KNM-ER 1470

Age: 1.9 myr Species: Homo rudolfensis Features
• 750 - 800cc • skull larger & less robust than Aust, sig larger than H. habilis • adult, possibly male • large massive molars

OH 24 - Twiggy
Age: 1.8 myr Species: Homo habilis Features:
• fractured & collapsed braincase, highly distorted • likely 600cc


• • • • • • •

Site: Koobi Fora, Kenya
• KBS tuff, area 131 • associated with postcranial and lithics • dating radiometric, paleomag, and faunal

Found: B. Ngeneo in 1972 (reconstructed in 2007) Bibliography Leakey R.E. (1973): Evidence for an advanced Plio-Pleistocene Hominid from East Rudolf, Kenya. Nature, 242:447-50.

cranial bones thin, less robust than Aust smaller parietals than OH7 braincase rel expanded in width reduction in size of face maxilla slopes forward tooth crowns & roots are small adolescent or young adult more affinities with OH 13 than OH 7

Site: Olduvai Gorge, Tz Found: Peter Nzube in 1968 Bibliography Leakey, M. et al (1971) New hominid skull from Bed I: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Nature

KNM-ER 1813 – Lucy's child
Age: 1.9 myr Species: Homo habilis Features
• 510cc • possibly female w/ sexdim, but differ also in braincase size, facial shape & face, overall robusticity , from KNM-ER 1470 • nasal bones crushed, face skewed to left

OH 62
Age: 1.8 myr Species: Homo habilis Features:
• partial maxillary, calvarial, mandibular, radial, humeral, femoral, and tibial fragments • palate deep posteriorly, shelves inferiorly anterior to large incisive fossa; wide rel to • palate sim to OH 24 & STW 53 • maxilla moderately prognathic • zygomatic process arises low on maxilla

maxilla well preserved, left teeth intact from canine to 3 rd molar • small, arched, rounded supra-orbital torus • short, lightly-built face

Site: Koobi Fora, Kenya Found: K. Kimeu in 1973 Bibliography Leakey R.E. (1974) Further evidence of Lower Pleistocene hominids from East Rudolf, North Kenya, 1973, Nature

molar wear pattern and dental proportions differ sig from robust Aust • postcranial compared to AL 288-1, humerus longer, radial tuberosity larger, more rounded, & less divided and shaft circumf greater and overall more robust; femur smaller and less robust

Site: Olduvai Gorge Found: Tim White in 1986 Bibliography
Johanson, D. (1987) New partial skeleton of Homo habilis from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, Nature

OH 65
Age: 1.8 myr Species: Homo habilis Features:
• nearly complete maxilla, heavily worn incisors and canines

OH 8

possibly same indiv as OH 7

Age: 1.75 myr Species: Homo habilis Features:
• Juvenile • complete foot, missing only back of heel & toes • tooth marks on ankle, back of heel bitten off, likely crocodile • consistent w/ bipedal locomotion, altho some “ape traits”: poss well developed arch, adducted hallux, robust lateral metatarsal, modern metatarsal II proximal articulation, relatively short & thick talus • Short relative foot length • Derived robusticity pattern

lower face would have been broad and orthnagthic (sim to Paran) but naso-alveolar region dif and cheek teeth not as large rel anterior dentition • lower nasal region sim to KNM1470 (enough to suggest strong taxonmic affinity)

Site: Olduvai Gorge Found: 1995 Bibliography
Blumenschine R.J., Peters C.R., Masao F.T., Clarke R.J., Deino A., Hay R.L. et al. (2003): Late Pliocene Homo and hominid land use from western Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Science Tobias P.V. (2003): Encore Olduvai. Science, 299:1193-4.

Site: Olduvai Gorge, Bed 1, Level 3, FLK NN Found: Leakey in 1960 Bibliography:
Day MH and Napier JR. 1964. Hominid fossils from Bed I, Olduvai Gorge, Tanganyika. Fossil foot bones. Nature 201:967-970.

OH 7 – Jonny's child
Age: 1.75 myr Species: Homo habilis, holotype Features
• 24 bones and 14 teeth: nearly complete left parietal, fragmented right parietal, most of the mandibular body, lower teeth from incisors back; 21 finger, hand and wrist bones; • male juvenile, 10-12 yrs • evidence of significant carnivore damage: distal ends of foot bones & mandible gnawed, parietals show broad furrows , likely from canines or carnassials; similar to damage inflicted by hyenas

STW 53
Age: 1.5 myr Species: Homo gautengensis holotype (prev H. habilis) Features:
• parietal-occipito region lacks flattening of Homo • lacks occipital bun rel H. habilis & H. erectus) • rounded occipital profile • thin cranial bones • small occipital torus • frontal mid-line ridge present (unlike H. habilis, like H. erectus) • temporal lines more like Aust than Homo • marked post-orbital constriction • seemingly plesiomorphic traits shared with Aust and H. habilis • moderate glabella & supra-orbital in two parts

premolars & molars narrower than Aust • hand & foot bones similar to Homo

Site: Olduvai Gorge, Tz Found: J. Leakey in 1960 Bibliography
Leakey et al (1964) Recent discoveries of fossil hominids in Taganyika: at Olduvai and near Lake Natron, Nature

Site: Sterkfontein, associated w/ tools Found: Alan Hughes in 1976 Bibliography
Curnoe, D. (2010). A review of early Homo in southern Africa focusing on cranial, mandibular and dental remains, with the description of a new species (Homo gautengensis sp. nov.).Journal of Comparative Human Biology

Other early Homo specimens

OH 5 (H. habilis): OH 13 – “Cindy” (H. habilis): 1.6 myr, Aprox 650 cc.
Mandible & teeth, bits of maxilla, cranial fragment.

OH 16 – “George”: 1.7 myr. Aprox 640 cc. Teeth & skull
fragments.

OH 35 (H. habilis):: associated tibia & fibula from FLK Zinj KNM-ER 1810 (poss H. habilis):

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