hea lth%20watch%203.pdf “Global Health Watch 3, like the previous editions, provides us with compelling evidence about all that is wrong with the governance of health care systems across the world. At the same time it also provides us with hope, in the many stories about what can be done and what is being done. The challenge before us is to act decisively on the evidence provided.” Dr Halfdan Mahler, former Director General of the World Health Organization ***

‘Good health at low cost’ - 25 years on
What makes a succesful health system? Editors: Dina Balabanova, Martin McKee, Anne Mills London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 2011 399 pp. 5.6 MB: http://ghlc.lshtm.ac.uk/files/2011/10/GHLC-book.pdf The first edition of ‘Good health at low cost’ in 1985 explored why some low and middle income countries achieved better health outcomes than others, making the book essential reading for health systems decision- and policy-makers alike. This new edition 25 years on draws on a series of new case studies from Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Kyrgyzstan, Tamil Nadu and Thailand providing fresh insights into the role of effective institutions, innovation and country ownership in catalysing improvements in health. This edition is a vital resource for academics, policy-makers and practitioners grappling with how to improve health in low and middle income countries. ***

Living Well with Chronic Illness: A Call for Public Health Action
by Robert B. Wallace, Ronald T. Ackermann, Karen Basen-Engquist et al. Committee on Living Well with Chronic Disease, Institute of Medicine, 2012 307 pp. 2.9 MB: http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=13272&free=1 The book identifies the population-based public health actions that can help reduce disability and improve functioning and quality of life among individuals who are at risk of developing a chronic disease and those with one or more diseases. It recommends that all major U.S. federally funded programmatic and research initiatives in health include an evaluation on health-related quality of life and functional status. Also, the book recommends increasing support for implementation research on how to disseminate effecHESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 4

tive long-term lifestyle interventions in community-based settings that improve living well with chronic disease. ***

The Dream of Inclusion for All
by Huib Cornielje and Evert Feldmann Enablement Publisher, ISBN: 9 789081 672511, Price € 25 To order online go to: http://www.cbrtraining.com/orderform.php A DVD is included with all chapters in Word- and PDF-format, as well as some documentaries and a range of publications for recommended reading. More than 20 partners of ‘Enablement’ have contributed stories of real-life situations related to disability in Africa, Latin-America and Asia. These stories have been modified into powerful Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) training materials; all with different methodologies for adult education. 27 chapters are compiled for use in training settings for fieldworkers and managers, either basic or advanced level. All stories illustrate the need to adapt solutions to the local environment. Each narrative is followed by openended discussion points, role-plays and suggested activities for the group exploration of “questions that can not be answered from behind a desktop”.

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health Moving Towards Universal Health Coverage: Health Financing Matters
Bangkok Statement on Universal Health Coverage Prince Mahidol Award Conference, January 24-28, 2012 1 pp. 21 kB: http://www.pmaconference.mahidol.ac.th/index.php?option=com_ docman&task=doc_download&gid=631&Itemid= At the close of the above meeting, a 10-point declaration recognised universal health coverage (UHC) as fundamental to the right to health, and marked the commitment by more than 800 delegates to translate the rhetoric of UHC into better, more equitable health outcomes. In addition to political will and sustainable funding, progress towards UHC requires careful outcomes research to guide interventions and health system development. ***

What is ‘Global Health Diplomacy’? A Conceptual Review
by Kelley Lee and Richard Smith Global Health Governance Vol. 5, Nr. 1, November 2011 12 pp. 215 kB: http://blogs.shu.edu/ghg/files/2011/11/Lee-and-Smith_What-is-Global-HealthDiplomacy_Fall-2011.pdf While global health diplomacy (GHD) has attracted growing attention, accompanied by hopes of its potential to progress global health and/or foreign policy goals, the concept HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 5

remains imprecise. This paper finds the term has largely been used normatively to describe its expected purpose rather than distinct features. The paper distinguishes between traditional and “new diplomacy”, with the latter defined by its global context, diverse actors and innovative processes. The authors point to need to strengthen the evidence base in this rapidly evolving area. ***

Global Health Initiative 2.0: Effective Priority-Setting in a Time of Austerity
by Amanda Glassman and Denizhan Duran Center for Global Development, January 2012 10 pp. 372 kB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425913_file_Glassman_Duran_GHI.pdf The Global Health Initiative (GHI) was intended to address many of the challenges in the U.S. government’s approach to global health. However, the Initiative emerged without clear and aligned institutional and budgetary arrangements, weak accountability mechanisms, and little attention to value for money. In this report, the authors summarize the rationale for continued U.S. investment in global health, look into the evolution of the GHI, and recommend a re-boot for the whole enterprise.

HIV - AIDS - STI Don’t stop now: How underfunding the Global Fund impacts on the HIV response
by Mike Podmore, Gitau Mburu, Billie-Jean Nieuwenhuys The International HIV/AIDS Alliance, January 2012 32 pp. 675 kB: http://www.aidsalliance.org/includes/Publication/Alliance-globalfund-report.pdf In November 2011, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund) announced that its next scheduled funding round was cancelled and that no new grants could be funded until 2014. This news hit just as major scientific breakthroughs and signs of real progress in hard-hit countries were starting to generate the most widespread optimism in the history of the AIDS epidemic. Now, all hopes of entering a new phase of the HIV response are effectively put on hold until at least 2014, and progress on many fronts may actually be reversed. The effects on individuals and communities will be devastating. ***

The Global Fund and the Crisis of HIV Funding - A Severe Setback for HIV and Human Rights: Statement and Recommendations
UNAIDS Reference Group on HIV and Human Rights, February 2012 5 pp. 244 kB:
http://unaidspcbngo.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/HRRefGrp-GlobalFund-ENG.pdf

The UNAIDS Reference Group on HIV and Human Rights has released an independent HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 6

statement in response to the crisis facing the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria. ***

The effect of changes in condom usage and antiretroviral treatment coverage on human immunodeficiency virus incidence in South Africa: a modelbased analysis
by Leigh F. Johnson, Timothy B. Hallett, Thomas M. Rehle et al. J. R. Soc. Interface published online 18 January 2012 12 pp. 529 kB: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/downloadcentre/doc_download/1004 This study aims to assess trends in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence in South Africa, and to assess the extent to which prevention and treatment programmes have reduced HIV incidence. Two models of the South African HIV epidemic, the STI (sexually transmitted infection) - HIV Interaction model and the ASSA2003 AIDS and Demographic model, were adapted. The authors conclude that increased condom use appears to be the most significant factor explaining the recent South African HIV incidence decline. ***

Getting in the Door: Home-Based HIV Testing and Counseling in Kenya
by Cassandra Blazer and Maria Claudia Escobar AIDSTAR-One - Case Study Series, January 2012 20 pp. 579 kB: http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAROne_CaseStudy_HBHTC_Kenya.pdf Home-based HIV testing and counseling (HBHTC) has emerged as a promising approach to meet the Kenyan government’s challenge - that 80 percent of all Kenyans to know their HIV status by the end of 2013. By using rapid tests, HIV programs are able to offer HTC services to individuals and families within the privacy and convenience of their own homes. This case study provides program planners, implementers, and decision makers with examples of strategies and approaches for ensuring quality in HBHTC. ***

The role of non-formal education in combating the HIV epidemic in the Philippines and Taiwan
by Donald E. Morisky, Shu-Yu Lyu, Lianne A. Urada Prospects (2009) 39:335-357, Published online: 23 February 2010 23 pp. 332 kB: http://www.springerlink.com/content/1151k4tm48l80317/fulltext.pdf This article compares and contrasts the response to the epidemic in each country, describing non-formal educational programmes targeted and tailored to specific high-risk populations. In summary, the non-formal educational programmes in each country highlight the importance of environmental factors and their predictive ability in modifying HIV prevention behaviours among female sex workers in the Philippines and injecting drug HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 7

users in Taiwan. ***

The Long Walk: Ensuring comprehensive care for women and families to end vertical transmission of HIV
by Aditi Sharma, Erika Baehr, Sarah Zaidi et al. The International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) December 2011 76 pp. 2.8 MB: http://www.hst.org.za/sites/default/files/MTT9%20Final.pdf Research conducted in a number of African countries has revealed several barriers to care, such as lack of involvement of men in PMTCT services, lack of implementation of WHO guidelines on prevention of vertical transmission and infant feeding, prohibitive costs of ANC, delivery, diagnostic tests, OI and STI treatment, and transportation to distant clinics, and stigma, combined with a shortage of trained health care workers, long waiting times and lack of integrated services under one roof. ***

Engaging Men in Prevention and Care for HIV/AIDS in Africa
by Edward J. Mills, Chris Beyrer, Josephine Birungi et al. PLoS Med 9(2): e1001167 (7 February 2012) 4 pp. 78 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=9D19FD1C96C8D6E3 780D04982A942E24?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001167&representation=PDF

The HIV/AIDS response in Africa has always had a gender focus; targeted efforts have reduced the impact of the epidemic on women and children. The response has been far less successful for the treatment of men: there is less ART coverage of men than women in Africa, and men typically have higher mortality. Men also tend to present at clinic with advanced disease and are more likely to be lost to follow-up. Yet, efforts to understand men’s health seeking behaviour are poorly understood in the AIDS epidemic, and encouraging men to get tested and treated is a major challenge, but one that is poorly recognized. ***

The HIV epidemic in South Africa: What do we know and how has it changed?
by Nicole Fraser-Hurt, Khangelani Zuma, Peter Njuho et al. South African National AIDS Council (SANAC), April 2011 220 pp. 5.8 MB: http://ms-hiv-gdc.org/wp-content/uploads/groupdocuments/22/1328623546-SAEpireviewreport-April2011.pdf The HIV epidemic review aims to: 1) Describe the level of heterogeneity of the South African HIV epidemic and comment on any sub-epidemics that can be delineated within the national epidemic; 2) Identify the populations at greatest risk of HIV infection based on analysis of the distribution of new infections; 3) Establish the factors driving the HIV epidemic through an analysis of national and HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 8

provincial behavioural, biological, socio-economic and demographic data; 4) Provide an epidemiologic evidence base for formulating evidence-informed, better targeted, more effective prevention strategies and actions.

Sexual & Reproductive Health The Kenya Population Data Sheet 2011
Population Reference Bureau, February 2012 8 pp. 786 kB: http://www.prb.org/pdf11/kenya-population-data-sheet-2011.pdf In just over four decades, Kenya’s population has nearly quadrupled in size. The Kenya Population Data Sheet 2011 illustrates this dramatic growth since the mid-20th century, as mortality declined and births rates remained high. Family planning is a "win-win" for both health and wealth. Although the government has made some exciting advancements, there is more that needs to be done to prevent unintended pregnancies. ***

Annual Report 2011 for the UNFPA/UNICEF Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting
UNFPA and UNICEF, February 2012 10 pp. 635 kB: http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/site/global/shared/documents/public ations/2012/Annual_Report_2011.pdf The Joint Programme on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is being carried out in 15 African countries: Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Egypt, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Senegal, Somalia and Sudan. The 2011 annual report highlights the gains, challenges and best practices for the abandonment of FGM/C and offers select indicators on progress in policy and advocacy, capacity building, partnerships and media coverage. ***

Social science methods for research on sexual and reproductive health
by Martine Collumbien, Joanna Busza, John Cleland World Health Organization, January 2012 101 pp. 2.1 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503112_eng.pdf These guidelines focus on the sexual and reproductive health (SRH) issues of greatest public health and social concern, where action and intervention are likely to bring about change. Social norms govern the expression of sexuality and sexual behaviour in every society, and these norms sanction reproduction. Health-compromising practices often reflect social norms (e.g. child marriage, intimate partner violence). They increase people’s vulnerability to risk of adverse outcomes while limiting their ability to adopt healthy behaviour. *** HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 9

Family Planning: Pathway to Poverty Reduction
by Alexandra Hervish and Mia Foreman Population Reference Bureau, 2011 40 pp. 5.1 MB: http://www.prb.org/pdf11/family-planning-presentation-guide-2011english.pdf This guide provides a facilitator with an overview of how to effectively use and present “Family Planning: Pathway to Poverty Reduction”, an ENGAGE Multimedia Presentation. It includes information about opportunities to give the presentation, a list of technology requirements, presentation instructions, presentation tips, instructions for creating and using presentation handouts, discussion guide questions, FAQs, resources and references, and definitions of key terms used throughout the presentation. You can download the presentation in various formats (81 MB - 137 MB) or you can request a CD-ROM at: http://www.prb.org/Journalists/Webcasts/2011/family-planning-poverty-reduction.aspx

Maternal & Child Health Improving maternal health when resources are limited: Safe motherhood in rural Rwanda
by Victoria Chambers Africa Power and Politics - Overseas Development Institute February 2012 4 pp. 2.5 MB:
http://www.institutions-africa.org/filestream/20120201-appp-policy-brief-05-improving-maternalhealth-when-resources-are-limited-safe-motherhood-in-rural-rwanda-by-victoria-chambers-february-2012

Over the past decade, Rwanda has managed to overcome many of the critical bottlenecks to make impressive progress on maternal health. This policy brief documents the progress being made and indicates that service delivery bottlenecks can be overcome without additional material resources. ***

Guidelines on optimal feeding of low birth-weight infants in low- and middle-income countries
by Felicity Savage King, Peggy Henderson, Ramesh Agarwal, et al. World Health Organization, 2011 60 pp. 492 kB: http://www.who.int/entity/maternal_child_adolescent/documents/9 789241548366.pdf The objective of these guidelines is to improve the quality of care received by low birthweight (LBW) infants in developing countries through improved capacity of health workers. The guidelines include recommendations on what to feed low-birth weight infants, when to start feeding, how to feed, how often and how much to feed clinically stable LBW infants in low-and middle income countries.

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 10

Recommendations for management of common childhood conditions
Newborn conditions, dysentery, pneumonia, oxygen use and delivery, common causes of fever, severe acute malnutrition and supportive care by Wilson Were, Rajiv Bahl, Olivier Fontaine et al. World Health Organization, February 2012 176 pp. 1.3 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241502825_eng.pdf The WHO Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children was first published in 2005 to provide clinical guidance for the management of common childhood illnesses and to improve quality of care in first-referral hospitals in these settings. Since then, new evidence has emerged and there have been changes to several WHO guidelines requiring update of the Pocket Book. The recommendations were made based on the best available evidence as of December 2010, and take into consideration their risks and benefits, as well as their acceptability, cost, and feasibility of implementation. ***

Topical application of chlorhexidine to neonatal umbilical cords for prevention of omphalitis and neonatal mortality in a rural district of Pakistan: a community-based, cluster-randomised trial
by Sajid Soofi, Simon Cousens, Aamer Imdad et al. The Lancet, Early Online Publication, 8 February 2012 8 pp. 202 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673611618771.pdf Umbilical cord infection (omphalitis) is a risk factor for neonatal sepsis and mortality in low-resource settings where home deliveries are common. Application of 4% chlorhexidine (CHX) to the umbilical cord was effective in reducing the risk of omphalitis and neonatal mortality in rural Pakistan. Provision of CHX in birth kits might be a useful strategy for the prevention of neonatal mortality in high-mortality settings. ***

WHO guidelines on the pharmacological treatment of persisting pain in children with medical illnesses
World Health Organization, February 2012 170 pp. 1.6 MB:
http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241548120_Guidelines.pdf

Pain in children is a public health concern of major significance in most parts of the world. Although the means and knowledge to relieve pain exists, children’s pain is often not recognized, is ignored or even denied. These guidelines address the pharmacological management of persisting pain in children with medical illnesses. They include several clinical recommendations, including a new two-step approach of pharmacological treatment. The guidelines also point to the necessary policy changes required and highlight future priority areas of research. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 11

Malaria Lack of Decline in Childhood Malaria, Malawi, 2001-2010
by Arantxa Roca-Feltrer, Collins J. Kwizombe, Miguel A. Sanjoaquin et al. Emerg Infect Dis, Vol. 18, Nr. 2, February 2012 7 pp. 289 kB: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/18/2/pdfs/11-1008.pdf The authors examined health facility data for children seen as outpatients and parasitemia-positive children hospitalized with cerebral malaria in a large national hospital in Malawi. The proportion of Plasmodium falciparum-positive slides among febrile children at the hospital declined early in the decade, but no further reductions were observed after 2005. The number of admissions for cerebral malaria did not differ significantly by year. Continued surveillance for malaria is needed to evaluate the effects of the increased malaria control efforts. ***

Hitting Hotspots: Spatial Targeting of Malaria for Control and Elimination
by Teun Bousema, Jamie T. Griffin, Robert W. Sauerwein et al. PLoS Med 9(1): e1001165 (31 January 2012) 7 pp. 273 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=735C7220ED2A1B199 404DC845FB87572?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001165&representation=PDF

Malaria hotspots appear to maintain malaria transmission in low transmission seasons and are the driving force for transmission in the high transmission season. Targeting the hotspots would mean the most infected and most diseased households would be prioritized with the added benefits of reducing transmission to the whole community. Although knowledge gaps exist, the authors argue that hotspot-targeted interventions should take place at all transmission levels where resources are sufficient and rapid reductions in malaria transmission will be seen. ***

Strengthening the policy setting process for global malaria control and elimination
by Bianca J D'Souza and Robert D Newman Malaria Journal 2012, 11:28 (27 January 2012) 12 pp. 135 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-11-28.pdf The World Health Organization Global Malaria Programme, in keeping with its mandate to set evidence-informed policies for malaria control, has convened the Malaria Policy Advisory Committee as a mechanism to increase the timeliness, transparency, independence and relevance of its recommendations to World Health Organization member states in relation to malaria control and elimination. This article provides the global malaria community with the background and overview of the Committee and its terms of reference. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 12

Global malaria mortality between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis
by Christopher JL Murray, Lisa C Rosenfeld, Stephen S Lim et al. The Lancet, Vol. 379, Issue 9814, pp. 413-431, 4 February 2012 19 pp. 7.9 MB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673612600348.pdf A new attempt to quantify malaria deaths over the past 30 years suggests the death toll, especially among adults, has been greatly underestimated. The figures also show the fragility of the gains made in fighting the disease. Collecting data on malaria deaths is notoriously tricky; the countries where the disease is most prevalent have the weakest statistics. And even where causes of death were recorded, the authors found many deaths were simply attributed to 'fever' - probably malaria, but possibly not. In addition, a malaria infection is often a contributory cause of death along with other health problems. ***

Community-based Reduction of Malaria Transmission
Edited by Elisabeth Heseltine World Health Organization, January 2012 53 pp. 2.0 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241502719_eng.pdf In February 2010 the WHO Global Malaria Programme, in collaboration with Malaria Eradication Research Agenda (malERA) initiative, organized an informal consultation of malaria experts to develop a strategy to achieve reduction of malaria transmission through community-based interventions. The present document summarizes discussions and presents the strategy as developed during the two-day meeting. ***

How Do We Best Diagnose Malaria in Africa?
by Philip J. Rosenthal Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 86(2), 2012, pp. 192-193 2 pp. 423 kB: http://www.ajtmh.org/content/86/2/192.full.pdf+html In this Editorial the author discusses the application of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for the diagnosis of Malaria in Africa. These tests offer a simple, fairly inexpensive, and reliable means of diagnosis that can be performed by healthcare workers with limited training. However, concerns with RDTs include potential unreliability because of inconsistent manufacture or poor storage, uncertain supply, and potential misreading of results by unskilled health workers. An additional, generally unappreciated concern when considering RDTs is differences between available tests.

Tuberculosis Antiretroviral treatment uptake and attrition among HIV-positive patients with tuberculosis in Kibera, Kenya
HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 13

by K. Tayler-Smith, R. Zachariah, M. Manzi et al. Tropical Medicine & International Health 16 (11):1380; November 2011 4 pp. 80 kB: http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/204570/1/TaylerSmith%20ARV%20Uptake%20TB%20Kibera%20TMIH.pdf Using data of human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with tuberculosis from three primary care clinics in Kibera slums, Nairobi, Kenya, the authors report on the proportion that started antiretroviral treatment (ART) and attrition (deaths, lost to followup and stopped treatment) before and while on ART. ART uptake among patients with TB was relatively good, but programme attrition was high and needs urgent addressing. ***

Diagnostic management and outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis suspects admitted to a central hospital in Malawi
by L. G. Gawa, T. Reid, M. E. Edginton et al. Public Health Action, Vol. 1 No. 1 - Published 21 September 2011 4 pp. 276 kB: http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/204847/1/Gawa%20PHA%20Dia gnostisc%20TB.pdf The objective of the study was to determine diagnostic management and outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) suspects admitted to adult wards at Zomba Central Hospital in Malawi. The study shows inadequacies in the diagnostic management of PTB suspects in the Zomba Central Hospital, but suggests opportunities for improvement.

Other Infectious Diseases The Perpetual Challenge of Infectious Diseases
by Anthony S. Fauci and David M. Morens N Engl J Med 2012; 366:454-461; February 2, 2012 8 pp. 618 kB: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMra1108296 Among the many challenges to health, infectious diseases stand out for their ability to have a profound impact on the human species. Great pandemics and local epidemics alike have influenced the course of wars, determined the fates of nations and empires, and affected the progress of civilization, making infections compelling actors in the drama of human history. For 200 years, the New England Journal of Medicine has captured the backdrop to this human drama in thousands of articles about infectious diseases and about biomedical research and public health efforts to understand, treat, control, and prevent them. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 14

Policies for Eliminating Healthcare-Associated Learned from State Stakeholder Engagement

Infections:

Lessons

Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), January 2012 36 pp. 5.5 MB: http://www.cdc.gov/hai/pdfs/toolkits/HAI-policy-case-studieslesssons-learned.PDF Healthcare-Associated Infections (HAIs) are preventable, yet they affect 1 in 20 patients in U.S. hospitals. There is a critical need for comprehensive programs to eliminate HAIs. Several federal initiatives are under way to facilitate HAI prevention, making this an opportune time for states to initiate or enhance HAI programs. ***

Progress in global measles control, 2000-2010
Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER), 3 February 2012, Vol. 87, 5 (pp. 45-52) 8 pp. 1.1 MB: http://www.who.int/entity/wer/2012/wer8705.pdf This report updates previous statements on global measles control and provides the first account of progress towards the 2015 targets. During 2000-2010, global first dose of measles-containing vaccine (MCV1) coverage increased from 72% to 85% and >1 billion children were vaccinated during measles supplementary immunization activities. Globally reported measles cases decreased during 2000-2008 but key challenges must be overcome to meet the 2015 targets.

Non-communicable Diseases Ethical tensions in dealing with noncommunicable diseases globally
by Sridhar Venkatapuram, Martin McKee & David Stuckler Bulletin of the World Health Organization - published online: 3 February 2012 5 pp. 37 kB: http://www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/11-094789.pdf Noncommunicable diseases pose an increasingly high burden of disease that threatens economic and social development, yet cost-effective health interventions exist. This paper reviews the declarations that resulted from WHO regional meetings held in preparation for last September’s high-level meeting. The authors identified four “ethical tensions” that must be resolved. These tensions are not exhaustive or mutually exclusive but provide a framework for debate.

Essential Medicines Piloting the Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria: what will “success” look like?
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by Gavin Yamey, Marco Schäferhoff & Dominic Montagu Bulletin of the World Health Organization - published online: 3 February 2012 15 pp. 107 kB: http://www.who.int/bulletin/online_first/11-091199.pdf The Affordable Medicines Facility-malaria (AMFm) is an innovative financing mechanism, managed by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. This initiative aims to increase the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies for treating malaria. A pilot is underway in eight countries to determine whether the mechanism reduces the consumer price of these drugs and increases their availability in public and private outlets, their market share and their use. The totality of the evidence suggested that expectations should not be set too high for the AMFm Phase 1. The unique nature of the AMFm benchmarking exercise made it challenging but perhaps also groundbreaking in the field of global public health programming.

Social Protection Spotlight on Publications: Conditional Cash Transfers
Evidence and Lessons from Latin America (ELLA), 2011 8 pp. 778 kB:
http://ella.practicalaction.org/sites/default/files/111028_EC O_ConCasTra_SPOTKNOW1.pdf

Latin American countries pioneered the use of Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs) to achieve important impacts in human development indicators. This selection of publications highlights key resources documenting and analysing important aspects of the Latin American CCT experience. They include Multi-Country Surveys and Country Case Studies, as well as publications describing key CCT impacts like Nutrition, Education and Health. ***

Productive Safety Nets for Women in Extreme Poverty: Lessons from Pilot Projects in India and Pakistan
by Naila Kabeer, Karishma Huda, Sandeep Kaur et al. Institute of Development Studies, January 2012 64 pp. 380 kB: http://www.ids.ac.uk/download.cfm?objectid=680E7E00-4BF011E1-8FEC005056AA4739 Conventional government schemes and microfinance interventions have struggled to reach the poorest people and help them escape the confines of extreme poverty. In response, BRAC, Bangladesh’s largest non-governmental organisation, developed an innovative approach that combined livelihood creation, financial services and safety nets in order to ‘graduate’ participants out of extreme poverty and toward a sustainable livelihood. Inspired by BRAC’s success, the Consultative Group to Assist the Poor and the Ford Foundation launched an initiative to test and adapt BRAC’s approach in a diversity of countries and contexts through their Graduation Programme. ***

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Local to Global Protection in Myanmar (Burma), Sudan, South Sudan and Zimbabwe
by Ashley South, Simon Harragin, Justin Corbett et al. The Humanitarian Practice Network at the Overseas Development Institute, February 2012 36 pp. 728 kB: http://www.odihpn.org/download/networkpaper072pdf The studies demonstrate how vulnerable people take the lead in activities to protect themselves and their communities, and how local understandings of ‘protection’ vary from how the concept is used by international humanitarian agencies. While hugely important for everyday survival, local understandings and self-protection activities are rarely acknowledged or effectively supported by aid agencies. ***

Evaluating Social Protection Programs in Tajikistan
by Hyun H. Son ADB Economics Working Paper Series No. 274, September 2011 27 pp. 2.0 MB: http://beta.adb.org/sites/default/files/Economics-WP274_0.pdf This paper examines the impacts of Tajikistan’s public transfer programs on poverty reduction, with the aim of identifying key challenges. As the government provides these public transfers mainly as pensions, these programs merit an in-depth analysis of whether or not they reach their intended beneficiaries. This study argues for the need to apply a targeted approach to Tajikistan’s public transfer programs, including noncontributory pension schemes aimed at the most vulnerable populations. ***

Conditional Cash Transfers as Social Policy in Latin America: An Assessment of their Contributions and Limitations
by Enrique Valencia Lomelí Annu. Rev. Sociol. April 17, 2008; 34:475-99 29 pp. 332 kB: http://ella.practicalaction.org/sites/default/files/111028_ECO_Con CasTra_SPOTKNOW1.pdf This paper surveys the implementation and effects of Conditional Cash Transfers (CCTs) programmes in several Latin American countries. It shows that CCTs increase school attendance and other education indicators, improve access to health and medical care, reduce poverty in the short-term, and are being effective in targeting those most in need. Nevertheless, there are limitations, such as a limited effect on education quality and nutrition outcomes. ***

Does Expanding Health Insurance Beyond Formal-Sector Workers Encourage Informality? Measuring the Impact of Mexico’s Seguro Popular
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by Reyes Aterido, Mary Hallward-Driemeier, Carmen Pagés Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA) / Institute for the Study of Labor, September 2011 41 pp. 386 kB: http://ftp.iza.org/dp5996.pdf Seguro Popular (SP) was introduced in 2002 to provide health insurance to the 50 million Mexicans without Social Security. This paper tests whether the program has had unintended consequences, distorting workers’ incentives to operate in the informal sector. The analysis examines the impact of SP on disaggregated labor market decisions, taking into account that program coverage depends not only on the individual’s employment status, but also on that of other household members. ***

The contribution of basic social protection measures to limiting and mitigating the impact of HIV
Sector Project Social Protection Systems, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, February 2011 19 pp. 149 kB: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/download-centre/doc_download/1005 The paper discusses the interface between the thematic areas of basic social protection and HIV and describes options for conceptionally embedding future measures in this sector into the thematic and regional priority areas of German development cooperation. Building on this, possible basic social protection approaches have been elaborated and are presented in the context of HIV in selected high, medium and low prevalence countries (e.g. Malawi, Cameroon, Mozambique, Indonesia, India, Ukraine). ***

Social protection and children’s care
Centre for Social Protection Newsletter Nr. 19: January / February 2012 6 pp. 195 kB: http://www.ids.ac.uk/download.cfm?downloadfile=F06FDF40-50E2-11E1B0A6005056AA4739&typename=dmFile&fieldname=filename The Centre for Social Protection (CSP) is a global network of academics, policy-makers, NGOs and others who are working together to mainstream social protection in development policy and build social protection systems and instruments throughout the developing world that are national, comprehensive, long-term, sustainable, and benefit the poor. Topics in this Newsletter:  Social protection and children’s care  Social Protection News and Events  New Publications ***

RSBY-Connect - Issue No.1, February 2012
Published jointly by the Ministry of Labour & Employment, Govt. of InHESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 18

dia and German Development Cooperation (GIZ) as part of Indo-German Social Security Programme (IGSSP), February 2012 5 pp. 776 kB: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/download-centre/doc_download/1007 Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY) is a national level initiative and its objective is to provide quality health care to the beneficiaries. The Newsletter RSBY-Connect is an effort to connect with those that are presently involved or are likely to be involved in the largest health insurance scheme in the world that has the potential to change the lives of millions not only in India but in many other countries as well. The Newsletter will help us share and debate issues that have a bearing on the roll out of the scheme and help us build on the modest success so far.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Water for Life
Presented to UK Parliament by the Secretary of State for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs by Command of Her Majesty, December 2011 105 pp. 4.0 MB: http://www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/cm82/8230/8230.pdf This White Paper describes a vision for future water management in which the water sector is resilient, in which water companies are more efficient and costumer focused, and in which water is valued as the precious resource it is. And it explains that we all have a part to play in the realization of this vision. ***

Inclusive design of school latrines - how much does it cost and who benefits?
by Hazel Jones Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC), Loughborough University, July 2011 4 pp. 1.9 MB: http://wedc.lboro.ac.uk/resources/briefnotes/BN001_School_Latrines.pdf Poor school sanitation hinders many children with disabilities from going to school, and exposes them to increased health risks. Although many governments and agencies have policies about the inclusion of children with disabilities in school, these rarely consider water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) issues. Making public infrastructure accessible can cost less than 1% of total construction costs, if accessibility is planned from the outset.

Health Systems & Research Opportunities, Challenges and Good Practices in International Research Cooperation between Developed and Developing Countries

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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Global Science Forum, April 2011 22 pp. 3.5 MB:
http://www.ukcds.org.uk/_assets/file/publications/OECD%20Global%20Fo rum%20%20opportunties,%20challenges%20and%20good%20practices%20in%20intern ational%20research%20cooperation.pdf

This report describes issues and options that deserve the attention of scientists and administrators in industrialised and developing countries, as they seek to design, initiate and manage collaborative research programmes and projects that include both scientific and development goals. The collaborations between developed and developing countries are of special importance because developing countries are often those most severely affected by global threats. ***

Strengthening Health Systems: Perspectives for economic evaluation
by Till Bärnighausen, David E. Bloom, Salal Humair Harvard Initiative for Global Health - PGDA Working Paper No. 85; January 2012 17 pp. 321 kB: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/pgda/WorkingPapers/2012/PGDA_WP_85.pdf The growing focus on health systems strengthening (HSS) simultaneously with HIV interventions has the potential to improve the effectiveness, efficiency, and sustainability of HIV programs. But two perspectives need to be kept in mind in setting expectations for (i) when positive impact on HIV programs can be achieved through HSS, and (ii) what interventions can be envisaged within the rubric of HSS, and what challenges they pose for the evaluation of costs and benefits. ***

Health workers at the core of the health system: Framework and research issues
by Sudhir Anand and Till Bärnighausen Health Policy, 25 October 2011 7 pp. 352 kB: http://www.who.int/workforcealliance/knowledge/resources/framew orkandresearch_dec2011.pdf This paper presents a framework for the health system with health workers at the core. The authors reviewed existing health system frameworks and the role they assign to health workers, finding that earlier frameworks either do not include health workers as a central feature of system functioning or treat them as one among several components of equal importance. As every function of the health system is either undertaken by or mediated through the health worker, the authors argue that the health worker should be placed at the centre of the health system. ***

The emergence and current performance of a health research system: lessons from Guinea Bissau
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by Maarten O Kok, Amabelia Rodrigues, Augusto Paulo Silva et al. Health Research Policy and Systems 2012, 10:5 (9 February 2012) 32 pp. 251 kB: http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content/pdf/1478-4505-10-5.pdf Little is known about how health research systems (HRS) in low-income countries emerge and evolve over time, and how this process relates to their performance. Understanding how HRSs emerge is important for the development of well functioning National Health Research Systems (NHRS). The aim of this study was to assess how the HRS in Guinea Bissau has emerged and evolved over time and how the present system functions.

Information & Communication Technology Legal frameworks for eHealth
Global Observatory for eHealth Series - Volume 5 World Health Organization, February 2012 89 pp. 3.2 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503143_eng.pdf Given that privacy of the doctor-patient relationship is at the heart of good health care, and that the electronic health record (EHR) is at the heart of good eHealth practice, the question arises: Is privacy legislation at the heart of the EHR? The second global survey on eHealth conducted by the Global Observatory for eHealth set out to answer that question by investigating the extent to which the legal frameworks in the Member States of the WHO address the need to protect patient privacy in EHRs as health care systems move towards leveraging the power of EHRs to deliver safer, more efficient, and more accessible health care. ***

Shedding Light on Cloud Computing
by Gregor Petri CA (IT) Management Software Company, October 2010 62 pp. 3.7 MB: http://www.ca.com/us/~/media/files/whitepapers/mpe_cloud_primer _0110_226890.aspx (open file with PDF reader) This primer looks at the various definitions of cloud computing and at some of the reasons why organizations would want to implement cloud computing, such as costsavings, increased speed and flexibility and higher performance. The paper also looks at the risks of cloud computing in areas such as availability, privacy and regulatory compliance. It also focuses on the various types of cloud computing, cloud infrastructure, the concept of virtualisation and the impact of cloud computing on organizations, looking forward to what the future holds, along with its impact on IT management.

Education When Does Education Aid Boost Enrollment Rates?
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by Zachary Christensen, Dustin Homer and Daniel Nielson Brigham Young University Development Gateway, January 2012 4 pp. 587 kB: http://www.aiddata.org/weceem_uploads/_ROOT/File/Briefs/Brief5EducationAidAllocation.pdf The authors use AidData to test the effectiveness of primary education aid in boosting school enrollment rates. They evaluate the hypothesis that bilateral donors ought to have greater freedom to condition aid on recipient governance quality than multilateral donors, which are often bound by institutional rules to provide aid more impartially. Latent growth regression analysis suggests that bilateral donors condition their primary education aid on recipient control of corruption more than multilateral donors do, and that bilateral aid is significantly related to improved enrollment rates. ***

The Role of Education in Peacebuilding
A synthesis report of findings from Lebanon, Nepal and Sierra Leone by Mario Novelli and Alan Smith United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), December 2011 40 pp. 360 kB: http://www.educationandtransition.org/wpcontent/uploads/2012/01/EEPCT_PeacebuildingSynthesisReport.pdf The purpose of the study was to examine the role of education in peacebuilding in postconflict settings and to consider how education interventions and programming could have a stronger role in the peacebuilding architecture of the UN system. The findings and insights presented in the report are intended to provide a basis for consultation and discussion within UNICEF on how the organization can most effectively contribute to peacebuilding through education. ***

Zehn Ziele für mehr Bildung
BMZ-Strategiepapier 1/2012 Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung (BMZ), Entwicklungspolitische Informations- und Bildungsarbeit, Februar 2012 18 pp. 416 kB (in German):
http://www.bmz.de/de/publikationen/reihen/strategiepapiere/Strategiepapier315_1_2012.pdf

Germany’s new education strategy straddles all levels of learning - from primary education to higher and adult education. The Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development said this is in line with its holistic approach to education sector funding. Among the key areas in the strategy are the improvement of gender equality in education and promotion of innovative funding approaches.

Harm Reduction and Drug Use Alcohol, Work, and Productivity
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by Michaela Bitarello do Amaral Sabadini, Ann Crosland, Ulric Hermansson et al. Science Group of the European Alcohol and Health Forum, September 2011 73 pp. 1.2 MB: http://ec.europa.eu/health/alcohol/docs/science_02_en.pdf Reducing the negative impact of alcohol on the workplace is one of five priorities picked out in the EU strategy to support Member States in reducing alcohol related harm. The enormous burden of individual harm (often to those around the problem drinker as well as the drinker themselves) and aggregated lost productivity that are highlighted in the report should make it clear to all that inactivity is not an option and complacency will cost lives. ***

Impact of Alcoholism and Alcohol Induced Disease on America
Research Society on Alcoholism, 20 April 2011 6 pp. 29 kB: http://www.rsoa.org/2011-04-11RSAWhitePaper.pdf Alcoholism is a serious disease that affects the lives of millions of Americans, devastates families, compromises national preparedness, depresses economic vitality, and burdens the country’s health care systems. This paper documents the deleterious impact of heavy drinking, alcohol abuse and alcoholism on the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ranks alcohol as the third leading cause of preventable death in the United States. ***

WHO Global Report: Mortality Attributable to Tobacco
by Colin Mathers, Gretchens Stevens, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet et al. World Health Organization, February 2012 398 pp. 2.8 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241564434_eng.pdf This report provides information by country on the proportion of adult (age 30 years and above) deaths attributable to tobacco by major communicable and non-communicable causes by age and sex. It builds and is consistent with the global estimate provided in WHO’s 2009 report entitled “Global Health Risks: Mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks”.

Millennium Development Goals Between-Country Disparities in MDGs: The Asia and Pacific Region
by Guanghua Wan and Yuan Zhan Asian Development Bank Economics Working Paper Series No. 278, October 2011 54 pp. 4.2 MB: http://beta.adb.org/sites/default/files/economics-wp278.pdf

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 23

This paper explores disparities in Millennium Development Goals among countries in the Asia and Pacific region, with a special emphasis on health Millennium Development Goals. It provides estimates on the extent of these disparities and depicts their trends. More importantly, sources or causes of the disparities are quantified and policy implications are discussed. ***

Disability and the Millennium Development Goals
by Nora Groce United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, 2011 74 pp. 7.6 MB: http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/review_of_disability_an d_the_mdgs.pdf This report provides an overview for why and how disability can and should be included in the planning, monitoring and evaluation of MDG related programmes and policies. It is useful to people working in disability advocacy, programming and outreach efforts, as well as people those working on MDG-related efforts.

Development Assistance Pieces of the puzzle: evidence, dilemmas and the emerging agenda for budget support
Research reports and studies, March - September 2011 Edited by Heidi Tavakoli and Edward HedgerPieces Overseas Development Institute, January 2012 30 pp. 1.2 MB: http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/docs/7568.pdf Over the past decade, the international community has come to champion budget support. Supported by donors and recipient countries alike, it has grown in prominence to make up a significant share of aid spend by some donors. This report summarises discussions and conclusions from a series of expert meetings titled - Long-term research perspectives on budget support - organised by the Centre for Aid and Public Expenditure (CAPE) at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) in 2011. ***

Indicators as Interventions: Pitfalls and Prospects in Supporting Development Initiatives
by Kevin E. Davis and Benedict Kingsbury Rockefeller Foundation, December 2011 55 pp. 1.1 MB:
http://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/media/download/ec67839f-0b11-4fca-b532-fb9a4fdf476e

One of the most interesting findings presented in the report is that the process of creating and disseminating indicators can be an effective intervention that is particularly useful in addressing and marshalling a response to wicked problems - complex, interdeHESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 24

pendent, ever-changing global issues that require the application of iterative solutions in order to be managed successfully. As the authors point out, it is valuable to compare indicators with other potential interventions in the international development system and, in their most compelling and powerful form, use them to trigger actions that move us one step closer to addressing challenges affecting the lives of poor and vulnerable populations on a daily basis. ***

An Index of the Quality of Official Development Assistance in Health
by Denizhan Duran and Amanda Glassman Center for Global Development - Working Paper 287, February 2012 77 pp. 704 kB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425926_file_Duran_Glassman_QuODAH_FINAL.pdf In this study the authors apply the Quality of Official Development Assistance (QuODA) methodology to rank 30 donors across 23 indicators of aid effectiveness in health. Their indicators rely on the premise that health aid effectiveness would increase through increased donor efficiency, reduced burden on recipients, support to local institutions, and transparent reporting practices. By ranking donors across these indicators, the authors seek to point out best practices in health aid and hold donors accountable for their performance. ***

Crises in a New World Order: Challenging the humanitarian project
by Edmund Cairns, Aimee Ansari, Jane Cocking et al. Oxfam International Briefing Paper Nr. 158 - 7 February, 2012 22 pp. 333 kB:
http://policypractice.oxfam.org.uk/publications/download/get.file?id=443900&variant=pdf

In 2010, vast humanitarian crises from Haiti to Pakistan almost overwhelmed the international system’s ability to respond. Despite years of reform, UN agencies, donors, and international NGOs (INGOs) struggled to cope. New donors and NGOs from around the world provide a significant share of humanitarian aid. Future humanitarian action will rely on them, and on the governments and civil society of crisis-affected countries even more. ***

Making Evaluations Matter: A Practical Guide for Evaluators
by Cecile Kusters, Simone van Vugt, Seerp Wigboldus et al. Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen University & Research Centre, The Netherlands 120 pp. 3.2 MB: http://www.cdi.wur.nl/NR/rdonlyres/66764817-54E3-4DCB-BD4F806B403F892C/139231/2011_guide_MEMguide2.pdf Evaluations do matter, they can contribute to the general understanding of complex environments in which many of our development initiatives take place and help us to be innovative in the way we adapt our programmes to address the needs of intended primary users and to improve the welfare of primary stakeholders. The guide draws heavily HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 25

on Michael Quinn Patton’s Utilization-Focused Evaluation approach. The importance of good evaluative practice and the need to embed evaluations into existing learning processes within organisations are emphasised. ***

Program-for-Results Financing
The World Bank, December 2011 6 pp. 1.8 MB: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EXTRESLENDING/Resourc es/7514725-1325006967127/WBbooklet12-21-11.pdf The World Bank Board of Executive Directors approved Program-for-Results (PforR), an innovative new financing instrument for the World Bank’s client countries that links the disbursement of funds directly to the delivery of defined results. Money will flow once the results have been delivered and verified. For more information see: http://www.worldbank.org/ProgramforResults ***

Effective Development Aid: Selectivity, Proliferation and Fragmentation, and the Growth Impact of Development Assistance
by Takashi Kihara Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI) Working Paper Series No. 342, January 2012 70 pp. 1.6 MB: http://adbi.org/files/2012.01.30.wp342.effective.development.aid.pdf This paper examines several indicators of effective development aid, focusing on the contributions of major bilateral donors. The empirical analyses of selectivity for effective aid delivery revealed that, taking a long-term and regional perspective, some major donors including Japan have been as selective in delivering their aid as some countries well-known for their selective aid delivery, such as Denmark. Japan has provided higher aid for the countries with better policy and governance, and higher grant aid for the countries with lower income, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. ***

Innovative Financing in Early Recovery: The Liberia Health Sector Pool Fund
by Jacob Hughes and Amanda Glassman Center for Global Development Working Paper 288, February 2012 34 pp. 1.3 MB:
http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425944_file_Hughes_Glassman_Liberia_health_pool_FINAL.pdf

The Liberia Health Sector Pool Fund, which consists of DfID, Irish Aid, UNICEF, and UNHCR, was established to fund a process for transitioning from emergency to sustainability under government leadership and mitigate this transition by increasing institutional capacity, reducing the transaction costs associated with managing multiple donor projects, and fostering the leadership of the Liberian Health Ministry by allocating funds to national priorities. In this paper the authors discuss the design of the health pool fund HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 26

mechanism, assess its functioning, compare the pooled fund to other aid mechanisms used in Liberia, and look into the enabling conditions, opportunities, and challenges of the pool fund.

Others Integrated Health Management at the Workplace
Creating Industry-Specific Strategies that Integrate HIV and TB Management into Existing Occupational Safety and Health by Anita Chávez, Judith Fischer, Ute Papkalla Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, November 2011 32 pp. 1.4 MB: http://awisa-network.net/sites/awisa-network.net/files/eovercominginactioninworkplace.pdf With this publication, GIZ collaboration with the private sector is breaking new ground on matters of health. Building on a decade of experiences with HIV workplace programmes, the regional programme “Support of the Private Sector in Africa to Fight AIDS (SPAA)” has, together with two industries in Southern and Eastern Africa, developed an approach to integrate HIV and TB management into existing occupational safety and health (OSH). ***

Guidelines on Integrated Health Management in the East African Hotel Industry
by Judith Fischer, Ute Papkalla and Norbert Wagner East African Business Council (EABC) and Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, November 2011 48 pp. 1.2 MB: http://awisa-network.net/sites/awisa-network.net/files/e-guideline_ihm_hotels.pdf The Guidelines on Integrated Health Management for the East African Hotel Industry contain 15 health standards dealing with policy and management of occupational safety and health as well as communicable and non-communicable diseases. Special attention is given to gender-specific health needs and sexual harassment given the high ratio of female workers in the industry. The brochure advises companies on action recommended for each health objective. ***

Resilient People, Resilient Planet: A future worth choosing
The report of the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Global Sustainability, 30 January 2012

99 pp. 922 kB:
http://www.un.org/gsp/sites/default/files/attachments/GSPReport_unformatted_30Jan.pdf

With seven billion of us now inhabiting our planet, it is time to reflect on our current path. HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 27

Today we stand at a crossroads. Continuing on the same path will put people and our planet at greatly heightened risk. The other path, we believe, provides extraordinary opportunity, but we must be committed and courageous in following it. Changing course will not be easy. But over time, we believe that following a more sustainable path will enhance human well-being, further global justice, strengthen gender equity, and preserve the Earth’s life-support systems for future generations.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
Global Fund Interactive Toolkit
http://www.herramientasubreceptor.org/herramienta/index.html The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has just released an interactive grants management toolkit for its Spanish-speaking recipients. It was developed by the Global Fund and the International HIV/AIDS Alliance in partnership with the Friends of the Global Fund LAC and Fundacion Huesped. It was supported by the BACKUP Initiative, implemented by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development. The toolkit is in Spanish and provides up-to-date information on the funding agency’s program management, and financial and administrative requirements. It also provides monitoring, evaluation, procurement and supply information, and includes exercises to test newly found knowledge about the Global Fund. ***

Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 90, Nr. 2, February 2012
http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/90/2/en/index.html In this month’s Bulletin:  A global analysis of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance  Fixing fistula in Sierra Leone  Maternity waiting homes in Timor-Leste  Landmark case for human rights in Brazil  Why does female genital cutting still exist?  What causes baby blues?  Interview with women’s health activist Adrienne Germain  Ranking risk factors for preventing chronic diseases ***

AIDSinfo Data Visualization and Dissemination Tool
http://www.unaids.org/en/dataanalysis/tools/aidsinfo/ AIDSinfo is a data visualization and dissemination tool to facilitate the use of AIDSrelated data in countries and globally. AIDSinfo is populated with multisectoral HIV data from a range of sources including WHO, UNICEF, UNAIDS and Measure DHS. The data provided by UNAIDS include AIDS spending, epidemiological estimates, information on policies, strategies and laws, and other country-reported data from government HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 28

and civil society. ***

Knowledge Management for Health and Development
http://www.k4health.org/toolkits/km The purpose of this eToolkit is to assist those working in international health and development who are interested in learning more about knowledge management (KM) and accessing tools and best practices for conducting KM. This eToolkit provides practical resources for KM solutions that either come from the field of international public health and development or are applicable to the field and can be adapted. ***

LinkedIn group Public Health Africa
This group is for professionals in public health (epidemiology, biostatistics, health management, reproductive health, environmental health, etc) and related fields anywhere in the world who wish to interact on public health challenges, training, skills, practices, and opportunities in and about Africa. It will also be of benefit to experts and trainees who wish to identify opportunities and participated actively in discussions. For more information have a look at the group’s website: http://www.linkedin.com/groups/Public-HealthAfrica-4249651?gid=4249651&goback=%2Egde_3662715_member_89621497 ***

Centre de Documentation Numérique du Secteur Santé Virtual - Cameroon
Documentation Center for the Health Sector http://dev.cdnss.dros-minsante-cameroun.org/en But et Objectifs du CDNSS But: Contribuer à l’amélioration de la santé des populations par la diffusion et la valorisation des connaissances générées dans le secteur santé. Objectif général: Mettre la documentation relative au secteur santé à la disposition de toute personne intéressée à travers une bibliothèque virtuelle dynamique accessible par internet ***

Unified Medical Dictionary: English - Arabic
World Health Organization/Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office http://www.emro.who.int/UMD/ebook/index.html

INTERESTING WEB SITES
NGO Aid Map
http://ngoaidmap.org/

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 29

or download as Adobe PDF file (17 pp. 780 kB) at: http://www.interaction.org/sites/default/files/NetSquared%20January%202012.pdf NGO Aid Map is an InterAction initiative focused on collecting information on NGOs’ work at the project level and making it accessible to donors, NGOs, businesses, governments and the public through an online, interactive mapping tool. This program intends to improve accountability, transparency, and coordination – which in turn can lead to improved, more effective programming. ***

EuroHealthNet’s Healthy Ageing Website
http://www.healthyageing.eu This website is dedicated to raising awareness of healthy ageing, especially the important role health promotion plays, in contributing to a healthier, more active EU population for the future. It will highlight key factors such as, promoting healthy diets, physical activities, social relations and meaningful activities necessary for ageing healthily throughout a person’s life. It will showcase a number of local, regional and national projects dedicated to promoting older peoples health while also identifying a number of EU policy initiatives and instruments that are available to promote healthy ageing. ***

Accountability for Women’s and Children’s Health: Results, Resources, Oversight
http://www.who.int/woman_child_accountability/en/ The site will track progress on the implementation of the recommendations of the Accountability Commission and inform the international community about the work of the independent Expert Review Group (iERG). It will also serve as a global database for the accountability issues related to women’s and children’s health.

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
Capacity Building Course in Malaria Control Programs, with a focus on elearning
April 21st to May 19th 2012, Ifakara, Tanzania Organised jointly by the Tanzanian Training Centre of International Health, Ifakara, Tanzania, and the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, the Malaria course is a tutorial that is aimed at strengthening competence of researchers, public health personnel and care givers to fight malaria in Africa. The minimum requirement for participants is a BSc or Master degree, several years of professional experience and basic computer skills (at least on Word processing or equivalent). For more information see: http://www.healthtrainingifakara.org/index.php?id=102

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 30

CARTOON

TIPS & TRICKS
Ctrl+Y to Redo
You are tooling along, writing, doing graphics or whatever and you make a mistake. What do you do? Hit Ctrl+Z. That is the “undo” command; the (almost) universal solution for mess-ups and mistakes! So, what about when you want to undo an undo? It is really easy and it works almost everywhere: Just press Ctrl+Y. This key combination will bring back the mistake you thought you made as quickly as it went away. ***

What Do Apple And Babies Have In Common?
You think the number of babies being born each day is a lot? Then you should take a look at Apple’s sales figures. According to first quarter sales figures, Apple sold 37.04 million iPhones. That equals a total of 377,000 iPhones per day for the 98 day quarter! For those keeping track, the current birth-rate is approximately 371,000 newborns per day throughout the entire world. The sales numbers received a big boost due to the holiday season, but that in no way negates the significance of Apple’s latest sales. In fact, demand continues to increase, making sales numbers greater than birthrates something we shall see a lot more of in the future. Best regards, Dieter Neuvians MD

HESP-News & Notes - 04/2012 - page 31

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