27 views

Uploaded by Deepali Gupta

- Tugas 2 Peristiwa Perpindahan
- 97-ScissorJack
- 01 Kern's Method.
- Chapter on Base Isolation in EuroCode 8 Summarized
- Introduction to Polymers
- Docslide.us Earthquake Response of Elastic Sdf Systems With Non Linear Fluid Viscous Dampers
- Copy of 56913304 Pipe Systems Design
- SEISMIC Isolation
- Two Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines II
- Vibrations_eoliennes_intro.pdf
- Viscosidad HFO 380
- Modelling the Environmental Degradation of Adhesively Bonded Aluminium and Composite Joints Using
- Multi-physics and non-linear modeling using COMSOL
- 21-SeismicResponseStructures
- 2010D26
- Roll Lab Report
- Viscosity and Color Change During in Situ Solidification of Grape Pekmez[1]
- Fluid 01
- 165_196
- Preview Hydr

You are on page 1of 6

DOI 10.1007/s10409-009-0245-7

RESEARCH PAPER

The exact solution of Stokes second problem including start-up

process with fractional element

Kaixin Hu Keqin Zhu

Received: 24 July 2008 / Revised: 5 January 2009 / Accepted: 12 January 2009 / Published online: 27 March 2009

The Chinese Society of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics and Springer-Verlag GmbH 2009

Abstract The start-upprocess of Stokes secondproblemof

a viscoelastic material with fractional element is studied. The

uid above an innite at plane is set in motion by a sudden

acceleration of the plate to steady oscillation. Exact solutions

are obtained by using Laplace transform and Fourier trans-

form. It is found that the relationship between the rst peak

value and the one of equal-amplitude oscillations depends

on the distance from the plate. The amplitude decreases for

increasing frequency and increasing distance.

Keywords Stokes second problem Start-up process

Fractional element Laplace transform Fourier transform

1 Introduction

Exact solutions of the NS equations are important not just

because the solutions represent fundamental ows and the

basic phenomena described by the NS equations can be more

closely studied, but also they serve as standards for check-

ing the accuracies of numerical methods [1]. Stokes sec-

ond problem is an important ow, in which exact solution

could be obtained. Fractional element model studied in this

paper describes a special kind of viscoelastic uids whose

stress-strain relationship is between spring and dashpot. Its

constitutive equation is given by [2]

= G

dt

, 0 < < 1,

where is the shear stress, the shear strain, G the shear

modulus, =

G

the relaxation time, the coefcient of

viscosity, the fractional parameter. We can interpret the

K. Hu K. Zhu (B)

School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, 100084 Beijing, China

e-mail: zhukq@tsinghua.edu.cn

model as an interpolation between Hookes law ( = 0) and

Newtons law ( = 1). Fractional element is a basic model

in rheology to describe more complex viscoelastic uids and

is called ScottBlairs model. It can be realized physically

through hierarchical arrangements of springs and dashpots.

Heymans and Bauwens [3] and Zhu et al. [4] studied the

mechanical analogues and physical meanings of fractional

element model.

As a classic example in unsteady ows, Stokes second

problem refers to the unsteady shear ow of a viscous uid

near a at plate which executes harmonic oscillations parallel

to itself [5]. Oscillatory Couette ow is the simplest approx-

imation for time-periodic shear driven gas ows encoun-

tered in various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS),

such as microaccelerometers, inertial sensors, and resonant

lters [6]. The study of Stokes second problem has some

applications in the elds of chemical, medical, biomedical,

micro, and nanotechnology [7]. Recently, Ai and Vafai [7]

derived the exact solutions including several classical non-

Newtonian uids for the Stokes second problem. Deka et al.

[8] studied the exact solution of MHD Stokes oscillating

plate. Yakhot and Colosqui [9] investigated Stokes second

ow problem in a high frequency limit and its application to

nanomechanicalresonators. The Transient solution of New-

tonianowfor Stoke oscillatingplate were studiedbyPanton

[10].

In the present paper the start-up process of Stokes

second problem of a viscoelastic uid with fractional

element is studied. First, we give the governing equations

for this problem. Then by using the Laplace transform, we

obtain the exact solutions of the ow. On the basis of the

solutions, we discuss the comparability of the velocity pro-

les and the characteristic of the velocity amplitude. We also

study the start-up time of the ow, and the oscillation which

reaches steady-state when the time goes to innite. Finally

123

578 K. Hu, K. Zhu

we compare the solutions of fractional element with the case

of the Newtonian uid, and analyze the relationship between

parameter and the oscillation.

2 Governing equations

We select the direction of motion of the wall as the x axis

and the direction perpendicular to the wall as the y axis. For

the problem under consideration here, the velocity eld has

only x directional component, i.e.

v = u(y, t )i , (1)

where u is the velocity in the x-coordinate direction and i is

the unit vector in the x-direction.

The constitutive equation of fractional element can be

written as follows

yx

= G

yx

t

= G

1

t

1

_

u

y

_

. (2)

The momentum equation is

u

t

=

yx

y

, (3)

where is the density of the uid.

Substituting the constitutive equation (2) into the momen-

tum equation (3) yields

u

t

= G

1

t

1

_

2

u

y

2

_

. (4)

Let the plate oscillate with angular frequency and ampli-

tude U. The boundary and initial conditions read

u(0, t ) = U exp(it ), t > 0, (5)

u(, t ) = 0, (6)

u(y, 0) = 0, y > 0. (7)

3 Analytical solutions

We introduce the dimensionless variables and parameters

u

=

u

U

, y

=

yU

, t

=

tU

2

, =

U

2

G

,

where U and

U

2

a dimensionless parameter. For simplicity the dimensionless

mark * will be omitted hereinafter.

The governing equation and its boundary and initial con-

ditions are accordingly written as

u

t

=

1

1

t

1

_

2

u

y

2

_

, 0 < < 1, (8)

u(0, t ) = exp(it ), t > 0, (9)

u(, t ) = 0, (10)

u(y, 0) = 0, y > 0. (11)

In order to solve Eq. (8), we dene the Laplace transform

of the velocity u

u(y, s) = L{u(y, t ), s} =

_

0

e

st

u(y, t )dt . (12)

Taking the Laplace transform of Eqs. (8)(10) yields [11]

2

u

y

2

=

1

1

s

2

u, (13)

u(, s) = 0, (14)

u(0, s) =

1

s i

. (15)

Solving the above equations yields

u(y, s) =

1

s i

exp

_

_

1

1

s

2

_1

2

y

_

. (16)

By using Taylor theorem, we can rewrite Eq. (13) in a series

form

u(y, s) =

n=0

(y)

n

n(1)

2

n!

1

s

n(2)

2

+1

k=0

_

i

s

_

k

=

n=0

(y)

n

n(1)

2

n!

k=0

(i)

k

1

s

n(2)

2

+1+k

. (17)

Applying the inverse Laplace transform to Eq. (17), we

arrive at

u(y, t )=

n=0

(y)

n

n(1)

2

n!

k=0

(i)

k

t

n(2)

2

+k

_

n(2)

2

+ 1 + k

_. (18)

We choose the real part of the velocity

u(y, t ) =

n=0

(y)

n

n!

n(1)

2

k=0

t

n(2)

2

+2k

2k

(1)

k

_

n(2)

2

+ 1 + 2k

_

=

n=0

1

n!

_

y

1

2

t

2

2

_

n

k=0

_

t

2

2

_

2k

(1)

k

_

n(2)

2

+ 1 + 2k

_. (19)

123

The exact solution of Stokes second problem including start-up process with fractional element 579

Fig. 1 u versus y for = 0.1, t = 2, = 1

It should be pointed out that there are similarity solutions of

the velocity for eigenvalues as follows

A =

_

y

1

2

t

2

2

_

, B =

t

2

=

t

T

, (20)

where A and B denote the critical distance correlated with

time and the periodicity of the oscillation, respectively.

4 Results and discussion

4.1 The case = 1

Substituting = 1 into Eq. (19) yields

u(y, t ) =

n=0

1

n!

_

y

t

1

2

_

n

k=0

(t )

2k

(1)

k

_

1 + 2k

n

2

_ . (21)

This uid may be simplied as Newtonian uid. The exact

solution of the start-up process Stokes second problem with

Newtonian uid is [12]

u(y, t )=

t

_

0

cos[ (t )]

y

2

3

exp

_

y

2

4

_

d.

(22)

The equality between Eqs. (21) and (22) could be vali-

dated by numerical calculation. For example let = 0.1,

t = 2, Fig. 1 shows the velocity proles given by Eqs. (21)

and (22). The two curves are superposed completely. So the

result of Eq. (19) includes the Newtonian uid as a special

case.

4.2 The similarity of velocity proles

Equation (19) shows that the velocity proles for varying

times are similar, i.e., they can be reduced to the same curve

by changing the scale along the y axis if the periodicities

Fig. 2 u versus y for = 0.7, = 10, B =

1

2

of them are the same. The curves plotted in Fig. 2 show the

velocity proles at two values of time when = 0.7, = 10,

B =

1

2

. If the scale along the y axis of the curve t = 1 mul-

tiplies 2

0.65

, the two curves can be superposed completely.

4.3 The characteristics of amplitude

Figure 3a and b show u versus t for two values of y. The

image shows that the velocity increases from zero and drops

down after it reaches the peak value. The ow transits from

unequal amplitudes oscillation to equal amplitudes oscilla-

tion with increasing time. When y is small, the rst peak

value is always lower than the one of the equal amplitudes

oscillation at the same place; as y increases, the peak value

becomes higher than the one of equal-amplitude oscillations.

There is a critical distance y

c

from the plate, where the rst

peak value equals to the one of equal-amplitude oscillations.

It is analogous to the Newtonian uid case in [12].

Figure 3c shows u versus t for =0.7, =10, =0.7,

y = 1. Compare Fig. 3a with Fig. 3c, we can see that the

amplitude decreases for increasing frequency at the xed

point.

4.4 The time to start-up

The curves plotted in Fig. 4 show u versus t for y = 1,

= 10, = 7 for various values of .

The computing results show that at the xed point, the

uid begins to oscillate at different times when changes.

For small times, the velocity is almost zero. The time when

the uid begins to oscillate will be smaller if increases. The

reason is that the wave will diffuse at the speed of c =

_

E

in

pure elastic uid, where E is the modulus of elasticity. But

an arbitrary point in the uid eld keeps up with the plate

123

580 K. Hu, K. Zhu

Fig. 3 u versus t . a = 0.7,

= 10, = 7, y = 1;

b = 0.7, = 10, = 7,

y = 1.45; c = 0.7, = 10,

= 0.7, y = 1

Fig. 4 u versus t for y = 1, = 10, = 7

at once for Newtonian uid. The wave speed of Newtonian

uid can be seen as . The uid will be close to Newtonian

uid as increases. So the wave speed will be greater and

the point in the uid eld will begin to oscillate earlier.

4.5 When t

As the time becomes innite, the systemreaches stable oscil-

lations. As the series in Eq. (19) become divergent, we use

Fourier transform instead. The governing equation and its

boundary conditions read

u

t

=

1

1

t

1

_

2

u

y

2

_

, (23)

u(0, t ) = exp(it ), (24)

u(, t ) = 0. (25)

We dene the Fourier transform of the velocity [13]

u(y, s) = F{u(y, t ), v} =

+

_

e

ivt

u(y, t )dt. (26)

So we can obtain

2

u

y

2

=

1

(iv)

2

u, (27)

u(0, v) =

+

_

e

it

e

ivt

dt = 2( v), (28)

where (x) is Dirac function [14].

Solving the above equations yields

u(y, v) = 2( v) exp

_

y

1

2

(iv)

2

2

_

. (29)

Applying the inverse Fourier transform, we get

u(y, t ) = exp

_

y

1

2

(iv)

2

2

_

exp(it ). (30)

123

The exact solution of Stokes second problem including start-up process with fractional element 581

Fig. 5 u versus t . a = 0.7,

= 10, = 7, y = 1;

b = 0.7, = 10, = 7,

y = 1.45

We choose the real part of the velocity

u(y, t ) = exp

_

y

1

2

2

2

cos

(2 )

4

_

cos

_

t y

1

2

2

2

sin

(2 )

4

_

.

(31)

When = 1, the uid can be simplied as Newtonian

uid. The exact solution of Stokes second problem is [15]

u(y, t ) = exp

_

y

_

2

_

cos

_

wt y

_

2

_

. (32)

It is the same as Eq. (31) when = 1.

Equation (31) shows that the velocity proles has the form

of a damped harmonic oscillation in y direction. Let

P = exp

_

y

1

2

2

2

cos

(2 )

4

_

,

k =

1

2

2

2

sin

(2 )

4

.

(33)

An arbitrary point in the uid eld oscillates with angular

frequency and amplitude P. The amplitude decreases for

increasing frequency and increasing distance. We can dene

the depth of penetration of the viscous wave as [5]

=

2

k

=

2

1

2

2

2

sin

(2)

4

. (34)

Figures 5a and b show u versus t for stable oscillation

under the same condition of Fig. 3a,b, respectively.

The amplitude P varies with . The derivative of P() is

dP

d

=

_

Py

1

2

_

()

2

cos

_

(2 )

4

_

4

tan

_

(2 )

4

_

1

2

ln()

_

, 0 1.

(35)

The critical number

cr

which makes

dP

d

= 0 can be

deduced from the above. When = 10, = 7, the criti-

cal number is

cr

= 0.451. The amplitude P is monotone

increasing with if > 0.451 (see Fig. 6).

Fig. 6 u versus t for = 10, = 7, y = 1

5 Conclusions

In this paper, we study Stokes second problem including

start-up process with fractional element. Exact solutions are

obtained by using Laplace transform and Fourier transform.

On the basis of the solutions, we discuss the characteristic of

the velocity eld through the comparison between fractional

element and the classical Newtonian uid.

The following conclusions can be extracted from the

results: (1) The velocity proles for varying times are simi-

lar if the periodicities of them are the same. (2) The velocity

of arbitrary point in the uid eld increases from zero and

drops down after it reaches the peak value. The amplitude of

the oscillation transits from unequal to equal with increasing

time. When the distance fromthe plate is small, the rst peak

value is always lower than the one of equal-amplitude oscil-

lations at the same place; as the distance increases, the peak

value becomes higher than the one of equal-amplitude oscil-

lations. There is a critical distance from the plate, where the

rst peak equals to the one of equal-amplitude oscillations.

(3) The amplitude decreases for increasing frequency at the

xed point. (4) When increases, the uid will be close to

Newtonian uid, the wave speed will increase and the uid

123

582 K. Hu, K. Zhu

will begin to oscillate earlier at the xed point. (5) When the

oscillation approaches steady-state, the velocity prole has

the formof a damped harmonic oscillation in y direction. The

amplitude decreases for increasing frequency and increasing

distance.

Recently, the research has shown that fractional element is

useful for describing the properties of viscoelastic uids. We

hope the results presented in this paper will be of importance

to the research in this area and its applications.

References

1. Wang, C.Y.: Exact solutions of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equa-

tions. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 23, 159177 (1991)

2. Hilfer, R.: Applications of Fractional Calculus in Physics. World

Scientic Press, Singapore (2000)

3. Heymans, N., Bauwens, J.C.: Fractal rheological models and

fractional differential equations for viscoelastic behavior. Rheol

Acta 33, 210219 (1994)

4. Zhu, K.Q., Hu, K.X., Yang, D.: Analysis of fractional element

of viscoelastic uids using Heaviside operational calculus. In:

Zhuang, F.G., Li, J.C. (eds.) New Trends in Fluid Mechan-

ics Research, pp. 506509. Tsinghua University Press/Springer,

Beijing (2007)

5. Schilichting, H.: Boundary Layer Theory, 6th edn. McGraw-Hill,

New York (1968)

6. Park, J.H., Bahukudumbi, P., Beskoka, A.: Rarefaction effects on

shear driven oscillatory gas ows: a direct simulation Monte Carlo

study in the entire Knudsen regime. Phys. Fluids 16(2), 317330

(2004)

7. Ai, L., Vafai, K.: An investigation of Stokes second prob-

lem for non-Newtonian uids. Numer. Heat Transf. Part A 47,

955980 (2005)

8. Deka, R.K., Das, U.N., Soundalgekar, V.M.: The transient for

MHD Stokes oscillating plate: an exact solution. J. Fluids

Eng. 123(3), 705706 (2001)

9. Yakhot, V., Colosqui, C.: Stokes second owproblemin a high fre-

quency limit: application to nanomechanicalresonators. J. Fluid

Mech. 586, 249258 (2007)

10. Panton, R.: The transient for Stoke oscillating plate: a solution in

terms of tabulated functions. J. Fluid Mech. 31, 819825 (1968)

11. Tan, W.C., Xu, M.Y.: Plane surface suddenly set in motion in a

viscoelastic uid with fractional Maxwell model. Acta Mech. Sin.

18(3), 342349 (2002)

12. Zhu, K.Q., Wang, K.: Exact solution of Stokess second prob-

lem including start-up process by using operational calculus.

J. Tsinghua University Sci. Technol. 44(2), 244247 (2004)

(in Chinese)

13. Hayat, T., Nadeem, S., Asghar, S.: Periodic unidirectional ows of

a viscoelastic uid with the fractional Maxwell model. Appl. Math.

Comput. 151, 153161 (2004)

14. Courant, R., Hilbert, D.: Methods of Mathematics Physics, vol. II.

Wiley, New York (1962)

15. White, F.M.: Viscous Fluid Flow. McGraw-Hill, New York (1974)

123

- Tugas 2 Peristiwa PerpindahanUploaded byRizqi Pandu Sudarmawan
- 97-ScissorJackUploaded byChaitanya Mehta
- 01 Kern's Method.Uploaded bytekkim12
- Chapter on Base Isolation in EuroCode 8 SummarizedUploaded byBayram Aygun
- Introduction to PolymersUploaded byrlaalsrms
- Docslide.us Earthquake Response of Elastic Sdf Systems With Non Linear Fluid Viscous DampersUploaded byFernando Collantes
- Copy of 56913304 Pipe Systems DesignUploaded byAvinash Vasudeo
- SEISMIC IsolationUploaded byjcunha4740
- Two Reaction Theory of Synchronous Machines IIUploaded byyourou1000
- Vibrations_eoliennes_intro.pdfUploaded bymacjosmanuel5453
- Viscosidad HFO 380Uploaded byadibella77
- Modelling the Environmental Degradation of Adhesively Bonded Aluminium and Composite Joints UsingUploaded bymehrdad_5233
- Multi-physics and non-linear modeling using COMSOLUploaded byvenkatep
- 21-SeismicResponseStructuresUploaded byJoaquínValenzuelaBarbosa
- 2010D26Uploaded byhtopaven4340
- Roll Lab ReportUploaded byHarry Way
- Viscosity and Color Change During in Situ Solidification of Grape Pekmez[1]Uploaded byBianca Alina
- Fluid 01Uploaded byNeil Carrasco
- 165_196Uploaded byMakaraSoy
- Preview HydrUploaded byAhmed Monir
- Fluids and Lubricants danfoseUploaded byHaitham Youssef
- Creep FatigueUploaded byAnanda Ganesh Madheswaran
- MECH215-Week02Lecture3-MeasurementSystemBehavior-partII.pdfUploaded byBima Richardo Sihombing
- xintrUploaded byPablo Andres
- Viscosity-T.pdfUploaded byMusa Olawale
- Tertiary Polymer FloodingUploaded byMaria Indira
- Aspects of the diffusion of copper in solutions encountered during solvent extraction with hydroxyoximes—II. Organic phases hughes1979.pdfUploaded byKayra Tnydn
- Abssasasstract.docxUploaded byMohit Bansal
- Es06-ModalAnalysisUploaded byAbdul Aziz
- Capillary Presentation (1)Uploaded byashtigosine

- 201510301033567449Uploaded bybayu190284
- KR213_R600_DB_EN(1)Uploaded byRoberto Gustavo Manitio Arteaga
- Beam DesignUploaded byjoshua4life
- preaseason maitenance tromboneUploaded byapi-425394984
- Samsung Q105 for T-MobileUploaded byWirefly
- SMGR Corporate Presentation Adicipta Mediatama 2013Uploaded byrezkinugroho
- Business MathUploaded byJanrey Oriña Navalta
- Application of mass spectrometry technologies for the discovery of low-molecular weight modulators of enzymes and protein–protein interactionsUploaded byChytoudis Harrys
- 5 ECDISUploaded byferkm
- HCl Spec1Uploaded bycryovikas1975
- IEEE C57-13 (Instrument Transformers)Uploaded byVICTOR JOSE VILORIA
- Technical Specification of AAACUploaded byALOK BEHERA
- tach1Uploaded byArif Nurahman
- 102354Uploaded byMichal
- Programming the NX PanelUploaded bydjbrooksy05
- Sliding mode Multimodel control StabilizationUploaded byAhmed Rhif
- Tutor Neurological Examination (Pocket Tutor), 2e (Nov 30, 2017)_(1909836702)_(Jp Medical Pub)Uploaded bytaher
- Rasasala vs GMP ( Dept. Presentation)Uploaded bySanand Ratnam Thekkayil
- Reduced Complete AIS for Metro Plan Amendment and Zone ChangeUploaded bySinclair Broadcast Group - Eugene
- Discovery | Skinner Auction 2742TUploaded bySkinnerAuctions
- 85S Parts CatalogUploaded byKeith McCann
- kWiet Genset BrochureUploaded byanon-90168
- TrialBal LSUploaded byAdesh Chaudhary
- Omaree Autopsy ReportUploaded byKOB4
- Anvils Horn 1405Uploaded byoiii88
- Scaling on RO and AntiscalantsUploaded byblumunchie
- B2 M03 2012.09.19 Electrical FundamentalsUploaded byPilot Tech 918
- Booklet 3 - Lighting for Safety on Roads, Paths SquaresUploaded byÁrthur Lima
- Chapter - 4. Marine StructureUploaded bymanikcivil2008
- Design and Development of Vertical Material Handling Lift for Reduce Cycle Time and Cost OptimizationUploaded byIRJET Journal