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KNM-ER 3733

Age: 1.8 – 1.7 myr Species: Homo ergaster Features
low cranial vault aprosx 850cc saggital keeling round torus across occipital large cranium & upper face angular torus thin, arched supraorbita;s round orbits occipital bun short, vertical lower face obvious sulcus behind supraorbital sides of brain case flattened rel to H. sap • identified female in comparison w/ KNM-WT 15000 • mature: closed sutures, degree of dntal wear, 3rd molars • • • • • • • • • • • •

KNM-ER 3883
Age: 1.65 – 1.5 myr Species: Homo ergaster Features
• aprox. 800Cc • thin, arched supraorbital tori • zygoma angled down & back • massive zygomatics & rel large face • round orbits • postorbital constriction & sloping frontal (more than 3733) • more robust than 3733

Site: Koobi Fora, Kenya (Ileret, Area 3) Found: Leakey & Walker Bibliography

Site: Koobi Fora, Kenya Found: B. Ngeneo in 1975 Bibliography
Leakey, R. (1976) New hominid fossil fins from the Koobi Fora formation in Northern Kenya, Nature

Walker & Leakey (1978) The hominids of East Africa, Scientific American 39(2):54-66.

SK 847
Age: 1.8 - 1.5 myr Species: Homo ergaster (some consider Aust, H. gautengensis) Features
• rel short and narrow face • pronounced supraorbital torus; cosistently thick • moderate constriction of cranium behind eye sockets • obvious supratoral sulcus • sharply sloping frontal • delicate, curved zygomatics • rounded, forward projecting nasal bones • short palate • small temporomandibular joint

KNM-ER 1500 – Nariokotome/Turkana Boy
Age: 1.6 myr Species: Homo ergaster Features
aprox. 880Cc rel modern limb proportions longer vertebral spines than H. sap more restricuted spinal chord canal elongated femoral neck narrow pelvis more robust than H. sap dental morph very similar to Chinese H. erectus • maximum cranial beradth far back • moderate supratoral sulcus behind supraorbital torus • skull reconstructed from 70 pieces plus teeth • • • • • • • •

Site: Swartkrans, South Africa Found: R. Clarke, 1969 Bibliography
Clarke, R. et al (1970) More evidence of an advanced hominid at Swartkrans, Nature

Site: Nariokotome, Kenya Found: Leakey & Kimeu 1984 Bibliography:
Brown, F. et al (1985) Early Homo erectus skeleton from west Lake Turkana, Nature

OH 9 – Chellean Man
Age: 1.5 – 1.2 myr Species: Homo ergaster Features
• aprox. 1067cc • torus rel continuous, & very thick, partic at glabella • lateral margins of orbits curved back and down • supra-orbital thickened over middle of each orbit, shallow sulcus on each side • broad, sloping frontal • no sign of midline keeling • max cranial breadth at mastoid; supra-mastoid crest well-defined • sim to KNM-ER 3733; differ from Asian H. erectus

BOU-VP-2/66 – Daka
Age: 1.0 myr Species: Homo ergaster (H. erectus) Features
• aprox 995cc • cutmarks, possibly from predation • slightly distorted, base largely intact • supraorbital tori thick & strongly arched • markedly depressed glabella & supra-glabellar regions • frontal squama bossed at mid-line w/ weak sagittal keeling • mandibular fossa deep & short • vertical parietal walls • cranial vault smaller & shorter than OH-9 • affinities w/ Asian H. erectus

Site: Olduvai, Tanzania Found: Leakeys 1960 Bibliography:

Site: Middle Awash, Ethiopia (Daka Member, Bouri Formation) associated w/ 3 femora & a tibia Found: H. Gilbert in 1997 Bibliography:
Asfaw, B. et al. (2002). Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Nature, 107(1982), 317-320.

Rightmire, G (1979) Cranial Remains of Homo erectus from Beds II and IV, Olduvai Gorge, Tz. Am Jrn of Phy Anth 51, 99-116.

KNM-ER 992
Age: 1.4 myr Species: Homo ergaster, holotype Features
• 2 pieces of mandible, missing incisors & part of ascending ramus • rel small teeth, reduction in postcanine dentition

Trinil 2 – Java Man
Age: 1.0 myr Species: Homo erectus, type specimen Features • aprox 940cc • pronounced supraorbital torus, constriction behind it • saggital keel • long cranium • flat forehead • possibly associated with a pathological femur found later Site: Trinil, Java, indonesia Found: Dubois, 1891 Bibliography: Dubois, E. (1894) Pithecanthropus erectus, eine menschenahnliche

Site: Koobi Fora Found: Leakeys & Isaac in 1971 Bibliography:
Leakey R. (1972) Further Evidence of Lower Pleistocene Hominids from East Rudolf, North Kenya, 1971. Nature 237: 264-269 Groves, C. & V. Mazak (1975) An approach to the taxonomy of the Hominidae: gracile Villafranchian hominids of Africa, Cal. Miner. Geol.

Sangiran 17
Age: 800 – 400 kyr Species: Homo erectus Features • aprox 1029cc • long, relatively flat frontal bone • projecting face w/ massive, flat zygomatics • zygomaxillary tuberosity at base of cheekbone • rounded edge to bottom of eye sockets • lack of clear demarcation btwn nasal region & lower face • very thick bones of braincase, flattened along sides • maximum breadth at base of cranium • reduced development of frontal and parietal lobes • prominent muscle markings along sides and back of cranium Site: Sangiran, Java, Indonesia Found: Towikromo, 1969 Bibliography: Sartono, S. (1971) Observations on a new skull of Pithecanthropus erectus

Peking Man, composite reconstruction
Age: 600 – 300 kyr Species: Homo erectus Features • aprox 1043cc (avg of 5 skullcaps) • composite Skull XII (nasal bones, rum of left orbital), Skull XIV (partial maxilla), Skull X (two facial fragments), GI & GII (mandible fragments) • sim to OH 9 and Sangiran 17, but supraorbital torus smaller • occipital bone strongly flexed, w/ broad torus across width • flat, thick, regular parietal bones • massive facial bones • bulky mandibles Site: Zhoukoudian Cave, China Bibliography:
Tattersall, I. & G. Sawyer (1996) The Skull of “Sinanthropus” from Zhoukoudian, China: a new reconstruction. Journal of Human Evolution 31:331-314. Weidenreich, F. (1943) The Skull of Sinathropus pekinensis: A comparative study on a primitive hominid skull, Palaeontologia Sinica

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