Also known as span of control, is a very important concept of organizing function of management.

It refers to the number of subordinates that can be handled effectively by a superior in an organization. It signifies how the relations are planned between superior and subordinates in an organization. Span of management is generally categorized under two heads- Narrow span and Wide span. Narrow Span of management means a single manager or supervisor oversees few subordinates. This gives rise to a tall organizational structure. While, a wide span of management means a single manager or supervisor oversees a large number of subordinates. This gives rise to a flat organizational structure.There is an inverse relation between the span of management and the number of hierarchical levels in an organization, i.e., narrow the span of management , greater the number of levels in an organization. Narrow span of management is more costly compared to wide span of management as there are larger number of superiors/ managers and thus there is greater communication issues too between various management levels. The less geographically scattered the subordinates are, the better it is to have a wide span of management as it would be feasible for managers to be in touch with the subordinates and to explain them how to efficiently perform the tasks. In case of narrow span of management, there are comparatively more growth opportunities for a subordinate as the number of levels is more. The more efficient and organized the managers are in performing their tasks, the better it is to have wide span of management for such organization. The less capable, motivated and confident the employees are, the better it is to have a narrow span of management so that the managers can spend time with them and supervise them well. The more standardized is the nature of tasks ,i.e., if same task can be performed using same inputs, the better it is to have a wide span of management as more number of subordinates can be supervised by a single superior. There is more flexibility, quick decision making, effective communication between top level and low level management,and improved customer interaction in case of wide span of management. Technological advancement such as mobile phones, mails, etc. makes it feasible for superiors to widen their span of management as there is more effective communication. An optimal/ideal span of control according to the modern authors is fifteen to twenty subordinates per manager, while according to the traditional authors the ideal number is six subordinates per manager. But actually, an ideal span of control depends upon the nature of an organization, skills and capabilities of manager, the employees skills and abilities, the nature of job, the degree of interaction required between superior and subordinates.

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PRINCIPLES OF ORGANISATION Compilemanagement principlemd By S.Prabhakaran BSc M.L. Hierarchy. 1)It is one of the core principles.Emphasized by all the classical thinkers.In 1900 while Weber identified it with bureaucracy, Fayol included it in formal organization. Fayol referred it as ¶scalar chain·. Urwick, Mooney, and Reiley and called it ¶scalar process·..It is derieved from Greek term for ruling structure of religious organizations. ² 2) Meaning: It means control of higher over the lower ² pyramidical organisation ² wherein ¶scalar chain· ² means the grading of duties according to degree of authority..Scalar is derieved from the word scale.It may expand vertically if positions are increased( addition of Top, Middle level management and supervidion.) and horizontally if functions are added. 3)Definition: L.D.White: - Universal application of superior-subordinate relationship. Mooney: It is universal phenomenon

Hence subordinate denied innovative thinking ii) Peter principle:Due to gradation and authority. Merton and Selznick exposed dysfunctional aspects. innovation descision making.(ii) Discourages lower level in work . v) Flow of authority command and control are from top to bottom and responsibility and obedience are from bottom to top. it gives priority to rank over talents. But R.most at high and vacumn at lower level. 5) Functional Effectiveness: (i) proper combination of authority and responsibility: Pyramidical blocks balance it as authority without responsibility is dangerous and responsibility with authority is meaningless. personnel selected and assigned duties. ii) No skipping on intermediate bu higher or lower and vice versa iii) Authority and responsibility commensurative with each other iv) Filter and Funnel system v) Improves efficiency of Executive branch in Admiistrative behaviour. vi) Entire system works on the principle of through proper Channelµ b) basic Features: i) Order from Higher to lower and not vice versa.Urwick: Every organization must have a scalar chain just as every house must have its drain Millet: . 6)Advantages: (i) Instrument of organizational integration.Mooney called it as universal because it integrate various broken up parts of organization due to division of work into one unit.J. L. 4) Characteristics: (i) Grades system of control in which personnel are distinguishable on the basis of position (ii) Authority is divided into units and subunits (iii) Pyramidical because fewer control the larger number resulting gradual reduction of personnel at the top level v) Entire task segregated into identifiable authority called Departments which remain closed to outside systems but converge finally to the Chief Executive·s authority. Peter: Here every employee tends to raise above his level of incompetence. (iii) Rigidity (iv) tall organization (v) Superior ² subordinate relationship(vi) Creation of Caste system 8) Alternatives or Remedies: . Gladden: Both in simple and complex division of labour means Hierarchy Paul Appleby: It is means by which resources are appropriated.This was peter principle given by J. efficiency and had provision of appeal. It is the thread by which separate parts are sewen together.Three principles ² gearing of different individuals. (i) Through proper channel (ii) authority and responsibility to be equaled (iii) Unity of command.K.Peter and Raymond Hallµmanagers tend to be promoted to the level of incompetenceµ iii) Nigro: Organisaion is superior than structure and there are also social systems within an organization. (ii) Channel of communication through chain of command (iii) Responsibility at each level (iv) Avoiding Short circuiting by ensuring proper route (v) congestion prevention at top level (vi) Decentralization of decision-making (vii) facilitates delegation (viii) Procedures simplified (ix) coordination (x) discipline 7) Disadvantages:-(i) Delay it is primary disadvantage. . Negative Characteristics: 1)Unequal distribution of authority. (iii) Weber favoured it as it ensured departmentalization. (ii) Coherent and Predictable system of Administration: Superior subordinate relationship leads to it. Responsibilities are fixed and there will be no shortcut.

hiearachy was insignificant as job satisfaction was dependent upon development of technical ability. (ii) 1962.smaller organizations the efficiency is dependent on reward to work. iii) 1964. iv) Willoughy: it correlates several operational into an highly integrated unit. accidents more in tall hierarchies. 10) Indian Context: Manabi majumdarin ´ Hieararchy and Decision making in Organisation talked of Case Study made under IIPa about File system in West Bengal and exposed how routine decisions taken at botton simply goes to higher without any contribution.. 9) Efficiency and Hierarchy: Structuralists focused on efficiency but behavioralists insisted on non structural factors such as organization environment etc. 3) Argument for: . the principle has two faces 9i0 A single determinate person to issue order (ii) The order should not be conflicting to confuse them. v) 1968.Meltzer and Jay Slater: While working in an organization with 700 Scientists. (ii)Pfinner and Presthus: Every member should report to one and only one leader. absentism. iv) 1967. Gullick and Urwick also supported at it ² a man cannot serve two masters and administrative units in the government headed by single administration. his is structure created within formal hierarchy through greater decentralization and division of authority. (i) 1950. 4) Advantages: I) Absence of conflict ii) effective supervision iii) clear fixation of responsibility.Porter and Lawler: Useful in organizations with 500 or more but if below 5000. b) By pass method: File Jumping Experiment in Secretariat.Clarzo and Yanouzas: Hiearchy work best if employees have learnt work properly.Revans: Strike. less structure enabled norale and efficiency. From 1950 various studies were conducted on efficiency in Hiearchy and following results were found. It is called level jumping and he can communicate with the permission of superior. then there will be jeopardy.Expectancy Model. uuuuuuuuUNITY OF COMMAND Meaning: Employee should receive orders from superior only ² single boss ² mono-command.Example ² construction of Dam. It is horizontal communication. (iii) Gullick: The significance of the principle is effective coordination. Normally followed in Military. Flat or medium organizations worked best.Henry Fayol ² strong advocate ² he said if it is violated. (ii) Greater decentralization if Fan like Organisations: Applicable to countries with rapidly advancing towards higher technology . This structure presents a fan like appearance but it would not work out in general routine administration. 2)Definitions: (i)Fayol ² employee should receive orders from one superior only. ivI consistent with scalar principle v)) Effective control vi) leads to effective communication vii) ensures accountability.James worthy in Sears ² Roebuck Co:Organisations which are flat or less hiearchial tend to encourage managerical development and employee·s morale.(i) Gangplank It is communication channel with an employee of the same level. b) Fayol said following factors result in dual command (i) Dviding up authority between two members ii) Imperfect demarcation of Departments (iii) Constant linking up between departments and badly defines duties 4)Arguments against: .Officers skipped may be informed of the action taken or propsed -after orbefore.

Increase of specialists 3) Accounting and Technical Departments. 2. Haldane 10 to 12 3) Gullick identified three factors which determine it (i) Function-technical less span. SPAN OF CONTROL 1)Meaning.policy order personnel. checks and balances and IRC 8) Area administration under district Administration and Functional Administration of specialists.(iv0 They consider each individual has got his own right. (ii) Millet Advocate ¶Dual supervision ² technical and administrative. were against it.more when the work is easy. (iii) Increasing number and role of the specialists. Span is the length between the thumb and the little finger.(i)Secklet-Hudson ² Millet ² Herbert Simon ² etc.They are experts and do not require general control (ii) They act as advisors as staff and near to top iii) They dislike vertical relationship. 5) The following factors have changed the idea in the modern times Automation and Mechanization in Administration (ii) MIS including computers. Distinction between ´Direct supervisionµ and access made by Urwick. 2)Views on Limitation 1. It is competence of supervisor as well as supervised. Techniques of supervision. But Acts and Executive orders disintegrate them through delegation.Symbolically it refers to one·s hold over something. budget. 4) Factors Determining. supplies and equipments. (iii) simon opposed it in proverbs of Administration and said it was introduced under the pretext of enhancing orgaisational efficiency.Time and Space.It was termed as Span of Attention by Gracuinas. routine. control and supervise also known as ´Span of Supervisionµ or Span of Management. 7) Integration Versus Disintegration: Constittution integrates various uits uder one single Executive head. But India has more integrated form but America has more disintegrated form with seperation of powers. Tradition and environments of the organisation 3. Number of subordinates or the units of work that an officer can personally direct.Hence he saidµ One single bos is seldom found in modern organizations. Hamilton 3 to 4 in his Soul and Body of an Army. . d) Personality. b) Time: Age of the organisation ² more in old organization c) Space ² Work spot ² if under the same roof more. 1. and homogenous difficult if opposite. Seckler-Hudson talks about one person has to receive four orders. Urwick 5 to 6 at Higher 8 to 12 on lower 4. a) Function .Delegation of authority 2. Hence he advocated multiplicity of command. 6) Clear picture can be understood from community Development Programmes in Panchayats at Block level and now under Collector. Adoption of plural headed bodies like ¶boards· and ¶commissions· 2. mechanical.Hence presently the span has increased in general and virtually no for specialists. 1.Graicunus 5 to 6 3. 5) Modern organization Following have undermined the importance of concept. More if a supervisor is intelligent energetic and tactful ² If subordinate are trained and experienced e) following also are relevant factors.

Lord Acton d) Pfinner and Sherwood:Power is Capacity to secure domination over one·s values and authority is capacity to command 5. . (iii) Cross Relationship.Prabhakaran B. In formal organization it is vested with job position and not to the person. The role of authority is like soul to the body.6) Criticism: However Mason Haire in his Book Modern organization theory 1959 called the principles as just plain silly.M. (d)Allen: Sums of powers and rights to make possible the performance. skill or position. Power is competent to do an act and authority right to order action by others. AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY Compiled By: S. Authority signifies hold over knowledge. 7) Graicunas Formula:Relationships in Organisations-1933 (i) Direct single relationship. Administrators do not actually perform duty directly but they get things done. 27 etc.Woodward-increasingly complex phenomenon.L. (c)Simon: Superior. (ii) Power is ability to make things happen. 3. Organisations where authority and responsibility are clearly defined are good and less corrupt and hence termed as: Two Pillars on which organization is sustained. White c) Power corrupts and absolute power corrupts absolutely. Mooney. Characteristics: (a)Existence of right (b) legitimate (c) exercised by making decisions and to carry out(d) to control the negative aspects of behaviour (e) It is also determined by the personality factors of the possessor. and Mahatma. Hence it is a bureaucratic concept. Authority is legal or rightful power. Power is ability of a person to influence another person to perform an act.increases by the same number if added )ii) Direct Group Relationship-Increases to 9.Gullick.Increases to six.Sc M.Sources of Authority: i)Formal or positional authority theory: Constitution. Examples of P. First two are expert.Follet (b) Power in democratic society requires control and greater the power greater should be the control³L. Power and Authority: Authority is institutionalized right of a superior to command and compel his subordinate to perform a certain act. (b) Theo Haimann: Rightful legal power to ask a subordinate to do and if not done to take action.D. Authority is right to command but power is capacity to command.. a right to command or to act. 4.power being transmitted from institution to administrator.Definitions: (a) Fayol: It is right to give orders and power to exact obedience. (f) Koont and O Donnell: Key to management job. Weber supported it. Urwick. 2. (e)Mooney and Reiley called it as supreme coordinating power that provides legitimacy to the organizational structure. The right to get things done is called authority. 8) Report on Committee on Administration 1972 has identified larger span in 7 areas a) Qualities of superior (ii) Subordinate (iii) nature of work (iv) Same roof (v) Effective communication (vi) Well planned work (vii) Utilising staff assistance.It is power to make decisions.subordinate relationships.

Budgetary authority 4. Traditional 3. Programme authority 2.Utilitarian Authority also known as reward should not give orders but both should agree to take orders from the situation. It is obligation to perform assigned duties. Why people accept authority? (i)Habitually conditioned (ii) Get rewards for acceptance (iii) Fear punishments if not obeyed (iv) it takes away their accountability (v) Believe that authority is on superior knowledge and competence 13. Etzioni ² Coercive authority 2. Power is ability to make things. Also mention about Weber .Legal 2. Ideas of Follet. 6. (b) Etzioni ² Coercive authority 2.Natural and legal consequence of Authority. It can be achieved through participation. There are three sources of authority. Hence following conclusions can be arrived at.A person will comply or obey if it has following (i) Intelligibility (ii) Consistency (iii) Compatibility (iv) Feasibility Simon called it Zone of Acceptance-if stressed disobedience will follow. In Bureau type there is single authority. 1. ethical and political limitations (3)Only exercise functions within his jurisdiction (4) Collective bargaining (5) Biological constraints. It denotes an obligation of an individual to carry out his duties. Personnel authority.putting staff specialists in top position and giving him limited powers. 7. According to Fayol both authority and responsibility are inter related in administrative process. Types: (i) Line ²direct contact through related chain (ii) Staff: Merely advisory (iii) Functional. According to Millet.power over and powerwith.Limits of Authority : (1) Codes laws 2) social.Types (i) Operating responsibility which can be delegated (ii) and ultimate responsibility which cannot be delegated. 8. responsibility is of three kinds (1) Political responsibility 2.Utilitarian Authority also known as reward authority. Institutional responsibility 3. (a) Authority can be delegated wherein responsibility cannot be delegated. 14)Responsibility..(c) Authority has longer life and responsibility is shorter 15.i)Both should be coequal ii) No authority to be used without responsibility (Terry) iii) Authority signifies sanction against subordinate but responsibility limits frequent use and it regulates authority to a certain extent. coterminous and coequal. Normative authority 3. 16) Authority and Responsibility: Complimentary and supplementary (ii) Two sides of a coin (iii) Interdependent . Normative authority 3. (b) Further authority flows downwards while the other is to superiors.ii)Acceptance theory: Given by Chester Bernard as Zone of indifference. 18) Modern Trend-Participation: Now it is felt that there is no use and no belief in authority but teamwork is stressed. It is different from authority. Professional responsibility or ethical responsibility. Organisational Authority 3. authority has to discharge functions in four areas. Principle of Correspondence 17)Principle of Correspondence (Urwick) No authority without responsibility and vice versa and they are interdependent. charismatic and rational. . 12. 10. Functions or Uses : Herbert Simon: (i) It enforces responsibility of the individual to those who wield authority (ii) It secures expertise in decision making (iii) It permits centralization of decision making and coordinating of activity.Midway between two. Delegation. 9. She profounded the theory of ´law of the situationµ. Max Weber also pointed it as legal. iii)Competent Theory: It is generated by personal qualities of technical competence.

It is willingness to help each other. inconsistencies. Meaning : It is the process of bringing about unity and harmony of functioning among the diverse elements and sub systems of an organization. It means all principles are contained under coordination.Prabhakaran B.Sc M. 7. 5. bring personnel closer which are positive. Importance.Definitions: (i)Mooney: Orderly arrangement of group effort in pursuit of common purpose (ii) Tead: Smooth interplay functions.L. (4) To secure unity of action towards common objective (5) it is continuous or ongoing process (6) it is a systems concept as regards organization as system of cooperative efforts. (iii)Procedural and substantive. 1) Avoid conflicts and duplication ² ensures economy 2. (iii)McFarland: Executive develops an orderly pattern and secures unity of action. It is structural. External coordination is co-ordination with other organization. remove organizational conflicts. substantive is concerned with content of the organizational activities. Chanelisation of group efforts (6) Unity in diversity (7) Harmonisation of goals (8) Congruency of flows 8. It brings cooperation. teamwork. (ii)Horizontal and Perpendicular or Vertical: Vertical when Head coordinate with subordinates and it is horizontal or sideways. 2. Check the narrow perspective of specialists and meet the requirement of organization. 6. CO-ORDINATION Compiled By S. (iv) Newman: Orderly synchronization of efforts (v)White: Causing disjunct elements to concentrate on complex of forces (vi) Charlesworth: Orderly arrangement of group effort. First principle means it expresses organization in totonothing less.(b) Benefits : 1) Personal commitment (ii) Free flow of information (iii) No need for individual control (iv) Mutual respect and trust (v) Stronger Motivation (vi) High degree of confidence (vii) Impersonal process . .Types. Prevent empirebuilding 4. Techniques. It removes conflicts.5. Coordination is more than it as it made by executive to achieve the common purpose of goals of organization. 3. Distinction between cooperation: Cooperation denotes the collective efforts by the persons working in the organization voluntarily for accomplishing a particular purpose. 3. and friction. (vii) Terry: Adjustment of the parts of each other and of the movement and operation of parts 4. Curtail employees attachment for too much significance to their own work. It is an essential part and essence of administration and first principle of organization Mooney. Fayl have also stressed it.. Features: (1) Administrative activity (2) It calls for conscious and deliberate effort on administrators at all levels (3) Orderly arrangement of group efforts. Internal and External ² Internal coordination with individual activities of persons which is also known as functional. ²It is specification of organization itself that is generalized description of the behaviours. According to him it has both positive and negative.POSDCORB.. overlapping and working at cross-purposes which are negative. However organizational islands are dangerous.

Size of the organization. Centralized ² house keeping and verbal and written communication. Staff Agencies like O& M . 9.Lack of proper methods for developing programmes.Theoretical contribution. 12) Various Coordinating Agencies in India: Cabinet Secretariat. 3. party system etc.. Central Secretariat. Central Purchasing Agency etc.P.µ (b)Eight Plan realized need for the following requirements in coordination (i) Involved of beneficiaries (ii) Involvement of voluntary agencies (iii) Supervision by local bodies (iv) Flexibility at the local level (v)Proper training (vi) Monitoring (vii) Improved delivery systems. c) Mac Farland: a) Clarifing authority and Responsibility: Reduce overlapping and duplication b) Checking and Observation: Factual activity and desired activity c) Facilitating effective communication: Use of committees and Dgroup decision making d) Coordination through leadership 11 Limits or Hindrance :1. Pooled inter dependencies ² various fairly autonomous units 2. Standardization of procedures 4. Enormous growth in size 7. Centralisation is concentration of authority in one place while the other is greater dispersion of authority. Reciprocal inter dependence. Lack of leadership quality among the superiors. Harlan Cleveland in his ´tension theoryµ suggests deliberate planning to create conflicts.. Consultations 6.1. 6. Inter Departmental Committes.Prabhakaran B.Cooperation is the consequence of coordination. These concepts are used to denote the Administrative or Management authority within an organization. Prime Minister·s office. Lack of technical knowledge 3. Sequential interdependence inter dependence output /input 3. Planning Commission and NDC. Uncertainty of the future behaviour of individual 2. Poor planning 8. CENTRALISATION AND DECENTRALISATION Prepared By S. Organisational devices 3. According to Thompson there are three kinds of inter dependencies. Development of institutional spirit among the employees 5. Follet·s 4 principles given under Dynamic Administration 1941 2. Further there are informal means like personal contacts. Planning 2. b) Elbourne: 1) personnel ii) Committes and Conferences iii) Instructions iv) Reports and returns v) training vi) Policy . Organizational hierarchy 7. Centralisation incline . 9. 1) M.. 10) Unclear policies 11) political Interference 12) Distance from headquarter 13) Big Budget.smaller are well coordinated. dinners. Lack of administrative skills 4. According to Gulick organization and dominance of an idea are to primary ways for achieving co-ordination. It went a step ahead and suggested and ´Integrated Area development Approach. 13) Coordination and Development Administration: Failure of First plan due to lack of coordination (ii) Review Committee Report 1985 suggested improvement in both vertical and horizontal coordination (iii) Seventh Plan created DRDA as a coordinating Agency (iv) Eighth plan made a major change and enabled people·s participation. 10) Essential factors of organization: a) Graves: (i) Familiarity with work (ii) Informal acquaintance (iii) Physical proximity (iv) Specific Objective (v) Desirability of limited number of participants.Sc M. cocktail parties.L. The vast number of variables involved 5. Regional Councils.

Decentralisation 1) It has five aspects (i) Broader powers to parts and only essential to Head (Administrative) (ii) Large areas of discretion to par and important question to apex (Administrative ) (iii) Much power to elective bodies (Political) (iv) Freedom to field units (Geographical) (v) Functional autonomy to specialists(Functional) S.Limitations or Disadvantageous (i) Middle and lower levels are without authority. However. Centralisation is also overload apex of the pyramid. coordinating. Defence. (b) Fayol: Everything which increase important of sub-ordinates is Decentralisation.Community Development Programme and committee of Albert Mayer thrusted paranoid chief executive imposing enforcement over unwilling subordinates. Hqrs issue orders Hqrs supply leadership 4. and Development aspects require centralization and political demand and democratic participation of people indicate decentralization. (iv) Horizontal and Vertical: (i) and (ii) are vertical and (iii) horizontal . the other inclines towards competition and selfdetermination.Advantages of Centralisation (i) Uniformity in functioning (ii) Clarity about source of decisions (iii) Effectiveness of top administration (iv) Broader perspectives (v) Benefits of Natural leadership 6. (iii) Heavy workload.No Centralisation Decentralisation 1 Greater decision at top-Falser At Middle. (ii) Reservation of operating authority with middle level. Lower Personnel have no initiative More Initiative 4. (c) Allen: It is systematic and consistent reservation of authority at Centre 3.towards power and domination. Central Social Welfare Board etc. 2.Types of Decentralisation (i) Political decentralization ² federal ² provinces ² municipal (ii)Territorial decentralization: Districts.Centralisation-(a)Implications (i) Reservation of decision-making power like planning.Definition (a) White: Transfer of authority from lower to higher level is Centralisation. Further Brown Low Committee 1937 and Hoover Commission 1949 have suggested centralization 5. Responsibility at top At Middle 3. (ii) Abuse of power. (iv) Rigid Bureaucratic structure (v) Weak communication system (vi) Impediment to organizational growth 7) Indian Context:Centralised Planning. control at top level. (iii)Operations at lower level 4) Reasons for Occurrence: Factors conducive to Centralisation (a) Personality Factors: I) lack of confidence over subordinate (ii) Lack of skill of subordinate (iii) Insecure personality of the Chief Executive (b) Political Factors: (i) colonial legacy (ii) Nation·s development (iii) Urban Bias (iv) Defence activities © Economic Factors: I) Big Budget (ii) Foreign Aid (iii) Control over social security spending. 2. it will be useful in smaller organizations only ² In large organisations it cannot be used ² Ford Motors Company experiment. Taluks etc (iii) Functional decentralization: Certain powers in the specialized units are given ² UGC.

Decentralisation is greater if (i)Greater number of decisions made at lower level(ii) Important decisions made at lower level. © Devolution: It is complete decentralization.Opposite favour decentralization (iii) Functional Factors: Limited and nontechnical centralized and vice versa (iv) External. Delegation and decentralization though different or related concepts.Prabhakaran B. Hence it concluded that most of the third world countries have adopted deconcentration and hence have not achieved results which was termed as Fesler as (Illusory Decentralisationµ . complexity in their external environment. In simple terms it is the temporary transfer of . political. (b) Delegation: Specific task assigned for accomplishment with powers defined clearly. (iii)More functions made at lower level.Merits of Decentralisation (i) Relieves higher executives (ii) Motivate subordinates (iii) Increases effectiveness of big organizations (iv) Quick decisions (v) Executive development (vi) Efficient supervision and control (vii) Reduces strain on organization communication system(viii) Accountability possible (ix) Reduces policy implementation expenditure x) Modern context: Right to Information 7.II) Human Development Report 1993 recognised following 3 types of vertical decentralization.It relates to the point where the balance between two should be struck. 8.Approaches According to James W. stable policyand incompetence of field personnel favour centralization. 9.Demerits (i) Chances of abuse of autonomy(ii) Difficulty in co-ordination (iii) Expensive (iv) Lack of uniformity. Those who have adopted delegation and devolution have produced good results.Factors determining Decentralisation 1. 5. Fesler there are 4 approaches. 10) Factors which prevented decentralization in India: I) British Legacy (ii) nehry and Constituent assembly felt it was not ripe (iii) Centralised Planning (iv) Urban Bureaucracy 11) Factors governing Centralisation or Decentralisation (i) Factor of responsibility: Acts as deterrent to decentralisation (ii) Administrative Factors: Long age. The existence of an organization depends on delegation of authority. 12) Conclusion: The difference between them is only of degree and not of kind for no organization can be completely centralized as it would overload the Chief and completely decentralized as it would lead to anarchy.Sc M. people.simply passing some duties as chief is overloaded.L. DELEGATION Compiled By: S. It is to grant or confer authority by one executive to subordinate on selective basis for the purpose of accomplishing the assigned tasks. (iii) Well structured organization (iv) Greater stability of manpower(v)Greater absence of emergency situations. (i)Doctrinal approach ² It is an end and not means (ii)Political approach (iii) Administrative Approach (iv)Dual approach 6.Larger and fast growing enterprises. (a) Deconcentration: First stage. (ii) Geographically spread over greater degree of uncertainty.. It doesn·t relieve the authority of his overall responsibility. etc. (vi)Greater faith over the sub-ordinates ability.

(d) Terry compares it with imparting knowledge.(6)Develop the subordinates seeking clarification etc. Follet considered it as myth of organization. Delegated power can be taken back (e) M. To sum up it is grant of authority by a superior to a subordinate for the attainment of specific assignment..general routine work with less importance to the lower to relieve the higher from heavy work.7) Avoid delay 8) Proper adjustment of policy to local conditions 9) Train subordinate with responsibility 10) Developing second line of leadership 11) Overcome complexity in procedures. 7)Guidelines on delegation. 3. 1) Specific and Written 2) To a position and not to individual 3) Competence of subordinates 4) Authority and responsibility 5) Proper planning 6) Usual chain of command and unity of command 7) Systematic reporting to be maintained 8)To be followed by performance appraisal system 9) Give them training 10) Give them incentives 8.P. b) Terry: From one executive unit to another. Components of delegation: (1) Entrustment of operative responsibility (2) Granting of authority (3) Creation of an obligation or accountability. . 5.Definitions a) Mooney: Conferring authority from Higher to lower. She believed that authority belongs to the job and stays with job. 2. that is delegation to specialists 4. Principles of delegation: a) Assignment of duties in terms of results expected b) Parity of authority and responsibility: So much of authority to accomplish the task alone to be delegated. Types a) Full and partial b) Conditional and unconditional c) Formal and informal d) Direct and Intermediate. c) Clarity on authority conferred d) Absoluteness of responsibility e) Unity of command-No double delegation f) Authority level principle. 6. Hindrances are Organizational Hindrances and personal hindrances. c) Millet: confer discretionary powers upon others by some one. (a)organizational (1)Lack of well established procedures and methods (2) Unstable and non repetitive character of work .Significance/ Advantages : 1) Art of getting best results (2) Lightens the burden of top executives (3) Top can concentrate on vital duties only (4) It enable quick decisions (5) It motivates the subordinate.

It is one of the important tasks of management. Activities. guidance. Since top executives cannot perform all overseeing of works. inspection and coordination. S. Taylor and Fayol have put emphasis on the role of supervisor. 2.L.Prabhakaran B. SUPERVISION Compiled By S. Functions: As per F. cooperating. The delegator exercises The control may be delegated to departmental control over the heads. they entrust it to the other subordinates.Further workers also require guidance. It denotes relationship It denotes relationship between top between a superior and management and various semi-autonomous a subordinate. 3. The crude form of penalizing authority of the past is now replaced by participative and spiritual collaborator of subordinates.(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) Lack of effective means of internal communication Centralization requirements of certain special programmes Smaller and narrower geographic coverage of organization Lack of effective means of internal coordination Lack of well-defined positions in terms of responsibility and authority The lesser age of organization due to a few precedents The constitutional. marx it has 3 phases or aspects . . not disperse authority. ´overseeingµ.Superintendence. Yet studies of administrative failures almost invariably find that poor or inept delegation is at or near the top of the list of causes.Sc M. subordinates.M. guiding. exploring and inspecting. It is essential for It is optional as top management may or may management process. control. divisions. 3. It has two terms ´Superµ and ´Visionµ which means. Legal and political restrictions (b) Personal Hindrances which are of two kinds (i)ON THE PART OF SUPERIOR (i)lure for authority (ii) Lack of receptiveness. 5. It gives coherence to the organization. It is a technique of It is a philosophy of management.none else can do (iii) Fear of being exposed (d) Difficulty in briefing (v) Lack of Confidence over subordinates (ii)ON THE PART OF SUBORDINATES (i)easy way to consult superior (ii) Fear of criticism 9iii) Lack of self confidence (iv) Absence of incentives (v) Excessive workload 9) Conclusion: Most failures in effective delegation occur not because executives do not understand the nature and principles of delegation but because they are unable or unwilling to apply them. In purely structural terms it may mean monitoring and controlling the subordinates but in modern management it mean a mix of activities such as teaching.The most important quality of supervisor is his competency in interpersonal relationsµ 2. direction. 4. management. in a way an elementary act of managing or administering.No Delegation Decentralisation 1 Delegation is a process Decentralisation is the end result of delegation. According to Millet it has two purposes ²one is to achieve coordination among various and the second one is to ensure that each unit accomplishes its tasks. Delegartion is.

freedom to work the way they feel most comfortable and to become involved in their own goal setting.Pfinner has listed 8 qualities 9 LIKERT·S SUPERVISORY STYLES: Likert·s Michigan Studies proved that more general the degree of supervision excercisable by a superior. The distinction created many models of management style.led to the idea that varying degrees of each were effective. Nissen there are 11 duties. 11 Qualities of Good supervisor: I) direct contact ii) Communicate iii) Inquisitive mind.O& M. dependent upon the situation. Hence he classified supervisor into two (i) job centred and (2) employee centred and he preferred the second for results.(a) Substantive or technical. hiring and training the right person. Job centred management behaviour was close to what Frederick Taylor called scientific management . monitoring performance closely and rewarding on a piece rate basis. (c) Method by which employees are trained and inspired to a high level of morale and performance (d) Basis is laid for controlling results e) It converts general plans and policies into worl plans and hence into units of production.he must know techniques of work (b) Institutional or objective know the policies and procedures according to which it should be done (c) Personnel or human. Conversely the closer the degree. lower was the output. the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan carried out a large scale programme of research into "the organisational structure and the principles of leadership and management which result in the best performance.D. 5 Types a) Single. Accountant etc. Supervisory skills: (a) Technical skill (b) Human Skill (c) Conceptual skill (d) Diagnostic skill (e) political skill. 1) Prior Approval of Individual Projects 2) Promulgation of Service standards 3.Qualities and Functions According to G. allowing people their own creativity. The Michigan studies' conclusions were further developed in the Ohio studies which showed that the two ends of the Michigan continuum were not opposites but relatively independent of each other.Why do we do it in this way? Iv) care for public interest than personal interest v) Familiar with procedures vi) Confident . 8.Inspection result 7. Techniques.ability to acquire power to do a thing.(i) Little pressure on subordinates (ii) Get trust and confidence of lower (iii) General supervision (iv)Allow subordinates to schedule their own path of work (v) Permit decision making by employees (vi) Not punitive (viii) Devote more attention to responsible jobs. 10) Michigan and Ohio Studies: From 1947.D. Millet following 6 techniques are to be followed. Reporting system on work progress. According to H. As per J.job centred and employee centred behaviour . all largely based upon these insights.6. Halsey it has six ingredients. Employee centred behaviour concentrates upon the human aspects of work.The relative independence of the two factors ." The study concluded that managers can be job centred or employee centred and that the latter were more effective.handling of workers 4:Need for Supervision: (a) Relieves workload of top executive (b) Principle by which coordination can be achieved. b) Line and Functional c) Millet: Substantive (actual work) and Technical (Methods) 6. To him the second one has 7 plus points and chacteristics.Line. higher the level of production.Police and Plural Line and Staff.Approval of subordinate Personnel 5. Budgetary limitation emphasis on discovering the best way to do a job..

Line Agencies (i) What is line: It is originated in the military. watch their activities and observe the results.12: General: When the decisions have been communicated. and thus achieve teamwork. reporting and public relations (v) Legal services (vi) Other management procedures. So it is only supportive of main line function. White has recognized 6 functions and Pfinner 7 functions. (a)Making decision b) Taking responsibility c) Planning d) Interpreting and defending policy e) Maintaining production and seeking efficiency and economy. takes decisions and issue commands. Mooney has identified three aspects. and then sees to it that the targets have been efficiently achieved. The employees have to submit a report of the progress of the work to the supervising authority. Literally it means a stick on which we can lean for support but it cannot take or initiate any decision. direct chain of command. The supervisor can also inspect the records. 2. To see to the fact that the ends of organization are being realized is the job of supervision and control in an administrative organization. The supervisor has not only to inspect and inquire. Sometimes called ´Direct Operative authorityµ. it becomes the duty of the top administrators in the organizational hierarchy to see that they are implemented properly. 3. Supervision is to achieve coordination among the various units of the organization and it has to see that each unit of the organization accomplishes the tasks assigned to it. positively. (iii) Salient Features of Line: Primary function. such environment may be created that every one puts his best in the work. (b)Functions: (i) Budgeting and accounting (ii) personnel (iii) Planning (iv) research. unity of command. Negatively. . They are concerned with substantive functions of Govt. papers. The classical examples are given below a) Government departments b) Public Corporations c) Government companies d) Independent Regulatory Commissions as in America. The top administrators give directions to the subordinates. Borrowed from Military Terminology. They advise and help the Line functions for more efficient results. The task of supervision is to hatch the results of organization. This task can be performed by laying down some objective tests and criterion of efficiency. The supervisor lays down the targets. and the result is maximum output. But staff officers don·t have any command over the functions. supervision is to direct inspect and investigate the activities of the personnel in the organization.They are primary and central at any as well as larger organizations. (ii) Functions: These agencies perform the following major functions. LINE AND STAFF There are three organizational units. but has to encourage and inspire. Some times supervision is exercised through budgetary provisions. files and thus know the results. it has to tell them the best way of doing work and achieving the targets. Line agencies directly work for achievement of organizational purposes ² Staff agencies advise and assist the line agencies in their activities ² auxiliary agencies provide common house ² keeping. To achieve it. delegation. In an organization. Authority flows from vertical to downwards. Staff Agencies. supervision is called upon to check the faults and to show the right lines for future action.

Hence. (ii) no authority but limited. 1) General Staff or filter and funnel ²PMO or White House ² administrators and not technical 2) Technical staff. (iv) attached to line at every levels . Willoughby called them as Institutional or housekeeping services. OBM. . 5: Line and Staff: Eleven main differences in (1) Role-decision-advice (2) direct contribution (3) doing function (4) flow of authority downward (5) Operating decision (6) Functional-institutional (7) ends. 9) Power of the systems under Presidential and Cabinet systems: a) Staff is more powerful as Chief Executive has wider control and powers under seperation of Powers. 1) Central Public works Department2b) Law Ministry 3) Finance Ministry 4) Information and Broadcasting Ministry 5) Union Public Service Commission 6) Parliamentary Affairs department 7) Director ² General of supply and Disposal. (iii) no executive function auxiliary have operational responsibility. Cabinet Committees. (d) Types : There are three kinds. computer (iii) Staff controls information (iv) Line is not for change but staff act as catalyst for change. Auxiliary Agencies They were termed as Establishment Services by British writers. Planning Commission.c) Hence its characteristics are-(1) Assistance-(ii_ Information (iii)AdvisoryPlanning Commission (iv) Supervisory. Treasury. Conflict between Staff and Line i) Line dislikes staff for the fear of being taken for a ride (ii) Staff controls office technology including fax. Cabinet Committees. But in Cabinet PM has to keep his Ministers together to support the staff. .(i) advise-housekeeping.but not bothered with the improvement of organisation. UPSC. Cabinet Secretariat.Cabinet Secretariat (v) Delegated functionsPMO press release.under chief executive. b) Chief Executive does not require the approval of Cabinet for supporting the staff agency. EOP. Central Police Review Staff USA: White House Office.4. National Security Council. 7) Staff Agencies in various countries: India: PMO. SSC. White House and offices in the EOP are powerful than the staff agencies under the Cabinet system.economic or financial or foreign affair advisor 3) Auxiliary staff. 8.means for ends (8) substantivesupportive (9) control-report (10) Bears final responsibility (11) Provide channel of communication 6) Staff and Auxiliary: Four differences. CBI Britain: Cabinet Secretariat. office of Management and Function. Civil Service Department.

pyramidical and Weberian organizations.10) Illusory today: Logan: Difference at the start but not after growth. (2) Peter Drucker: It is destructive distinction. as they have no authority and responsibility. 4) New lifeline of office management system initiated a process towards decline of hierarchical. B M est m ore m atches f atches » or s calar p rinciple o rganisation . as head of staff may become Empire Builders. 3) Mooney and Reiley_ it is a term applicable in formal Organisations only.

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