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- Optimal Control of Double Inverted Pendulum Using LQR Controller
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Prerequisites: introductory courses on differential equations, Laplace transforms, vectormatrix analysis, circuit analysis, mechanics, & introductory thermodynamics. 3. Main revisions 4. MATLAB for obtaining responses of control systems to various inputs. 5. Computational optimization approach with MATLAB. 6. New example problems. 7. Materials deleted 8. Signal flow graphs dropped. 9. Laplace transform deleted. 10. Laplace transform tables, & partial-fraction expansion with MATLAB. 11. vector-matrix analysis - to find inverses of n x n matrices that may be involved in analysis & design of control systems. ---1. ten chapters. 2. Chapter 1 - introduction to control systems. 3. Chapter 2 - mathematical modeling of control systems. 4. A linearization technique- for nonlinear mathematical models 5. Chapter 3 - mathematical models of mechanical systems & electrical systems. 6. Chapter 4 - mathematical modeling of fluid systems (such as liquid-level systems, pneumatic systems, & hydraulic systems) & thermal systems. 7. Chapter 5 - transient response & steady-state analyses of control systems. 8. transient response curves - using MATLAB. 9. stability analysis of control systems -Rouths stability criterion. 10. Hurwitz stability criterion is also presented. 11. Chapter 6 - root-locus analysis & design of control systems, including positive feedback systems & conditionally stable systems 12. Plotting root loci with MATLAB. 13. Design of lead, lag, & lag-lead compensators with rootlocus method. 14. Chapter 7 - frequency-response analysis & design of control systems. 15. Nyquist stability criterion. 16. Bode diagram - to design of lead, lag, & lag-lead compensators. 17. Chapter 8 - PID controllers- basic & modified 18. Computational approaches for obtaining optimal parameter values for PID controllers, - to satisfy requirements for step-response characteristics. 19. Chapter 9 - basic analyses of control systems in state space. 20. Concepts of controllability & observability. 21. Chapter 10 - control systems design in state space. 22. Pole placement, state observers, & quadratic optimal control. 23. Robust control systems. --Math Modeling of Control Systems 21

INTRODUCTION 1. CS study pre-requisite - model dynamic systems in Math terms & analyze their dynamic characteristics. 2. Math model of a dynamic system - set of equations representing dynamics of system accurately. 3. Math model - not unique to a given system. 4. A system - represented in many different ways - many Math models, depending on ones perspective. 5. System dynamics - described in terms of differential equations. 6. Differential equations - obtained by using physical laws governing a particular systemfor example, Newtons laws for mechanical systems & Kirchhoffs laws for electrical systems. 7. We must always keep in mind that deriving reasonable Math models is most important part of entire analysis of control systems. 8. Throughout this book we assume that principle of causality applies to systems considered. 9. This means that current output of system ( output at time t=0) depends on past input ( input for t<0) but does not depend on future input ( input for t>0). 10. Math Models. 11. Math models may assume many different forms. 12. Depending on particular system & particular circumstances, one Math model may be better suited than other models. 13. For example, in optimal control problems, it is advantageous to use state-space representations. 14. On other hand, for transient-response or frequency-response analysis of singleinput, single-output, linear, time-invariant systems, transfer-function representation may be more convenient than any other. 15. Once a Math model of a system is obtained, various analytical & computer tools can be used for analysis & synthesis purposes. 16. Simplicity Versus Accuracy. 17. In obtaining a Math model, we must make a compromise between simplicity of model & accuracy of results of analysis. 18. In deriving a reasonably simplified Math model, we frequently find it necessary to ignore certain inherent physical properties of system. 19. In particular, if a linear lumped-parameter Math model (that is, one employing ordinary differential equations) is desired, it is always necessary to ignore certain nonlinearities & distributed parameters that may be present in physical system. 20. If effects that these ignored properties have on response are small, good agreement will be obtained between results of analysis of a Math model & results of experimental study of physical system. 21. In general, in solving a new problem, it is desirable to build a simplified model so that we can get a general feeling for solution. 22. A more complete Math model may then be built & used for a more accurate analysis. 23. We must be well aware that a linear lumped-parameter model, which may be valid in low-frequency operations, may not be valid at sufficiently high

frequencies, since neglected property of distributed parameters may become an important factor in dynamic behavior of system. 24. For example, mass of a spring may be neglected in lowfrequency operations, but it becomes an important property of system at high frequencies. 25. (For case where a Math model involves considerable errors, robust control theory may be applied. 26. Robust control theory is presented in Chapter 10. 27. ) Linear Systems. 28. A system is called linear if principle of superposition applies. 29. principle of superposition states that response produced by simultaneous application of two different forcing functions is sum of two individual responses. 30. Hence, for linear system, response to several inputs can be calculated by treating one input at a time & adding results. 31. It is this principle that allows one to build up complicated solutions to linear differential equation from simple solutions. 32. In an experimental investigation of a dynamic system, if cause & effect are proportional, thus implying that principle of superposition holds, then system can be considered linear. 33. Linear Time-Invariant Systems & Linear Time-Varying Systems. 34. A differential equation is linear if coefficients are constants or functions only of independent variable. 35. Dynamic systems that are composed of linear time-invariant lumped-parameter components may be described by linear time-invariant differential equations that is, constant-coefficient differential equations. 36. Such systems are called linear time-invariant (or linear constant-coefficient) systems. 37. Systems that are represented by differential equations whose coefficients are functions of time are called linear time-varying systems. 38. An example of a time-varying control system is a spacecraft control system. 39. ( mass of a spacecraft changes due to fuel consumption.) Outline of Chapter. 1. Section 21 Introduction to Math modeling of dynamic systems. 2. Section 2 Transfer function & impulse-response function. 3. Section 23 Automatic control systems introduction 4. Section 24 Modeling in state space. 5. Section 25 State-space representation of dynamic systems. 6. Section 26 transformation of math models with MATLAB. 7. Section 27 linearization of nonlinear Math models.

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