Homework 1

Q.1 There are various multiplexing techniques available. What in your opinion is the most appropriate multiplexing technique for the fiber optics as well as copper wires? Ans. -Multiplexing Techniques Multiplexing is the process where multiple channels are combined for transmission over a common transmission path. There are two predominant ways to multiplex: 1.Frequency Division Multiplexing 2.Time Division Multiplexing Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) In FDM, multiple channels are combined onto a single aggregate signal for transmission. The channels are separated in the aggregate by their frequency. There are always some unused frequency spaces between channels, known as "guard bands". These guard bands reduce the effects of "bleedover" between adjacent channels, a condition more commonly referred to as "crosstalk". FDM was the first multiplexing scheme to enjoy wide scale network deployment, and such systems are still in use today. However, Time Division Multiplexing is the preferred approach today, due to its ability to support native data I/O (Input /Output) channels. Time Division Multiplexing Timeplex is probably the best in the business (IMHO) at Time Division Multiplexing, as it has25+ years or experience. When Timeplex was started by a couple of ex-Western Union guys in 1969 it was among the first commercial TDM companies in the United States. In fact, "Timeplex" was derived from TIME division multiplexing In Time Division Multiplexing, channels "share" the common aggregate based upon time

Q.2 Multiplexing technique is used for combining the multiple channels into one channel. Write the factors on which the combination is happening. Ans. Space-division multiplexing-: In wired communication, space-division multiplexing simply implies different point-topoint wires for different channels. One example is an analogue stereo audio cable, with one pair of wires for the left channel and another for the right channel. Another example is a switched such as the analog telephone access network (although inside the telephone exchange or between the exchanges, other multiplexing techniques are typically employed) or a switched Ethernet network. Wired space-division multiplexing is typically not considered as multiplexing Frequency-division multiplexing-: Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is inherently an analog technology. FDM achieves the combining of several digital signals into one medium by sending signals in several distinct frequency ranges over that medium.

3 (i) Convert the following bit stream using Manchester and differential modulation techniques.Q. a)1111 b)0101 c)0000 d)1100 Ans:.a) 1111 .

Note that each node now has two windows: one send window and one receive window. Both also need to use a timer. However. it can also carry control information about arrived (or lost) frames from B. The request event uses only the send window at each site. the arrival event needs to use both windows. when a frame arrives. the site needs to handle control information as well as the frame itself. it can also carry control information about the arrived (or lost) frames from A. Both of these concerns must be taken care of in one event. the arrival event. We show the design for a GoBack-N ARQ using piggybacking . Ans. A technique called piggybacking is used to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols. When a frame is carrying data from A to B. An important point about piggybacking is that both sites must use the same algorithm. the arrival event here is complicated. Piggybacking-: The three protocols we discussed in this section are all unidirectional: data frames flow in only one direction although control information such as ACK and NAK frames can travel in the other direction. In real life. arrival. data frames are normally flowing in both directions: from node A to node B and from node B to node A. . This algorithm is complicated because it needs to combine two arrival events into one. Both are involved in three types of events: request.Q. This means that the control information also needs to flow in both directions. when a frame is carrying data from B to A.4 (i) What is piggybacking? Explain the sliding window flow control technique using piggybacking concept. and time-out.

In this 8QAM example. Explain 8QAM technique in detail. Ans.(ii) How the digital signal is converted into analog signal. three bits of input generate eight different modulation states (0-7) using four phase angles on 90 degree boundaries and two amplitudes: one at 50% modulation. QAM examples with more modulation states become extremely difficult to visualize . the other at 100% (4 phases X 2 amplitudes = 8 modulation states).

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful