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Sanskrit - the mother of all languages, one of the 23 official languages of India and known as a classical language of Indian

subcontinent belongs to the Indic group of language family of Indo-European and its descendents (Indo-Iranian & Indo Aryan). It is also a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit which was once the language of munis and rishis is now attracting the modern world in such a way that experts are of the opinion that Sanskrit is the best language for use with computers. Sanskrit is a scientific and systematic language. Sanskrit literature is easily the richest literature in the history of mankind. The word "Sanskrit" means "refined, decorated" or "produced in perfect form". It is known for its clarity and beauty. Sanskrit is the classical language of Hinduism, the oldest and the most systematic language in the world. Equal contributions have been made from all corners of the country for the growth of Sanskrit language.It has always been regarded as the 'sacred' language of Hindus and still continuous to be the only language used in holy functions and ceremonies of Hindus. Sanskrit mantras are made with a combination of sound vibrations, which when recited have a specific effect on the mind and the psyche. Hence the richness of Sanskrit language is left to one's imagination.
History of Sanskrit Language:
Sanskrit is one of the oldest known languages over thousands of years. It is also called "Dev Vani" (the language of gods) as it is said that Brahma introduced this language to the Sages of celestial bodies. It is believed that the Sanskrit language came from Indo-European language family of Indian subcontinent. It was only in the 18th century, a similarity between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek was found which made the think tanks of the world to study and discover the relationship of all Indo-European languages. Enough evidence is yet to be gathered to accept Indian origin of Sanskrit language.

Vedic Sanskrit was the earliest form of Sanskrit language approximately around 1500-200 B.C.), when "knowledge" was handed down through the generations orally. In this period there was composition of hymns, poems, puranas of which some form sacred scripts of Hindus. The oldest known text in Sanskrit, the Rigveda, a collection of over a thousand Hindu hymns, the Sama-veda is the veda of chants, the Yajur-veda the veda of prayers; finally, the Atharva-veda contains the lore of the Atharvans. Approximately between 500 B.C. - 1000 A.D, there came up Classical Sanskrit, based on the old Vedic speech, the period after which Panini composed his grammar of Sanskrit. Ramayana and Mahabharata were the two great epics of this period. Classical Sanskrit also includes works of philosophy, astronomy, science, medicine and law. As Indo-Aryan speakers spread across northern and central India, their languages experienced constant change and development. By about 500 B.C., Prakrits, or "common" forms of speech, were widespread throughout the north. By about the same time, the "sacred," "polished," or "pure" tongue--Sanskrit--used in religious rites had also developed along independent lines, changing significantly from the form used in the Vedas. However, its use in

ritual settings encouraged the retention of archaic forms lost in the Prakrits. Concerns for the purity and correctness of Sanskrit gave rise to an elaborate science of grammar and phonetics and an alphabetical system seen by some scholars as superior to the Roman system. By the fourth century B.C., these trends had culminated in the work of Panini, whose Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi (Eight Chapters), set the basic form of Sanskrit for subsequent generations. Panini's work is often compared to Euclid's as an intellectual feat of systematization.
Sanskrit Literature:
Sanskrit literature forms an oldest stage for millions of years. The Sanskrit language has a wonderful structure and is more perfect than other languages. Over thousands of years, many scholars have contributed to Sanskrit literature. Sanskrit is written in theDevanagari (literally means "cities of the gods") and Brahmi based scripts Sage Panini's Sanskrit grammer called Ashtadhyayiproduced around 4th century B.C gives the details of how the language works and forms the basis for modern Sanskrit grammars. Sanskrit language has an extremely rich complex grammatical structure and an enormous vocabulary.

The three major Hindu philosophic concepts which were formulated in Sanskrit are Dvaita (Madhvacharya), Advaita ( Sankaracharya) and Vishistadvaita (Ramanujacharya). Among the best-known masterworks of Sanskrit literatures are Ramayana (Valmiki) and Mahabharata (Vyasa) epics, Panchatantra (Vishnu Sharma), Artashastra (Chanakya), Bhagavadgita, poems and plays of Kalidasa, Puranas & Upanisads. Apart from these literatures on astronomy, science, astrology, medicine and law have been taken place. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

India is the world's largest, oldest, continuous civilization. India never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history. India is the world's largest democracy. Varanasi, also known as Benares, was called "the ancient city" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C.E, and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today. India invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta. The World's first university was established in Takshashila in 700BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient India in the field of education. Sanskrit is the mother of all the European languages. Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software - a report in Forbes magazine, July 1987. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. Today Ayurveda is fast regaining its rightful place in our civilization. Although modern images of India often show poverty and lack of development, India was the richest country on earth until the time of British invasion in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus was attracted by India's wealth. The art of Navigation was bornin the river Sindhu 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit 'Nou'. Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days.

12. The value of pi was first calculated by Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known 13.
as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century long before the European mathematicians. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from India. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10**53(10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 BCE during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Tera 10**12(10 to the power of 12). IEEE has proved what has been a century old suspicion in the world scientific community that the pioneer of wireless communication wasProf. Jagdish Bose and not Marconi. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra. constructed on the hills of Raivataka during Chandragupta Maurya's time.

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15. 16. According to Saka King Rudradaman I of 150 CE a beautiful lake called Sudarshana was

17. Chess (Shataranja or AshtaPada) was invented in India. 18. Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted
complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, fractures, urinary stones and even plastic surgery and brain surgery. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient India. Over 125 surgical equipment were used. Deep knowledge of anatomy, physiology, etiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity is also found in many texts. When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Indians established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley(Indus Valley Civilization). The four religions born in India, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in India in 100 BC.

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21. 22. India is one of the few countries in the World, which gained independence without violence. 23. India has the second largest pool of Scientists and Engineers in the World. 24. India is the largest English speaking nation in the world. 25. India is the only country other than US and Japan, to have built a super computer indigenously.
Famous Quotes on India (by non-Indians)

Albert Einstein said: We owe a lot to the Indians, who taught us how to count, without which no worthwhile scientific discovery could have been made. Mark Twain said: India is, the cradle of the human race, the birthplace of human speech, the mother of history, the grandmother of legend, and the great grand mother of tradition. Our most valuable and most instructive materials in the history of man are treasured up in India only. French scholar Romain Rolland said: If there is one place on the face of earth where all the dreams of living men have found a home from the very earliest days when man began the dream of existence, it is India. Hu Shih, former Ambassador of China to USA said: India conquered and dominated China culturally for 20 centuries without ever having to send a single soldier across her border. Significance of 108

The Indian Subcontinent rosary or set of mantra counting has 108 beads. 108 has been a sacred number in the Indian Subcontinent for a very long time. This number is explained in many different ways. The ancient Indians were excellent mathematicians and 108 may be the product of a precise mathematical operation (e.g. 1 power 1 x 2 power 2 x 3 power 3 = 108) which was thought to have special numerological significance. Powers of 1, 2, and 3 in math: 1 to 1st power=1; 2 to 2nd power=4 (2x2); 3 to 3rd power=27 (3x3x3). 1x4x27=108

Sanskrit alphabet: There are 54 letters in the Sanskrit alphabet. Each has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti. 54 times 2 is 108. Sri Yantra: On the Sri Yantra there are marmas where three lines intersect, and there are 54 such intersections. Each intersections has masculine and feminine, shiva and shakti qualities. 54 x 2 equals 108. Thus, there are 108 points that define the Sri Yantra as well as the human body. 9 times 12: Both of these numbers have been said to have spiritual significance in many traditions. 9 times 12 is 108. Also, 1 plus 8 equals 9. That 9 times 12 equals 108. Heart Chakra: The chakras are the intersections of energy lines, and there are said to be a total of 108 energy lines converging to form the heart chakra. One of them, sushumna leads to the crown chakra, and is said to be the path to Self-realization. Marmas: Marmas or marmastanas are like energy intersections called chakras, except have fewer energy lines converging to form them. There are said to be 108 marmas in the subtle body. Time: Some say there are 108 feelings, with 36 related to the past, 36 related to the present, and 36 related to the future. Astrology: There are 12 constellations, and 9 arc segments called namshas or chandrakalas. 9 times 12 equals 108. Chandra is moon, and kalas are the divisions within a whole. Planets and Houses: In astrology, there are 12 houses and 9 planets. 12 times 9 equals 108. Gopis of Krishna: In the Krishna tradition, there were said to be 108 gopis or maid servants of Krishna. 1, 0, and 8: 1 stands for God or higher Truth, 0 stands for emptiness or completeness in spiritual practice, and 8 stands for infinity or eternity. Sun and Earth: The diameter of the sun is 108 times the diameter of the Earth. Numerical scale: The 1 of 108, and the 8 of 108, when added together equals 9, which is the number of the numerical scale, i.e. 1, 2, 3 ... 10, etc., where 0 is not a number. Smaller divisions: The number 108 is divided, such as in half, third, quarter, or twelfth, so that some malas have 54, 36, 27, or 9 beads. Islam: The number 108 is used in Islam to refer to God. Jain: In the Jain religion, 108 are the combined virtues of five categories of holy ones, including 12, 8, 36, 25, and 27 virtues respectively. Sikh: The Sikh tradition has a mala of 108 knots tied in a string of wool, rather than beads. Chinese: The Chinese Buddhists and Taoists use a 108 bead mala, which is called su-chu, and has three dividing beads, so the mala is divided into three parts of 36 each. Stages of the soul: Said that Atman, the human soul or center goes through 108 stages on the journey.

Meru: This is a larger bead, not part of the 108. It is not tied in the sequence of the other beads. It is the quiding bead, the one that marks the beginning and end of the mala. Dance: There are 108 forms of dance in the Indian traditions. Pythagorean: The nine is the limit of all numbers, all others existing and coming from the same. ie: 0 to 9 is all one needs to make up an infinite amount of numbers. We have listed below 108 Upanishads as per the list contained in the Muktikopanishad . We have arranged them in four categories according to the particular Veda to which each of them belong. Rigveda(10): Aitareya , Atmabodha, Kaushitaki, Mudgala, Nirvana, Nadabindu, Akshamaya, Tripura, Bahvruka, Saubhagyalakshmi. Yajurveda(50): Katha, Taittiriya , Isavasya , Brihadaranyaka, Akshi, Ekakshara, Garbha, Prnagnihotra, Svetasvatara, Sariraka, Sukarahasya, Skanda, Sarvasara, Adhyatma, Niralamba, Paingala, Mantrika, Muktika, Subala, Avadhuta, Katharudra, Brahma, Jabala, Turiyatita, Paramahamsa, Bhikshuka, Yajnavalkya, Satyayani, Amrtanada, Amrtabindu, Kshurika, Tejobindu, Dhyanabindu, Brahmavidya, YogakundalinI, Yogatattva, Yogasikha, Varaha, Advayataraka, Trisikhibrahmana, mandalabrahmana, Hamsa, Kalisantaraaa, Narayana, Tarasara, Kalagnirudra, Dakshinamurti, Pancabrahma, Rudrahrdaya, SarasvatIrahasya. SamaVeda(16): Kena, Chandogya, Mahat, Maitrayani, Vajrasuci, Savitri, Aruneya, Kundika, Maitreyi, Samnyasa, Jabaladarsana, Yogacudaman, Avyakta, Vasudevai, Jabali, Rudrakshajabala. Atharvaveda(32): Prasna , Mandukya, Mundaka, Atma, Surya, Narada-Parivrajakas, Parabrahma, Paramahamsa-Parivrajakas, Pasupatha-Brahma, Mahavakya, Sandilya, Krishna, Garuda, Gopalatapani, Tripadavibhuti-mahnarayana, Dattatreya, Kaivalya, NrsimhatapanI, Ramatapani, Ramarahasya, HayagrIva, Atharvasikha, Atharvasira, Ganapati, Brhajjabala, Bhasmajabala, Sarabha, Annapurna, TripuratapanI, Devi, Bhavana, SIta.