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PRACTICAL GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION
THOMAS WOOD, A.M., LL.B. THE BRADDOCK (PENNSYLVANIA) HIGH SCHOOL
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY NEW YORK CHICAGO
This book was begun as a result of the author's experience in teaching some classes in English in the night preparatory department of the Carnegie Technical Schools of Pittsburg. The pupils in those classes were all adults, and needed only such a course as would enable them to express themselves in clear and correct English. English Grammar, with them, was not to be preliminary to the grammar of another language, and composition was not to be studied beyond the everyday needs of the practical man. Great difficulty was experienced because of inability to secure a text that was suited to the needs of the class. A book was needed that would be simple, direct and dignified; that would cover grammar, and the essential principles of sentence structure, choice of words, and general composition; that would deal particularly with the sources of frequent error, and would omit the non-essential points; and, finally that would contain an abundance of exercises and practical work. It is with these ends in view that this book has been prepared. The parts devoted to grammar have followed a plan varying widely from that of most grammars, and an effort has been made to secure a more sensible and effective treatment. The parts devoted to composition contain brief expositions of only the essential principles of ordinary composition. Especial stress has been laid upon letter-writing, since this is believed to be one of the most practical fields for actual composition work. Because such a style seemed best suited to the general scheme and purpose of the book, the method of treatment has at times been intentionally rather formal. Abundant and varied exercises have been incorporated at frequent intervals throughout the text. So far Page viwas as practicable the exercises have been kept constructive in their nature, and upon critical points have been made very extensive. The author claims little credit except for the plan of the book and for the labor that he has expended in developing the details of that plan and in devising the various exercises. In the statement of principles and in the working out of details great originality would have been as undesirable as it was impossible. Therefore, for these details the author has drawn from the great common stores of learning upon the subjects discussed. No doubt many traces of the books that he has used in study and in teaching may be found in this volume. He has, at times, consciously adapted matter from other texts; but, for the most part, such slight borrowings as may be discovered have been made wholly unconsciously. Among the books to which he is aware of heavy literary obligations are the following excellent texts: Lockwood and Emerson's Composition and Rhetoric, Sherwin Cody's Errors in Composition, A. H. Espenshade's Composition and Rhetoric, Edwin C. Woolley's Handbook of Composition, McLean, Blaisdell and Morrow's Steps in English, Huber Gray Buehler's Practical Exercises in English, and Carl C. Marshall's Business English. To Messrs. Ginn and Company, publishers of Lockwood and Emerson's Composition and Rhetoric, and to the Goodyear-Marshall Publishing Company, publishers of Marshall's Business English, the author is indebted for their kind permission to make a rather free adaptation of certain parts of their texts. Not a little gratitude does the author owe to those of his friends who have encouraged and aided him in the preparation of his manuscript, and to the careful criticisms and suggestions made by those persons who examined the completed manuscript in behalf of his publishers. Above all, a great debt of gratitude is owed to Mr. GrantPage vii Norris, Superintendent of Schools, Braddock, Pennsylvania, for the encouragement and painstaking aid he has given both in preparation of the manuscript and in reading the proof of the book. T.W. Braddock, Pennsylvania.
— Verbs Principal Parts Name-form Past Tense Past Participle Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Active and Passive Voice Mode Forms of the Subjunctive Use of Indicative and Subjunctive Agreement of Verb with its Subject Rules Governing Agreement of the Verb Miscellaneous Cautions Use of Shall and Will Use of Should and Would Use of May and Might.— Pronouns Agreement with Antecedents Person Gender Rules Governing Gender Number Compound Antecedents Relative Interrogative Case Forms Rules Governing Use of Cases Compound Personal Compound Relative Adjective Miscellaneous Cautions IV.CONTENTS CHAPTER Page ix I. Relative Adverbs.— Sentences—Parts of Speech—Elements of Sentence—Phrases and Clauses II.— Nouns Common and Proper Inflection Defined Number The Formation of Plurals Compound Nouns Case The Formation of the Possessive Case Gender III.— Adjectives and Adverbs Comparison Confusion of Adjectives and Adverbs Improper Forms of Adjectives Errors in Comparison Singular and Plural Adjectives Placing of Adverbs and Adjectives Double Negatives The Articles V. Conjunctions. Can and Could Participles and Gerunds Misuses of Participles and Gerunds Infinitives Sequence of Infinitive Tenses Split Infinitives Agreement of Verb in Clauses Omission of Verb or Parts of Verb Model Conjugations Page x To Be To See VI.— Connectives: Relative Pronouns. and Prepositions .
— Words—Spelling—Pronunciation Words Good Use Offenses Against Good Use Solecisms Barbarisms Improprieties Idioms Choice of Words How to Improve One's Vocabulary Spelling Pronunciation Glossary of Miscellaneous Errors Page xi Page xii .— Capitalization and Punctuation Rules for Capitalization Rules for Punctuation IX.— Sentences Loose Periodic Balanced Sentence Length The Essential Qualities of a Sentence Unity Coherence Emphasis Euphony VIII.— The Paragraph Length Paragraphing of Speech Indentation of the Paragraph Essential Qualities of the Paragraph Unity Coherence Emphasis X.— Letter-Writing Heading Inside Address Salutation Body of the Letter Close Miscellaneous Directions Outside Address Correctly Written Letters Notes in the Third Person XI.Independent and Dependent Clauses Case and Number of Relative and Interrogative Pronouns Conjunctive or Relative Adverbs Conjunctions Placing of Correlatives Prepositions Questions for the Review of Grammar A General Exercise on Grammar VII.— The Whole Composition Statement of Subject The Outline The Beginning Essential Qualities of the Whole Composition Unity Coherence The Ending Illustrative Examples Lincoln's Gettysburgx Speech Selection from Cranford List of Books for Reading XII.
PRACTICAL GRAMMAR AND COMPOSITION Page 1 .
a declarative. often. In this sentence. justice. there is a modified subject and a modified predicate. as. as. Harry. In thinking we arrange and associate ideas and objects together. if. such as terror. many. This is called a Compound Subject. as. 8.CHAPTER I SENTENCES. a sentence that asks a question. as. and serves as a device to alter its natural order. by. may consist of the subject alone. man is the subject. see. or. 7. A Compound Predicate consists of more than one predicate used with the same . an. The man and the woman walk. The good man walks very rapidly. man. 2. Adjective. Page 2 Nouns. but are usually called Articles. 2. clauses. 6. Bring me that book. Interjection. Conjunction. more than one subject connected with the same predicate. slowly. 3. a word used to join a substantive. There may be. They are adjectives. Sentences are of four kinds: 1. as. or another adverb. there is a simple subject and a simple predicate. between. Verb. That book is mine. Thus. Exclamatory. a word used to modify the meaning of a verb. that is. a word used instead of a noun. Pittsburgh. a sentence that expresses a command. and. as. Noun. beyond. make. he. or of the subject with its modifiers. In the following sentence there is an expletive: There are no such books in print. The Predicate is the part which states that which is said about the subject.—ELEMENTS OF THE SENTENCE. A sentence is made up of distinct parts or elements. Interrogative. In the sentence. and walks is the predicate. think. it. Can that book be mine? 3. as. 5. a sentence that tells or declares something. Preposition. Page 3 The subject may be simple or modified. I. very. imperative. in. although. to some other preceding word. Such a word is called an Expletive.—PHRASES AND CLAUSES 1. or groups of words that are used as nouns or pronouns. Substantives. Imperative. or anger. as.—PARTS OF SPEECH. also. 2. The parts of speech are as follows: 1. do. five. Man walks. Man walks. 3. a word used as the name of something. as. tall. Parts of Speech. box. The words a. 4. but. a word used to express surprise or emotion. as a modifier. words are divided into classes called Parts of Speech. Declarative. Words have different uses in sentences. good. are called by the general term. clearly. pronouns. and to show the relation of the substantive to that word. in the sentence. as. as. silence. and the are words used to modify nouns or pronouns. Pronoun. Is that book mine? 4. 4. but helps to fill out its form or sound. Adverb. as. The Subject of a sentence is the part which mentions that about which something is said. Oh! Alas! Hurrah! Bah! Sometimes a word adds nothing to the meaning of the sentence. a word used to connect words. According to their uses. as. phrases. a word used to limit or qualify the meaning of a noun or a pronoun. The essential or Principal Elements are the Subject and the Predicate. A Sentence is a group of words that expresses a single complete thought. You shall take that book! or. an adjective. The same is true of the predicate. surprise. and sentences. or interrogative sentence that expresses violent emotion. a word used to state something about some person or thing. that. Words are the symbols of ideas or objects.
8. The man was tall ." or complete the meanings of verbs are called Complements. consists of a preposition with its object and the modifiers of the object. In the sentence. The attribute complement usually follows the verb be or its forms. and a predicate. It must not be confused with an adverb or an adverbial modifier. as adverbs. Some verbs. well . The clause. Complex. A Verb-phrase is a phrase that serves as a verb. Smith of this place is the manager of the mill. there are Subordinate Elements. This clause. 7. because such verb joins the subject to its attribute. The verb used with an attribute complement. was. I carry a book. need to be followed by some other word or group of words. I am well. book. Examine the following examples: Adjective Clause: The book that I want is a history. as. Sentences. as. Compound. although it may be a phrase or clause fulfilling the function of any of these parts of speech. by stating some class. There are also Verb-phrases. Page 4 Some verbs require an object to complete their meaning. a sentence consisting of two or more clauses of equal importance connected by conjunctions expressed or understood. so. be able to give the reason for everything you do and for every conclusion you reach. The man is good Student. Only intelligent and reasoning work is worth while. not an attribute complement. In the following list of sentences: . as. and Watch the little things. the one making the most important assertion. In the sentence. Adverbial Clause: He came when he had finished with the work. He is there. These are the Attribute Complement. I. a sentence consisting of one principal clause and one or more subordinate clauses. to complete their sense. Clauses may be used as adjectives. saw. These words which "complement. The Principal Clause. The man that I saw was tall . as. as.subject. is. 5. The man both walks and runs. as. as to their composition. Noun Clause as object: He said that I was mistaken. a sentence consisting of a single statement. the Adjective Modifier. and good complete the meanings of their respective verbs. and the Adverbial Modifier. or of phrases and clauses used as adjectives or adverbs. or adjective. A Phrase is a group of words that is used as a single part of speech and that does not contain a subject and a predicate. etc. the Object Complement. A Clause is a group of words containing a subject and a predicate. Adjective and Adverbial Modifiers may consist simply of adjectives and adverbs. A clause used as a noun is called a Substantive Clause. He lives in Pittsburg. always used as either an adjective or an adverbial modifier. EXERCISE 1 Page 5 In this and in all following exercises. as. The man walks. is called the Subordinate Clause. These verbs that require objects to complete their meaning are called Transitive Verbs. He ought to have been told. is. contains both a subject. My friend is a student. He shall be told. condition. Mr. is called the Copula ("to couple") or Copulative Verb. pronoun. they are important. there is an adverb. The attribute complement is usually a noun. will be. or attribute of the subject. and as nouns. Besides the principal elements in a sentence. that I saw. is required to complete the meaning of the transitive verb carry. the objects horse and desk are necessary to complete the meanings of their respective verbs. Noun Clause as subject: That I am here is true. or attribute of the subjects of the verbs. 6. the object. as. are classified as follows: Simple. This object is called the Object Complement. The Attribute Complement completes the meaning of the verb by stating some class. The man is tall and walks rapidly. I am coming. The letter is in the nearest desk. The man that I saw is tall . are. A Prepositional Phrase. I hold the horse. since it merely states something of minor importance in the sentence. also in the sentences. condition. and I touch a desk.
The path of glory leads but to the grave. (4) Write five sentences. I am nearly ready.(1) Determine the part of speech of every word. in each using some form of the verb to be. 21. stone. 25. 9. and men may go. (5) Determine the principal and the subordinate clauses. each containing an attribute complement. 11. followed by an adverbial modifier. complex. 17. By a great effort he managed to make headway against the current. 22. and shall soon join you. He works hard. determine whether it is used as an adjective or as an adverb. She is still no better. There are few men who do not try to be honest. 8. but all believed it to have been him. but I go on forever. or compound. We gladly accepted the offer which he made. 2. Men may come. adjectives. determine whether they are used as nouns. 14. Full often wished he that the wind might rage. 12. and rests little. and are constructed in various styles. Alas! I can travel no more. Use adjectives. If it is a prepositional phrase. That we are never too old to learn is a true saying. 10. Beyond this. The study of history is a study that demands a well-trained memory. (3) Pick out every attribute complement and every object complement. and the modified subject and the modified predicate. nouns. It is I whom you see. (2) Write eight sentences. EXERCISE 2 (1) Write a list of six examples of every part of speech. (6) Classify every sentence as simple. (4) Pick out every phrase and determine whether it is a prepositional phrase or a verb-phrase. (3) Write eight sentences. and pronouns. In city and in country people think very differently. I think that I saw a brother of his in that place. 3. that is the question. Houses are built of wood. 16. I have nothing to say. 13. To live an honest life should be the aim of every one. 4. and other materials. It was I who told him to go. 15. If they are subordinate clauses. or adverbs. 7. 23. 1. but we hope that there will be a change. To be or not to be. 18. Lucky is he who has been educated to bear his fate. 20. 6. Let each speak for himself. A lamp that smokes is a torture to one who wants to study. Who it really was no one knew. Page 6 . (2) Determine the unmodified subject and the unmodified predicate. 24. brick. Beyond the city limits the trains run more rapidly than they do here. 5. each containing an object complement. In truth. 19.
leaf. Abbreviations of titles are little used in the plural. scarf. 2. men. as. 6's. tooth. Some nouns used in two senses have two plural forms. 10. thief. valleys. calf. u) add s. calico. sties. the two Mrs. The noun is inflected to show number. shelf. the Miss Browns. the Misses Brown. wolf. a place. series. that's. Most nouns ending in f or fe add s. wish. e. oxen. or of some abstract quality. as. y is changed to i and es is added. etc. Nouns ending in y preceded by a vowel (a. 6. A number of nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant add es. as. Compound Nouns are those formed by the union of two words. Number is that quality of a word which shows whether it refers to one or to more than one. Some nouns are the same in both the singular and the plural. It may be the name of a person. as. tomato. lice. figures. The following common words always form their plurals in an irregular way. self. as. or thing. torpedo. etc. add the apostrophe and s ('s). (soliloquy. safes. Common and Proper Nouns. Plural Number refers to more than one. armies.. child. as. coaches. women. gross. goose. 8 wife. 3. knight-templar. case. Letters. The most important are the following: brother cloth die brothers (by blood) cloths (kinds of cloth) dies (for coinage) brethren (by association) clothes (garments) dice (for games) . mothers-in-law. Jews. knights-errant. men-servants. half. justice or truth. knights-templars. Singular Number refers to one. Rome. wives. boys. 12. feet. people. 11. foot. Page 4. In forming the plurals of proper names where a title is used. A Proper Noun is a noun that names some particular or special place. both parts take a plural form. i. and Drs. as. loaf. as. tornado. John. valley. Browns. Inflection Defined. motto. geese. as. boy. as. volcano. Proper names and titles generally form plurals in the same way as do other nouns. add es to the singular. Senators Webster and Clay. pony. or x. echo. soliloquies and colloquy. ch. as. as. c's. children. safe. as. (Dr. A proper noun should always begin with a capital letter. deer. o. mouse. is called Inflection. A noun has been defined as a word used as the name of something. means. wharf. glass. Nouns ending in s. When y is preceded by a consonant (any letter other than a vowel). stove. whether it precedes or follows the descriptive part.). the three Henrys. A few change f or fe to v and add es. veto. a thing. 8. In a few compound words. ox. colloquies are exceptions). mulatto.) 5. life. negro. (Mr. 11. flamingo. sty.). selves. teeth. English. Though there is some inflection in English. Most nouns ending in o add s. The principal noun of a compound noun. army. 10. as. stoves.CHAPTER II NOUNS Page 7 9. staff. sheaf. 7. as. man. cargo. A Common Noun is a general or class name. embargo. woman. ponies. 12. mice. hero. volcanoes. mouse-traps. The most important of the latter class are: buffalo. is in most cases the noun that changes in forming the plural. man-servant. glasses. such as. person. Plurals of singular nouns are formed according to the following rules: 1. Most nouns add s to the singular. wishes. elf. The variation in the forms of the different parts of speech to show grammatical relation. grammatical relation is usually shown by position rather than by inflection. as. Miss Brown. except Messrs. The others are: beef. either the title or the name may be put in the plural form. t's. and gender. scarfs. louse. 13. 9. sh. either two nouns or a noun joined to some descriptive word or phrase. Sometimes both are made plural. characters. cameo. (Wharf has also a plural. fox. coach. foxes. potato. cameos. wharfs.
vertebra. feet. hypothesis. the form used as the object of a verb or a preposition. consult an unabridged dictionary. belief. or a group of words treated as one name. for appearance' sake. media. majority. appendices. joy. 4. pea. In stating possession in the plural. knight-templar. as. persons. head. thanks. genus. mathematics. Odd Fellows' wives are invited. pride. crisis. rope-ladder. minima. crises. chief. pupil.fish genius head index pea penny sail shot fishes (separately) geniuses (men of genius) heads (of the body) indexes (of books) peas (separately) pennies (separately) sails (pieces of canvas) shots (number of discharges) fish (collectively) genii (imaginary beings) head (of cattle) indices (in algebra) pease (collectively) pence (collectively) sail (number of vessels) shot (number of balls) Page 9 13. ellipsis. country-man. persons'. is used to denote possession. go-between. the substitution of a prepositional phrase should be made. brethren. The Nominative Case. as. automata. It is better to say the . 3. as. 7. hypotheses. vortex. Mary. the sign of the possessive is added to the last word only. Charles's book. memento. of every plural noun. son-in-law. 4. the lawyer's. phenomena. hanger-on. theses. Frances's dress. fungi. automaton. then one should say: Carpenters' tools sharpened here. oxen. 15. knight-errant. the mistress's dress. writers. wolves. vortices. goods. ratios. no further discussion of these cases is here needed. cupful. 5. puppy. the form used in address and as the subject of a verb. oasis. ellipses. hero. Charles's partner's mother's house. nouns representing inanimate objects should not be used in the possessive case. negro. The sign of the possessive should be used with the word immediately preceding the word naming the thing possessed. Page 10 Since no error in grammar can arise in the use of the nominative or the objective cases of nouns. fungus. It is always the same in form as is the nominative. Anderson. The Objective Case. scissors. Charles and John's mother (the mother of both Charles and John). Some singular nouns ending in an s sound form the possessive by adding the apostrophe alone. strata. men's. Most nouns form the possessive by adding the apostrophe and s ('s). as. attorney-general. formulœ. But usage inclines to the adding of the apostrophe and s ('s) even if the singular noun does end in an s sound. John's. veto. etc. as. knives. the house of the mother of Charles's partner. as. grandmother. data. men. for goodness' sake. writers'. half. survey. datum. News. alumni. president. There are three cases in English: the Nominative. studio. EXERCISE 3 Write the plural. 6. focus. charity. instead of. and the singular. Where the succession of possessives is unpleasant or confusing. In the forming of this case we have inflection. Nouns from foreign languages frequently retain in the plural the form that they have in the language from which they are taken. termini. proceeds. Smith. alumni. the Possessive. axis. Generally. attorney. if any. money. why. lily. sheep. geese. 2. Note those having no singular and those having no plural . analysis. Plural nouns ending in s form the possessive by adding only the apostrophe ('). as. When in doubt respecting the form of any of the above. oases. Brown and Smith's store (the store of the firm Brown & Smith). pupil's. vortex. 14. axes. man. of every singular noun in the following list. strata. x. man-servant. major-general. if any. analyses. office. alumnus. arch. Father and mother's house. man's. genera. piano. vertebrœ. the form used to show ownership. Mr. as. The Senator from Utah's seat. phenomenon. Miss Smith. appendix. When a compound noun. medium. John. and the Objective. foci. formula. Case. terminus. spoonful. sailor-boy. thesis. The following are the rules for the forming of the possessive case: 1. minimum. The Possessive Case. stratum.
everybody else's. The credit of Jackson & Jones. 15. EXERCISE 4 Page 11 Write the possessives of the following: Oxen. This student's lessons. shoe. the lawyers. 15. My daughters coming. EXERCISE 5 Write sentences illustrating the use of the possessives you have formed for the first ten words under Exercise 4. Wine is made from the grape's juice. The Democrat's and Republican Convention. EXERCISE 7 Correct such of the following expressions as need correction. men. The poems of Robert Burns. 2. Gender. Note. not somebody's else. The lives of our friends. and in such cases the sign of the possessive should be added to the last word. The signature of the president of the firm. 8. If apostrophes are omitted. 3. John's wife's cousin. say. 4. 7. The dog of both John and William. The dog of John and the dog of William. boy. 9. etc. The moons' face was hidden. Morton. attorneys-at-law. The wives of Henry the Eighth. I shall buy a hat at Wanamaker's & Brown's. 16. insert them in the proper places: 1. 11. The home of Mary and Martha. Mayor of Cleveland. 7. The farm of my mother and of my father. 6. 17. 3. 14. 13. 13. The garden of his mother and sister. The act of anybody else. They sell boy's hats and mens' coats. 14. John the student. no one else's. The shortcomings of Alice. 10. man-servant. 10. 8. boys. Page 12 16. 12. 2. EXERCISE 6 Change the following expressions from the prepositional phrase form to the possessive: 1. Five years imprisonment under Texas's law. France's and England's interests differ widely. 5. Maine. ox. Those nouns or pronouns meaning males are in the Masculine Gender. 4. men-servants. goose.—One should say somebody else's. The coming of my grandfather. dogs. My son's wife's aunt. Both John and William's books were lost. 12. He walked to the precipices edge. 9. Gender in grammar is the quality of nouns or pronouns that denotes the sex of the person or thing represented. my friend John.hands of the clock than the clock's hands. John's books and Williams. Miss Jones. man. 5. The expression somebody else always occurs in the one form. 11. The novels of Dickens and the novels of Scott. office. The recommendation of Superintendent Norris. Jones & Smith. Similarly. signature. brother-in-law. Those meaning females are in . coat. The ships of Germany and France. 6. the principals. My friends' umbrella was stolen. These students books. Jackson & Jones. 18. 16.
The only regular inflection is the addition of the syllable-ess to certain masculine nouns to denote the change to the feminine gender. . administratrix.the Feminine Gender. and the noun of masculine gender used to designate both sexes. as. poetess. as. The feminine forms were formerly much used. -Ix is also sometimes added for the same purpose. authoress. author. poet. In nouns gender is of little consequence. Those referring to things without sex are in the Neuter Gender. administrator. but their use is now being discontinued.
referred to by she. as. mine. Singular nouns denoting persons of both sexes are masculine. she. since all plurals of whatever gender are referred to by they. These rules apply to the singular number only. Study carefully the following rules in regard to gender. Masculine: he. they are: I. Winter. Few errors are made in the use of the proper person of the pronoun. gender. feminine. when spoken of as if they were persons. Pronouns should agree with their antecedents in person. referred to by it and its: 1. Gender of Pronouns. Gender of nouns is important only so far as it concerns the use of Page 14 pronouns. 2. my. The bird seeks its nest. sublimity. or size. theirs. Feminine: she. and number. their. Neuter: it. In this sentence book is the antecedent of the pronoun it. theirs. its. as. The wolf seeks his prey. which are now little used. they are: he. Pronouns of the Third Person indicate the person or thing spoken of. expressed or understood. hers. Personal Pronouns are those that by their form indicate the speaker. Nouns denoting objects remarkable for beauty. me. 2. they. John took Mary's book and gave it to his friend. according to the characteristics the writer fancies it to possess. or hers: 1. and him: 1. are feminine. gentleness. Every one brought his umbrella. us. referred to by he. the person spoken to. Nouns denoting males are always masculine. 20. An animal named may be regarded as masculine. as. as. him. Feminine. Collective nouns referring to a group of individuals as a unit are neuter. yours. are masculine. The following rules govern the gender of pronouns: Masculine. It is a pretty child. The committee makes its report. Pronoun and Antecedent. to which the pronoun refers. There are no . Nouns denoting females are always feminine. The following pronouns indicate sex or gender. A Pronoun is a word used instead of a noun. The wolf is the most savage of its race. The mouse nibbled her way into the box. There are also the grave or solemn forms in the second person. thy. we. 2. and John is the antecedent of his. The jury gives its verdict. etc. him. 3. and peace. his. these are: thou. or the person or thing spoken about. her. ours. his. The noun in whose stead it stands is called its Antecedent. they are: you. or neuter. as. his. Pronouns of the Second Person indicate the person or thing spoken to. 19. its. their. Pronouns of the First Person indicate the speaker. destroyed them all . They are then said to be of Common Gender. her. power. them. your. as. 3. Sleep healed him with her fostering care. it. our. Nouns denoting objects whose sex is disregarded are neuter. hers. Nouns denoting things remarkable for strength. Nouns denoting objects without sex are neuter. when those things are regarded as if they were persons. 18. and ye. In order to secure agreement in gender it is necessary to know the gender of the noun. thee. her.CHAPTER III PRONOUNS Page 13 17. Neuter. Certain nouns may be applied to persons of either sex. with his chilly army. thine.
The committee instructed —— chairman to report the matter. Neither John nor James brought their books. the parts of the word. See that there is agreement in person. as. they are misinformed. and them are plural. I have used both blue crayon and red crayon. The dog seemed to know —— master was dead. A more common source of error than disagreement in gender is disagreement in number. but are often improperly used when only singular pronouns should be used. Nowhere does each dare do as —— pleases (please). theirs. The cause of the error is failure to realize the true antecedent. every person bring his book. When a pronoun has two or more antecedents connected by and. 15. Page 16 . denote the singular. If John or Henry whisper (whispers) —— will be punished. he is misinformed. By masculine pronouns when there is nothing in the connection of the thought to show the sex of the object. as. 8. The panther sprang from —— lurking place. 10. My class-mate (known to be Harry) is taking his examinations. the pronoun must be in the singular number. 27. The crowd was so great that we could hardly get through ——. Each of the pupils of the Girls High School brought her book. Every animal has some weapon with which —— can defend ——self (selves). Every kind of animal has —— natural enemies. both any and body. By masculine pronouns when known to denote males. Many a man has (have) lost —— money in speculation. 22. should read. let —— hold up —— hand. 18. Similarly. The cat never fails to catch —— prey. This sentence is wrong.pronouns of common gender. the pronoun must be in the plural number. 22. their. The elephant placed —— great foot on the man's chest. as. 11. Nobody did —— duty more readily than I. 5. 3. 20. 2. 6. 7. and number: 1. 13. 24. Two or more antecedents connected by or or nor are frequently referred to by the plural when the singular should be used. Company H was greatly reduced in —— numbers. 4. 29.Page 15 Let as. EXERCISE 8 Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the proper pronouns. 12. 9. the pronoun must. Let any boy guess this riddle if —— can. but if one of the antecedents is plural. Has everybody finished —— work. John and James brought their books. gender. Two men were present. 28. be in the plural. 3. Let everybody keep his peace. Let everybody keep their peace. 23. Neither the lawyer nor the sheriff liked —— task. If John and Henry whisper (whispers) —— will be punished. I f anybody makes that statement. The sentence should read. Neither the Mormon nor his wives denied their religion. Both Columbus and Cabot failed to realize the importance of —— discoveries. 25. Neither John nor James brought his books. 2. 21. Death gathers —— unfailing harvest. but —— does (do) not write so clearly as white. but neither would tell what —— saw. 14. The canary longed to escape from —— cage. The child did not know —— mother. Anybody refers to only one person. Number of Pronouns. should read. also. 17. as. Truth always triumphs over —— enemies. 26. When a pronoun has two or more singular antecedents connected by or or nor. If any one wishes a longer time. Everyone has to prove —— right to a seat. Compound Antecedents. If anybody makes that statement. 19. hence those nouns are referred to as follows: 1. They. Further treatment of number will be given under verbs. The rat ran to —— hole. By feminine pronouns when known to denote females. Let every boy answer for —— self (selves). 21. The cat came each day for —— bit of meat. 16.
which will be mentioned later. When who and which are thus used as explanatory relatives. 42. 24. Relative Pronouns are pronouns used to introduce adjective or noun clauses that are not interrogative. and is the proper relative to use when the antecedent includes both persons and things. that I mentioned. 36. 51. 49. Consumption demands each year —— thousands of victims. 32. let —— bring it to me. But and as are sometimes relative pronouns. the restrictive relative clause is. death. 52. If the boys or their father come we shall be glad to see ——. as. Who and which are known as the Explanatory or Non-Restrictive Relatives. Each believed that —— had been elected a delegate to the Mother's Congress. Page 19see we that the relative clause may be omitted without making the sentence incomplete. the relative clause is. That may be used with antecedents denoting persons. The rock lay on —— side. 35. in the sentence. He is the man that did the act. 47. I do not know. defines what is meant by man. Despair seized him in —— powerful grasp. whom she means. Everyone should try to gather a host of friends about ——. walrus. sun. The fox dropped —— meat in the pool. Relative Pronouns. There are. and should be used ordinarily only to introduce relative clauses which add some new thought to the author's principal thought. Neither the captain nor the soldiers showed ——self (selves) during the fight. is the easiest to learn. is more nearly coördinate than subordinate in its value. Let each bring —— sewing. Let each girl in the class bring —— book. unless who or which is of more pleasing sound in the sentence. Similarly. and is a noun clause forming the object of the verb know. 26. fox. mercy. 55. earth. EXERCISE 9 Page 17 By what gender of the pronouns would you refer to the following nouns? Snake. 53. foreigner. Probably everybody is discouraged at least once in —— life. when used as a relative. Page 18 The relative pronouns are who (whose. 44. Harvard University. 45. also. whom). 46. 54. student. 43. seldom properly refers to persons. It adds an additional thought of the speaker explaining the character of the Spanish language. Spring set forth —— beauties. What. How does the mouse save —— self (selves) from being caught? The hen cackled —— loudest. That is known as the Restrictive Relative. Spanish. animals or things. Compare the following sentences: . In this sentence the principal thought is. Every man and every boy received —— dinner. Let each bring —— book. send —— to the Pierce Building. because it should be used whenever the relative clause limits the substantive. 50.30. John or James will favor us with —— company. is a thought. that and what. Some man or boy lost —— hat. 25. 33. Summer arrays ——self (selves) with flowers. the relative clause. that I want. artist. flower. In the sentence. whose and whom) should be used when the antecedent denotes persons. It always introduces a substantive clause. which. bear. 31. everybody. Germany? 23. and limits the application of book. the relative clause. If any one wishes to see me. though not fully so important as the principal thought. which is the least complex language. fate. compound relative pronouns. Let sleep enter with —— healing touch. baby. friend (known to be Mary). Let every man and every woman speak ——mind. The relative clause. Spanish is the easiest language to learn. 40. It is what (that which) he wants. 48. which is the least complex language. someone. which should be used. 39. When the antecedent denotes things or animals. is an adjective clause modifying man. friend (uncertain sex). 37. sorrow. In the sentence. care. 34. 41. Let each take —— own seat. Who (with its possessive and objective forms. Every man or boy gave —— offering. In the sentence. Nobody should deceive ——selves (self). moon. The book that I want is that red-backed history. that did the act. without the relative clause the sentence clearly would be incomplete. Whom she means. and is equivalent to that which. which. 38. The man that I mentioned has come. If any boy or any girl finds the book. child.
Restrictive relative clause: The book that is about history has a red cover. 22. 26. 14. The kindly physician —— was so greatly loved is dead. 34. Case Forms of Pronouns. There are few —— will vote for him. although Page 21 coming at the first of the sentence. Such —— I have is yours. Intelligence —— he had hitherto not manifested now showed its presence. An Interrogative Pronoun is a pronoun used to ask a question. —— thing is it —— you want? He purchased —— he wished. The case to be used is to be determined by the use which the pronoun. He is a man —— inspires little confidence. The man and horse —— you see pass here every afternoon. 27. 33. who was one of the world's greatest men. relative. Restrictive relative clause: The Lincoln that was killed by Booth was one of the world's greatest men. 32. for rule as to the punctuation of relative clauses. Was it you or the cat —— made that noise? It is the same song —— he always sings. 28. 27. Who is it —— is worthy of that honor? The carriages and the drivers —— you ordered yesterday have arrived. The horse was one —— I had never ridden before. Interrogative Pronouns. 18. In the use of pronouns comes the most important need for a knowledge of when to use the different cases. or things. That is a characteristic —— makes him seem almost rude. 9. 29. (See §111): 1. has a red cover. 31. 35. In the sentence. (Does which or that have the more pleasing sound here?) The pleasure —— education gives the man —— has it is a sufficient reward for the trouble —— it has cost. 30. Whom do you seek. 23. 4. That man —— wears a cap is a foreigner. and what. EXERCISE 10 Choose the proper relative or interrogative pronoun to be inserted in each of the following sentences. 11. 2. and interrogative pronouns have distinctive forms for the different cases. which is about history. which and what may be used with any antecedent. note that him is the object of the verb name. All the men and horses —— we had were lost. and the failure to use the proper case forms in the sentence is one of the most frequent sources of error. —— did they seek? They inquired —— he was going to do. There is no cloud —— has not its silver lining. The interrogative pronouns are. This is the man —— all are praising. Page 20 The best hotel is the one —— is nearest the station. He —— writes out his lesson does all —— can be expected. It is the same tool —— I used all day. 24. John —— is my coachman is sick. animals. Some personal. 7. 10. 8. It is neither the party nor its candidate —— gains support. Insert commas where they are needed. 19. who (whose. The intelligence —— he displayed was remarkable. 13. Explanatory relative clause: Lincoln.Explanatory relative clause: That book. 6. has in the sentence. Note. He maintains that the book —— you used is now ruined. Note the following different case forms of pronouns: . 15. not its antecedent. 36. 25. persons. 16. —— does he expect of us? It is just such a thing —— I need. 17. whom). who should be used only in reference to persons. was killed by Booth. I name him. The wagon and children —— you just saw came from our town. In the sentence. That is —— everyone said. 21. That is —— pleased me most and —— everyone talked about. 28. which. 3. In respect to antecedents.—See §111. 5. 20. Who was it —— lost the book? The man —— was a Frenchman was very much excited. 12. whom is grammatically the object of the verb seek. It is the same dog —— I bought.
The infinitives are the parts of the verb preceded by to. he. Let him (to) go. 2. nevertheless. mine. their. expressed or understood: as. When the noun or pronoun is the subject of a finite verb. it. our. mine. your. When it is an attribute complement of an expressed subject of the infinitive to be. I desire her to hope. since the only subject that is expressed in the sentence is I.—The attribute complement should always have the case of that subject of the verb which is expressed in the sentence. a verb other than an infinitive. them. They watch us. as in direct address or exclamation. they. See 3 under Objective Case. He spoke of me.) The Possessive Case should be used: When the word is used as a possessive modifier. Have her (to be) told about it. whom. it. you. as. thee. ours. thee. John. Thus. 3. Thus the following sentences are both correct: I delivered it to who owned it. EXERCISE 12 . him whom you see there. as. theirs. yours. When it is the object of a preposition. whose. He denied it to have been him. When it is an attribute complement. thou. is a word used in the predicate explaining or stating something about the subject. us. The Nominative Case should be used: 1. He told (to) me a story. and who are only proper where the nominative case should be used. him is properly in the objective case. The outline should be mastered. to. thee. as. its. They believed her to be me. It was given to John Smith. (See Note 2 below. When it is the subject of an infinitive. The people were they of whom we spoke. Note 2. me. I. It is their fault. you. he. thine. The book is his (book). him. we. The following outline explains the use of the different case forms of the pronouns. 29. theirs. Bring home whoever will come with you. I could not wish John to be him. his. Examples: It is I. But in the sentence. as. thy. as. whom. thou. as. are only proper when the objective case is demanded. she. Objective: me. The sign of the infinitive. and her. its. who. 2. except when her is possessive. they. Note 3. I told him to go. him. They spoke of her being present. When the noun or pronoun is the object of a verb.Nominative: I. The objective case is. in the nominative case. whom. 4. used. her. etc. It is only with these pronouns that mistakes are made in the use of the nominative and objective cases. it is said to be in Apposition with that other substantive and takes the case of that word. he is properly in the nominative case. it is always in the nominative case. 3. The man was he. EXERCISE 11 Write sentences illustrating the correct use of each of the following pronouns: I. to be. hers. we. The Objective Case should be used: 1. Note 1. him. in the sentence. them. we. he. For whom do you take me. as. is not Page 22 always expressed. our. He named me. while some forms are the same in both the nominative and objective cases. Possessive: my. her. us. She deceived them. ye. which is in the objective case. she.—When a substantive is placed by the side of another substantive and is used to explain it. them. as explained in Chapter I. Me. that is. thou. since there is an expressed subject of the infinitive. to go. us. she. ye. whose. It will be noted that. they. An attribute complement.—Where the relative pronoun who (whom) is the subject of a clause that itself is the object clause of a verb or a preposition. These forms must be remembered. who. I should hate to be he. When it is used without relation to any other part of speech. to see. to have been seen.
50. Everyone has failed in the examination except you and I me. It is unpleasant for such as they them to witness such things. It was either he him or she her that called. it could not have been me I. 40. who whom. 17. Between you and I me. The teacher told you and I me to stay. 29. 43. 41. The superintendent. 42. Mother knew it to be her she. It could not have been we us who whom you suspected. The teacher told you and she her to stay. Who whom did he say the man was? Who whom did he say the judge suspected? Who whom do you consider to be the brightest man? Who whom do you think is the brightest man? He cannot learn from such as thou thee. 58. 51. it is my opinion that him he and John will disagree. 61. All have gone but you and I me. 14. Between a teacher and he him who whom he teaches there is sometimes a strong fellowship. This is the student whom who all are praising. 46. must be discharged. 49. 32. 22. The teacher told you and him he to stay. 44. 10. they are honest. See if there is any mail for Mary and me I. 3. 47. 8. Father believed it was she her. 39. 2. She told John and me I to study. 4. 34. 59. 11. You suffer more than me I. He is a man who whom all admired. May James and I me go to the circus? Will you permit James and I me to go to the play? Who made that noise? Only I me. 18. It is in fact he him. 33. They sent letters to all who whom they thought would contribute. He asked you and I me to come to his office. I am taken to be he him. You are nearly as strong as him he. 56. I did not speak of either you or she her. What dost thou thee know? They do tell thee thou the truth. They can't play the game better than we us. They are more eager than we us since they have not seen her for a long time. 55. 26. He is one of those men who whom we call snobs. This money was given by John who whom you know is very stingy. 54. He promised to bring candy to Helen and I me. I did not see that it was her she. He still believes it to be them they. No. 52. 31. If they only rob such as thou thee. 9. 7. My brother and I me drove to the east end of the town. We saw John and she her. 13. is responsible for this error. 37. 12. 35. Our cousins and we us are going to the Art Gallery. Because of his him being young. 16. 38. Between you and I me things are doubtful. they tried to shield him. Neither you nor I me can teach the class. 19. There are many miles between England and we us. 53. 15. 24. Aunt Mary has asked our cousins and us we to take dinner at her house. He introduced us all. 28. 48. we know it was them they. I cannot doubt. 60. 36. 21. The throne was held by a king who whom historians believe to have been insane. All were present but John and he him. Was it I me that you asked for? Who spoke? I me. 5. 57. They think it to be I me. 23.In the following sentences choose the proper form from the words in italics: 1. 27. 25. The one that is he him wears a brown hat. 45. It was he him who whom the manager said ought to be promoted. We us boys are going to the ball game. 6. 30. I me among the rest. 20. Page 23 Page 24 .
105. In place of these use simply his. said so. She her and I me are going on the boat. 89. 63. There are no such forms as hisself. 75. Give it to who whom seems to want it most. 31. 77. I. 103. Page 25 It was through she her that word came to me I. 88. theirselves. himself. 86. themselves. herself. My father allowed my brother and her she to go. I know it was they them who whom did it. his'n. 90. Do you think I me to be her she who whom you call Kate? Some who whom their friends expected were kept away. did it. theirself. 95. He mentioned himself. Who whom did you say did it? Let them they come at once. . 72. etc. John and I will come. 83. Page 26 Tell who whom you choose to come. I thought it was her she. The compound personal pronouns have no possessive forms. 80. 107. They are also used reflexively after verbs and prepositions. He thought it was her she. their'n. but. 82. 93. but it was him he and William who did it. but for the sake of emphasis own with the ordinary possessive form is used. 74. 79. They are used to add emphasis to an expression. your'n. 96. but. 108. 78. The Compound Personal Pronouns are formed by adding self or selves to certain of the objective and possessive personal pronouns. 97. 91. or your. 73. 69. myself. 81. Is he the man for who whom the city is named? The book is for who whom needs it. 76. It was not they them. It seems to be he. thee thou wilt do wrong. Who whom do you think I saw there? I hope it was she her who whom we saw. 106. her'n. 66. How can one tell who whom is at home now? Who whom is that for? Choose who whom you please. (All these sentences are in the correct form. If any are late it will not be us we. myself. They invited John and myself. We escorted her mother and her she to the station. Send who whom wants the pass to me. Myself and John will come. 71. Can it be she her? Thou thee art mistaken. It could not have been him he. 64. 102. He has a home of his own. Who whom am I said to be? I do not know to who whom to direct him. He. I thought it to be she her. 85. 101. 87. I should hate to be he. 65. Let me tell thee thou. as. 67.62. Who whom are you going to collect it from? Who whom do men say that he is? Who whom do you think him he to be? They them and their children have gone abroad. Neither Frances nor she her was at fault. 92. They invited John and me. 98. as. Do not say. 84. 94. The man on who whom I relied was absent. I have my own book. her. 70. He did it for himself. My brother and she her were allowed to go by my father. itself. 104. their. Bring your own work. 99. I do not know who whom the book is for. as.) He is a man in whom who I have little faith. Turn not away from him he that is needy. I should like to be he or she. It was not us we from who whom it came. 30. 100. The property goes to they them. I wish you were more like he him. 68. Do not say. The compound personal pronouns should generally be confined to their emphatic and reflexive use. as. You are as skillful as she her. Will he let us we go? It came from they them who whom should not have sent it.
which. whomever. themselves. He promised to ask the question of —— he found there. whoever. 15.EXERCISE 13 Write sentences illustrating the correct use of the following simple and compound personal pronouns: Myself. Our friends and we us ourselves are going out to-night. etc. 2. and possessive forms. whosoever. He thinks you yourself and I me myself should bring the books. I will not vote for him. her. me. EXERCISE 14 Choose the correct form in the following sentences. whoso. itself. as. Herself she and her husband have been sick. ourselves. (See §29 and Note 3. whosoever. These forms must be used whenever the objective or possessive case is demanded. is —— book. 14. and whoseso. 2. whosoever. 13. whatever. it was not he. Give it to —— you think needs it most. The horse is to be for —— use. Yourself you and John were mentioned She told Mary and me myself to go with her herself. and you bring your'n yours your own. The book is for you yourself and I me myself. whosoever . 4. 11. 3. I'll bring my gun. 12. 6. 2. 8. He said it to ——. our. We —— will look after her. and whoso have objective forms. who. (See §108): 1. Punctuate properly. They themselves and their children have gone abroad. 3. him. because it itself and the engine were not properly adjusted to each other. 7. We will refer the question to —— you may name. 32. I do not wish —— to be prominent. 8. Thus. Let them —— pay for it. 4. —— they may choose. You play the violin better than he himself. 6. 7. The teacher hisself himself could not have done better.) EXERCISE 16 Fill the following blanks with the proper forms of the compound relatives: 1. Punctuate properly. 9. Let them do it theirselves themselves. Henry and I me myself are in the same class. I tell you. It belongs to me ——. whomsoever. 5. 10. . and what. Those books are my ——. 5. He may take —— he cares to. 10. Page 28 whosesoever. It was between him and —— was with him. 11. 5. EXERCISE 15 Page 27 Fill the blanks in the following sentences with the proper emphatic or reflexive forms. them. I. —— it may have been. 4. whomever. 3. The horse is to be for the use of ——. The Compound Relative Pronouns are formed by adding ever. 7. It will be noted that whoever. The machine failed to work well. so. He deceived ——. 9. He will take —— property he finds there. herself. He —— said so. himself. He came by hisself himself. 6. 9. (See §108): 1. one should say. I shall receive presents from —— I wish. 10. and whomso. That. I will give it to whomever I find there. 8. 12. I —— will do it. Let them name —— they think will win. That book is his'n his. or soever to the relative pronouns.
as. The antecedent of it is not clear. Thou wilt do this whether you wish or not. Those people. Grant thou to us your blessing. as. You may have —— you wish. Avoid the use of personal pronouns where they are unnecessary. 8. The antecedent of his is very uncertain. James and I were present. which I did. 5. Which should not be used with a clause or phrase as its antecedent. Both the following sentences are wrong: He Page 30 sent me to see John. 17. which I did. which wore a blue ribbon. —— can have done it? —— else may be said. 4. How can you say that when thou knowest better? May I and Mary go to the concert? He asked me to write to him. 15. . when used as part of a compound subject. as. its. 24. Let the antecedent of each pronoun be clearly apparent. Such errors are frequent. he is no gentleman. some. 6. as. There are certain words. He sent a box of cheese. called Adjective Pronouns. I will be satisfied. ones). 7. 2. he did it. theirs. 33. He may name —— he thinks best. because. Them people. Their whispering became very loud. One (there is a possessive Page 29 form. There is no doubt but that he will go. Do not use the common and grave forms of the personal pronouns in the same sentence. as. and it was made of wood. which are regarded as pronouns. that is not true. You seldom hear of such things. former. she said. 16. as. not I and James were present. the nouns which they modify are never expressed. There are the two chairs. 25. A cat. Chairs are made there. A man told his son to take his coat home. Again. Avoid using you and they indefinitely. these. or Mary. The grammatical inference would be that the yard wore the blue ribbon. be placed second. which annoyed the preacher. yours. One seldom hears of such things. Them is a pronoun and should never be used as an adjective. Use but what when but is a preposition in the sense of except. 3. The pronoun I should always be capitalized. Never use an apostrophe with the possessive pronouns. and should. 3. as. you may take —— you like. not. —— they do is praised. The book that we found and the book that he lost are the same. The sentence might be changed to. ours and hers. few. —— candidate is elected. 13. was found in the yard. In relative clauses this error may sometimes be avoided by placing the relative clause as near as possible to the noun it limits. —— is nominated. Use but that when but is a conjunction and that introduces a noun clause. those. He has no money but (except) what I gave him. Note the uncertainty in the following sentence. —— she takes after. and a plural form. 21. although they are properly adjective in their meaning. —— follows him will be sorry. John. etc. 14. 23. —— does that is a partizan. other. 4. 18. Instead. 2. 10. Relative clauses referring to the same thing require the same relative pronoun to introduce them. This is a frequent error in speech. 22. 12. will you vote for him? —— they nominate. 20. 19. many. as. Those is the adjective which should be used in its place. one's. 34. Note the following sentence: A cat was found in the yard which wore a blue ribbon. EXERCISE 17 Correct the following sentences so that they do not violate the cautions above stated: 1. —— he may be. 9. —— he says is worthy of attention. —— you take will suit me. They make chairs there. none. as. that. she is honest.11. I will vote for him. say. this. Some miscellaneous cautions in the use of pronouns: 1.
which we did. It was thought advisable to exile Napoleon. 8. 32. Keep them people out of here. 47. 16. 20. I have faith in everything but that he says. The train it was twenty minutes late. 46. Them there should be corrected. 9. The cabin needed to be swept. 28. Which of the two is her's? They are both our's. Smith and told him that his dog was lost. for if he should leave him he would be angry. There are no men in the room but that can be bought. Thou knowest not what you are doing. This is the book that we found and which he lost. Mr. Mary told her mother she was mistaken. 26. 7. Aunt. He has everything but that he needs. 31. Them are all wrong. 19. How can you tell but what it will rain? He does everything but what he should do. 37. Sarah asked her aunt how old she was. 35. 11. Then Jack and George. 14. 21. 24. Bring them books here. Tell I and John about it. You never can tell about foreigners. he threw his armies across the Rhine. they went home. He went to his father and told him he had sinned. 17. 25. 34. 15. 10. 6. 18. 22. 12. A grapevine had grown along the fence which was full of grapes. 39. 13. 42. I have no fears but what it can be done. Jones went to Mr. she said that she didn't know but what she would go.5. The two cars contained horses that were painted yellow. Dost thou know what you doest? It's appearance was deceitful. That is the man whom we named and that did it. 30. Page 31 . She is a girl who is always smiling and that all like. 33. she thought she had better go home. 43. You can easily learn history if you have a good memory. They use those methods in some schools. which was done. 45. Napoleon. They say that is not true. Jack cannot see Henry because he is so short. She told her sister that if she could not get to the city. It is the house that is on the corner and which is painted white. 41. 38. There is a slight difference between mine and your's. 40. 29. I have no doubt but what it was done. It was a collie dog which we had and that was stolen. Mother she said I might go. 23. 27. 36. 44. The man cannot leave his friend. 48. The chair was also their's.
prettiest. Well is usually an adverb. should have been used. Confusion of Adjectives and Adverbs. both the following sentences are correct: He works hard (adverb). by the use of less and least. first best hindmost latest. the adjective. beautiful. that her manner of looking at a thing is charming. prettier. Where the adjectives and adverbs are compared by inflection they are said to be compared regularly. an adjective. 36. is wrong. pretty. lovely. badly far forth fore good. Note the following: POSITIVE bad. sweet. If the word ends in y. sweeter. 38. as. Thus. EXERCISE 18 Page 34 In the following sentences choose from the italicized words the proper word to be used: 1. and vice versa. as. least beautiful . Adjectives and adverbs are very closely related in both their forms and their use. loveliest. as. Wherever the word modifies a verb or an adjective or another adverb. (adverb). The sentence. an adverb should be used. What is intended to be said is that she appears as if she was a charming woman. She looks charming. The track is smooth. or. ill. the adverb has the additional ending ly. eldest Note. She looks charmingly. and wherever the word. furthest furthest foremost. well hind late little much. and the superlative by adding est. good. further further former better hinder later. and The train runs smoothly. An adjective is often used where an adverb is required. The adjective and the adverb are sometimes alike in form. and His work is hard (adjective). The variation of adjectives and adverbs to indicate the degree of modification they express is called Comparison. 2. faster. usually. To convey that meaning. where the adjective and the adverb correspond at all. more beautiful. . There are three degrees of comparison. evil. elder COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE worst farthest. The Comparative Degree indicates a stronger degree of the quality than the positive. last least most oldest. the y is changed to i before adding the ending. because here the word to be modified is talks. whatever its location in the sentence. He seems well . as. In regular comparison the comparative is formed by adding er. as. if the comparison be a descending one. truest. as. best. as. The Superlative Degree indicates the highest degree of quality. Some adjectives and adverbs are compared by changing to entirely different words in the comparative and Page 33 superlative. sweetest. as it stands. an adjective should be used. and since talks is a verb. most of them are compared by the use of the adverbs more and most. better. The man acted strange strangely. (adjective). modifies a noun or pronoun. the adverb foolishly should be used. as.—Badly and forth may be used only as adverbs. Where the adjectives and adverbs have two or more syllables. But. and less beautiful. The Positive Degree indicates the mere possession of a quality. and the sentence should read. The sentence. true. many old worse farther. fast. He talks well . Comparison. but may be used as an adjective.CHAPTER IV ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS Page 32 35. truer. charming. means. most beautiful . 39. or another adverb. fastest. The sunset looks beautiful beautifully. latter less more older. She talks foolish. An Adjective is a word used to modify a noun or a pronoun. An Adverb is a word used to modify a verb. lovelier. 37.
Be careful in your study of these sentences. 7. 14. 18. He works well good and steady steadily. We found the way easy. I have studied grammar previous previously to this year. 46. 8. Speak gentle gently to him. 32. 16. He walked down the street slow slowly. He talks warm warmly on that subject. 30. He went over the work very thorough thoroughly. I didn't study because I felt too bad badly to read. They felt very bad badly at being beaten. 25. . 42. The sun shone bright at the horizon. 44.3. She looks sweet sweetly in that dress. 45. 5. EXERCISE 19 Page 35 The adjectives and adverbs in the following sentences are correctly used. 40. He was in a terrible terribly dangerous place. 10. 12. 29. He moved silent silently about in the crowd. The soldiers fought gallant gallantly. 6. 33. 8. He was terrible terribly angry. 17. The fire burns brilliant brilliantly. 7. She is a remarkable remarkably beautiful girl. He stood thoughtful thoughtfully for a moment and then went quiet quietly to his tent. That violin sounds different differently from this one. His coat fits nice nicely. The water lay smooth in the lake. 23. Speak slow slowly. The roar of the wind was awful awfully. Study these sentences carefully. The bird warbles sweet sweetly. 10. 43. He is a remarkable remarkably poor writer. The music sounds loud loudly. 3. He looked good. We found the way easily. The boat runs smooth smoothly. 20. 34. 24. He is sure surely a fine fellow. 31. 41. He talks plainer more plainly than he ever did before. I can speak easier more easily than I can write. 9. 5. 11. The sun shone brightly all day. That coin rings true truly. 13. 6. 13. 28. That can be done easy easily. I can wear this coat easy easily. The wind roared awful awfully. The music of the orchestra was decided decidedly poor. 22. 39. He acted bad badly. 9. 11. 37. We arrived safe. Write careful carefully and speak distinct distinctly. He behaved very proper properly. My health is poor poorly. 38. That is easy easily to do. 19. The typewriter works good well . He looked angry angrily at his class. Have everything suitable suitably decorated. 35. In every case show what they modify: 1. 15. 36. 12. You are exceeding exceedingly generous. I am in extremely extreme good health. 27. 2. The dead Roman looked fierce fiercely. 21. The train runs smoothly now. 4. She looks coldly about her. He struggled manful manfully against the opposition. 26. He looked well. 4. but all the time looked eager eagerly about him. She looked cold. 47. The roses smell sweetly sweet.
as. is wrong. 15. hardly. But. 7. universal . Let your speech be gentle. Note the following rules in regard to the use of other in comparisons: . To say. He is the largest of the two. cool. 40. eagerly. equally. round. The causes are firstly. His vote was nowhere near so large as usual. The superlative should not be used in comparing only two things. He is more honest than any of his fellow-workmen. It all happened unbeknownst to them. It is wrong to say. carefully. for he is not one of his fellow-workmen. A comparison should not be attempted by adjectives that express absolute quality—adjectives that cannot be compared. coolly. 11. is incorrect. He is the larger of the two37 not . but. Observe carefully the following rules: Page 1. When two objects are used in the comparative. is correct. perfect. but to say. sweet. To say. rapid. 4. Not muchly will I go. He is the most honest of his fellow-workmen. eager. for that is saying that the discovery of America was more important than itself—an absurdity. A thing may be round or perfect. The wrong forms in the following list of adjectives are frequently used in place of the right forms: RIGHT everywhere not nearly not at all ill first thus much unknown complexioned WRONG everywheres nowhere near not much or not muchly illy firstly thusly muchly unbeknown complected EXERCISE 21 Correct the errors in the following sentences: 1. This machine is better than any other machine. 16. This machine is better than any machine. He is nowhere near so bright as John. 6. masterful. rapidly. He is a dark complected man. graciously. She goes everywheres. 3. ignorance. We arrived safely. They came unbeknown to me. but it cannot be more round or most round. 10. Use the lesser quantity first. gracious. He is the most honest of all the workmen. Speak gently. You do the problem thusly. One should say. One should say. 8. 3. more perfect or most perfect. 5. The discovery of America was more important than any geographical discovery. One should not say. one must not be included in the other. one must be included in the other. Improper Forms of Adjectives. not one machine or some machines. because all machines are meant. lack of energy. or. Errors in comparison are frequently made. masterfully. Hers is the most illy behaved child I know. 2. and second. This machine is the best of machines (or the best of all machines). thoughtfully. But it would be right to say. careful. sweetly. hard. is right. 2. 9. ungainly. This machine is the best of any machine (or any other machine). To say. EXERCISE 20 Page 36 Write sentences containing the following words correctly used: Thoughtful. The discovery of America was more important than any other geographical discovery. is correct. He is the largest of the three. 41.14. when two objects are used in the superlative.
health or wealth? My mother is the oldest older of four sisters. 3. yesterday or to-day? That is the cleaner cleanest of the three streets. He is the brightest of all his brothers. The orange is better than any other fruit. He was. 9. 7. Iron is the most useful of the metals. After comparatives followed by than the words any and all should be followed by other. John or Henry? Of the two men. Philadelphia is larger than any city in Pennsylvania. That book is as good if not better than mine. 10.38this sentence would read. if not better. if not better than she. No state is so wealthy as Pennsylvania. 11. if not the greatest. The older oldest of the three boys was sick. The other is the worse worst behaved of the two. the most clever. John is taller than any boy in his class. if not better than she. This is the duller dullest season of the year. He is one of the greatest. 10. any and other should not be used. It could be corrected to read. 2. 30. Which has been of most importance. 11. 5. 5. Pennsylvania is the wealthiest of her sister states. 7. Philadelphia is the largest of all other cities in Pennsylvania. 14. Avoid mixed comparisons. 15. 18. 6. This apple is more nearly round than that. 24. if not the largest city in the world. 21. of all others. Of two burdens choose the less least. 25. Which can run the fastest faster. Of all other fruits the orange is the best. The orange is better than any fruit. Smith is the wealthiest wealthier. 15. Pennsylvania is wealthier than any of her other sister states. man in history. were left out. six or seven Which is the more most desirable. Which was the hotter hottest. The orange is the best of all the fruits. 6. John is as good than she. steam or electricity? He was more active than any other of his companions. After superlatives followed by of. That is the most principal thing in the lesson. 4. Paris is the most famous of any other European city. 12. EXERCISE 23 Correct any of the following sentences that may be wrong. 4. the first former is the better best known. 31. 9. Pennsylvania is the wealthiest of any of the States. EXERCISE 22 Choose the correct word from those italicized: 1. Of iron and lead. 14. 12. John is as good as. If the clause. No city in Pennsylvania is so large as Philadelphia. 16. 17. 22. 29. 2. lead is the heaviest. Iron is the more useful of the metals. Similarly. 8. John is taller than any other boy in his classes. 27. Page 4. b. Which is the larger largest of the two? Which is the best better of the six? Which is the larger largest number. John is as good. this is the largest.a. 23. 13. 28. Of Smith and Jones. Iron is the most useful of all other metals. 3. New York is one of the largest. 19. Page 39 . That theory is more universally adopted. 8. This apple is more perfect than that. 20. Smith and Jones. Give a valid reason for each correction: 1. 13. it is wrong to say. This apple is rounder than that. 26. No fruit is so good as the orange. He was the most active of all his friends. The prettier prettiest of the twins is the brighter brightest. Of all the other American Colleges. 32.
Wrong: A man was riding on a horse wearing gray trousers. In many cases. 6. Either and neither are used to designate one of two objects only. 10. EXERCISE 24 Correct such of the following sentences as are incorrect. If more than two are referred to. The four brothers love one another. 2. There were fifteen carload of people. any one. 3. 16. In the placing of adjective elements and adverbial elements in the sentence. That picture is more beautiful than all the pictures. sundry. It should be those kinds. He lost several pound. Any one of the three boys may go. Such adjectives as several. 15. many. Generally only should come before the word it is intended to modify. Iron is among the most useful. Either law or medicine is his profession. 35. The plurals must be used with pluralPage 40 nouns. 11. You will be able to find it in either one of those three books. Those two statements contradict one another. Placing of Adverbs and Adjectives. two . 7. each. Some adjectives can be used only with singular nouns and some only with plural nouns. Each strata of the rock lies at an angle. The adjective pronouns this and that have plural forms. Compare the following correct sentences. 17. 20. He is among the oldest if not the oldest of the men in the Senate. Such adjectives as one. Each other should be used when referring to two. The adverb only requires especial attention. I have not seen him this twenty year. To say those kind is then incorrect. Note the following correct sentences: Neither John nor Henry may go. 5. 43. as.. There are a few crisis in every man's career. can be used only with singular nouns. Those sort of men should be that sort of men or those sorts of men. and the adjective thus acquires the force of a pronoun. 19. Either of the five will do. various. Note the following correct sentences: The two brothers love each other. These kind of books are interesting. 18. Neither of the many newspapers published an account of it. 8. The poem has six verse in it. The Sahara Desert has several oasis. Neither of the large cities in the United States is so large as London. He is six foot tall. no one. 9. none. 14. can be used only with plural nouns. one should so arrange them as to leave no doubt as to what they are intended to modify. etc. Be able to give reasons: 1. . one another when referring to more than two. How can he associate with those sort of men? Page 41 45. Some ten box of shoes were on the train. 23. 22. 21. use any. 42. Have you heard these news? Are they those kind of people? He rode ten mile..33. Little children should love each other. Singular and Plural Adjectives. 12. 34. 4. etc. Few are seen. Several have come. these and those. every. I like those kind of fruit. and note the differences in meaning. the noun which the adjective modifies is omitted. if not the most useful metal. Those two brothers treat one another very coldly. 24. Several phenomenon marked his character. 44. Right: A man wearing gray trousers was riding on a horse. 13.
We have no books. I only paid five dollars. 2. I was merely talking of grammar. The proper negative form would be. Acetylene lamps are only used now in the country. The captain only escaped by hiding in a ditch. 18.. and quite. The girls were nearly dressed in the same color. He merely wanted to see you. 7. etc. Wrong: We didn't do nothing. since the effect is then to deny the negative you wish to assert. I am here is called an affirmative statement. For a time I couldn't scarcely tell where I was. scarcely. I never wish to think of it again. hardly. 13. He only spoke of history. I can't find it nowhere. Right: It was so dark that we could hardly see. never. A black base-ball player's suit was found. The school is only open in the evening. He found only the book. 6. The clothing business is only profitable in large towns. I have only done six problems. EXERCISE 26 Correct the following sentences: 1. means that we have some books. He found the book only. merely. 11. almost. Page 43 . I know hardly what to say. Wrong: There wasn't only one person present. not of English literature.Only he found the book. 16. not of art. Compare the following right and wrong forms: Wrong: It was so dark that we couldn't hardly see. also requires care and thought. and an affirmative is made where a negative is intended. none. I only need ten minutes in which to do it. A denial of that. scarcely. Right: There was only one person present. He had almost climbed to the top when the ladder broke. The placing of the words. 8. or We haven't any books. I never expect to see the like again. Double Negatives. ever. 9.. Page 42 46. 19. 14. Two negatives should never be used in the same sentence. they serve to make denials of statements. He only found the book. 10. and but (in the sense of only) are often incorrectly used with a negative. People ceased to wonder gradually. haven't. 4. On the trip in that direction he almost went to Philadelphia. Hardly. 12. The words. is called a negative statement. 15. 20. 17. nothing . not. neither. Examine the following sentences: Wrong: It isn't no use. that is. Do you ever remember to have seen the man before? The building was trimmed with granite carved corners. are all negative words. etc. 5. We haven't no books. The mistake occurs usually where such forms as isn't. I am not here. don't. 3. are used. only. EXERCISE 25 Correct the errors in the location of adjectives and adverbs in the following sentences: 1. 2. Wrong: There don't none of them believe it.
9. He planted an oak. But where the nouns refer to two different objects. He doesn't do nothing. are called Articles. 17.3. It is better to not think nothing about it. They didn't find no treasure. the article need appear only before the first of the two. Generally it is better to repeat the article in each case. But. 13. I can't hardly prove that statement. On the street is a brick and stone house. regarded as distinct from each other. I haven't seen but two men there. Thus. Where did you get that kind of a notion? She is an eager and an ambitious girl. 7. 21. But a or an is not used to denote the whole of44that class. A. 2. 5. He wasn't scarcely able to walk. The third of the team were hurt. 5. 10. a book. Neither the man nor woman was here. He isn't nowhere near so bright as I. The Articles. 24. 29. made up his outfit. Don't never do that again. Do not say. The is called the Definite Article because it picks out some one definite individual from a class. or. He can't hardly mean that. He was accompanied by a large and small man. EXERCISE 27 Correct the following where you think correction is needed: 1. then the article must be repeated before each. I can't think of nothing but that. We could not find but three specimens of the plant. It won't take but a few minutes to read it all. He said that he wouldn't bring only his wife. since the article is used only before the first of the two adjectives. An ax. A is used before all words except those beginning with a vowel sound. as. the effect of this repetition is to make the sentence mean two houses. He hasn't none of his work prepared. it can have but one kind. a saw. 11. an. 47. and an adze (not An ax. There isn't nothing in the story. my opinion is that there wasn't no fire. because they are Page used to limit the noun to any one thing of a class. He received the degree of a Master of Arts. Say instead. There isn't no one here who knows it. 8. 14. 7. 19. 4. 3. 8. 18. 20. and the. 27. 6. If. maple and ash. There shan't none of them go along with us. 15. 25. 12. There isn't no use of his objecting to it. 28. saw and adze). as. There isn't but one person that can make the speech. Where two nouns refer to the same object. I hadn't scarcely reached shelter when the storm began. 26. He was elected to the office of President. She can't only do that. 4. 22. In the sentence. She couldn't stay only a week. 9. 6. the article should appear before each. a kind of house. etc. the sentence means that there is only one house and that it is constructed of brick and stone. one of these forms could not be used before all of the words. a sort of man. in the sentence. On the street are a brick and a stone house. the article is repeated before each adjective. Since a house is singular. 16. a chair. They are not allowed to go only on holidays. whether or not it be the same. The boy and girl came yesterday. A and an are called the Indefinite Articles. Page 45 . God. Before those beginning with a vowel sound an is used. in a succession of words. The noun and verb will be discussed later. as. He bought a horse and a cow. as. 23. the author and creator of the universe. I didn't feel hardly able to go. one should say. He can't hardly come to-night. You wouldn't scarcely believe that it could be done. kind of a house. Silence is golden. I didn't see no fire.
EXERCISE 28 Write sentences containing the following adjectives and adverbs. only. lovely. He was too wrapped in thought to notice the mistake. as. Poor: I am very insulted. 12. each. extreme. 17. No adverb necessary to the sense should be omitted from the sentence. 16. hardly. only. latest. either. 19. but. never. Lock the cat and dog up. evidently. 11. Read the third and sixth sentence. brave. charmingly. perfect. Be sure that they are used correctly. very. straight. I read a Pittsburg and Philadelphia paper. Right: I am very much insulted. oldest. 18. 20. larger. . 48. 15. He was operated upon for the appendicitis. He was elected the secretary and the treasurer of the association. very. new. That is a sort of a peculiar idea. hard. finally. one. 13. He is dying from the typhoid fever. Read the comments in a monthly and weekly periodical. scarcely. every. neither.10. newly. Bring me a new and old chair. ever. terribly. awful. charming. Such improper omission is frequently made when very or too are used with past participles that are not also recognized as adjectives. 14. almost. What sort of a student are you? He is a funny kind of a fellow. He was too much wrapped in thought to notice the mistake. Both. none.
Examples: I may go. go (gone) is the principal verb. pass. the name-form is used to form what is called the Present Infinitive. as. and that the past participle form should never be used as a predicate verb without an auxiliary. passed. come. set (set. One could not then properly say. may be called the Name-Form. as. can never be used as a predicate verb without an auxiliary. can. and may and have are the auxiliaries. will. however. I talk. if present at all. or the singular form. I go. I wish to go. The s-form is found in the third personal singular of the present tense. I sung. What may be called the s-form of the verb. Horses should run. e. and was in the past tense. The full verbal statement may consist of several words. is used with all subjects. I have talked. to have gone. on the other hand. It is formed by adding ed to the name-form. It is used mainly in expressing completed action or in the Page 47 passive voice. I talked.. The distinction as to use with and without auxiliaries applies. I seen. The Second Principal Part is called the Past Tense. etc. shall. He may have gone home. saw (see). done (do). where the present tense of the auxiliary is used to form some other tense of the principal verb. sung. The student should bear in mind always that. when unaccompanied by auxiliaries. saw. come (come. should. I done. In the sentence above. did). These verbs are called Irregular Verbs. 51. By preceding it with the word to. The Third Principal Part is called the Past Participle. A Verb has already been defined as a word stating something about the subject. To these variations. I shall have talked. Verbs are inflected or changed to indicate the time of the action as past. to assert action in the present time or present tense. The past tense always stands alone in the predicate. She comes. see. . is one of the most frequent errors in grammar. It was tore. possession. In regular verbs. The third principal part. 54. etc. We come. as. 50. it should never be used with any auxiliaries. the past participle. I have saw. and so no error could result from their confusion. The following is a list of the principal parts of the most important irregular verbs. set). in the present tense. except those in the third person singular. These verbs that add ed are called Regular Verbs. Horses run. saw). as. The list should be mastered thoroughly. only to irregular verbs. Examples: He has (present tense). seen. These are called the Principal Parts. We shall come. came). as. as. The following are past tense forms: went. I shall talk. will. wore. In irregular verbs it may differ entirely from both the name-form and the past tense. In other tenses. possibility.) to assert futurity. tore. The name-form. To use it so. Some verbs have no s-form. They were wore. walked. seen (see. The verb be has two irregular s-forms: Is. The verb form is often entirely changed. of course. The s-form of have is has. determination. You see. must. etc. would be grossly incorrect. In regular verbs the past participle is the same in form as the past tense. Here the verb is may have gone. The dog trots. might. to have been seen. the past tense form should never be used with an auxiliary. the past tense and past participle are always the same. i. He has gone (perfect tense). It runs. I have went. The past participle is used to form the Perfect Infinitives. may. the name Tense is given. came (come). In constructing the full form of the verb or verb phrase there are three distinct parts from which all other forms are made. the s-form is in the auxiliary. Examples: done (do. The name-form is also used with various auxiliaries (may. The s-form is used with singular subjects in the third person. You can see. To say. or future. to have seen. shall . as. as. Verbs also vary to indicate completed or incompleted action. as. Page 48 53. and the other words the Auxiliaries. The following are name-forms: do. present. etc. is usually constructed by adding s or es to the nameform. etc. He goes. The last word of such a verb phrase is called the Principal Verb. I hope to see. The following are distinctly past participle forms: done. as.CHAPTER V VERBS Page 46 49. walk. pushed. since it is the part by which the verb is referred to as a word. etc. which indicate the time of the action. The First Principal Part. He has been seen. or it may resemble one or both of them. therefore. 52.
PRINCIPAL PARTS OF VERBS Name-form awake begin beseech bid (to order or to greet) bid (at auction) blow break burst choose chide come deal dive Past Tense awoke or awaked began besought bade bid blew broke burst chose chid came dealt dived awaked begun besought bidden or bid bidden or bid blown broken burst chosen chidden or chid come dealt dived Past Participle Name-form do draw drink drive eat fall flee fly forsake forget freeze get give go hang (clothes) hang (a man) know lay lie mean plead prove ride raise rise run see seek set shake shed shoe sing sit slay sink speak did drew drank drove ate fell fled flew forsook forgot froze got gave went hung hanged knew laid lay meant pleaded proved rode raised rose ran saw sought set shook shed shod sang sat slew sank spoke Past Tense Past Participle done drawn drunk or drank driven eaten fallen fled flown forsaken forgot or forgotten frozen got (gotten) given gone hung hanged known laid lain meant pleaded proved ridden raised risen run seen sought set shaken shed shod sung sat slain sunk spoken Page 49 . or which have both regular and irregular forms.In some instances verbs have been included in the list below which are always regular in their forms. These are verbs for whose principal parts incorrect forms are often used.
15. His friends plead strongly for him. 31. If they prove their innocence. They drive over to Milton once a week. 32. 33. 12. The swallows all fly into the chimney at evening. It may then never be used with an auxiliary. (Changed to past participle). I had ought to go is incorrect. The Gauls flee before Cæsar. Do you know what they mean by that? I awake early every morning. They choose their associates. He comes here every day. 14. 34. 10. 28. 3. 30. The box bursts open. 27.—Ought has no past participle. They drive a sorrel horse. John comes in and lays his books on the desk.Name-form steal swim take teach tear throw tread wake wear weave write stole swam took taught tore threw trod woke or waked wore wove wrote Past Tense stolen swum taken taught torn thrown trod or trodden woke or waked worn woven written Past Participle Page 50 Notes. 5. 21. 9. He runs up the road. His mother chides him for his misbehavior. 19. They get no money for their services. and then so as to use the past participle: Example: (Original sentence). 22. The cows eat grass. Water freezes at thirty-two degrees Fahrenheit. they should be discharged. The guests began to go home. The guests have begun to go home. Jones drinks this wine very seldom. 13. (Changed to past tense). The guests begin to go home. Page 51 . My servants break many dishes. He begins to think of strange things. 17. 2. Smith bids fifty dollars for the chair. 16. The noise wakes me. 1. 20. Cæsar gives them no answer. They forsake the cause without any reason. The children beseech me to go with them. 11. 6. They draw lots for the watch. 8. 25. They set their chairs in a row. You do so much more than is necessary. EXERCISE 29 In the following sentences change the italicized verb so as to use the past tense. The idea would be amply expressed by I ought to go. You forget that we have no right to do that. My mother bids me to say that she will be here at six. 4. 29. The boys dive beautifully. 18. 35. I deal there this week. 7. 24. Our books lie on the mantel. 26. Cæsar bids him enter. I see the parade. Model conjugations of the verbs to be and to see in all forms are given under §77 at the end of this chapter. 23.
shod. broke.36. The horse was —— twenty miles. written. 44. Burst. 41. . 51. She writes to her mother daily. The sheriff hangs the murderer at noon. driven. dealt. Freeze. I do not know. The ship was —— about all day. They tread the grapes in making wine. correctly used: Begun. He was never —— himself. torn. It is well that his neck was not ——. 43. EXERCISE 30 Page 52 Write original sentences containing the following verbs. 19. I swim one hundred yards very readily. Fly. John runs very rapidly. 10. He —— to act at once. He —— at nine to-day. 12. You sit very quietly. She —— yesterday. He —— his new friends just as he had —— all the others. froze. 37. 16. 57. Go. Since the cashier has ——. 18. 50. Choose. 47. They lie in bed until eleven. knew. They have —— wisely. chose. wore. Her father —— her less because of her extravagance. We were —— to enter. 45. They weave the best rugs in Philadelphia. Begin. Bid. The reports —— to disturb him a little. He often —— it. You take all subscriptions for the concert. Dive. forsook. slew. 6. Eat. EXERCISE 31 Insert the proper form of the verb in the following sentences. woven. Let him —— when he wishes. given. It may —— to-night. She —— to school to-day. That it has —— so far is sufficient proof of its success. 20. Chide. The choir sings for each service. 38. he —— out the cards. Who throws paper on the floor? I always wear old clothes in which to work. Page 53 4. 42. dived. No matter how much he —— the auctioneer will not hear him. He fell and —— his leg. Those clothes tear readily. The blacksmith shoes horses. 52. 61. He has always —— earlier heretofore. I know of nothing more worrying. 58. Draw. She lays the knife on the table. But. Cæsar seeks to learn the intention of the enemy. The verb to be used is in black-faced type at the beginning of each group: 1. pleaded. The air-ship —— three hundred miles on its first trip. Before explaining the game. 2. Deal. Drive. 60. The cornetist —— with all his might. The picture was —— by a famous artist. 5. 8. Come. How can he —— that? 15. drew. The ball goes to the opposing team. gave. The politician vigorously shakes all hands. 9. 39. Flee. 13. 53. he now —— her enough to make it up. saw. 11. bad. they think that a warrant would be useless. taken. Few men steal because they want to. went. You hang the rope on the tree. hanged. She has —— every day this month. The proprietor —— us a pleasant good day. Blow. 54. sung. ran. During the battle the shells frequently —— right over us. The wind does —— terrifically sometimes. The wind —— all last night. Oaken casks have often ——. Why they rise so late. 49. 59. spoke. 7. Give. 55. seen. They teach all the elementary branches there. wrote. He formerly —— very well. Do. rode. but I think that now he —— very poorly. The roof sheds water in all storms. threw. Twice last summer he —— off the bridge. give. 14. He evidently —— to death so easily because he had been so long without food. They —— him president. 17. The man was —— stiff. come. Thou canst not say I —— it. 3. They raise no objection. 40. She was not —— as much as her sisters. shook. bidden. swum. Break. He —— us frequently about our actions. 46. He —— everything which the others had not ——. blew. flew. 48. You speak too rapidly to be easily understood. He almost —— it to death. 56. Forsake. He has —— to feel hurt over them.
Goliath was slew by David. The mother —— an hour for her son's life. He was very much shook by the news. I have never did anything so foolish. Though they claimed that they always —— to her. 24. blew. He said he come as soon as he could. John —— the race as though he had —— races all his life. took. says he —— two men skulking along the road. 7. shook. give. flew. 36. The detectives —— all through the slums for him. rode. but I —— the coat and vest for six months. 31. See. 29. The race was —— very rapidly. 2. The dog —— at the paper until it was —— entirely to pieces. froze. did. 22. I done it. 12. John —— school every day. Wear.54 Run. 35. Write. He —— to do right. wore. threw. wrote. he has never —— anything about that. The words have been spoke in anger. 8. Shake. He —— at least once a month. forsook. She run around all day and then was sick the next day. came. 16. 25. They always —— it well. drove. run. Tear. 13. 41. 10. He has —— for ten years. They say that they —— from Larimer this morning. During the day his hand was —— five hundred times. Throw. spoke. The stone —— as soon as it is in the water. EXERCISE 32 Page 55 Correct the errors in the use of verbs in the following sentences: 1. 3. 26.21. 14. The horse was drove ten miles. The ship was —— in forty fathoms of water. Speak. He plead all day to be released. 15. The horse was rode to death. The letter was wrote before he knowed the truth. he —— in another race. Plead. That play is the best I ever ——. I have ate all that was in the lunch-box. The entire army was —— with Blank's shoes. drunk. Soon after that race. Weave. 30. He —— up everything he finds. 11. 28. I have broke my ruler. 5. 23. I have went to church every day. 38. They —— the ship in 1861. Know. hang. Jones was chose as leader of the class. He was not —— by them. 40. 37. even if he was not —— so to the satisfaction of the jury. broke. 20. drew. They —— as if they had —— a long distance. 18. The trousers were —— entirely out in a month. Sing. 4. and has always —— to do so. As long as I have —— him. No one ever —— me for him before. The matter was took up by the committee. The money was ——. Sink. The manufacturers say they never —— a better one. stole. I never seen anything like it. she was really never —— to by any member of the family. He first —— when he was eighteen years old. come. Smith. forgot. No criminal was ever more eagerly ——. Now they —— him in the better parts of the city. Was the river froze enough for skating? He begun to take notice immediately. 27. He was immediately threw out of the room. gave. Shoe. who has just arrived. 6. Seek. He —— hands with all who came. 22. this is the first time I ever —— he was married. went. ate. hung. He —— that he cannot live. Everyone believes that he has frequently —— goods from the store. 32. knew. He —— to me just last week. tore. slew. Steal. They —— him a thief in the eyes of the people. . 33. Page Prove. whether or not he —— it I do not know. chose. 21. I was —— for him several times that day. 17. 9. The choir —— the anthem as they had never —— it before. Take. 39. EXERCISE 33 Write sentences in which the following verb forms are properly used: begun. Ride. The horse has been stole from the owner. He was —— by a horse which never before —— anyone. 19. This carpet was —— at Philadelphia. Mean. sung. done. 34. and they —— the best in the country. The umbrella was blew to pieces. Although he has —— several times. Teach.
Transitive and Intransitive Verbs. Lie. The sun has sat in the golden west. The present participle of lie is lying.—The following exceptions in the use of sit and set are. only transitive verbs can have both active and passive voice. lied. then. raise. lie (to recline). waking. wake. raise. waked awaked felled fallen laid lain raised (a)risen set sat The first of each pair of the above verbs is transitive. I set there. raised. I tell. are called Intransitive Verbs. lay. and all similar verbs. I have lain down. I lay the book down (past tense). Since only transitive verbs can have a receiver of the action. I have laid down. lied. The most important of these verbs are the following: sit. awake. 3. I keep my word. as. are transitive verbs. however. He killed the horse. and He set out for Chicago. He raised in bed. fell . as. Let sleeping dogs lay. He has felled a tree. 2. felling. with this meaning is seldom confused with lie meaning to recline. He has laid in bed all morning. and the second is intransitive. meaning to deceive. raising. and fall . sit. The Active Voice represents the subject as the doer of the action. WRONG Awake me early to-morrow. set. has for its principal parts. as. The verbs in these sentences. rising. lied. lain. in which the action does not go to a receiver. wake. arose. rise. Only the first. I am told. lie (to deceive). He rose in bed. awaking. lie. lie. He was awoke by the noise. He was woke (waked) by the noise. . sitting. I have been seen. The river has risen. The moon sets. EXERCISE 35 Correct such of the following sentences as are wrong: 1. I am seen. 56. regarded as correct: The57sun sets. sat. felled. He makes chairs. In both these sentences. falling. Lie. I sat the chair there. The Passive Voice represents the subject as the receiver of the action. 57. awaked felled fell laid lay raised (a)rose set sat woke. by reason of usage. I sat there. The river has raised. RIGHT Wake me early to-morrow. fell (to topple over). laid. awake. set. of each pair can have an object or can be used in the passive voice. Chairs are made by me. All others. EXERCISE 34 Form an original sentence showing the proper use of each of the following words: Lie. I set the chair there. awaked. lying. Compare the following sentences. fallen. woke. I laid the book down. Active and Passive Voice. setting. He has fallen a tree. rise. I see. arise. laying. Page NOTES. They sat themselves down to rest.55. the verb serves to transfer the action 56 from the subject to the object or receiver of the action. lay (to place). and note the reasons why the second form in each case is the correct form. There are a few special verbs in which the failure to distinguish between the transitive and the intransitive verbs leads to frequent error. Note again the principal parts of these verbs: wake (to rouse another) awake (to cease to sleep) fell (to strike down) fall (to topple over) lay (to place) lie (to recline) raise (to cause to ascend) (a)rise (to ascend) set (to place) sit (to rest) woke. waked awoke. A Transitive Verb is one in which the action of the verb goes over to a Page receiver.
The tramps —— behind the barn waiting for dawn. He awoke everybody at daylight. 15. To have waked then would have been sad. —— here until I call my mother. His books have sometimes —— there all day. 11. 17. 6. 13. 20. I —— in that seat all the evening. He just now —— his books on the desk. He has —— them there every morning. The chair was —— by the desk. 16. 8. 11. I have frequently —— in bed until eleven. Let him sit there as long as he wishes. Last evening we —— at the table for more than an hour. 19. 10. 20. 13. 9. The scene of the play is —— in rural Pennsylvania. 18. 5. He —— out for home yesterday. The river has risen four feet. He was engaged in ——ting out flowers. James —— down and talked to me. and I —— down.4. Falling trees is his amusement. 2. He was still ——ting there on my return. 5. 6. She told me to —— there. I —— the bucket on the rock above the bridge. How can she —— still for so long? The moon —— at twelve. 14. EXERCISE 36 Page 58 In the following sentences fill the blanks with the proper forms of the verbs indicated: SIT AND SET 1. Lieing in the shade is his most strenuous occupation. I —— in bed until late every morning. The judge laid the papers aside. 14. I usually —— up until twelve. 8. Waking at dawn. 15. they renewed the journey. 6. The sun —— in the west. Page 59 . Please —— here until I return. I —— down this afternoon to rest. 7. 10. 12. By whom has the lamp been —— there? I —— my chair by the window and —— there all the afternoon. 3. 8. 9. 5. —— the lamp on the table. 13. The curtain raised because it was raised by his orders. She —— the hen on some eggs and she remained —— there. 7. 15. Now I —— me down to sleep. LAY AND LIE 1. 12. 18. 10. 9. 11. He lay the papers before the judge. 9. I have —— down and feel much better. His books have sometimes been ——ing there before I arrive. Will it not be well for you to —— down for a while? I —— on the grass yesterday for an hour or more. To have been awaked then would have been sad. After he —— down he remembered that he had left a letter on his desk. 21. 19. He laid down to sleep. 7. 4. Let him lie there until he wakes. 3. 4. 16. 17. He will sit out on his journey this morning. The shower has lain the dust. 2. He always —— his books on the desk. He has set there all day. 12. He has —— there all day. —— down and rest awhile. He sat the chair by the table. 14.
It is like trying to —— one's self by one's boot-straps.16. 11. The bread would not ——. He was —— to the earth by a blow from a club. AWAKE AND WAKE 1. 25. The sun —— me early. All their hands were —— at once. When we are weary. 9. 19. Who —— that on the table? He has repeatedly —— about the matter. 15. I do not know why he —— so early. 23. 13. he seemed to try to do so again. —— a tree each morning for exercise. ——ing down is a good way to rest. 26. —— your hand if you know. 17. I myself shall see to ——ing it then. I will —— and go unto my father. He went upstairs and —— his brother. The floor was —— by an expert carpenter. I had —— down to rest before (set or sit) ting out on my journey. He has —— early to-day. 12. I did not see him——. Page 61 . He has often —— from the roof of the porch. when living. He —— without the slightest hesitation. Not a shot is fired but a bird ——. —— down. 14. They have all —— their hands. 8. 3. 5. this morning? He would not say who —— him. 4. 9. Everyone —— his hand. 17. This morning I —— at dawn. RAISE AND RISE (ARISE) 1. 6. The curtain is to —— at eight. 20. ——ing down is a small matter to the young. 3. 5. we —— down. It is hard to avoid ——ing on the ice. 20. 2. To —— an ox with one blow of the fist is a feat of wonderful strength. He —— to his father. To —— often is to be expected in learning to skate. 10. 8. 18. 24. 19. 21. 6. Let the tree be —— across the road. I —— in order that I might see better. You say that you have never —— after nine? Who —— so early. 22. 11. 2. ——ing everybody up by their noise is an every night occurrence. 5. He is —— rapidly to prominence. The river —— rapidly. 18. 7. 10. 8. 6. 7. 3. It is unpleasant to —— so early. FELL AND FALL Page 60 1. The boy —— and answers. The whole country-side seemed to —— at once. The flag was very carefully ——. 4. 2. 10. The price of meat has ——. 9. He tried to —— himself from the condition into which he had fallen. ——ing is a sin. Gladstone. —— and march to the front of the room. 11. and his father knew it. After he —— once. Fido. 12. 7. 4. His brother did not wish to be —— so early. 16. ——ing in the dead of night is unpleasant. Will you please —— the window? The safe was —— by means of a rope. She told me to —— the matter before the teacher. Have them —— me very early.
and five which illustrate the correct use of were in the third person singular. even though you are and you were. EXERCISE 38 Choose the preferable form in the following sentences. lest. or the verb may precede the subject. some of the best writers no longer use its forms. if. Note. The indicative mode would be properly used in the following sentence. But when the sense of the statement shows uncertainty in the speaker's mind.. 60. Note. has the name-form. Were I rich. or the verb precedes the subject. and be able to give a definite reason for your choice. he ought to be charitable. in which the conditions are properly in the subjunctive: If those statements be true. it) was SUBJUNCTIVE PAST OF BE If I were If thou were If he (she. if he have. 59. Mode. Most directly declarative statements are put in the indicative mode. as. In the subjunctive of be. though she see.13. The use of the subjunctive Page 63 depends on whether the condition is regarded as a fact or as contrary to fact. he runs. it) were we were you were they were If we were If you were If they were Page 62 If is used only as an example of the conjunctions on which the subjunctive depends. or shows that the condition stated is regarded as contrary to fact or as untrue. 58. it) be we are you are they are If we be If you be If they be INDICATIVE PAST OF BE I was thou wert or wast he (she. Use of Indicative and Subjunctive.—It will be noticed that thou art and thou wast. The subjunctive is usually preceded by the conjunctions. certain or uncertain. then he is a criminal . he has. and the Subjunctive Mode is used when the statement expresses uncertainty or implies some degree of doubt. Mode is that form of the verb which indicates the manner in which the action or state is to be regarded. though. In other verbs the subjunctive. but only between the indicative and subjunctive modes is the distinction important. But it must be borne in mind that these do not always indicate the subjunctive mode.. the Indicative Mode is used when the statement is regarded as a fact or as truth. are customarily used in addressing a single person. and in the present tense of active verbs. It should be added that the subjunctive is perhaps going out of use. subjunctive. it seems. The following outline will show the difference between the indicative and the subjunctive of be: INDICATIVE PRESENT OF BE I am thou art he (she. etc. indicative. Note the two sentences following.—An examination of the model conjugations under §77 will give a further understanding of the forms of the subjunctive. or the same form as all the other forms of the present tense. since its forms give opportunity for many fine shades of meaning. Strictly speaking. then all statements are true. In some of the sentences either form may be used correctly: . instead of having the s-form in the third person singular of the present tense. He had himself —— at six o'clock. have been used in the second person singular. Generally speaking. it will be noted that the form be is used throughout the present tense. Similarly: If he is rich. Forms of the Subjunctive. if he run. she sees. and the form were throughout the past tense. EXERCISE 37 Write five sentences which illustrate the correct use of be in the third person singular without an auxiliary. these are the proper forms to be used here. although. it) is SUBJUNCTIVE PRESENT OF BE If I be If thou be If he (she. when the statement is regarded as true: If that evidence is true. Other conjunctions may be used. There are several modes in English. etc. I might be charitable. lest it seem. The places in which the subjunctive differs from the indicative are in the present and past tenses of the verb be. the subjunctive is used. This passing of the subjunctive is to be regretted and to be discouraged.
If it was were near enough. 29. Many. 32. he will die. If that is be his motive. I stay at school. Is. 31. If he ever tell tells the truth. 20. singular. When were the brothers here (not when was)? Page 65 62. trousers. they are used. A man and a woman have been here (not has been here). If he be is honest. 2. forceps. family. and plural subjects with singular verbs. it is bad. Agreement of Subject and Verb in Number. she goes. she is a writer of note. then the book is wrong. Agreement of Verb with its Subject. If he was were I. If it snow snows. bring him to dinner. committee. I should walk. 23. jury. 12. 3. ask him to pay the bill. 18. The most frequent error is the failure of the verb to agree in number with its subject. If he come comes. The following sentences are all correct: The assembly has closed its . If my mother was were here. If you are be right. I should jump. though in meaning they are singular. he is unworthy. according to the sense in which. he would come. Take care lest you are be deceived by appearances. Though this seem seems improbable. he will find me at home. and has are the singular forms of the auxiliaries. 17. 25. as. assembly. If he be is honest. are treated as plurals. 30. If your father comes come. These errors arise chiefly from a misapprehension of the true number of the subject. news. The other auxiliaries have no singular forms. 16. 10. are. politics. I can't come. and occurs only in the third person. etc. 9. he has not shown it. If he be is there. 11. The general rule to be borne in mind in regard to number. Was were it necessary. was. he makes no sign of his presence. If she was were at home. as. Many nouns plural in form are singular in meaning. and so can cause little confusion. is that it is the meaning and not the form of the subject that determines whether to use the singular or the plural form of the verb. If he be is there. He runs. If the father pays pay the debt. singular in form. 8. you would act differently. Unless he takes take better care of his health. I did not hear of it. Examine the following correct forms of agreement of verb and subject: A barrel of clothes was shipped (not were shipped). Boxes are scarce (not is scarce). means. he remained poor. 5. 21. we shall go driving. 27. pair. 15. he conceals the fact. also. as. If it rains rain. Page 64 61. 26. she would say I might go. 13. The s-form of the verb is the only distinct singular form. He acts as if it were was possible always to escape death. If to-morrow be is pleasant. 19. The verb should agree with its subject in person and number. Would that I was were a bird. Am is used only with a subject in the first person. he will be released. it is true. Failure of the verb and its subject to agree in person seldom occurs. 28. Though Mary be is young. If this be is wrong. Singular subjects are used with plural verbs. 22. 6. 4. Though he was were very economical. If a speech is be praised by none but literary men. present indicative. I should dislike her. as. Some nouns. then all love of country is wrong. 14. tongs. I should study medicine. it moves. Though she was were an angel. 24. If your father was were here. Though he were was king over all the earth I should despise him. 7. either singular or plural in meaning. and is not a source of confusion. he will insist on paying me. measles. This rule also applies to the use of singular or plural pronouns.1. If I was were only wealthy! If I were was in his place.
Page 67 pains. herd. these. tribe. gallons. 3. some. The whole tribe was destroyed. have. measles. bushels. and one. John and Harry are still to come. 16. such. The family is large. dregs. but they have differed in regard to one matter. French and German literature are studied. gallows. require singular verbs. The society meets each month. it should agree with that subject to which it applies. committee. EXERCISE 39 Page 66 In each of the following sentences. 2. carloads. EXERCISE 41 Go over each of the above sentences and determine whether it or they should be used in referring to the subject. have. latter. flock. Two hundred silver dollars were in the collection.meeting. the verb should be in the plural. and not the employers. A pair of gloves has been lost. those. 3. 18. dollars. nobody. The family are all at home. When a singular noun is modified by two adjectives so as to mean two distinct things. 7. 14. none. and some may take either singular or plural verbs. always require plural verbs. The following rules govern the agreement of the verb with a compound subject: 1. ashes. 63. In most of these cases. 6. Two hundred dollars was the amount of the collection. 13. The jury have agreed. many. The committee has presented its report. The whole family are sick. etc. was. pincers. few. 11. What means were used to gain his vote? That means of gaining votes is corrupt. The jury has been sent out to reconsider its verdict. Ten thousand tons of coal was purchased by the firm. A great number was present. that . army. The army was defeated. Each. the noun is often omitted. When quantity is plainly intended the singular verb should be used. The society is divided in its opinion. the plural form of the verb should be used. as is true throughout the subject of agreement in number. thanks. run. 9. In the use of the adjective pronouns. Two hundred pounds was his weight. many. as. 15. Examine the following sentences. when used alone as subjects. and not the employee. are. The assembly are all total abstainers. news. 22. reason will determine the form to be used. 8. A number were unable to be present. those. The number present was great. 4. The employers. A pair of twins were sitting in the doorway. this. none. 19. come. were to blame. When this is done. each is correct: Three drops of medicine is a dose. has. was. error is often made by using the wrong number of the verb. Any. The tribe were scattered through the different states. fleet. any. 20. 12. 21. as. some. 17. that. EXERCISE 40 Construct sentences in which each of the words named below is used correctly as the subject of some one of the verbs. neither. runs. victuals. either. comes: One. these. justify the correctness of the agreement in number of the verb and the noun: 1. The employee. all. The whole family is a famous one. class. by giving a reason. A variety of persons was there. crowd. Twenty years of his life was spent in prison. tons. The regiment were almost all sick. choir. days. vitals. mumps. group. was to blame. go. All. 5. as. 2. mob. former. everybody. few. Some nouns in a plural form express quantity rather than number. goes.. this. other. . When the verb applies to one subject and not to the others. Seventeen pounds was the cat's weight. months. each. The boy. 10. is. goods. When the verb applies to the different parts of the compound subject.
38. 18. 40. is are coming. each in the singular. as. 33. 6. 13. 27. When the verb applies separately to several subjects. Some miscellaneous cautions in regard to agreement in number: 1. The children and their father was were on the train. Bread and milk are is frugal but wholesome fare. and not his sister. 5. 4. EXERCISE 42 Choose the proper form of the verb in the following sentences: 1. 42. it should agree with the first. When a verb separates its subjects. 6. deserves praise. Dogs and cats is are useless animals. 7. 31. a woman. 4. 8. 3. 26. with all his booty. The cat and all her kittens was were at the door. as. . Money. The leader was slain and all his men. Neither the daughters nor their mother is are at home. and also the leader. 14. Everyone of these chairs is are mine. Neither the boy. 37. Do not use a plural verb after a singular subject modified by an adjective phrase. 10. The daughters. Neither the sisters nor the boy deserves praise. and also her pupils. Each boy and girl bring brings books. Mary. 30. 36. No preacher and no woman is are allowed to enter. The teacher and also the pupils were was embarrassed. Henry. Our success or our failure is are due solely to ourselves. The pupils was were cut off by the fire. The teacher was were cut off by the fire. 17. some of which are singular and some plural. 2. Each day and each hour bring brings new questions. gains gain a way. and also the teacher. 20. is are coming. Every adult man and woman has have a vote. Neither one nor the other is he. Either the soldier or his officers is are mistaken. Either the man or his children was were lost. Either one or the other is he. Hard and soft coal is are used. Either Tennyson or Wordsworth was were the author of that poem.as well as his sisters. it should agree with the subject nearest to it. 19. The men were slain. Book after book was were taken from the shelves. A man. 11. Page 68 Page 69 64. 21. 5. 22. not Wordsworth. The ambition and activity of the man has have been the cause causes of his success. Neither sincerity nor cordiality characterize characterizes him. No help and no hope is found for him. 16. is are coming. as well as money. 43. Aunt Mary. Each book and each paper was in its place. Neither James nor I are is to go. 25. Neither he nor I are is am going. if not culture. were was the author. The car and all its passengers was were blown up. 28. as. The pupils and also the teacher were was embarrassed. 24. Both Aunt Mary and her daughter is are coming. Each of the trustees has have a vote. The boy and the girl have has come. and not her mother. When the verb applies separately to several subjects. Matthew or Paul are is responsible for that belief. 15. and a child is are comprised in the group. but not her daughters. Each man and each woman was were present. nor his sisters deserve praise. but not Aunt Mary. Neither James nor they are is to go. 32. talk talks. 34. 29. Old and new hay is are equally good for horses. 39. Brain power. Either Aunt Mary or her daughters is are coming. 12. Either the children or their father was were lost. Either the daughters or Aunt Mary is are coming. the verb should be singular. 9. 23. The thief. 41. 35. as. is are sure to be invited. Tennyson.
The gallery of pictures are splendid. 7. they are. should not be used at all in formal composition. 10. The "Virginians" is a famous book. 3. 8. no such contractions are recognized. 6. I ain't coming to-night. were lost. This is one of those four metals that is valuable. EXERCISE 44 Page 70 In the following sentences correct such as are wrong: 1. is valuable. The proper form of the verb that is being contracted in these instances is does. I couldn't tell. 11. He don't know his own relatives. A barrel of apples were sold How many were there who was there? This is one of the books that is always read. John. not. 5. is the subject of the verb. EXERCISE 43 Correct such of the following sentences as are wrong: 1.. 4. 10. Do not mistake a noun modifier for the noun subject. The whole box of books were shipped. 2. Three hundred miles of wires were cut down. 9. etc. or with any other singular subject in the third person. There were four men. etc. The jury is delivering its verdict. when was you in the city? The book. Three fourths of his time are wasted. 7. Both of the following sentences are correct: He is the only one of the men that is to be trusted. 14. Such colloquial contractions as don't. can't. with all her crew. 13. Such crises seldom occurs.. 20. He is one of those men that are to be trusted. not do. man doesn't. 12. He is one of the greatest men that has ever been president. 12. 5. "Cows" are a common noun. In the sentence. 4. Say: You were. that. hain't right. This is one of the mountains which are called "The Triplets. 2. 9. each of which were sent by a different bank. 16. The ship. the number and the person of the antecedent determine the number and the person of the verb. with his whole army.was captured. That answer. 6. This is the one of those four metals that are valuable. One should say. 5. 3." This is one of the eleven pictures that has gained prizes. they were. Everyone of these farms are mine. John. etc. When the subject is a relative pronoun. not it don't. 8. who. sale. 15. not man don't. 19. 18. There was once two boys who was imprisoned in the Tower. Page 71 . Farm after farm were passed by the train. surrender. Lee. 14. It is to be remembered that the singulars and the plurals of the relative pronouns are alike in form. 13. The art gallery. not he don't. At that time the morals of men were very low.. The hands of the clock is wrong. 2. 3. not boxes. Mathematics are my most interesting study. Do not use incorrect contractions of the verb with not. it doesn't. Who they was. He doesn't. was destroyed. Ain't and hain't are always wrong. you was. with all its pictures. 11. 4. The sale of boxes was increased. You was there. was you not? They was never known to do that before. they was. Fifty dollars were given him as a present. with all its errors. as you will see. 17. 16. may refer to one or more than one. Do not use a singular form of the verb after you and they. 15. Don't cannot be used with he or she or it. etc. Ten minutes were given him in which to answer.
Washington was one of the greatest generals that has ever lived. except in dependent clauses and questions: To indicate simple futurity or probability: Use shall with I and we. with their past tenses. e. 37. 20. 23. 26. The use of the auxiliaries. 40. 48. There comes the children. Three quarts of oats is all that is needed. He is one of those persons who are quick to learn. Either those students. The Association of Engineers are still flourishing. 30. i. 19. Use will with I and we. action which the speaker means to control. 32. A black and white horse were in the ring. 45. The committee have adjourned. 39. There seems to be a few here. He was one of the best orators that has been produced by the school. use shall with all other subjects. not that. 34. Question after question were propounded to him. 44. The house is one of those that overlooks the bay. The committee disagree on some points. This book. Mary. All the crop were lost. is a source of very many errors. You shall go home. This chemical with its compounds were the agents used in tanning. 35. 36. 22. threat. One of them are gone. Either this book or those students is wrong. Shall and Will in Questions. A black and a white horse was in the ring. 21. shall and will . 47.. Neither of the letters were received. determination. In interrogative sentences shall should always be used with the first person. Page 72 65. 66. 31. Either this book or that are wrong. use will with all other subjects. It shall not happen again. 43. This book and that is wrong. The following outline will show the correct use of shall and will . Take one of the books that is lying on the table. is wrong. I think you will want to be there. or command on the part of the speaker. A variety of recitations were given. It will rain before night. 33. Use of Shall and Will. 25. There seem to be few here. where was you yesterday? The end and aim of his life are to get money. A variety of sounds charms the ear. To indicate promise. Statements of determination on the part of the speaker: I will come in spite of his command. 42. Neither John nor Henry have come. 46. In the second and third persons that auxiliary should be used which is logically expected in the answer. 29. I promise you. 41. 28. Were either of these men elected? The alumni of this school is not very loyal. Examine the following examples of the correct use of shall and will : Statements as to probable future events: We shall probably be there. 24. 38. Examine the agreement in the use of shall and will in the following questions and answers: . 27. In all those songs there are a sprightliness and charm.17. or this book is wrong. 18.
10. 3. 15. If you shall go away. who will run the farm? If I shall die. He shall (determination). You shall never hear from me again. We think she will soon be well. 9. Will should. then. We are determined that they shall pay. 28. the money shall be raised. but I —— go anyway. 25. The auxiliary. I feel that I shall not live long. 4. We will fight it out on this line if it takes all summer. 27. 26. Shall you be there? Will he who fails be allowed to have a reexamination? Will you be there? Will all be there? He says he shall be there. I will go if you wish. In dependent clauses which are introduced by that. Page 73 67. and the sentence should read. 5. I think I shall (probability). it will be his tenth trip abroad. We shall return by way of Dover. shall I refer him to you? EXERCISE 46 Page 74 Fill the blanks in the following sentences with shall or will: 1. 23. be the auxiliary in the dependent construction. Examples. He will surely come to-morrow. If he shall ask. 8. 14. The direct assurance would be. We will come. They assure us that they will come. 19. 20. I shall die as an honest man. We will come (promise). If he shall go to Europe. We have promised that we will do it. 6. In all dependent clauses expressing a condition or contingency use shall with all subjects.QUESTIONS. We think we shall come to-morrow. He is sure they will come. Further examples: I suppose we shall have to pay. I shall probably go if you wish. He has decided that John shall replace the book. We expect that they will bring their books. I think he will (assertion). 17. 2. —— you be busy to-night? Yes. 7. Shall I miss the car? Shall you be there? Will he do it? Shall your son obey the teacher? Will you promise to come? ANSWERS. You will then go to Philadelphia. . I doubt that he will pay. You will miss it. 16. I fear that he will fail to pass. He is sure that I will come. Shall and Will in Dependent Clauses. 11. 24. expressed or understood. They assure us that they shall come. 22. The sentence. is wrong. 2. therefore. I promise you. He has promised that he will be there. I think I —— find the work easy. 21. in a principal clause would be will . 12. I will have it in spite of all you can do. 13. He thinks that you will be able to do it. 18. EXERCISE 45 Justify the correct use of shall and will in the following sentences: 1. I —— be in class until ten. 3. I —— probably be refused. How shall you answer him? I think I shall ride. the auxiliary should be used which would be proper if the dependent clause were a principal clause.
They say that they —— meet you. 22. They say they —— probably not go. 63. I —— go with you. He —— never enter this house again. 24. If you —— ask her. I —— probably fail to pass the examination. He is determined that he —— go away. 18. 14. 50. 47. It is demanded that the pupils —— be orderly and attentive. 35. 25. 11. 48. 13. —— I ask for your mail? I hope that we —— be there before the curtain rises. 46. I —— never. Page 75 Page 76 . —— it make any difference to you? —— I go with you? No. I think it —— rain soon. 40. You —— do as I say. no one —— help me. 26. She asks that it —— be sent at once. she —— go with you. 29. 62. 8. 31. 45. We —— be disappointed. go there again. 12. I —— go to the river for a boat ride. They say that they —— do it in spite of anything done to prevent. 30. 19. 33. 55. —— I put more wood on the fire? I —— be lost. He requests that you —— come to-day at seven o'clock. 17. 41. 21. She is determined that he —— go to school. I fear that I —— take cold. —— we be permitted to go? We —— do it for you. 52. Where —— we join you? I think we —— be there in time. 5. It is thought that his death —— not seriously change things. You —— probably suffer for it. 44. If you —— stop. we —— return. 43. 58. 10. He fears that he —— die. 34. 32. It is believed that they —— probably be present. I —— sing to-night. 36. 38. Wright says his father —— become famous. 42. I don't. 64. —— you promise me to sing at the concert to-night? Yes. 65. 54. No. 37. never. 20. They assure us that we —— find good stores in Berlin. 6. 27. It is believed that the emperor —— have to retract. 60. 53. She says that I —— take cold. John thinks he —— probably live to be past sixty. 7. He writes that he —— be here to-day. I —— never sell my library. 9. I —— drown. If I fail I —— be obliged to take an examination. 15. He tells me that he thinks that he —— be elected. think I ——. If no one assists me. We —— decide what to do about that at our next meeting which —— be in October. We promise. 56. —— my men begin work to-day? —— you stop at Chicago on your way West? No. 23. —— I go or remain at home? I —— be very grateful to you if you —— do this. When —— you be twenty years of age? —— we ever see you again? Perhaps we —— return next year. 51. 49.4. 28. I —— not impose on you in that way. He says he fears he —— miss his train. —— they probably be there? —— you please fetch me a paper? —— we stop for you on our way downtown? When —— I find you in your office? They —— never do it if I can help. 59. 39. 61. you —— please stay here. A story is told that —— gain little credence. It —— be there when you need it. 16. 57.
What would they do in the city? She asked if she should write the letter. to express mere futurity or probability. 14. 16. He promised that he would be at the meeting. 69. 68. to imply duty. he would dislike me. 15. 6. Write five sentences in which will is used in an independent clause. EXERCISE 48 Justify the correct use of should and would in the following sentences: 1. 8. If you were I. He should have gone to her aid. 5. He said that he would come at once. Do you say that you —— be present? The book says that —— be wrong. what should you do? I should see the president of the class. 11. 73. Should and Would. It was promised that it should not occur again. We should have been at the meeting. He decided that it should be done. It was expected that they would be here. I feared that they would not come. and would with other subjects. and five in which will is used in a dependent clause. 7. 17. He should know his duty better than that. and five in which shall is used in a dependent clause. 4. If we should be afraid of the storm. 12. Would is used with I and we. We should be ruined if we did that. This would often occur when he was preaching. 71. 72. Should he come.66. 3. and have corresponding uses. we should not come. 18. Volition or determination: If it should occur. They would usually stop at the new hotel. 74. Examples: Futurity: I should be sorry to lose this book. to express conditional promise or determination on the part of the speaker. 13. we should be foolish. You should have seen his face. Would is often used to indicate habitual action. as. Does she say that she —— come? I told you that I —— not come. He said that we should have been at the meeting. He says that he —— go as a matter of duty. as. I would go with him. I tell you that she —— not come. John says that —— not happen anyway. Should and would are the past tenses of shall and will . Write five interrogative sentences in which shall is used and five in which will is used. Page 78 . We would often take that road. 75. we would not come. and should with other subjects. Does he say that he —— surely come? Does John write what he —— promise to do in the matter? —— you be sure to be there? EXERCISE 47 Write five sentences in which shall is used in an independent clause. 70. 10. If that should happen. Should is sometimes used in the sense of ought. If I should say so. I should be displeased if he would act that way. 68. Page 77 Should is used with I and we. 9. 67. 2.
If that had become known. 3. If it —— storm. 4. is properly used to denote permission. we —— have voted it down. 9. 5. 20. On what date —— that come? I suppose I —— have done it. To think that he —— do such a thing! I —— like to see the game. 34. we —— not start. could. 31. I —— never have believed she —— do such a thing. 16. —— probable not have been elected. 28. 24. 33. 32. he —— never have surrendered. 19. She thinks they —— not do it. and five in which should is used dependently. EXERCISE 50 Page 79 Write five sentences in which should is used independently. —— they dare to attempt opposition? How —— you go about it? Lincoln. She —— often come to class with no books. She assured us that she would attend to it. He said that it —— have changed our whole history. 3. 12. and five in which would is used dependently. —— you like to see the game? —— I bring my opera glasses? Mary —— never have known it. 27. 18. 26. I fear I —— be drowned if I —— go swimming. We believe that we —— like to go at once. I think I —— like to go. 29. 11.19. Use of May and Might. 17. May. 23. 5. —— I go home? —— we get tickets at that store? —— the mountain be climbed? —— we come into your office? You —— stay as long as you wish. You —— not enjoy it. 14. 4. She said they would write the letter. Write five sentences in which would is used independently. It —— have changed our whole history. might. it —— have inconvenienced me. These two words are often confused. 7. —— you think him capable of such a trick? I knew I —— not be here on time. with its past tense. I believed that he —— come late. 21. with its past tense. we —— surely have been ruined. EXERCISE 51 Fill the blanks in the following sentences: 1. 8. It was feared that they —— not accept. 15. 20. EXERCISE 49 Fill in the blanks with should or would in the following sentences: 1. 6. —— it make any difference? If they had proposed it. Write five sentences in which should is used in questions. Can and Could. 35. 22. 2. If we —— come late. I —— be much pleased to meet him. 10. Had Lee known that. He —— have easily deceived her. 2. He said he —— come. 69. They were anxious that we —— not miss the train. 21. refers to the ability or possibility to do a thing. He —— never have been invited. They say it —— be done now. Page 80 . We —— never have come. 30. Can. 25. She agreed that it would be right. 13. but. under those circumstances. and five in which would is used in questions.
Participles and Gerunds.6. etc. resulting from its fall . I told of his winning the race. the phrase should be in logical and immediate connection with the substantive it modifies. the work can be finished. Wrong: By writing rapidly. 10." It is wrong to say. Compare the following wrong and right forms: Wrong: After seeing his mistake. The gerund is often used as the object of a preposition. A participle preceded by thus should not be used unless it modifies the subject of the preceding verb. Right: He had to rewrite several pages. having seen. having been invited to dine. I heard of John's coming. The Gerund is the same as the participle in its forms. We —— afford to delay a while. When a gerund and a preposition are used. being seen. Compare the following: Wrong: He had to rewrite several pages. I heard of John coming. What —— he do to prevent it? When —— we hand in the work? 70. 2. 8. not. could not come. The verb form in all these cases is called a participle. and frequently has a noun or pronoun modifier. being sick. while the participle is always used adjectively. 4. I believe the statement. the gerund is always used substantively. as. the objective case of a modifying noun or pronoun is often wrongly used before the gerund. and was thus caused a great deal of trouble. as. John. he made a new start. following it by a week at Atlantic City. and to the failure to realize that the gerund can only be used substantively. followed by a week at Atlantic City. the following examples: Wrong: I spent a week in Virginia. But it would be right to say. I decided to remain at home. 12. 15. 71. Right: After seeing his mistake. Right: I spent a week in Virginia. having been seen. . 11. —— you finish the work in an hour? How —— you say such a thing? Several people —— use the same book. 1. it may be used without grammatical connection to the sentence. and then a week at Atlantic City. A participle should not stand at the beginning of a sentence or principal clause unless it belongs to the subject of that sentence or clause. 13. Examine. thus experiencing a great deal of trouble. as. After his asserting it. 14. In the following sentences note that the verb form in each case modifies a substantive: He. 9. The dish was broken as a result of its fall . but it —— not be relied on. the participles are those forms of the verb that are used adjectively. Owing to confusion between the gerund and the participle. 5. Generally. came early. Say. seeing. Compare the following: Wrong: Having been sick. also. Exception: When the gerund phrase denotes a general action. it was decided to remain at home. Right: I spent a week in Virginia. seen. playing. thus causing him a great deal of trouble. The dish was broken. —— John go with me? You —— often hear the noise. A substantive used with the gerund should always be in the possessive case. but differs in that. What —— not be done in a week? That —— be true. good drinking water is essential . and must be used in connection with either a nominative or objective case of a noun or pronoun. Right: He had to rewrite several pages. Right: Having been sick. 3. having played. A participle should not be used unless it stands in a grammatical and logical relation to some substantive that is present in the sentence. The past participle has already been mentioned as one of the principal parts of the verb. Failure to follow this rule leads to the error known as the "dangling participle. and the phrase should never introduce a sentence unless it logically belongs to the subject of Page 82 that sentence. Misuses of Participles and Gerunds. 7. a new start was made. In traveling. because resulting does not stand in grammatical relation to any word in the Page 81 sentence.
Right: By writing rapidly, you can finish the work. Wrong: In copying the exercise, a mistake was made. Right: In copying the exercise, I made a mistake.
In the following sentences, choose the proper form of the substantive from those italicized:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. He spoke of John John's coming down. The idea of his him singing is absurd. Do you remember me my speaking about it? What is the use of you your reading that? He his him being arrested was a sufficient disgrace. He him his being now of age, sold the farm. He him his selling it was very unexpected. You should have heard him his telling the story. You should have heard his him telling of the story. To think of them they their having been seen there! What is the object of Mary Mary's studying French? It its being John was a great surprise. What is the use of them they their talking so much? John John's going to school takes all his evenings. The beauty of James James's writing got him the position. He had heard about me my coming to-day. John John's coming was a surprise. EXERCISE 53
Wherever participles or gerunds are improperly used in the following sentences, correct the sentences so as to avoid such impropriety. See §107 for rule as to punctuation:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Having assented to your plan, you try to hold me responsible. He asked him to make the plans, owing to the need of an experienced architect. It was decided to send his son abroad being anxious for his health. On hearing that, a new plan was made. Moving slowly past our window, we saw a great load of lumber. Intending to go to the theater, the whole afternoon was spent in town. He was taken into the firm, thus gaining an increased income. Not having the lesson prepared, he told John to stay after class. No letter was written for more than a week, causing considerable anxiety. Expecting us to come, we disappointed him. After telling me the story, I left him. By reading aloud to the class, they do not gain much. He had to wait several hours for the train, thus causing him to lose a great deal of valuable time. After listening to his lecture for an hour he became tiresome. We listened attentively to his lecture, thus showing our interest.
72. Infinitives. The Infinitives are formed by the word to and some part of the verb or of the verb and auxiliary. For see and play as model verbs, the infinitives are as follows:
PRESENT ACTIVE to see to play PRESENT PERFECT ACTIVE to have seen to have played PRESENT PASSIVE to be seen to be played PRESENT PERFECT PASSIVE to have been seen to have been played
Page 84 The word to is frequently omitted. In general, other verbs follow the same endings and forms as do the infinitives above.
It is necessary to know the difference between the two tenses, since the misuse of tenses leads to a certain class of errors.
73. Sequence of Infinitive Tenses. The wrong tense of the infinitive is frequently used. The following rules should be observed: 1. If the action referred to by the infinitive is of the same time or of later time than that indicated by the predicate verb, the present infinitive should be used. 2. When the action referred to by the infinitive is regarded as completed at the time indicated by the predicate verb, the perfect infinitive should be used. Examine the following examples:
Wrong: I should have liked to have gone. Right: I should have liked to go (same or later time). Right: I should like to have gone (earlier time). Wrong: It was bad to have been discovered. Right: It is bad to have been discovered (earlier time). Right: It was bad to be discovered (same or later time). Right: She did not believe her son to have committed the crime (earlier time). Right: When he died, he believed himself to have been defeated for the office (earlier time.)
In the following sentences choose the proper form from those italicized:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. I was sorry to have heard to hear of John's death. Should you have been willing to go to have gone with us? The game was intended to be played to have been played yesterday. I intended to write to have written long ago. He wished to have met to meet you. I should have liked to meet to have met you. Mary was eager to have gone to go. Nero was seen to have fiddled to fiddle while Rome burned. Nero is said to have fiddled to fiddle while Rome burned. This was to be done to have been done yesterday. They agreed to finish to have finished it yesterday. He was willing to sing to have sung alone. He expected to have spoken to speak here to-morrow. The Civil War is said to cause to have caused more loss of life than any other war. Blackstone is said to have failed to fail at the practice of law. It would have been hard to accomplish to have accomplished that result. He was foolish enough to have spoiled to spoil six negatives. I wanted to have attended to attend the convention. It would be terrible to be lost to have been lost in the forest. We were asked to have waited to wait. I am eager to have seen to see it. I am pleased to meet to have met you.
74. Split Infinitives. In the sentence, care should be taken to avoid as much as possible the inserting of an adverb or an adverbial modifier between the parts of the infinitive. This error is called the "split infinitive." Compare the following:
Bad: He seemed to easily learn. Good: He seemed to learn easily. Bad: He is said to have rapidly run along the street. Good: He is said to have run rapidly along the street.
Correct the following split infinitives:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
She is known to have hurriedly read the note. Mary tried to quickly call help. He was asked to slowly read the next paragraph. John attempted to rudely break into the conversation. The plan was to secretly destroy the documents. His policy was to never offend. He wished to in this way gain friends. He proposed to greatly decrease his son's allowance.
75. Agreement of Verb in Clauses. In a compound predicate, the parts of the predicate should agree in tense; past tense should follow past tense, and perfect tense follow perfect tense. Examine the following:
Wrong: He has tried to do, and really did everything possible to stop his son. Right: He has tried to do, and really has done everything possible to stop his son. Right: He tried to do, and really did everything possible to stop his son. Wrong: I hoped and have worked to gain this recognition. Right: I hoped and worked to gain this recognition. Right: I have hoped and have worked to gain this recognition.
Correct the following sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. I went last week and have gone again this week. I have heard of his being here, but not saw him. I saw John, but I have not seen Henry. He desired to see John, but has not wished to see Henry. John was sent for, but has not yet arrived. I endeavored to find a way of avoiding that, but have not succeeded. I have never seen its superior, and, in fact, never saw its equal. She has succeeded in getting his promise, but did not succeed in getting his money. I hoped and have prayed for your coming. I have believed and usually taught that theory. I intended to and have endeavored to finish the work. No one has wished to see so much and saw so little of the world as I. He has gained the favor of the king and was sent to Italy. We have needed you and did our best to find you.
76. Omission of the Verb or Parts of the Verb. The verb or some of its parts are often omitted. This omission sometimes makes the sentence ungrammatical or doubtful in its meaning.
I like him better than John. This sentence may have the meaning shown in either of its following corrected forms: I like him better than John does, or I like him better than I like John.
As a matter of good usage, the verb or any other part of speech should be repeated wherever its omission either makes the sentence ambiguous or gives it an incomplete sound.
Bad: He was told to go where he ought not. Good: He was told to go where he ought not to go. Good: He was told to go where he should not go.
Correct the following sentences:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. I admire Mary more than John. I think she is older than John. He should have succeeded in gaining the end he tried. I asked him to do what I should not have. I did what I ought not. We wish him better luck than Mary. We want to see him more than Henry.
etc. He had been We had been You had been They had been Future Tense (Shall or will with the present infinitive. I should hate him worse than you. I had been 2. thou hast. These distinct second person singular forms will be used throughout the model conjugations. In these model conjugations the forms of shall are given with the future and the forms of will with the future perfect. I will have been We will have been . 66. as you please.8. He has been We have been You have been They have been Past Perfect Tense (Had with the past participle. thou wast. I was 2. are used also in the second person singular. etc. We think of you oftener than mother. Thou wast or wert 3. you are. see §§ 65. and 67. Thou shalt be 3. Thou hadst been 3.) 1. have been.) 1. been. Model Conjugations of the Verbs To Be and To See..] Past Tense 1. be. 11. 12. are the proper forms in the second person singular. BEEN INDICATIVE MODE Present Tense Person Singular Number 1. Thou hast been 3. [*]Thou art (you are) 3. been. He shall be Plural Number We shall be You shall be They shall be Page 89 [Footnote : To determine when to use shall and when to use will in the future and future perfect tenses.) Person Singular Number 1. I am 2. You may.] Future Perfect Tense (Shall or will with the perfect infinitive. 10.. He wanted me to do what I didn't care to. you have. but customarily the forms of the second person plural. He is Plural Number We are You are They are [Footnote : The forms. I shall be 2.) 1. 9. She may go if she wishes or not. do it or not. CONJUGATION OF TO BE Principal Parts: AM. thou art. He was We were You were They were Present Perfect Tense (Have with the past participle. Page 88 77. you were. I have been 2. WAS.
(If) he had been Plural Number (If) we had been (If) you had been (If) they had been Page 90 Future Tense (Shall or will . (If) I had been 2. however. (If) he shall be (If) we shall be (If) you shall be (If) they shall be Future Perfect tense (Shall or will . with the perfect infinitive. Thou wilt have been 3. (If) he be (If) we be (If) you be (If) they be Past Tense 1. (If) he were (If) we were (If) you were (If) they were Present Perfect Tense (Have. although. unchanged. (If) he shall have been (If) we shall have been (If) you shall have been (If) they shall have been POTENTIAL MODE[*] [Footnote : The distinct potential mode is no longer used by many authorities on grammar. As to when to use the different auxiliaries of the potential mode see §§ 68 and 69.) Person Singular Number 1. been. (If) I be 2. unchanged. (If) I shall be 2. been.] You will have been They will have been SUBJUNCTIVE MODE (Generally follows if. (If) thou were 3.) Present Tense 1.) 1.) 1. (If) thou be 3. etc. unchanged. been thought best to use it in these model conjugations. have been. (If) he have been (If) we have been (If) you have been (If) they have been Past Perfect Tense (Had. (If) thou have been 3.) [Footnote : See Note to Future Indicative. with present infinitive be. (If) I have been 2. (If) I were 2.] 1. though. unchanged. lest. and the potential forms are regarded as of the indicative mode. (If) thou shall be 3. (If) thou had been 3. It has. with the past participle.2. The conjugation with must (or ought . See §59. He will have been [Footnote : See Note under Future Tense. (If) I shall have been 2. with the past participle. (If) thou shall have been 3.
can.) 1. wouldst. with the perfect infinitive have been.) Person Singular Number 1. or should. would. or should be Page 91 Present Perfect Tense (May. SAW. Thou mightst. could. would. could. or should be They might. can. For forms substitute have been for be in the present potential.to) is sometimes called the OBLIGATIVE MODE. Thou mayst. would. He may. or shouldst be 3. I may. or should be 2. would. I might. or must be You may. could. or must be 2. or should. be. or must be Past Tense (Might. SEEN INDICATIVE MODE Present Tense—Active Voice Page 92 Simple . or must be 3. with the perfect infinitive. can. would. could. could.] Present Tense (May. or must be We may. or should be You might. He might. can. with the present infinitive. or must. can. with the present infinitive. canst.) IMPERATIVE MODE [Footnote *: The imperative is the same in both singular and plural. could. can. have been. be. The conjugation with should or would is sometimes called the CONDITIONAL MODE.) Past Perfect Tense (Might. or must be They may. would. couldst. or must. or should be Plural Number We might. could. For forms substitute have been for be in the past potential.] Be INFINITIVE MODE Present Tense Present Perfect Tense To be To have been PARTICIPLES Present Tense Perfect Tense Being Having been GERUNDS (Same as participles) CONJUGATION OF TO SEE Principal Parts: SEE. can. would.
Thou wast or wert seeing 3. I am being seen 2. He is seeing We are seeing You are seeing They are seeing Emphatic 1. I saw 2. He saw We saw You saw They saw Emphatic Person Singular Number 1. Thou art seeing 3. Thou art seen 3. He is being seen We are being seen You are being seen They are being seen Past Tense—Active Voice Simple 1. I did see 2. He was seen We were seen You were seen They were seen Progressive . He is seeing We are seeing You are seeing They are seeing Present Tense—Passive Voice Simple 1. I was seen 2. I am seen 2. Thou dost see 3.1. He was seeing We were seeing You were seeing They were seeing Past Tense—Passive Voice Simple 1. I am seeing 2. He did see Plural Number We did see You did see They did see Page 93 Progressive 1. I was seeing 2. Thou art being seen 3. Thou art seeing 3. I do see 2. He is seen We are seen You are seen They are seen Progressive 1. Thou sawest 3. Thou wast or wert seen 3. I am seeing 2. Thou didst see 3. He does see We do see You do see They do see Progressive 1.
He was being seen We were being seen You were being seen They were being seen Present Perfect Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute seen for been in the present perfect indicative of to be.) Future Perfect Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute have been seen for have been in the future perfect indicative of to be. I was being seen 2.) Progressive (Substitute been seeing for been in the present perfect indicative of to be.) Future Perfect Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute have seen for have been in the future perfect indicative of to be. Thou wert or wast being seen 3.) Future Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute see for be in the future indicative of to be.) Progressive (Substitute be seeing for be in the future indicative of to be.) Progressive (Substitute have been seeing for have been in the future perfect indicative of to be.) Past Perfect Tense—Active Voice Page 94 Simple (Substitute seen for been in the past perfect indicative of to be.) Future Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute be seen for be in the future indicative of to be.) SUBJUNCTIVE MODE Present Tense—Active Voice Simple .) Progressive (Substitute been seeing for been in the past perfect indicative of to be.1.) Present Perfect Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute been seen for been in the present perfect indicative of to be.) Past Perfect Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute been seen for been in the past perfect indicative of to be.
(If) thou were seeing 3. (If) I do see 2. (If) I did see 2. (If) thou were seen 3. (If) thou see 3. (If) he saw (If) we saw (If) you saw (If) they saw Emphatic 1. (If) thou do see 3. (If) I see 2. (If) thou did see 3. (If) I saw 2. (If) thou saw 3.Person Singular Number 1. (If) he did see (If) we did see (If) you did see (If) they did see Progressive 1. (If) I be seen 2. (If) thou be seeing 3. (If) he do see Plural Number (If) we do see (If) you do see (If) they do see Page 95 Progressive 1. (If) he were seeing (If) we were seeing (If) you were seeing (If) they were seeing Past Tense—Passive Voice 1. (If) I be seeing 2. (If) thou be seen 3. (If) he be seeing (If) we be seeing (If) you be seeing (If) they be seeing Present Tense—Passive Voice 1. (If) I were seen 2. (If) he were seen (If) we were seen (If) you were seen (If) they were seen Present Perfect Tense—Active Voice Page 96 Simple (Substitute seen for been in the present perfect subjunctive of to be. (If) he be seen (If) we be seen (If) you be seen (If) they be seen Past Tense—Active Voice Simple 1.) Progressive (Substitute been seeing for been in the present perfect subjunctive of to be. (If) I were seeing 2. (If) he see Plural Number (If) we see (If) you see (If) they see Emphatic Person Singular Number 1.) Present Perfect Tense—Passive Voice .
) Past Perfect Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute seen for been in the past perfect subjunctive of to be.(Substitute been seen for been in the present perfect subjunctive of to be.) Past Perfect Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute been seen for been in the past perfect subjunctive of to be.) Future Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute see for be in the future subjunctive of to be.) Progressive (Substitute be seeing for be in the future subjunctive of to be.) .) Progressive (Substitute been seeing for been in the past perfect subjunctive of to be.
) .) Page 98 Progressive (Substitute have been seeing for be in the present potential of to be.) Progressive (Substitute be seeing for be in the past potential of to be.) Future Perfect—Active Voice Page 97 Simple (Substitute seen for been in the future perfect subjunctive of to be.) Present Tense—Passive Voice Simple (Substitute be seen for be in the present potential of to be.) Past Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute see for be in the past potential of to be.) Progressive (Substitute be seeing for be in the present potential of to be.) Future Perfect—Passive Voice (Substitute been seen for the future perfect subjunctive of to be.) Progressive (Substitute have been seeing for be in the past potential of to be.) Past Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute be seen for be in the past potential of to be.) Past Perfect Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute have seen for be in the past potential of to be.Future Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute be seen for be in the future subjunctive of to be.) Past Perfect Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute have been seen for be in the past potential of to be.) POTENTIAL MODE Present Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute see for be in the present potential of to be.) Progressive (Substitute been seeing for been in the future perfect subjunctive of to be.) Present Perfect Tense—Active Voice Simple (Substitute have seen for be in the present potential of to be.) Present Perfect Tense—Passive Voice (Substitute have been seen for be in the present potential of to be.
Progressive to have been seeing. Emphatic do see. Present Tense—Passive Voice Simple to be seen Perfect Tense—Active Voice Simple to have seen. Progressive be seeing. Perfect Tense—Passive Voice Simple to have been seen. Progressive to be seeing. PARTICIPLES Present Tense—Active Voice seeing Present Tense—Passive Voice being seen .IMPERATIVE MODE Active Voice Simple see. Passive Voice be seen INFINITIVE MODE Present Tense—Active Voice Page 99 Simple to see.
Past Tense—Passive Voice[*] seen [Footnote *: There is no past participle in the active voice.] Perfect Tense—Active Voice Page 100 Simple having seen Progressive having been seeing Perfect Tense—Passive Voice having been seen GERUNDS Present Tense—Active Voice seeing Present Tense—Passive Voice being seen Perfect Tense—Active Voice having seen Perfect Tense—Passive Voice having been seen .
Independent clauses are joined by conjunctions. the sentence. The one of those who were was wanted was not there. It may serve as a subject or an object in the clause. (See §7. it is deemed better to adhere to the strictly grammatical form. AND PREPOSITIONS 78. Errors in the use of interrogative pronouns are made in the same way as in the use of the relatives. etc. Thus. to use the proper case. Whom are you looking for? not. Who whom do you wish to see? You will please write out the name of whoever whomever you want. because who is the subject of the verb had. because whomever is the object of they name. 6. adjectives. etc. Corrected. is right. Give it to whomever they name. or it may consist of one principal clause and one or more dependent clauses. Right: You may give it to whomever you wish. is wrong. although.) Wrong: Everybody who were there were disappointed. 3. where. EXERCISE 58 In the following sentences. I saw who whom was there. 9. When. 4. He gave it to who had the clearest right. but a further mention of this fault may well be made here. 2. I wonder whom will be chosen. Wrong: You may give it to whoever you wish. 8. 10. CONJUNCTIONS. None of those who were was wanted was were there. it reads. what. the object is training in grammar. or adverbs. Care must be taken. or by relative pronouns. Failure to use the proper case and number of the relative pronouns has already been touched upon (see §29). as in this book. not the object of wonder. RELATIVE ADVERBS. is correct. Independent and Dependent Clauses. (Disagreement in number. 5. He is one of those fellows who are is always joking. 7.. These dependent clauses may have the same office in the sentence as nouns. The sentence. not the case required by any word preceding it. and should have the nominative form who. because the relative here is the subject of will be chosen. who. and. such as. then. choose the proper forms from those italicized: 1. It serves also as the subject or object in the sentence. Dependent clauses are joined to the sentence by relative adverbs. Page 103 . Why did he not ask whomever whoever was there? Who whom can tell the difference? Give it to whoever whomever you please. Right: We know whom we mean. Examine the following sentences: Wrong: We know who we mean. etc. The relative pronoun has other offices in the sentence than that of connecting the dependent and principal clauses.) Right: Everybody who was there was disappointed.CHAPTER VI Page 101 CONNECTIVES: RELATIVE PRONOUNS. hence. Case and Number of Relative and Interrogative Pronouns. The interrogative pronoun has other functions besides making an interrogation.) 79. Who whom was it you saw? Who whom did you see? John did not know whom who to ask. Wrong: Do you know whom it is? Right: Do you know who it is? (Attribute complement. Page 102 The relative pronoun takes the case required by the clause it introduces. pronouns. as. such as. but. Who are you looking for? Note. Say. and therefore in the nominative case. 11. A sentence may consist of two or more independent clauses. when. 12. I wonder who will be chosen. Some writers justify the use of who in sentences like the last one on the ground that it is an idiom.
25. 22. Anarchism is when one believes in no government. It is better to use a when clause only in the subordinate part of the sentence. when suddenly he saw a car approaching. 23. Everyone else who was were there was were lost. 11. Conjunctive or Relative Adverbs. Page 104 82. Good: He read for a while. the conjunctive adverbs. should not be used to unite coördinate verbs in a sentence unless and or but be used in addition to the adverb. There are certain conjunctions. 81.13. 83. Good: The boys' grades are low. 8. Good: Commencement is the formal completion of one's school course. 3. 15. then fell asleep. He told half of the story. 9. Bad: I'll be down next week. and so indicate lack of application. It was one of the books which were was being sought by the librarian. 20. So. and also. 14. then I shall retire. 6. And or but should not be used to join a dependent clause to an independent clause. One of the books which was were brought was one hundred years old. Compare the following: Bad: He was turning the corner. and also certain pairs of conjunctions that frequently cause Page 105 trouble. 26. 2. Dinner is ready. He was chosen one of the four speakers who was were to speak on Commencement Day. I shall work until nine o'clock. Bad: He read for a while. The clock had just struck five when the cab came. so I couldn't come to the office. and then fell asleep. so I shall have to cease work. 19. 4. EXERCISE 59 Correct the following sentences: 1. he suddenly saw a car approaching. 16. also I shall bring Jack along. I am the one of the three men who is am are guilty. 24. as. Good: The news of the fire came when it was still in the early morning. 80. Bad: Astronomy is where one studies about the stars. 18. 5. Bad: The boys' grades are low. and also I shall bring Jack along. He loves good music. I was sick all day. then he suddenly stopped. Good: I'll be down next week. To who whom did you give it? It was for whomever whoever was present. also good pictures. I was going up street yesterday when unexpectedly I met Jones. Good: Astronomy is the study of the stars. Do not use a when or a where clause in defining a subject or in place of a predicate noun. I am not among those who whom were was there. 17. 21. 7. then. Ask whomever whoever is nearest the door. Whom who was called "The Rail Splitter?" Do you not know whom who it was? That is one of the birds that is are very rare. Conjunctions. I am studying German. it was still in the early morning. to state the time of an event. so they indicate lack of application. It was a new valise and . 10. Bad: Commencement is when one formally completes his school course. A restaurant is where meals are served. Give it to one of the men who whom is found there. Death is when one ceases to live. also French. Only one of the men who were was on board survived. Good: When he was turning the corner. Bad: When the news of the fire came.
like. We are better players than them. 2. The verb in these sentences is omitted. That can't be done without you get permission from the principal. Similarly. 8. But or for should not be used to introduce both of two succeeding statements. 9. I am as large as he (is large). 85. when used as a conjunction. He either wore his coat or a sort of vest. we harnessed the horses. As is properly used as an adverb when the equality is asserted. 11. It was a new book which (not and which) interested him very much. and which should never be used unless there is more than one relative clause. 84. 3. but the denial should be.differing much from his old one. 13. and then never with the first one. Neither he nor (not or) I can come. when the equality is denied. It was a new valise. but. 7. Say instead. I am as large as him (is large). 15. the error will be apparent. This "and which" construction is a frequent error. 4. 5. 10. He dresses just like I do. The prepositions without. EXERCISE 60 Correct the following sentences: 1. The correct form is. 17. Bad: He would offer neither reparation nor would he apologize. Than and as should not be followed by objective pronouns in sentences like this: I am as large as him. is correct. This cannot be done except you are a senior. for it was along the line of his ambition. 16. As may be used as either a conjunction or an adverb. There we met a man named Harmon and whom we found very entertaining. I admire Mary more than she. should be followed by or. I read as much as him. Good: Neither would he offer reparation nor would he apologize. should be followed by nor. Neither she nor I was present. 12. Neither should never be followed by or. but stayed all night. Wrong: This she would not do except (unless) we promised to pay at once. John is not as tall as you. Neither John or James is as tall as you. except. the second as is a conjunction. Wrong: Directly (as soon as) he came. and the adverb directly should not be used as conjunctions. you cannot pass. They work harder than us. differing much from his old one. He read all night. Mary is as old as her. He is not so old as I. He walked to the next town. The sentence would then read. After not do not use as when as is an adverb. She is brighter than he (is bright). Page 107 . such as neither—nor. for the book interested him. Either. The first as is an adverb. Similarly. and differed very much from his old one. One should not be directed toward a verb106 and the other toward some other part of speech. Bad: He not only brought a book. He became thoroughly under the influence of the hypnotist and doing many absurd things. He not only had a trained pig but also a goose. He is as old as I. as. should be placed Page in clear relation to similar parts of speech or similar parts of the sentence. The correlatives. Both of the following sentences are bad by reason of this error: He likes geometry. Neither. Directly he came we launched the canoes. 6. He is as tall as I. or It was a new valise. but also a pencil. Wrong: Without (unless) you attend to class-room work. but fails in algebra. when used as a conjunction. Good: He brought not only a book but also a pencil. 14. not only—but also . either—or. Placing of Correlatives. He is taller than I (am tall). but did not come back. but studies it hard. Wrong: I acted just like (as) all the others (did). If it is supplied. Good: He would offer neither reparation nor apology. so should be used in its place.
18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.
Mary is not as pretty as Helen. The men neither interested him nor the places. He has traveled more than me. We like him very much, for he is very interesting, for he has traveled so much. It is a good book and which has much valuable information. It was a rough town and harboring many criminals. He took an interest neither in studies, nor did he care for athletics. He neither took an interest in studies nor athletics. EXERCISE 61
Construct sentences in which the following words are correctly used:
When, where, than, as—as, so—as, neither—nor, not only—but also, either—or, except, like, without, directly. 86. Prepositions. Some mistakes are made in the use of prepositions. Note the following brief list of words with the appropriate prepositions to be used with each: agree with a person differ from (person or thing) agree to a proposition differ from or with an opinion bestow upon different from compare with (to determine value) glad of compare to (because of similarity) need of comply with part from (a person) confide in (to trust in) part with (a thing) confide to (to intrust to) profit by confer on (to give) prohibit from confer with (to talk with) reconcile to (a person) convenient to (a place) Page reconcile with (a statement) convenient for (a purpose) scared by dependent on think of or about Do not 108 use prepositions where they are unnecessary. Note the following improper expressions in which the preposition should be omitted:
continue on covered over off of started out wish for to come more than you think for
down until inside of outside of where to?
Do not omit any preposition that is necessary to the completeness of the sentence.
Bad: He is a dealer and shipper of coal. Good: He is a dealer in and shipper of coal.
Illustrate in sentences the correct use of each of the expressions listed under the first paragraph of §86. Form sentences in which correct expressions are used in place of each of the incorrect expressions listed under the second paragraph of §86.
QUESTIONS FOR THE REVIEW OF GRAMMAR
Sentences, Parts of Speech, and Sentence Elements. What are the four kinds of sentences? What are the different parts of speech? Define each. What is the difference between a clause and a phrase? What is the difference between a principal clause and a subordinate clause? Illustrate. Illustrate an adverbial clause. An adjective clause. Illustrate an adverbial phrase. An adjective phrase. What is an attribute complement? Illustrate. What is an object complement? Illustrate. Illustrate and explain the difference between simple, complex, and compound sentences. Nouns. What is the difference between singular and plural number? How is the plural of most nouns formed? Of nouns ending in s, ch, sh, x, or z? In y? In f or fe? In o? Of letters, figures, etc.? Of compound nouns? Of proper names and titles? How is the possessive case of most nouns formed? Of nouns ending in s or in an s sound? Of a compound noun or of a group of words? What is gender? How is the feminine gender formed from the masculine? What is the difference between common and proper nouns? Pronouns. What is a pronoun? What is the antecedent of a pronoun? What is the rule for their agreement? What is meant by "person" in pronouns? Name five pronouns of each person. Name the pronouns that indicate masculine gender. Feminine. Neuter. What pronouns may be used to refer to antecedents that stand for persons of either sex? To antecedents that are collective nouns of unity? To animals? What are nouns of common gender? By what pronouns are they referred to? Should a singular or a plural pronoun be used after everybody? After some one? After some people? After two nouns connected by or? By nor? By and? What are relative pronouns? Name them. With what kind of antecedents may each be used? What is the difference between the explanatory relative and the restrictive relative? Page 110 Illustrate. What is an interrogative pronoun? What pronouns may be used only in the nominative case? In the objective case? When should the nominative case be used? The objective? The possessive? May thou and you be used in the same sentence? When should but that be used, and when but what? May them be used adjectively? May which be used with a clause as an antecedent? May which and that, or who and that be used in the same sentence with the same antecedent? Adjectives and Adverbs. Distinguish between adjectives and adverbs. Illustrate. What is comparison? What is the positive degree, the comparative, the superlative? Illustrate each. May one say, He is the largest of the two? Reason? He is the larger of the three? Reason? He is the largest of all? Reason? Name three adjectives which cannot be compared. May one say, Paris is larger than any city? Reason? Paris is larger than all cities? Reason? Paris is the largest of any other city? Reason? Is a singular or plural noun demanded by every? By two? By various? By each? With how many objects may either be used? Neither? Where should the adjective or adverb be placed in the sentence? What is meant by a double negative? Illustrate. What is its effect? What is the definite article? Verbs. What is a verb? What is a principal verb? An auxiliary? Illustrate. What are the principal parts of a verb? Name each. With what is the s-form used? With which form can no auxiliary be used? Make a sentence using each of the principal parts of the verbs, go, see, begin, come, drink, write. What is a transitive verb? Illustrate. An intransitive verb? Illustrate. What is the difference between active and passive voice? Does a transitive or does an intransitive verb have both voices? Illustrate the passive voice. Distinguish between the use of sit and set. Of lay and lie. Of rise and raise. What is the general rule for the use of the subjunctive mode? In what way and where does the subjunctive of be differ from the indicative in its forms? How do other verbs differ in the form of the subjunctive? In what respects should a verb agree with its subject? Does the form of the subject always determine its number? What should be the guide in determining whether to use a singular or plural verb? What class of subjects may not be used with don't, can't, etc.? What determines whether to use a singular or a plural verb after who, which, and that? What form of the verb Page used is 111 after you? After they? When are shall and should used with I and we? When with other subjects? What rule governs their use in questions. What form is used in dependent clauses introduced by that, expressed or understood? In contingent clauses? Distinguish the use of may and might from can and could. What is a "dangling participle"? Is it an error? May the gerund be correctly used without any grammatical connection to the rest of the sentence? As the object of a preposition is a participle or gerund used? Which is used adjectively? Which may be used in connection with a possessive substantive as a modifier? When it is dependent on another verb, in what case should the present infinitive be used? When the perfect infinitive? What is a "split infinitive"? Need the parts of a compound predicate agree in tense? Connectives. By what are independent clauses connected? Dependent clauses? Name two conjunctive adverbs. Should a when clause be used in a subordinate or in the principal part of the sentence? May so, then, or also be used alone as conjunctive adverbs? May and or but be used to join a dependent clause to a principal clause? What case should follow than or as? Should neither be followed by nor or or?
A GENERAL EXERCISE ON GRAMMAR
Correct such of the following sentences as are wrong. After each sentence, in parenthesis, is placed the number of the paragraph in which is discussed the question involved:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. He likes to boast of Mary cooking. (71.) It is an error and which can't be corrected. (83.) He said he should come if he could. (68.) Can I use your pencil? (69.) If you were I, what would you do? (68.) We would like to go. (68.) Neither the members of the committee nor the chairman is present. (63-5.) He only spoke of history, not of art. (45.) Socialists don't have no use for trusts. (46.) This is John's book. (13.) I feared that they should not come. (68.) Mother's and father's death. (15-4.) Mary was eager to have gone. (73.) The boys, as well as their teacher, is to be praised. (64-1.) The members of Congress watch each other. (44.) I fear that I will take cold. (67.) Some one has forgotten their umbrella. (20.) Neither of the three is well. (43.) Whom do you consider to be the brighter man in the class? (29) (41.) He is determined that he shall go away. (67.) Neither John nor James brought their books. (22.) Whom did the man say he was? (29.) His clothes look prettily. (38.) The play progressed smooth until the last act. (38.) Henry and William is to come tomorrow. (22.) This is the lesser of the two evils. (40.) Do you think you will stop at Chicago? (66.) I am believed to be him. (29.) He sings very illy. (40.) When they come to build the bridge the stream was too deep for them to work. (54.) She is very discontented. (48.) Iron is the most useful of all other metals. (41-3.) The barrel bursted from the pressure. (54.) Shall my work soon begin? (66.) He is six foot tall. (42.) Seeing his mistake, I was not urged further by him. (71.) Will the dog bite? (66.) I am believed to be he. (29.) I am eager to have seen it. (73.) I think it shall rain soon. (67.) She showed the dish to Mary and I. (29.) Mary asked her mother to wash her face. (34-4.) Who did the man say he was? (29.) He deserved the place, for he is well educated, for he has been through Oxford University. (83.) Choose who you please. (29.) It don't make any difference about that. (64-5.) The pump was froze fast. (54.) A boat load of fishes was the days catch. (13-12.) Wagner was never too rattled to play. (48.) It is him. (29.) He did it hisself. (31.) He eat all there was on the table. (54.) He sent a chest of tea, and it was made of tin. (34-4.) The murderer was hung at noon. (54.)
108.) The price of meat has raised. 76. (62. (30.) Without the safety catch is raised. 59. (26. 87. (15-5.) The knife has laid there all day. 62.) Washington. (29. (34-9. 104. 114. 85. 94. 79.) Goliath was slew by David.) I don't like those kind of people. 71. (15-4.) Either Adams or Monroe were president. (46. 74. 98.) He sent his son abroad. (34-6.) My friend and me drove to Hughesville. 99.) Whoever is nominated.) Page 114 Page 115 . 69.) It is that characteristic that makes him so disagreeable.) This is the man who wants the ticket. (15-4.) Brewer's the blacksmith's shop. (67. 58. 88.) Which is the larger of the three? (41-1.) An axe is the tool which they use. 64. (47. 93. 80. 60. 54. (15. 92. (38.) I sat my chair by the window.) I think I will find the work easy.) Germany and France's ships.) It weighs several ton. 115. (81. (63-2. (41-3. 116. (60. 86. but also Morton.) Let him lay there. (26. (41-4. if not better than she. (54. (57. 100.) Everybody's else mail has came. (64-4. (54. 107. 81.) Myself and mother are sick.) John's and William's dog.) I do not question but what he is right.) The jury has agreed.) Iron is more useful than any other metal. have the police put them out. 106.) I not only told him. was born on February 22d. (32. (46. 84.) If anybody creates a disturbance. 89.) John is as good.) I can't hardly see to write. (57. (57. 101.) Neither they nor Mary was there.) Iron is the most useful of all other metals.) You may give it to whoever you wish. and the horse which you had last week are the same.) I sat myself down to rest. 54. 61. (22. (57. the general and the president.) This train runs slow. 73.) A hole had been tore in the ships' side. (40. 111. 97.) If he be honest. 112. will you vote for him? (32. 82. (63-4. which kept me awake. 105. (47. (41-3. 109. 34-5. were wrong. 65. (42. (15-4. (30.) Awake me early in the morning. (84. (47. 77.) Whom do you think is the brightest man? (29.) He knows nothing about it but that he has read in the paper.) American and English grammar is alike.) I was told to set here. (83. (63-3. (63-1. 95. (38.) You had ought to go home. (71.) The noise of the street was very loud. (26. 57. (54. (62. 68. 96. (42. he has not shown it.) The horse which we drove. the gun can't be discharged.) Horne's and Company's Store. (15-6.) Which is the best of the two? (41-1.) William and Mary has to go to the city.) McKinley was nowhere near so strenuous as Roosevelt. 102. 75. 63. 110.) This suit hasn't hardly been wore.) Such things make him terrible nervous. 72. (54. (57.) Tell the boy and girl to come here.) The family is all at home.) The paper was addressed to John and herself. 90. (57. 67.55. (26.) Death is when one ceases to live. 70. (85. 78.) John is one of the people who comes each night.) The horse run the mile in two minutes. (34-6. 83. and not his parents. 91.) The boy. (57.) John is not as bright as Henry. (57. 103. being anxious for his health. 56. 66.) He laid on the couch all day. (21. 113. It is a queer kind of a book.) John's employer's wife's friend.
145. (79. no one is allowed to kill more than two deers. 154. (29. 121. I stay at school. (75. 120. 127.) Winter. except we pay his expenses. 152.) She may go if she wishes or not. 138. (34-3. (80. (34-8.) You hear such statements everywheres. 135. 134. 141. (83. (57. I should jump? (60. (57.) Neither German or French is taught there.) I intended to and have endeavored to finish the work. 132. (85. (34-3. (75.) We have needed you and did our best to find you.) He won't come. 140.) Everybody whom was there was given a vote. 131. (57.) He is the only one of the members who pay dues. (60.) When was you there? (64-2. 142.) Was it necessary. were lost. 118.) Tell everybody to cast their vote for Jones.) Iron is more useful than all metals. 137. 125.) The king.) We started out for the city at noon.) If I was you. 150.) The Indians.) He awoke at nine.) I like her better than you. (64-3. (79. (76. 148. 146. 143.) Knox is one of the alumnuses of the college. (83. 139.) If it rains. I should go at once. with her frost. 123. (86. The army were defeated. (29.) Thou shouldst pray when you are in trouble.) The ship. (21.) Outside of the house stood a large moving van. 147. (20.) I wish you were more like she. (57. (62. (34-2. destroyed them all. (13-13. 128. 151. 133. 153. (34-8. (13. they hid behind trees. (64-4. 144.) Page 116 .) They make pottery in Trenton. he said they should kill him.) Neither John nor her will come. (64-1. 129. with all its passengers. 122.) He has fell from his chair. 136. 119.) By law. 130. (60. (60.) You never can tell whom you will meet on the train. 126. 124.) He is as tall as me.) The production of oranges were encouraged. 40. (86.) I will raise and go to my father.) I wish I was a bird.117.) Who do you want? (79. (76.) The policeman failed the ruffian with his club. 149. (41-3.) The clock had just struck five when the cab came.
Few men dislike him. 10. if there is a succession of short sentences. He is a man. Germany is moving in the same direction. EXERCISE 65 In the following sentences. 12. One should carefully examine sentences which contain more than thirty or thirty-five words to see that they are clear in their meaning and accurate in their construction. and that he had said would take longer this time. sentences are too long. 8. with all its troubles. Page 118 choppiness and roughness are the result. The members of the council were appointed by the king. since periodic sentences demand more careful and definite thought. 15. Change all loose sentences to the periodic form: 1. Note that this sentence could be closed after the words. 3. but paints abominably. for all the facts and philosophy of his reading found no permanent lodgment in his mind. periodic. until. periodic sentences may not be clear. imprisoned. as well as after government. 16. after all. and woes. Compare the following periodic sentence with the loose sentence under §87: Napoleon. 89. 88. His death caused great grief and extreme financial distress in the family. There stands the Tower of London in all its grimness and centuries of age. and five balanced sentences. On the other hand. feeling his weakness. or balanced. as. 6. and while there. although the reformers find it a hard task to influence public opinion. As to the length of the sentence there is no fixed rule. and balanced. A society and institutions that had been growing up for years was overturned and swept away by the French Revolution. and a far harder one to change the various laws prevalent in the many German states. and that class turned to Napoleon. sentences are considered as loose. Both loose and periodic sentences are proper to use. but advanced little intellectually. and concession. 2. nearly restored parliamentary government. periodic. 9. He read much. or search out in your reading. Loose sentences may be clear. at his fall. and tried to win back popular favor by concession after concession. It was during the time of the National Convention that Napoleon first became very prominent by defending the . at his fall. five periodic sentences. worth living? 14. Is this thing we call life. Napoleon felt his weakness. he had nearly restored parliamentary government. He draws and sketches with tolerable skill. Jones is a gentleman. determine whether each sentence is loose. the untrained writer should try to use them as much as possible. Frequently. The Balanced Sentence is made up of parts similar in form. and held office only at his pleasure. and are. The Periodic Sentence holds the complete thought in suspense until the close of the sentence. procured the key to the house in which he had been born. Sentence Length. but many would gladly see him overthrown merely as an example.CHAPTER VII SENTENCES 87. 5. involved and hard to follow. but. and trying to win back popular favor by concession after concession. 7. Classified as to their rhetorical construction. and forced publicly to adjure his teaching that the earth moved around the sun. weakness. At the same time the discontent of the artisans made the lower class fear a revolution. 90. pains. He rode up the mountains as far as he could before dismounting and continuing the ascent on foot. 13. His coming home was very unexpected. Galileo was summoned to Rome. Page 117 The Loose Sentence is so constructed that it may be closed at two or more places and yet make complete sense. as. EXERCISE 64 Compose. five loose sentences. because they felt him to be the sole hope for order and stable government. favor. but often contrasted in meaning. because he had started on a trip that usually took ten days. Page 119 11. in their thought. holding within its walls the scene of many a stirring tragedy. They visited the town where their father had lived. 4. had.
This forest is formidable and complicated. The commander again looks toward the hills. Bad: The house sat well back from the road.convention against a mob. 4. 12. They passed the old castle. in time. are those of Unity. Hence. It gives culture as no other study can give it. Yet they gloried in their liberty. Our forefathers were devout. Unity. It is getting nowhere. He courted almost certain death. With a sudden wonderful leap he sprang onto the railing. The mere approach to the temperance question is through a forest of statistics. This point is called the present. The squirrel rushes round and round and round all day long. do not use a comma to divide into clauses what should be separate sentences. and its owner was a married man. to doubt the truth of numbers. The121 tree stands at the top of the hill. EXERCISE 66 Combine each of the following groups of sentences into one well constructed long sentence: 1. and Euphony. Therefore. They were compelled to assume a peculiar manner. he cannot tell how the election will result. Coherence. 13. He had by this time reached the base of the fountain. 9. He believed he could reach it. 11. He crawled on top of the trucks of an express car. More likely. Man's life is divided into two parts by a constantly moving point. He was determined to get to his home. History should be a part of the course in all schools. Peters limped slightly. and that it deal with it in such a consistent and connected manner that the thought is clearly and effectively presented. It has a slight haze in the atmosphere. The essential qualities that a sentence should possess. It furnishes the explanation of many social phenomena. that closely related thoughts should not be improperly scattered among several sentences. They were easily shocked in many ways. Only its top half shows. Statements having no necessary relation to one another should not be embodied in one sentence. 14. 10. and to talk in a peculiar style. He looks for a long time. Good: The house sat well back from the road. The Spartans were tormented by ten thousand absurd restraints. It causes one. The castle was now being transformed into a national museum. They rushed at him with a yell. The man looked at the ladder. 91. it was because of the inborn dulness and lethargy of his mind. that is. New York is the pivotal state in all national elections. However. It broadens the intellectual view. Then the two look more than once toward a poplar tree. Especially. Its great number of electors makes it always possible for it to throw the election either way. Its owner was a married man. 7. also. Avoid the "comma blunder". 15. Otherwise. There he was out of reach. It has flowers. until one knows to which party New York will fall. Unity demands that the sentence deal with but one general thought. It has mild weather. in such communities the furnishing of places for safe deposit has become a separate business. Page He converses earnestly with the staff officer. He balanced himself by touching the brackets which held the lamps. It is important because it is believed to have caused high prices and trusts. Page 120 5. The car was about to leave the terminal. they cannot afford it merely to accommodate their patrons. he looked well and happy. 3. This was by reason of the scaffolding which surrounded it. This has been most important for ten years. Such things would nowadays be strongly disapproved or resented. Unity demands. It divides the past from the future. He was moving about shaking hands right and left. His face was already scorched by the fire. they permitted many liberties in the application of sermons to particular individuals. The most important political question has been the tariff question. He stood looking with curiosity at John Peters. The pleasantest month is June. It develops the memory. Something seems to excite his apprehension. It had left him no need for a great earning capacity. It is still rushing round and round. This was possible because of the money bequeathed to him by his father. Emphasis. aside from correctness. The unintelligent worker reminds one of the squirrel on the wheel. Smith was financially embarrassed. 17. It was almost unrecognizable. or should be connected by a conjunction. There was a sudden flash of hope in his face. a. He never desired a higher education. They were unable to please themselves in their choice of food or clothing. The hill is on the east. 6. These things seem to flood one's soul with peace and contentment. 1. 16. In highly developed commercial communities banks cannot afford space in their vaults for valuables. At the end of the day the squirrel is still a squirrel. 8. They were unable to please themselves in the choice of their wives. 2. .
Do not change the point of view.) Good: We completed our themes and handed them in to the teacher. but. the management excluded almost all. Good: This fact was true of all of us. Unite into one sentence short sentences and clauses that are closely and logically connected with one another. Avoid the frequent use of the parenthesis in the sentence. Good: Our themes were completed and handed in to the teacher. 2. Good: I am told that he could not under any circumstances be elected mayor again. I felt little inconvenience afterwards. 4. three trolley lines. Bad: He could not be elected mayor again under any circumstances.Bad: Jones lives in the country. Bad: That it is a good school is not without proof. Avoid adding a clause to an apparently complete thought. and lost most of their interest. where our friends met us. Page 122 b. I am told. 3. for its diploma admits to all colleges. Good: That its diploma admits to all colleges is proof that it is a good school. he has a fine library. Good: Edward came. but John never appeared. with the exception of John. Poor: The students often gathered to watch the practice of the team. . Bad: This is a city (it is called a city. just before the last game. Good: He could not. and we walked from there to the top. Bad: This fact was true of all of us. Its diploma admits to all colleges. a fact which had a bad effect on the athletics of the institution. Avoid long straggling sentences. the subject is we. Also. Bad: We completed our themes. I frequently had ridden on a bicycle. and also three trolley lines. a. EXERCISE 67 Revise such of the following sentences as violate the principles of unity: 1. at least so I am told. Good: That. so that the students were reluctant to support the team. Of the firm Jones & Smith. be elected mayor again under any circumstances. b. With the exception of John. While Smith is thoroughly dishonest. and only a few who had influence were allowed to enter. Good: The town has two railroads running through it. Good: Jones lives in the country. But John never appeared. Bad: That is not an easy problem. Good: I do not think that is an easy problem. Jones is a man to be respected. and we walked from there to the top. John had plenty of energy and ambition. Good: The town has two railroads and three trolley lines running through it. Avoid all slipshod construction of sentences. where we were met by our friends. I think. in the second it is themes. (In the first part of the sentence. Good: That it is a good school is not without proof. Good: Jones lives in the country and has a fine library. and they were handed in to the teacher. 2. And it is hard to understand why he didn't succeed. I think. He has a fine library. though it has but twelve hundred people) that has no school-house. is not an easy problem. Bad: Edward came. Page 123 4. and though the first ride made me stiff. Good: We were taken to the foot of the hill by the stage. I have taken thorough courses in history in both grade school and high school. Bad: The town has two railroads running through it. and I also worked on the farm in the summer. and this favoritism caused much hard feeling and disgust. 3. Bad: The stage took us to the foot of the hill.
I had not previously thought of going to college. however. One may reach Boston in two ways. do little business. I am reading a book. 42. 24. 29. and no one could call him away but his master who was very often cruelly slow in doing so. . But. My aunt has some of Jefferson's silver spoons. 21. but we did not care to stay on account of the weather. and the service was fine. Coherence. and finally a college was selected which seemed to suit me. he should have made a great football player. He will surely be elected. and then I went to bed. and so many long treasured questions to ask. besides there are a number of steel mills. and I have been able to get a vast amount of information out of it. and that we could go to Seattle and back for fifty dollars. too) frequently try to evade the customs laws. 10. of which I had a great number. 8. and the next day John came to spend a few hours with me. Page 124 but as enjoyable as any two months we had ever spent. and was ninety years old. 11. Either by water or by rail. And pleased everybody with his performances. it is very interesting. they are radical and progressive. these. The food was good. Coherence in the sentence demands that the arrangement and the construction of the sentence be clear and free from ambiguity. which was in the back of the house. 27. and it was discovered that they were going in the wrong direction. Washington was president of the United States. 17. He was one of those persons (of whom there are so painfully many) who never do what they promise. Frame the sentence so that it can have but one possible meaning. 9. 37. He then went to his room. it may perhaps be. He was a very big and very strong man. 7. in the West. He gave me this book which you see. 30. it is very good. though I am not sure) and then taught for three years. He died of smallpox. Every year they sell three hundred sets. So that we could tease him very little without making him angry. 35. 92. we seized our grips and started on a trip which was so long and eventful.5. They get a great deal of amusement when he is walking (which he does every nice day) by whistling in time with his steps. 44. Each past twenty-five years of age. Who had been refused because of his deficiencies in English. and the dog. He will most likely be suspended. 23. Page 125 25. and his father was dead. but the dog never lost patience. 19. when our checks came. He is the most peculiar person I ever met—in the last few years at least. Because he liked music. 43. then he closed the book to think it over. 1. 31. 39. He graduated from college (I think it was Harvard. would go when he was told and sit on it. 33. Although no small amount of trade came from the town. I can't go. And. 22. 32. which we took up on our return in the fall. That day my cousin went home. They stopped and asked us the road to Milton. to sleep. The town has a fine public library. Wrong: He owned several dogs and was greatly troubled with the mange. It was noticed by everyone that he always behaved well. 28. He is in every way honorable. When he was in school. Smith (whose husband had been killed by a falling beam in one of the buildings he was constructing) consented to give us a room and board. and because it was an out-of-the-way place. and never gossips. I haven't any fear. There were twenty boys in the class. 15. 38. 40. Women (and Christian American women. He was the man that I had mentioned. The country people were the chief patrons of the store. There are a great number of stations along this short line of railroad. 13. but now I was enthusiastic on the matter. 18. 20. 34. Right: He owned several dogs and was greatly troubled because they had the mange. He has been proved a gambler. and in the afternoon we drove all over the valley. He accomplishes everything he undertakes. The box sat under a tree. He converses intelligently and pleasantly. West helps to write the letters. and many of which I knew by heart from having gone over them so often. The news came that special rates would be given from Chicago. 26. He was very sensitive. which was rainy most of the time. 12. so she says. 16. and we were camping twenty miles north. 36. but neither of us grew tired. Page 126 41. 14. This is one of Hugo's novels. and John left in the evening. The magician was present. John was considered an odd fellow. as Milton lay south of Williamsport. at least so far as money matters are concerned. and all my time (at least most of it) was devoted to poring over catalogues. and gave us an experience that was very valuable in our work. and his books were found there the next day. and Mr. so I went there in the fall to study chemistry. there you have it all. because there were so many things to converse about. 6. In the East the people are conservative. He read his lesson carefully. if it is at all possible. who had been recommended for the position. Mrs. and so. But Hamilton guided its financial policy. I don't think. hence he is an agreeable companion. which was a collie.
Wrong: It is no concern to him. 5. containing over fifteen hundred pieces. Right: If you were to ask me what the trouble was. Right: It is of no concern to him. Avoid the "squinting construction. a. but also from his mother. Prohibitionists. Wrong: The table had been inlaid by his father. Use a summarizing word. Right: He was sitting in a chair made in the mission style and was reading a book. was bitten on the front foot. for one always increases his trouble by doing so. if you were to ask me. Bad: Textbooks are going out of use in the modern law schools. Good: I decided to do the work that night and to write it out on the typewriter. Wrong: He not only received money from his father. they are still used in some of them. Good: One usually only increases his troubles by trying to avoid work in school. Right: The man never has been. See §84. but also his mother. Wrong: He neither brought a trunk nor a suit-case. what the trouble was. which has since died. See that the antecedent of every pronoun is clear and explicit. Place correlatives so that there can be no doubt as to their office. Socialists. Place every modifying element as near as possible to the word which it modifies. Right: The dog." By this term is meant the placing of a clause so that it is impossible to tell whether it refers to the preceding or succeeding part of the sentence. See that the word to which each modifier refers is unmistakable. Right: The table. 3. had been inlaid by his father. Page 128 . and never will be successful. Wrong: It would be hard to explain. Express similar thoughts. Bad: I decided on doing the work that night. Good: One should never try to avoid work in school. Page 127 b. Wrong: The man never has. and Populists—all were there. containing over fifteen hundred pieces. 2. Republicans. it would be hard to explain. Right: He was sitting reading a book in a chair made in the mission style. in general. Good: Textbooks are going out of use in the modern law schools. for you always increase your trouble by doing so. but some schools still use them. Wrong: He was sitting in a chair reading a book made in the mission style. but also received it from his mother.. Right: He received money not only from his father.Right: He was greatly troubled because several of his dogs had the mange. in a similar manner. Wrong: The dog was bitten on the front foot which has since died. etc. Right: The dog was bitten on the front foot and has since died. and never will be successful. Right: The table contained over fifteen hundred pieces and had been inlaid by his father. Good: Though textbooks are going out of use in modern law schools. Right: He brought neither a trunk nor a suit-case. Bad: One should never try to avoid work in school. and to write it out on the typewriter. 7. Democrats. both—and. when connected in the same sentence. 4. to collect the parts of a long complex sentence. Omit no word that is not accurately implied in the sentence. Right: He not only received money from his father. Neither—nor. 6. but in some they are still used. are frequently not placed next to the expressions they are meant to connect.
After having read the proof. John was not punished because of his ill health. large and small. Page 130 One of the drawbacks to the work is that time is very scarce. 7. I started to school. Let him wear a loose shoe that has sore feet. Mathematics is not only necessary. wants a picture of her children painted very badly. Post cards are both increasing in variety and beauty. 22. Being out of work. The bicycle was easy to learn to ride. and to avoid getting too far ahead. 26. 47. The officers arrested the men and they were then locked up. which I did. 18. room. 25. Jones with one black ear. John told his father that his coat was too tight for him. The child the parent often rebuked. I saw five automobiles the other night sitting on our front door step. A young woman died very suddenly last Sunday while I was away from home as a result of a druggist's mistake. 39. and in the end failed. 19. The baskets were unpacked and the girls waited upon them. He is home. and amusements. old and young. she would be called. 28. 24. 34. 15. good and bad. 3. 51. He built a house for his wife with seven windows. 45. 16. We could say that the greater part of us had both seen the Niagara Falls and Canada. including John. I laid aside my paper. 56. laundry. 44. Board. He has to stop for rest. 57. 17. Rich and poor. He both presented me with a gold piece and an increase in salary. 46. 41. 36. 12. and that you pass an examination. 31. Mary told her mother. clothes. 43. Mrs. 48. In taking the census innumerable errors are made. feeling playful. 2. 52. 6. It resulted opposite to that in which it was expected. but didn't do any. 10. Smith was killed last night while cooking in a dreadful manner. 14. X. 4. 11. I only knew John. 38. John told Henry that he thought he needed help. You made the same mistake that you now make last week. It was a pleasure to see them work and their good nature. He bought a horse when ten years old. I do not care either to see you or Henry. in this way limiting what can be done. They said they saw them coming before they saw them. He neither told John nor his father. 59. and as I did not wish to loaf. 30. are higher there than here. Mrs. 42. Coming along the road a peculiar noise was heard by us. but also languages. 5. The cart was pulled by a man creaking under a heavy load. I knew him as a physician when a boy. 29. 50. 58. 20. a watchman is on duty every night. 53. Under the enforced sanitary laws people ceased to die gradually.EXERCISE 68 Point out and correct any lack of coherence that exists in the following sentences: 1. 8. Smith wants washing. Rails are placed along the sides of the bridges. were in the assemblage. it is rolled up. 35. 54. He has a number of kennels with many dogs scattered over the farm. 55. 9. 13. 27. . Page 129 Tell the doctor. 37. if she were needed. When the dog came on the porch. They are required to report both on their way to work and coming home. and you mail it back to the printer. He was hit in the discharge of his duty by a policeman. 32. 21. A dog has been found by Mrs. 33. He sent her an invitation to go for a ride on the back of his business card. and horses are forbidden to trot over them. Chicken lice are troubling all the farmers in the state. Wishing to make no mistake the boy was told by him to see the professor. I not only knew the president but also the whole board of directors. The statute requires that one study three years. 40. Under his direction we were taught grammar and something of composition was taken up. thus making the result unreliable. 49. and he was not entirely to blame for it. The boy went to the teacher and told him that his trouble was that he used the wrong book. He tried to study unsuccessfully. Mrs. They knew all that was to be learned. Sitting on a chair the entire house could be watched. to call. The boxes were full of broken glass with which we made fire. 23. Taking all precautions. We tried to study. if he comes before seven.
6. 5. and even hack lines were affected by the change. That knowledge is the important thing to gain beyond all else. horses. and earth. it would be folly to seek a condition of great wisdom. all living things were destroyed. Bad: He commanded his son to obey his commands. A change from the normal order often makes a great change in emphasis. 12. Will you please start up the machine. without stopping at all. Where ignorance leads to a condition of blissful happiness. if I can. 2. all living things were destroyed. Emphasis. All his friends were collected together. Railway companies. 10. and men were slain without pity. Children. 7. who. As a maker of violins he has never had an equal before nor since. He came leading his dog on a bicycle. 1. That great. Changed: From a thick tree not far back of our camp a lonely owl shrieked. 3. Most of the students have done good work. The field was so wet that we could not play on it. Page 133 . Euphony demands that the sentence be of pleasing sound. women. Avoid weak beginnings and weak endings in the sentence. gaunt mass of stones. 4. 16. did nothing right. cats. 4. Bad: He is universally praised by all people. Books were his constant companions. which falls upon your vision at the edge of the horizon of your view.60. Normal: A lonely owl shrieked from a thick tree not far back of our camp. Smith bids me say that he regrets that a slight indisposition in health precludes his granting himself the pleasure of accepting your invitation to come to your house to dine. Good: The darkness was absolutely impenetrable. Good: Mr. Where it is suitable. Bad: He was a student who did nothing right as a rule. Bad: The darkness was absolutely impenetrable. except occasionally. i. dogs. 2. Avoid all words which add nothing to the thought. Good: He is universally praised. horses. 61. 9. Good: Cats. Good: He was a student. 3. Emphasis demands that the sentence be so arranged that the principal idea shall be brought into prominence and the minor details subordinated. A man having foolishly tried to board a moving train yesterday. Avoid words and combinations of words that are hard to pronounce. 13. 14. arrange words and clauses so as to produce a climax. Page 131 93. human beings.. and not a thing could be seen. 2. Bad: He seized quickly a thick stick. trolley companies. 1. e. have the most important come last. is known by the appellation of Maxon Mountain. 8. Bad: Mr. The noise of trains is heard ceaselessly from morning till night. Few were superior to him as a sculptor. 11. dogs. was killed by being run over. 15. Euphony. Bad: Human beings. EXERCISE 69 Page 132 Reconstruct all of the following sentences that violate the principles of emphasis: 1. cable companies. He tried to do right so far as we know. Smith bids me say that he regrets that sickness prevents his accepting your invitation to dine. I'll prove his guilt by means of marked money. rock. Avoid repeating the same word in a sentence. 94. and he was with them always. When wanted he sent me a letter. although some have not. as a rule.
and started on a career of crime again. (91-3. 6. (91-4. checks. 26. 6. 9. EXERCISE 71.) She was of ordinary family. 27. 34. 7.) There is nothing distinctive about the style of the book. Mars may be readily seen in the evenings. He acted very sillily. but it is instructive also. (91-1.) No criticism was made of the object. error was made. 16. Most of the time he does the most he can. 7. and have failed. just above the horizon. (92-4. 12. (92-2.) If you observe the relation of spelling to pronunciation. (92-5. (91-1-b. (91-3-a.) One is sure to become dull in mind.) People of wealth (and it is by no means an exception to the rule) fail to notice the misery about them. it may be. 3. (94-1. 3. Every time there was a chance for error.) The trip was comparatively quickly and easily made. "Truth is stranger than fiction. 15.) Flora Macdonald was a genuine heroine. 33. He is still worried over the ill fulfillment of John's promise. (92-3-b. (92-3-a. 22. and it tells the story of a young Russian couple.) Page 134 In the East. (92-3-b. 5. but he didn't think of criticizing that. (91-3.) Different from most persons. since his own parents were of the German peasantry.) Page 135 Bridget was a faithful servant. They ordered the members of the order to pay their dues. (91-1.) . (94-1. (92-7. 32.) He threw the stone at the window." The well must have been well made. 10.) He arose suddenly upsetting the table. (93-1. The others escaped without a scratch.) John the lion killed. we had supper. A GENERAL EXERCISE ON SENTENCES Revise the following sentences.) The man was sentenced to either be hanged or life-imprisonment. 20.) He saw the money passing the store which had been lost.) He is sick as a result of the picnic.) He has not and never will succeed in doing that. Bad: They went for a walk in order to talk. It is impossible for one to believe that one so changeable can be capable of such work. (92-6. and after my return. For there are no mountains. (91-4. he will not mention to any one his faults. (91-3. you will have little trouble in pronunciation.) He says that he has the book at his home which belongs to Anderson. 25.) There one can see miles and miles. 13. And then he ran. In parentheses after each sentence is the number of the paragraph in which the error involved is set forth: 1. (92-2.) We started down the river toward Harrisburg.) The nasal noise in his enunciation was displeasing. 21. if you fail to exercise. EXERCISE 70 Correct such of the following sentences as lack euphony: 1. and the hotels are on Market Street. 8. he was made a free man. (91-2. 8.) Main Street is very long. 12. (92-2. papers.) Instead of six.) May not only he be satisfied with the result. 17. and ill in health. now four years only are to be spent in college. (92-5. (93-1. For a storm soon came upon us. 4. (91-1-a. 19. In the problems.) Finally they stepped from the boat into the water. and receipts. 13. 2. 10. 28. 30.) I tried to learn to write plainly. But we did not get very far. 5. (92-3-b. but of the means. else it would not have served so well. 2. he solved one once. I secured a horse and went for a ride. 4.3. but also prayer-meeting. (93-1.) The reading of Poe's stories at least is entertaining. (92-2). if not elevating. (92-7. 23. Those are our books. she never failed in her duties for more than five years. records. Avoid a rhyme and the repetition of a similar syllable. (93-1. In his letters there is something fine in every line.) Books. 29. 18. money. (92-4.) Two of the company were killed in the battle. 24. 11.) By the judge's mistake. and tried to move it by all of them pushing. Everything he said was audible throughout the auditorium. (94-2. were burned. It is true that the man spoke truly when he said. She worries about what to wear wherever she goes. Not only should we go to church. (92-2. 31. 35.) Not only is the book interesting. but delighted. (94-3. 11. 14.) She told her that she thought that she had come too soon. 9.
Capitalize also. and of every complete sentence that is quoted. except the last.) 102. etc. Punctuation should not be done for its own sake. and the words I and O. Capitalize the words. East. The Interrogation Point (?) 103.) . "Is it I whom you seek?" He said she was a "perfect woman. Capitalize the first word of every sentence. The Master of Ballantrae. also. The following rules of punctuation are generally accepted: The Period (. The Trail of the Lonesome Pine. my uncle. common nouns in phrases used as proper nouns. of every line of poetry. Page 136 96. Bible and Scriptures. 98." 99. Father John. but simply to make the meaning clearer. EXERCISE 72 Secure five examples under each of the above rules. Alas! It is too late. Paris. Page 137 100. the postmaster of Kelley Cross Roads. but not oh unless it is at the beginning of a sentence. The Discovery of America. John. the titles of governmental officers of high rank even when used separately. Use the period after (1) every complete sentence that is not interrogative nor exclamatory. Fire if you dare! The Comma (. if my uncle writes. if Uncle writes. Capitalize all titles when used with proper nouns. Capitalize all proper nouns and adjectives derived from proper nouns. Use the interrogation point after every direct question. the words.. Professor Morton. Capitalize the names. He said. French. 97.CHAPTER VIII CAPITALIZATION AND PUNCTUATION Rules for Capitalization 95. the Postmaster General. mother. Use the exclamation point after every exclamatory sentence or expression. when referring to parts of the country. Capitalize. Postmaster Smith of Kelley Cross Roads. and (3) after Yes and No when used alone. words used to name the Deity. along the Hudson River. never punctuate where no punctuation is needed. France. Capitalize the important words in titles of books. Parisian. The Exclamation Point (!) 104. Do not capitalize other titles when used separately. and West. South. North. etc. nobly planned. or when used without a possessive pronoun to refer to some definite person. father. along the river. Bishop Anselm. when used with proper names of persons. Rules for Punctuation 101. Madison Square. (2) after every abbreviation. my Uncle John. Uncle Sam.
Gardner. Do not. 112. but not if one modifies both the other adjective and the noun. Thursdays. and read. 110. Note 1). 107. 109. unless conjunctions are used between all of those words. Muncy. 106. . If the breakPage 139 is very marked. is not spelled the same as Muncie. white. he will do it. did you see Mary? After having done this. Pennsylvania. Right: He lectures on Tuesdays.Page 138 105. thus taking a decisive step. Chase and Arnold. come here. Use the comma to set off slightly parenthetical remarks that are thrown into the sentence. 111. Indiana. Cæsar crossed the Rubicon. and participial phrases. He doesn't wish to sing. Use the comma after each word of a series of words that all have the same grammatical relation to the rest of the sentence. himself.) Mr. but he seldom will sing in public. An old colored man. He. John. He can sing well. Cæsar crossed the Rubicon. who has been working in the bank. cannot be done without permission from the police. the principal of the school. if you will permit me to explain. however. Use the comma to separate coördinate clauses that are united by a simple conjunction. (See §§ 25 and 26. smoked. but not to set off restrictive clauses. He talked and smoked and read. That. sang at the church. Two men. this will seem absurd. were injured. Use the comma to set off non-emphatic introductory words or phrases. Use the comma to set off any sentence element that is placed out of its natural order. But: The Mr. Tuesdays. use the dash or parenthesis. Gardner whom you know is his brother. He talked. By the way. He was told to see Dr. Ours is a red. Morton. A soiled red dress. If it is possible. and Fridays. An honest. To most people. or a geographical name that limits a preceding name. 108. and blue flag. Use the comma to set off appositive expression (see §29. precede the series by a comma. Use the comma to set off explanatory or non-restrictive clauses. upright man. said it. and I do not like to urge him. Use the comma to separate two adjectives modifying the same noun. and Fridays. Thursdays. Wrong: He lectures on.
informal quotations. Such a man. when. He did not stop. but I have yet to tell you of the reason for it. He says that he shall teach for two more years. Charles the First. when they are used to introduce a series of particular terms. we admire the man that succeeds. accordingly. "Good morning". can seldom be found. and dinners. Right: He spends his money for theatres. or whenever something clearly is omitted. and wine. we cannot admire the man that succeeds by dishonesty. as." 116. therefore. or before their abbreviations. when some of those parts are punctuated by commas. then. which are in apposition with a general term. 115. "Hello. But: You are wrong when you say that. 114. We want students. then he shall probably return to college. Use a semicolon to separate the clauses of a compound sentence that are joined by a conjunction. unless such quotation is a word or phrase closely woven into the sentence." was Henry's greeting. simple in form. 117. however. such as. can be improved by changing the order. As men. hence. his Cromwell. though I called repeatedly. Use the semicolon to separate the clauses of a compound sentence that are long or that are not joined by conjunctions. 122. such as. namely. i.) 118. I do not care to see the game. etc.. etc. Use the semicolon before the expressions. Use a semicolon to separate the parts of a compound or a complex sentence. and William the umbrella. for example. 119.113. and wine. even if you have made a mistake in the work. viz. I the hat box. thus. but. that is. Page 141 121. John is sick. Use a semicolon before certain adverbs and adverbial expressions. Cæsar had his Brutus. I think he will be here. Use the comma to separate the members of a compound sentence when those members are short and closely connected in their thought. Your solution is right in method. Use the comma to set off adverbs and adverbial phrases. Use the comma whenever for any reason there is any distinct pause in the sentence that is not otherwise indicated by punctuation. it is too cold. so toPage 140 speak. not boys who simply come to school. The Semicolon (. unless the connection be close.. But: He introduced the man as "my distinguished friend. however. etc. . I have told you of the theft. Wrong: He spends his money for theatres. and for his family he has not a cent. . and for his family he has not a cent. besides. also. as honest men. William said. only when it is desirable to indicate a very definite pause..e. Use the comma to set off short. Use the comma to separate dependent and conditional clauses introduced by such words as if. but. etc... John carried the suit-case. however. 120. besides. This sentence.. though. for example. when they occur in the body of the sentence and are used conjunctively. and dinners.
but we expect no one else. but is grammatically independent of it. 128. When other punctuation is used it should follow the parenthesis. 126.—all were there. the Prohibition. Modern usage is to avoid entirely the use of the parentheses. 130. consideration. Royer says in his letter: "You will remember that I promised to send you a copy of my latest musical composition. I was always lacking what I needed most—money. Do not use a comma or other punctuation mark with the parenthesis marks unless it would be required even if there were no parenthesis. He belongs (at least so it is said) to every secret society in town. the Democratic. phrase. Socialists. The Bible says. "Charity suffereth long. I am pleased to meet you. Do not use dashes where not required or in place of some other mark of punctuation. We expect John to bring his roommate home with him (he has been very anxious to do so). They sent us (as they had agreed to do) all the papers in the case." There are four essentials of a legal contract: competent parties. The Bracket [ ] 131. 127. namely. His letter reads: "We have decided to get Mr. and legal subject matter. Page 143 The speaker in closing said: "I can imagine no more inspiring words than those of Nelson at Trafalgar. and Populists.'" . or sentence that constitutes an introduction to something that follows." 133. Howard [his cousin] to deliver the address. Democrats. Page 142 The Parenthesis Marks ( ) 129... 'England expects every man to do his duty. Captain—what did you say your name is? The man I met—I refer to Captain Jones—was in the naval service. Prohibitionists. Use the dash in the place of the comma to set off more definitely some part of a sentence. Mr. Use the dash preceded by a comma before a word which sums up the preceding part of a sentence. agreement. Use the parenthesis marks only to enclose a statement that is thrown into the sentence. the Republican. I am mailing it to you to-day.At present there are four prominent political parties. Use quotation marks to enclose quotations of the exact language of another. or after a word. (See §161. Republicans. Use the bracket to enclose some statement or word of the writer that is thrown into a quotation by way of explanation or otherwise. The Colon (:) 123. before an enumeration. and the Socialist. Use the colon after an introduction to a long or formal quotation. 124. Use the colon after the salutation of a formal letter." The Quotation Marks (" ") 132. Use the dash to indicate any sudden break in thought or construction. Use single quotation marks (' ') to enclose a quotation within a quotation.) The Dash (—) 125.
" Right: "You may do as you wish. 9. What's the matter? The Hyphen (-) 139. 2. 7. Never divide words of one syllable. Only custom determines. not at the beginning of the second. titles of books.134. 10. nor short words. see §§ 143 and 144: 1. and always put the hyphen at the end of the first line. through." she asked? Right: "Can you come?" she asked. quotation marks should precede each paragraph and follow the last. etc. "if you only wish to do right. Use the hyphen when a word must be divided at the end of a line. 4. over. though. expression. 14. 11. EXERCISE 73 Punctuate and capitalize the following selections. pro-pose. In writing it is good usage not to divide a word like expression by placing ex on one line and the rest of the word on the next line." he said. 6. also. Wrong division: int-end. and to-night. The Apostrophe (') 138. Use the hyphen to divide certain compound words. superin-tendent. if you only wish to do right. proverbial phrases. Proper division: in-tend. 136. 12. 3. If a quotation consists of several paragraphs. or to indicate one's own literary invention. he said. For instructions as to paragraphing and the arrangement of conversation. No rule can be given by which to determine when compounded words demand the hyphen. Page 144 Never divide words except at the end of a syllable. however father had told us not to expect good accommodations because it is a very small town tomorrow if it is a clear day we will go to pittsburgh will that be satisfactory was his question it doesnt make any difference said she whether you come or not whats the matter with you john john replied i mean that poem that begins the curfew tolls the knell of parting day and that day i was only a child then I travelled all alone to new york city he is a member at least he claims to be of the presbyterian church the author says that the hero of waterloo wellington was a general of great military training buddhist brahmin mohammedan christian jewish every religion was represented his letter will tell what he wants or will attempt to do so you will please hand in the following sentences one three seven and nine four presidents have been unitarians namely the two adams fillmore and taft the verse to which you refer is as follows the boast of heraldry the pomp of power Page 145 . Do not use quotation marks to enclose each separate sentence of a single continuous quotation. Do not use quotation marks to enclose well-known nicknames. besides. 135. 5. Use the apostrophe to mark certain plurals and possessives. 13. 137. See §§ 13 and 15. Can't. Examine the location of quotation marks and other punctuation in the following sentences: Wrong: "You may do as you wish. tomorrow. expression. Use the apostrophe to indicate the omission of letters. 8." Wrong: "Can you come. such as. prop-ose. Doesn't. superint-endent. 140. Always use a hyphen with to-day.
he is a good student and also a great athlete 41. he is called the peerless leader 28. if the break is slight use a comma if it is more perceptible use a semicolon if it is very sharp use a period 20. in that case let us have war 34. moreover naxon the cashier has fled 47. he told mother that he must go home at least that is what she understood 22. he means the house that has green shutters 38.all that beauty all that wealth eer gave await alike the inevitable hour the paths of glory lead but to the grave 15. the north quickly recovered from the civil war 53. the boundary of uncle sams lands is the rio grande river 51. dickens wrote nicholas nickleby hugo les miserables thackeray henry esmond 40. having assigned the lesson he left the room 43. mary said yes but helen said no 27. . theodore roosevelt is not the only strenuous man in history 52. william if you gear me answer 21. in the same town muncy lives smith now a respected man 58. he told mother to write to my uncle about it 54. in the first problem divide in the second multiply 19. you will find it discussed in paragraphs one two and three 45. royers address is danville illinois 44. separate the clauses by a comma unless the connection be close Page 146 25. a peasant named ali according to a good old oriental story needing badly a donkey for some urgent work decided to Page 147 apply to his neighbor mehmed whose donkey ali knew to be idle in the stable that day i am sorry my dear neighbor said mehmed in reply to alis request but i cannot please you my son took the donkey this morning to the next village i assure you insisted ali i shall take the very best care of him my dear neighbor can you not take my word demanded mehmed with a show of anger i tell you the donkey is out but at this point the donkey began to bray loudly there that is the donkey braying now well said the justly indignant mehmed if you would rather take my donkeys word than my word we can be friends no longer and under no circumstances can i lend you anything. as noise it is an undoubted success as music it is a flat failure 23. 59. a noun is the name of something as william france book cat 16. the house which was built by smith is on the corner of a large lot 37. oh that is what you mean is it 48. i had classes under the president dr harris 46. he was told to ask the principal professor morton 57. Note. that may be true but i still doubt it 24. he said then why are you here 55. even though that be true it does not prove what we want proved 26. in that army old young and middle aged men served for their country could no longer raise a picked army 56. that is wool not cotton as you seem to think 32. for this you will need a piece of clean white paper 49. Further exercise in punctuation may be had by copying without the marks of punctuation selections from books. that too is a mistake 31. if as you say it ought to be done why dont you do it 30. the different points discussed are these first the history of the divine right theory second the exponents of the theory and third the result of the theory 18. such an opinion i may say is absurd 35. the bible says the lord thy god is a jealous god 50. he gave me a red silk handkerchief 42. alas when i had noticed my mistake it was too late 36. those are all good books but none of them will do 39. such a man for example was lincoln 29. the train leaves at eight therefore we shall have to rise at seven at latest 17. a coroner was called upon to hold an inquest over the body of an italian the only witness was a small boy of the same nationality who spoke no english the examination proceeded thus where do you live my boy the boy shook his head do you speak english another shake of the head do you speak french another shake do you speak german still no answer how old are you no reply have you father and mother no reply do you speak italian the boy gave no sign well said the coroner i have questioned the witness in four languages and can get no answer it is useless to proceed the court is adjourned. the english are stolid the french lively 33.
.and afterwards inserting the proper marks.
Paragraph Length. together with the rest of the sentence of Page 149 it which is a part. however. each direct quotation. There is no fixed rule governing the proper length of the paragraph. In a letter. was thought to have banished the snakes from the island. The only case in which the quoted words can be detached from the remainder of the sentence is where they form the end of the sentence after some introductory words. systematic order. probably. St. If the whole composition is not more than two hundred and fifty words in length.. Patrick. Unity requires that the paragraph should deal with only one subject. by making each minute subdivision of equal importance. The . Careful thought before beginning the paragraph is necessary if unity is to be gained. Paragraphing of Speech. Then I took a berth for the night on one of the lake steamers running from Cleveland to Detroit. How to Gain Unity." said the woman. a zealous priest. 146. This rule should be always followed in writing a conversation. It gives rest to the eye of the reader. If unity is to be secured. 144. should constitute a separate paragraph. Where the general subject under discussion is very narrow. that. but usually. Page 150 Separate paragraphs should not be made of matter which belongs together. Indentation of the Paragraph. in describing the route followed in a certain journey. because. but also. I went from Pittsburgh to Cleveland. not only must all the ideas brought out in the paragraph deal with the same topic. as in the second paragraph of the example just given. 145. Wrong: In returning to the University. If paragraphing is too frequent.. and manner of expression. each dealing with some subdivision of the general subject. unity demands that they be grouped in one paragraph. the italicized sentence violates the principle of Unity. He had stopped at the house of this family for a meal. No other sentence should be so indented. For each one of these subtopics a separate paragraph should be made. Unity. The Paragraph is a connected series of sentences all dealing with the development of a single topic. to Germany. subject." "Then have some more. Sometimes a sentence or even a part of a sentence may be set off as a separate paragraph in order to secure greater emphasis.CHAPTER IX THE PARAGRAPH Page 148 141. not content with the religious work in Ireland. 143. and to the Alps and Apennines. what do you think of our Scotch broth?" "Madam. paragraphing should be more frequent than in other compositions. So enthusiastic were the Irish. Thus. in the following paragraph. Johnson. very obviously it belongs to some other paragraph: Never did any race receive the Gospel with more ardent enthusiasm than the Irish. the Irish Church sent out its missionaries to Scotland. In a narrative. Coherence. If the ideas can all be fairly included under one general topic. but. Samuel Johnson made to Scotland. During the meal the hostess asked: "Dr. "in my opinion it is fit only for pigs. it will not often need to be subdivided into paragraphs. The essential qualities which each paragraph should have are: Unity. Paragraphing should not be too frequent. is only using the paragraph for a proper purpose—to aid in gaining clearness. A certain point of view should be generally maintained as to tense. and makes clearer the fact that there is a change of topic at each new paragraph. The paragraph groups in a logical way the different ideas to be communicated. and should include nothing which does not have a direct bearing on that subject. The first sentence of each new paragraph should be indented. 147. Examine the following: A certain Scotch family cherishes this anecdote of a trip which Dr. 142. it forms one of a number of subtopics. See example under §144." was the answer. This. no paragraph need be more than three hundred words in length. one should not use a separate paragraph for each step in the journey. The purpose of the paragraph is to aid the reader to comprehend the thought to be expressed. and was helped to the national dish. From Detroit I completed the journey to Ann Arbor on an early train the next morning. the paragraph may constitute the whole composition.. Thus. it defeats its purpose of grouping ideas about some general topic. they must be developed in some consistent. and Emphasis. It founded religious houses and monasteries.
to overpower men's souls. by illustration. The first is interesting and easy to read. How to Gain Coherence. furnish forth the pure element of domestic felicity. Additional subjects and exercises will readily suggest themselves to teacher or student. The dreariness and desolation of the landscape. by reason of its not being so profusely illustrated. Our feelings sally forth and dissipate themselves over the sunny landscape and we "live abroad and everywhere. and unanticipated results. untying the fagot. Page 151 To rule was not enough for Bonaparte. Note the italicized words of coherence. more latitude in the matter of unity is allowed in compositions so brief that more than one paragraph is unnecessary. my sons. and make him the theme of every tongue. EXERCISE 74 The few following suggestions for practice in paragraph construction are given by way of outline. These words may be of various sorts." Æsop's Fables. and heaven with its deep delicious blue and its cloudy magnificence—all fill us with mute but exquisite delight. The topic sentence in each case is italicized. The first sentence is the clearest and best place for it. however. and which. this view. From Christmas. there are various ways of developing it. must be clearly brought out. etc. Our thoughts are more concentrated. to take it up and break it. Therefore. by displays of power which would rivet on him every eye. our friendly sympathies more aroused. or by showing cause or effect. and make us more keenly disposed for the pleasures of the social circle. earth with its mantle of refreshing green. The third quality which a paragraph should possess is emphasis. he gave them the sticks to break one by one. but power which should be gazed at as well as felt. it is usually gained by the use of words or phrases which refer to or help to keep in mind the effect of the preceding sentences. and should be clearly indicated by a topic sentence. should awaken something of the submissive wonder which miraculous agency inspires. The whole fabric of the paragraph must be woven together—it must not consist of disconnected pieces. Coherence. These topics are intended to apply only to isolated paragraphs—"paragraph themes. as long as you remain Page 153 united. of idea to idea. Sometimes the subject is repeated occasionally throughout the paragraph. A Husbandman who had a quarrelsome family. Each possesses the quality of unity. Examine also the selections under §§ 205 and 206. seems to me far more logical and scholarly in its construction. . 149. and are brought more closely together by dependence on each other for enjoyment. 151. They all tried. shut in also our feelings from rambling abroad. In addition to this I think you will find it cheaper in price. to dazzle. and we draw our pleasures from the deep wells of living kindness which lie in the quiet recesses of our bosoms. At other times we derive a great portion of our pleasures from the mere beauties of Nature. the murmur of the stream. take the better one. So he called his sons and bade them lay a bundle of sticks before him. Usually this topic sentence should be placed near the beginning of the paragraph. thought he might more readily prevail by an example. and note in each case how they aid the flow of thought from sentence to sentence. Stating the refusal of a position that has been offered to you. also. It is. Then having tied them up into a fagot. will do. The places of greatest emphasis are usually at the beginning and at the end of the paragraph. 150. one after another. the soft voluptuousness of summer. or is directly or indirectly indicated again at the end of the paragraph. the breathing fragrance of spring. but tried in vain. From The Character of Napoleon Bonaparte. Then. by Channing. With the topic determined. Examine carefully the following selections. or which show the bearing of the sentence on the paragraph topic. the golden pomp of autumn. This they did with the greatest ease. It may be developed by repetition. Then said the father: "Thus. which should strike men as a prodigy. you are a match for all your enemies. There is something in the very season of the year that gives a charm to the festivity of Christmas. by adding details and specific instances to the general statement. and.topic of the paragraph should be determined. The topic sentence need not be a formal statement of the subject to be discussed. Write paragraphs: 1. and wrapped in her shroud of sheeted snow. I should advise you to procure the second for your study. He wanted to reign through wonder and awe. Where vividness or some other quality does not gain coherence in the sentence. Either. and we revel in the luxury of mere sensation. Examine the following paragraphs. which should shake old thrones as an earthquake. To govern ever so absolutely would not have satisfied him. and that Pagebe so it 152 constructed that it may be readily grasped by the reader. magnificent. by no means lacking in the value of the information it presents. bold. But the second. but since you have a choice. He wanted to amaze. where resorted to. as. Power was his supreme object. in this way . by striking. by the suddenness of its new creations." As has been suggested. by the grandeur and terror of his name. by Washington Irving. while they circumscribe our wanderings. Heart calleth unto heart. by presenting proof. indeed. but may be any sentence that shows what is to be the central idea of the paragraph. But in the depth of winter. he told the lads. and you are undone. the short gloomy days and darksome nights." The song of the bird. and help to keep in mind the paragraph topic. Coherence demands that each paragraph shall be perfectly clear in its meaning. and giving your reasons for the refusal. it. The relation of sentence to sentence. 148. but differ and separate. if he must have governed silently. We feel more sensibly the charm of each other's society. The paragraph should be so constituted as to bring into prominence the topic or the point it is intended to present. while it is no less interesting and equally valuable in its contents. after having tried in vain to reconcile them by words. I will give you my opinion and advice in regard to the two books you have named. we turn our gratifications to moral sources. In short paragraphs sufficient emphasis is generally gained by having a topic sentence at the beginning. Emphasis. In longer paragraphs it is often well to indicate again the topic at the end by way of summary in order to impress thoroughly on the reader the effect of the paragraph. when Nature lies despoiled of every charm.
18. 7. 3. Give the general appearance and then the details. 6. Why I Dislike Surprise Parties. Why I Go Fishing. 5. Why I Was Late to Class. Why I Go to School. Describing the appearance of some building. 19. Stating your reasons for liking or not liking some book or play.2. My Most Useful Friend. 10. 4. Why I Like to Study X Branch. 17. 22. The Sort of Books I Like Best.) Showing by comparison that there are more advantages in city life than in country life. The Man I Room With. Explaining how to tie a four-in-hand necktie. What Becomes of My Matches. 21. My Best Teacher. My Favorite Month. 2. 3. My Opinion of Rainy Days. 20. 8. 12. 4. The Police Service of X Town. 16. What I Do on Sundays. My Favorite Town. How to Cure a Cold. Baseball is a Better Game than Football. My Opinion of My Relatives. To prove that it pays to buy good shoes. Why I Like to Visit at X's. 9. . 13. 14. To prove that the world is round. Page 153 Write paragraphs on the following subjects: 1. 8. 11. 6. The View from X Building. How to Prevent Taking Cold. 5. (Develop by illustration. 7. My Earliest Recollection. 15. Describing the personal appearance of some one of your acquaintance.
Note to Teacher.—For the purpose of training in composition, in the more elementary work, letter-writing affords probably the most feasible and successful means. Letter-writing does not demand any gathering of material, gains much interest, and affords much latitude for individual tastes in topics and expression. Besides, letter-writing is the field in which almost all written composition will be done after leaving school; and so all training in school will be thoroughly useful. For this reason, it is suggested that letter-writing be made one of the chief fields for composition work. In Exercise 75, are given a number of suggestions for letter-writing. Others will readily occur to the teacher. The Heading 152. Position of Heading. In all business letters the writer's address and the date of writing should precede the letter and be placed at the upper right hand side of the sheet not less than an inch from the top. This address and date is called the heading. In friendly letters the parts of the heading are sometimes placed at the end of the letter on the left side a short distance below the body of the letter. This is permissible, but to place it at the beginning in all letters is more logical and customary. Never write part of the heading at the beginning and part at the end of the letter. 153. Order of Heading. The parts of the heading should be sufficient to enable the accurate addressing of a reply, and should be in the following order: (1) the street address, (2) the town or the city address, (3) the date. If all cannot be easily placed on one line, two or even three lines should be used; but, in no case, should the above order bePage 156 varied. Examples:
Wrong: March 31, 1910, Red Oaks, Iowa, 210 Semple Street. Right: 210 Semple Street, Red Oaks, Iowa, March 31, 1910. Right: 210 Semple Street, Red Oaks, Iowa, March 31, 1910. Right: 210 Semple Street, Red Oaks, Iowa, March 31, 1910.
If only two lines are used, put the writer's address on the first line and the date on the second.
Wrong: January 19, 1910, Sharon, Pennsylvania, The Hotel Lafayette. Right: The Hotel Lafayette, Sharon, Pennsylvania, January 19, 1910.
154. Punctuation of Heading. Place a period after each abbreviation that is used. In addition to this, place commas after the street address, after the town address, after the state address, and after the number of the day of the month. Place a period after the number of the year. Examine the correct address under §153. 155. Faults to be Avoided in Headings. Avoid the use of abbreviations in the friendly letter, and avoid their too frequent use in the business letter. It is better to avoid abbreviating any but the longer names of states. Avoid all such abbreviations as the following: St. for Street; Ave. for Avenue; Apart. for Apartments; Chi. for Chicago; Phila. for Philadelphia.
Wrong: Hardie Apart., Pbg., Pa. Right: Hardie Apartments, Pittsburg, Pa.
Do not use the sign # before the street number. Do not omit the word Street.
Wrong: 229 Market. Right: 229 Market Street.
Do not write the date thus: 9/10/10. Represent the numbers by figures, not words. See §§ 75 and 76. Do not use st., rd., etc., after the number of the day.
Wrong: 9/8/09. Right: September 8, 1909. Wrong: September the Ninth, Nineteen Hundred and Nine. Right: September 9, 1909. Wrong: March 10th, 1910. Right: March 10, 1910.
The Inside Address 156. Position of Inside Address. In strictly commercial letters the name and the address of the person to whom the letter is being sent should come at the beginning of the letter, and should begin flush with the margin at the left side of the page, and a little below the level of the heading. The second line of the inside address should be set in a little from the margin. See model letters under §174. In formal friendly letters and in letters of a non-commercial nature, the inside address should stand a little below the bottom of the letter at the left side of the page. In informal friendly letters the inside address may be omitted. 157. Punctuation of Inside Address. In punctuating the inside address, place a period after each abbreviation that is used. In addition to this, place a comma after the name of the addressee, a comma after the street address, if one be given, and after the name of the town or city. Place a period after the name of the state or country. Examine the correct inside address under §174.
Page 158 158. Faults to be Avoided in the Inside Address. Do not omit the town, city, or state address from the inside address.
Wrong: Mr. E. P. Griffith, My dear Sir: Right: Mr. E. P. Griffith. Muskogee, Oklahoma. My dear Sir: Right: Mr. E. P. Griffith. 221 Fiji Avenue, Muskogee, Oklahoma. My dear Sir:
Do not omit proper titles.
Wrong: R. R. Stolz, Muncy, Pennsylvania. Right: Mr. R. R. Stolz, Muncy, Pennsylvania.
When two or more men are addressed, do not omit the title Mr., before the name of each of the men, unless their names constitute a partnership or trading name.
Right: Jones & Smith, (firm name) New York City. Gentlemen: Right: Mr. Jones and Mr. Smith, (not a firm name) New York City. Gentlemen:
Avoid all abbreviations of titles preceding the name except Mr., Mrs., Messrs., and Dr. Abbreviations of titles placed after the name, such as, Esq., D.D., A.M., etc., are proper. Do not use Mr. and Esq. with the same name.
Punctuation of Salutation. such as Dear Brown. etc. Bangor.. N. Braker: Will you please inform .. The Salutation 159. Miss is not an abbreviation.. Co. but it is better form to write the name in full. the salutation to be used is largely a matter of taste. It is over formal to use simply Sir or Madam in any letter. Position of Salutation. William Shipp. Right: Mr. My dear Mr. or to use Dear Sir or Dear Madam when writing to a familiar friend. United States of America may be abbreviated to U. Use no abbreviations except Dr. The salutation varies with the form of the letter and the relations between the writer and receiver of the letter.. when that title is used as a final word in a salutation. Smith. it is better to put the inside address at the close of the letter. The salutation should begin flush with the margin and on the line next below the inside address. Dear Sir: Do not place a period after the title Miss. Wren: Right: My dear Major Wren: Wrong: My dear Dr.Page 159 Avoid all other abbreviations except in case of a state with a very long name. Dear Cousin Albert. Gentlemen: Wrong: Mr.. Dear Miss Jaekel. 161. or My dear Sir. Braker. or for a company or a partnership.. Wrong: Mr. except in informal letters. Dear Madams or Mesdames are used. W. W. My dear Miss Smith. Dear Major. Faults to be Avoided in the Salutation. Dear Madam. Wrong: Merch. Me.. Dear Sir. In this case it is permissible to abbreviate. Dear Sir: Right: Mr. Dear John. Y. Dear William.: Right: My dear Doctor: Do not use a name alone as a salutation. It is considered more formal to prefix My to the salutation. W. Dear Sir: Will you please inform . A. See correctly written letters under §174. Dear Sirs. W. as in business and formal letters. Form of Salutation. William Shipp. Maine. 162. Dear Cousin. or to omit it. If one uses a very familiar salutation. My dear Madam.. C. Page 160 In the case of informal and friendly letters. or Dear Miss Jaekel may be used.. New York City. The following are illustrations of proper salutations for friendly letters: My dear Doctor. Mfg. Gentlemen: Right: The Merchants' Manufacturing Company. 160. . Muncy. Bangor. In less formal business letters such salutations as. For a group of persons. Where the parties are strangers or mere business acquaintances the most common salutations for individuals are. etc. Do not use the abbreviation Dr. Wrong: My dear Maj. Punctuate the salutation with a colon. Dear Friend. Mrs. when a comma may be used. S. Pennsylvania. Mr. Gentlemen.
however. In letters that are intended to be complete and formal. Faults in Body of the Letter. don't.. there is no objection to the use of colloquial expressions such as can't.. Manager of the Pennsylvania Telegraph. Bad: Yours of the 10th at hand. Unless you have some clear reason to the contrary. It is well to avoid the too frequent use of the pronoun I in the letter. Tele. ($2). Bad: In reply will say . Do not try to avoid its use by omitting it from the sentence. Mgr. Bad: Received yours of the 10th. Good: We have read your plan. Bad: We have read your plan. however. Good: We enclose post office money order for two dollars. See model letters under §174. and it is satisfactory. 165.. avoid the omission of articles.. No letter.. etc. Have had no chance to look up man. though care must be taken not to carry this caution to extremes. money order for $2. I have had no chance as yet to look up the man. Page 162 Avoid the use of abbreviations in the letter. O. Punctuate the letter just as carefully as any other composition. Penna. The Subject Matter of the Letter. Only in extremely familiar and hasty letters should the "telegraph style" be adopted. should be lacking in the courteous forms or in completeness. and prepositions. Good: Your letter of the 10th is at hand. but by substituting a different form of sentence. There is no objection to beginning a letter with I.. In friendly letters much latitude is allowed in the body of the letter. Form of Body. Same is satisfactory. should not be omitted when necessary to the completeness of the sentence. but business letters should be brief and to the point. Excepting in letters of a formal nature. Each separate point should be made the subject of a separate paragraph. Good: We have received your letter . Bad: Enclose P.. Good: In reply I wish to say . 164. pronouns. Good: Address in care of John Smith. avoid the use of expressions that have been used so much that . In commercial letters paragraph divisions are made more frequently than in other composition. but I will do so soon. The body of the letter usually begins on the line below the salutation and is indented the same distance from the margin as any other paragraph would be indented.. Will do so soon. Avoid also expressions that are grammatically incomplete. I. Bad: Your favor received .In the salutation capitalize only the important nouns and the first word of the salutation. Good: I have received your letter of the tenth. Wrong: My Dear Sir: Right: My dear Sir: Wrong: My very Dear Friend: Right: My very dear Friend: Wrong: Dear sir: Right: Dear Sir: Page 161 The Body of the Letter 163. Bad: Address c/o John Smith.
. Your loving son.. William Jones). The complimentary close should be written on a separate line near the middle of the page. such as. 167. Faults in the Close. Miller. In reply would say . we are . In formal letters it is customary for a woman to indicate how she is to be addressed by signing her name in the following manner: Sincerely yours. such as. Yours very truly... The Complimentary Close. In answer to your favor of the tenth .. In using a four-page sheet. Such expressions as the following ones are not wrong. Appleton & Company. . I am .. The following complimentary closes are proper for business letters: Yours respectfully. and should begin with a capital letter. Indent the beginning of each paragraph about an inch or more beyond the margin. Very truly yours. Caroline Jones.. The following complimentary closes are proper for friendly letters: Yours sincerely. Yours truly.. Please find enclosed ...... we are ... 1. Example: D. Appropriateness is the only guide to the choice of a complimentary close. These expressions are not wrong.. The Signature of the Writer. but are often used when not at all necessary. Thanking you for the favor.. Leave a margin of about a half inch or more on the left side of the page.. Business letters frequently close with some final words. and. In beginning the letter. We take pleasure in informing you . (Miss) Matilda Stephens. 169. We beg to acknowledge receipt of your favor . write on the pages in their order. (Mrs... Yrs. The letter should be so signed as to cause no doubt or embarrassment to any one addressing a reply. Do not use abbreviations. respy. Very truly yours. Your esteemed favor is at hand.. We beg to suggest . etc. try. yrs.. and after it the name of the writer. In signing a company name write first the name of the company... per J.. 2. itPage 164 should indicate whether she is to be addressed as Miss or Mrs. Affectionately yours. place the address and date an inch and a half or two inches below the top of the page. In reply permit me to say .. Very truly yours. A waiting your further orders.. Miscellaneous Directions 170. 168.. 4. Thanking you again for your kind assistance. 3. Yours very truly. We beg leave to advise . Yours cordially. The signature should show whether the writer is a man or a woman. we are . etc. W. Awaiting your further orders. Final Words. if a woman. but are often used when they are both inappropriate and unnecessary. Page 163 The Close 166.they are worn out and often almost meaningless.
Place the stamp squarely in the upper right-hand corner. Position of Outside Address. nor too far to one side. Within the lines punctuate just as you would in the inside address. Charles Jones In care of Mr. Wm. Punctuation of Outside Address. Trenton. the second somewhat set in. If it is used. Do not use the sign # before the number of the street address. and a comma after each preceding line. Edward Furrey Wilkinsburg Pennsylvania Bad: Rev. of Bucknell Univ. New Jersey Bad: Chas. Wilkinsburg. Good: For the President of Bucknell University. Jones. Page 166 A properly arranged address: . Pa. Place the address on the envelope so that it balances well. c/o Edward Furrey. The salutation should begin flush with the margin. Do not have it too far Page 165 toward the top. not obliquely to the sides of the envelope. If an abbreviation ends the line. 172. Bad: Pres.. No letters or sign at all should be used there. The body of the letter should begin on the line below the salutation. 200 John Street. and some distance in from the margin. Walter Bertin Good: The Reverend Walter Bertin Bad: Pres. 173. place a period at the end of the last line. The first line of the inside address should be flush with the margin. J. N. #200 John St. Punctuation may be omitted at the end of the lines of the address. See §155. Good: For the President of Bucknell University. Trenton. See addressed envelope under §173. of Bucknell Univ. Compare the following forms of addresses: Bad: Col. Point.In the correctly written forms of letters under §174 observe the indentation of the lines. Good: Colonel William Point 200 John Street Trenton. New Jersey. Faults in the Outside Address. Avoid the use of abbreviations except those that would be proper in the inside address or in the heading. Good: Colonel William Point. always place a period after it. whether the other lines are punctuated or not. See §§ 155 and 158. The Outside Address 171. Good: Mr. too close to the bottom.
I shall consider it a very great favor. Mr. Muncy. To whom it may concern: It gives me great pleasure to testify to the character. Pennsylvania. Commonwealth Building. Wassel. A. 1910. 1909. Only your influence enabled us to get so good a man at so Iowa price. Pennsylvania. Weaver. Wilkinsburg. My dear Mrs. Esquire. Pittsburg. Massachusetts. You may.174. 173 State Street. January 12. A. Hagon: I wish to thank you for your kind aid in securing Captain Howard to deliver one of the lectures in our course. Page 167 My dear Professor Morton: We are trying to establish in the school here some permanent system of keeping students' records. 1909. Sylvester D. Howell. however. Cambridge. He has advertised the sale of a rather extensive list of books. Braddock. E. Very sincerely yours. Harris A. I will say in answer that at present I have no intention of selling them. New York. 1909. Heidenreich. If you can give me any information in regard to your method. Professor E. He has been a . M. Braddock. Charles M. January 12. Pennsylvania. be able to secure what you want from H. J. Detroit. Very sincerely. B. ability and attainments of Mr. Plotts. Michigan. Morton. Very truly yours. Dunlop. January 23. Pennsylvania. Correctly Written Letters 200 Mead Avenue. I have been told that you have worked out a card method that operates successfully. January 12. I enclose a stamped envelope for your reply. My dear Sir: I have received your letter of inquiry about the sale of my law books.
Fleegor. I understand that institutions of this sort are allowed a ten per cent discount by you. Dear Sirs: Will you please send me a price list and descriptive catalogue of your tapestries and carpets? I have been commissioned to purchase all the tapestries and carpets that may be needed for the new Young Women's Christian Association Building. for which please send me one of your small cook stoves. for the prospect of talking over old times with you is delightful. Page 168 My dear Paul: I shall be very glad to accept your invitation to take dinner with you before you take final leave of the city. I was more than pleased to receive your invitation. Ernest Burrows. Ohio. next Wednesday evening. The Acme Tapestry Company. will you please write or telephone to me sometime before Tuesday? Very cordially yours. The American Stove Company. Hutchins. June 5. I should like to have you come out and take dinner with me some evening. March 30. How would next Wednesday at six o'clock suit you? If you can come at that time. on Arlington Avenue. Very truly yours. The time you mention. New York City. is entirely satisfactory to me. It will be a great favor if you will hasten the shipment of this stove as much as possible. Harry B. this city. Philadelphia. 1908. Pennsylvania. Anna R. Walter Powell. Sincerely yours. He may be counted upon to do successfully anything that he is willing to undertake. Gentlemen: With this letter I enclose a check for ten dollars. Pennsylvania. Napoleon. Vandine. 6556 Broad Street. Philadelphia. 223 Siegel Street. Pennsylvania. February 28. Before I go. 1909. 1909. My dear Walter: I am to be in the city only a few more weeks before leaving permanently. The Lafayette.trusted personal associate of mine for more than twenty years. March 31. New York. Alverton. . of the sort listed in your catalogue on page two hundred thirty-eight. 1910. Syracuse. Paul B. since it is urgently needed in a summer cottage that I have for rent. Will you please tell me if this is true? Very truly yours.
Drawsburg. N. Pennsylvania. C. James R. C. April 20. Illinois. Salary is a very slight object to me in this work. But do not forget that your old friends are still living and will always be interested in your welfare. Indiana. I should like to know if at the present time my policy has any cash surrender value. McCormick. Germantown. May 10. Ohio. 223 Holbrook Avenue. Wilkinsburg. Respectfully yours. and G. November 10. Your conclusion. will you please have the proper entry made. Bunnell Building. Gentlemen: I am the holder of Policy Number 2919 in your company. Philadelphia. Mary E. Norfolk. This summer I want to secure practical experience in electric wiring.. Ira S. the change of occupation should be recorded on your books. Wilkinson.) Page 169 Lewisburg. and to Mr. I would refer you to Mr. May you find happiness and prosperity in your new location. 1910. Johnston. Pennsylvania. The Jefferson Life Insurance Company. Danville.(Mrs. Pennsylvania. Your affectionate cousin. Stevenson. and am now engaged in conducting a store. Mr. Very truly yours. My dear Norman: I have just heard of your good fortune and hasten to assure you of my sincere pleasure in the news. Lately I have changed occupations. Colorado. I am . If you wish references as to my character and ability. In that Policy. Fleegor. Pearse. Gentlemen: I am writing to ask if you can give me employment in your work for about ten weeks beginning June 15th. Scranton. my Page 170 occupation is stated to be carpenter. Pennsylvania. Virginia. what that value is. 1908. Elliot. Superintendent of the Street Railways Company. the addresses of George English. Arthur J. Shepherd. William R. 1909. and am in my sophomore year. If. in order to maintain the validity of my policy. and I shall be willing to accept whatever compensation you may see fit to offer me. It is my plan to gain some practical experience in various sorts of electrical work during the vacations occurring in my course. May 21. which was taken out about ten years ago. as soon as you conveniently can. The Merchant's Electric Wiring Company. 1910. and if so. This request for addresses may lead you to think that wedding invitations are to be looked for. I am at present taking a course in electrical engineering at Bucknell University. Lewisburg. Harvey H. Wilkins. My dear Elliot: Will you please send me. Harry E.
Use no abbreviations except Mr. at a reception in honor of Governor Edwin S. . Leighou's company at dinner on Sunday. Stuart. Still more was I surprised to find what a festive. stylish place it is. June the fifth. Bucknell University. 1907. but suppose it is because we so suddenly changed our address. Morton's company on Tuesday evening. March 19. 110 Braddock Avenue. Moore's kind invitation for Sunday. Fill in details according to your own fancy: 1. salutation. The Anglo-American Hotel. by the time and the place of writing. A letter to the X Express Company of your town.happy to say. Vienna. as I wrote to you. Use no pronoun but that of the third person. is a correct one. Correctly Written Notes in the Third Person. Dear Aunt Emily: You will no doubt be surprised when you read the heading of this letter and learn that we are now in Vienna. June the first. Cordially your friend. Charles R. It is customary and desirable to write certain kinds of notes in the third person. but Vienna lacks only the reputation. We have not received the usual letter from you this week. 1020 Highland Street. It ought to reach you as soon as this letter. Harris. We had really intended. followed at the left side of the paper. Have every letter complete in all its formal parts. May the twenty-fifth.. Spell out all dates. I discovered. The necessity of forwarding it from Berlin has probably caused the delay. to spend the entire months of March and April in Berlin. May the twenty-seventh. but a sudden whim sent us on to this city. Until we came to Vienna I had but a very vague idea of the city. Mrs. Washington. Page 171 The other day in one of the shops here. Your affectionate niece. and have already sent it by post. I purchased it to present to you. or Dr. complaining of their delay in delivering a package to you. a very fine miniature. June the tenth. Never use any heading. as I thought. June the first. it certainly does not lack the fashionable and frivolous air. I was surprised to find it a place of so many beautiful buildings and beautiful streets. Father and Mother join in sending their love to you. and thought it a place of little interest. or signature. Mr. Paris may have the reputation for fashion and frivolity. Mary. Such a note contains nothing but the body of the note. EXERCISE 75 Page 172 Make use of some of the following suggestions for letters. Harry Moore requests the pleasure of Mr. Mrs. Pennsylvania. at two o'clock. Notes in the Third Person 175. 176. Leighou regrets that a previous engagement prevents his acceptance of Mrs. I expect to be married sometime in June.. The Senior Class of Bucknell University requests the pleasure of Professor and Mrs. Austria.
23. 7. A formal third person invitation to a reception given to some organization to which you belong. etc. A formal third person acceptance of such invitation. A letter to a friend. A letter to a relative telling him the recent occurrences in your town. etc. 11. 33. A letter describing a house to a man who wishes to purchase it. 31. 22. Leave no doubt. Explain the venture. 25. prices. 13. etc. lecturer. woman suffrage. A letter describing experiences which you had on your vacation. 17. 10. 24. describing to your parents your school. asking him for a position in his office. prohibition. 4. A letter accepting an invitation to visit a friend. 21. time. 29. A letter to the X school. Page 173 A letter describing some play which you have recently attended. A letter explaining how to reach your home from the railway station. A letter stating your opinions on some public question. inquiring about courses of study given. A letter to your parents telling them of your boarding place. Arrange the topics and make the transition as smooth as possible. A letter telling some humorous story that you have recently heard. A letter to Mr. your recent visit to the theater. occasion. A letter congratulating a friend on some good fortune that has befallen him. as. etc. A letter asking a friend his opinion of some business venture that you are thinking of entering upon. 14. A letter detailing your plans for the succeeding year. X. A letter to your parents explaining to them why you failed in an examination. 8. A letter describing to a friend the appearance and characteristics of a dog which you have lately bought. 5. 15. A letter to a friend. A letter to your home. A letter in reply to an inquiry from a friend as to what outfit he will need to take along on a prospective camping trip. A letter telling a friend the first impression you formed of your school. A letter inviting a friend to visit you at a certain time. 3. . 34. A letter telling about an intended celebration by the school of some national holiday. thanking him for the entertainment afforded you on a recent visit to his house. your meeting an old friend. Describe the place. A letter describing a day's outing to a friend who was unable to go with you. Explain your needs. 6. 9. 30. 19. 28. your work. A letter to the X store ordering from them material for covering a canoe that you are building. the prices. A letter to the X Book Company. A letter about a lecture that you recently attended. A letter discussing the baseball prospects in your town or school. A letter arranging to meet a friend at a certain place. 26. 32. your new acquaintances. 35. 20. telling him of the chance meeting with some friend. A letter describing some new acquaintance. 16. 12.2. inquiring what dictionary they publish. address. etc. A travel letter describing your visit to various places of interest. A letter to a schoolmate describing to him various events which happened at school during his absence. and stating your qualifications. 18. 27.
and a suitable proportion secured in their discussion.CHAPTER XI THE WHOLE COMPOSITION Page 174 177. were discussed: Definition of Paragraph. Statement of Subject. Paragraphing for emphasis. A. Coherence in the Paragraph. 179. topics properly subordinated. and what is to be the method of developing the discussion. 178. The topic sentence. Just as in the building of a house or of a machine. By the inexperienced writer. Care should be used in the statement of the subject. The following general principles applying to the construction of the whole composition are stated for the guidance of the inexperienced writer. Paragraphing of speech. Too Frequent Paragraphing. Definition. at least. Development of topic sentence. How to secure unity. Emphasis in the Paragraph. The Outline. 3. How to secure coherence. THE PARAGRAPH 1. a carefully made plan is necessary before entering on the construction. 2. As soon as the material for the composition is in hand. Paragraphing for Emphasis. The Paragraph Theme. Paragraphing of Speech. Picnics. Photography. or an exposition. Properly limited: A College Education as an Aid to Earning Power. How to Secure Unity. if anything creditable is to be attained. For a small essay. the outline should be made. It should be an aid in the construction of the composition. Examples of Unity. a description. so in the writing of an essay or theme. Examples showing unity. there should be made some plan or outline. Its definition and purpose. Examples showing how unity is destroyed. Definition. which will determine what different things are to be discussed. Length of Paragraph. Only by the previous making of an outline can a logical arrangement be gained. How Picnics Help the Doctor. How to Secure Coherence. Purpose of the Paragraph. Coherence. Too frequent paragraphing. Unity in the Paragraph. Does College Life Make Loafers? Photography as a Recreation. The Topic Sentence. but should be limited to cover only what is discussed. whether the composition be a narration. not a thing to be derived after the composition is completed. take some limited phase of that subject: Too broad: College. It should not be so stated as to be more comprehensive than the composition. In the previous chapter on the paragraph the following different subtopics. If the topics had been taken up in the above irregular order. Unity. Its length. Compare the above list of topics with the following arrangement of the same topics in a logical outline. By the term Whole Composition or Theme is meant a composition consisting of a number of related paragraphs all dealing with one general subject. Page 176 B. Examples showing how Unity is Destroyed. instead of a big subject. a sorry result would have been obtained. . a composition should never be begun until an outline Page 175 has been formed for its development. Its essential qualities.
indefinite ghosts lurked behind every door. their meaning or clearness should not depend upon reference to the title. THE INDUSTRY OF LAWYER Oddly enough. Use and Qualities of the Outline. that of cause and effect. 4. 5. but is also necessary in narration and description. The essential features of the subject should be the main topics. 182. The paragraph theme. The relation may be that of chronology. Thus. the order of time in which events occurred. Often a general description is given. hardly any notice is taken of an industry in which the United States towers in unapproachable supremacy above all other nations of the earth. Practical construction of the paragraph. Unity in the Composition. To choose a method of beginning a composition often causes trouble. is the best order in which to present them. but should be subordinated to the main topics. 181. Examine the following methods of beginning. Usually a simple. . The whole object of the outline is to secure clearness of statement and to avoid confusion and repetition. But sometimes an introductory paragraph is necessary in order to explain the writer's point of view. Minor subjects should not be given too great prominence. The census does not say a word about it. than the feelings of terror which I experienced when forced to go to bed without the protecting light of a lamp. THE USES OF IRON No other metal is put to so many uses and is so indispensable as iron. direct beginning is the best. Usually. in describing a building. The outline should not be too minute and detailed. The use of the outline is not restricted to an expository composition. These topics or subtopics should all bear some apparent and logical relation to one another. so long as it is a logical and natural one. and the impression it makes on the observer. The opening sentences of a composition should be able to stand alone.Examples showing coherence. nor does there exist more than the merest word about it in all the literature of American self-praise. In the different subdivisions. The Beginning of the Composition. Emphasis. and its demands here are in general the same. Then more particular description might be made of its details of arrangement and peculiarities of architecture and ornamentation. Bad: THE VALUE OF LATIN IN THE HIGH SCHOOL There is a rapidly growing belief that this study has too large a place in our high-school courses of study. also. and to prevent the confusion of subtopics. though other arrangements may frequently be followed with very good reason. Places of emphasis in the paragraph. or to indicate to what phases of the subject attention is to be given. and then followed by a statement of various details. Nothing must be brought into the composition which does not fall well within the limits of the subject. Unity is an essential element of the whole composition as well as of the paragraph. or any other relation. In a description different methods may be followed. MY CHILDHOOD FEAR OF GHOSTS Nothing stands out more keenly in the recollection of my childhood. as above. in a narration. one might first describe in a general way its size. The outline should have proportion. its general style of architecture. It should be sufficient only to cover the various divisions of the Page subject-matter. or lay in wait beneath every bed. nothing must be discussed which properly belongs to some other division of the topic. A too detailed outline tends to make the composition stiff177 and formal. that of general statement followed by details. To secure this end the outline should present a few main topics to which all others either lead up or upon which they depend. hid in every clothes-press. Then it was that dread. 180. C. Page 178 Good: THE VALUE OF LATIN IN THE HIGH SCHOOL There is a rapidly growing belief that Latin has too large a place in our high school courses of study.
coherence. Transitional paragraph) There are. the ending should neither be too abrupt. Its different parts must be closely knit together and the whole closely knit to the subject.. Frequently.. and of its vital resources of men and money. An additional reason.. The kind of ending depends entirely upon the nature and the scheme of development of the story. Page 179 For this purpose. There must not be a continual changing of relation of parts of the composition to the subject. It remains to mention. by his own story. It should be in proportion to the length of the composition. it should consist of a paragraph or two by way of summary or inference. A composition must also be coherent. These transition sentences may come at the end of a preceding paragraph. on the other hand. care must be taken not to bring in any conversation or occurrence. Observe the following: (Paragraph 7) Page 180 . 183. except in the case of a story. Just as in the paragraph. words. (Paragraph 9) The first of these plans is . A continual changing back and forth between present and past tenses must also be avoided. or sentences which show the change of topic from paragraph to paragraph... The nation was drained of its best blood. so as to prevent confusion. Examine the selection under §187. The Ending of the Composition. or sentences of reference and transition are needed.. The expense of the war was enormous—much beyond any former experience. 184. The following are a few of the words and phrases often used to indicate transition and to show relation between the paragraphs: So much for.. Again. however.. he could not have been present. who were made the instruments by which the wicked purposes of the authors were effected.. One or the other should be adopted consistently. Usually. I was now enabled to see the extent and aspect of my prison.. at which. Therefore. If the writer is telling of events within his own experience. a separate paragraph is devoted to accomplishing the transition from part to part. The only other law bearing on this matter is the Act of Assembly of last year authorizing the receipts from the automobile taxes to be used in the construction of roads. nor of the writer's relation to the subject. however. Examine the following parts of paragraphs in which the words or phrases showing transition from part to part are italicized: (Last sentence of first paragraph) . In its size I had been greatly mistaken. . As a result of this. in order to bind the whole together and show the relation of its parts. words of reference and transition are needed. In the next place. (Beginning of paragraph following one on Unity in the paragraph) The second of the essentials of the paragraph. demands that. (Second paragraph) The mischief. and yet at the same time bridge the thought from paragraph to paragraph. By way of exception. however. nor. Moreover. which are now being seriously discussed. (Paragraph 8.. Examine the following endings: Ending of a theme on The Uses of Iron: . should it be too long drawn out.As in the paragraph. in the longer compositions. the ending may be abrupt or not. Coherence in the Composition. This then completes the enumeration of what has already been done toward building good roads. (Third paragraph) And yet. or at both of these places. a definite point of view should be adopted and adhered to.... recoiled on the unhappy people of this country.. several promising plans for the securing of this important result. the beginning of a new division or any definite change of topic should be closely marked. A consistent point of view is especially necessary in a narrative. The American War was pregnant with misery of every kind. or at the beginning of a following one.. In a longer composition. what has the British nation received in return for this expense. In a story. Hence.. so in the composition. There should be transition sentences.
or by firelight—and when I asked if I might not ring for candles to finish stitching my wristbands. 9. and they are really made happy if the person on whose plate it lies unused suddenly breaks off a piece of toast (which he does not want at all) and eats up his butter. In the winter afternoons she would sit knitting for two or three hours—she could do this in the dark. Some of the words of coherence have been italicized. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this. Various Methods of Heating a House. 5. But in a larger sense we cannot dedicate. I cannot imagine. They think that this is not waste. it required some contrivance to keep our two candles of the same length. Small Economies. As we lived in constant preparation for a friend who might come in any evening (but who never did). we cannot consecrate. though tamed by age. but my heart failed me.. that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they here gave the last full measure of devotion. should be read by everyone. who struggled here have consecrated it far above our power to add or detract. but it can never forget what they did here. nor long remember. rather. Even now. The world will little note. 8. and so I could not even sit on the rug. 6. An old gentleman of my acquaintance.Only some of the more important uses of this wonderful metal. she told me to "keep blind man's holiday. as a matter of general education. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. or any nation so conceived and so dedicated. conceived in liberty. unity. Of course. I am seriously annoyed if any one cuts the string of a parcel instead of patiently and faithfully undoing it fold by fold. 11. It is perfect in its English and its construction. And then he was gone. to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. and. as lightly as they do. the corresponding pages at the other end came out as well. shall not perish from the earth. Gaskell's Cranford. Miss Matty's eyes were habitually fixed upon the candle. written on only one of the sides. The City Park. brought forth upon this continent a new nation. The brave men." They were usually brought in with tea. Now Miss Matty Jenkins was chary of candles. 186. 10. forever. and I could not commit the extravagance. Have you not seen the anxious look (almost mesmeric) which such persons fix on the article? They would feel it a relief if they might bury it out of their sight by popping it into their own mouths and swallowing it down. I have often noticed that everyone has his own individual small economies—careful habits of saving fractions of pennies in some one peculiar direction—any disturbance of which annoys him more than spending shillings or pounds on some real extravagance. Shall Foreign Immigration be Restricted? My Youthful Business Ventures. testing whether that nation. 7. I am not above owning that I have this human weakness myself. I have one which is not new— Page 183 one that I picked up off the floor nearly six years ago. and scorch myself with sewing by firelight. Why I Belong to the X Political Party. according to my usual custom. in which some of his money was invested. and this little unnecessary waste of paper (his private economy) chafed him more than all the loss of his money. ready to jump up and extinguish it and to light the other before they had become too uneven in length to be restored to equality in the course of the evening. with the three lines of acceptance to an invitation. 187. 15. and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. under God. and emphasis. We had many devices to use as few as possible. 1. that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain. we cannot hallow this ground. How people can bring themselves to use indiarubber bands. The Value of Railroads. The candles took it in turns. and for the people. I remember this candle economy particularly annoyed me. from Mrs. These books are of a varied character and are all interesting and of recognized excellence in their English. and to look as if we burnt two always. and I did not like to stir the fire and run the risk of awakening her.. by the people. The only way in which he could reconcile himself to such waste of his cherished article was by patiently turning inside out all that were sent to him. Envelopes fretted his soul terribly when they first came in. 4." he said. 2. worried his family all through a long summer's day because one of them had torn (instead of cutting) out the written leaves of his now useless bank-book. picked up and twisted together. whatever we might be talking or doing. can long endure. Most of them are books that. which are a sort of deification of string. Shall Final Examinations be Abolished? The Subjects which Should be Taught in High Schools. My Town as a Place of Residence. living and dead. My pockets get full of little hanks of it. Ending of a story: John heard her answer. They cannot attend to conversation because of the annoyance occasioned by the habit which some people have of invariably taking more butter than they want. shall have a new birth of freedom. There are hundreds of other uses to which it is constantly put—uses which no other metal could fill. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us. The Uses of Iron. but it has long since lost its claim to that title. . How I Spent my Vacation. I see him casting wistful glances at his daughters when they send a whole inside of a half-sheet of note paper. 3. 12. that this nation. with a stoical mildness. Fourscore and seven years ago our fathers. String is my foible. To me an india rubber band is a precious treasure. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field as the final resting-place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. Page 182 It is for us.. ready to be lighted. the living. I had been very much tired of my compulsory "blind man's holiday. and so making them serve again. Why I Believe in Local Option. iron. and began to move slowly away from the gate. Paul Revere's Ride. have been mentioned. Suggested subjects for the making of outlines and compositions. I have really tried to use it. Study it with especial reference to its coherence. what we say here." especially as Miss Matty had fallen asleep. but we only burnt one at a time. 14. "Good-bye. A List of Books for Reading. One night. Gold may once have been called the king of metals. Now we are engaged in a great civil war. 13. Page 181 185. Below is given in full Lincoln's Gettysburg Speech. A Winter's Sleigh Ride. who took the intelligence of the failure of a Joint-Stock Bank. My Qualifications for a Position. ready for uses that never come. and that government of the people. Small pieces of butter grieve others.
Silas Marner—Eliot. Bunker Hill Oration—Webster. The Legend of Sleepy Hollow—Irving. The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table—Holmes. Jekyll and Mr. Uncle William—Lee. Henry Esmond—Thackeray.Page 184 Fiction: Treasure Island—Stevenson. Kidnapped—Stevenson. The Blue Flower—Van Dyke. Lorna Doone—Blackmore. Views Afoot—Taylor. Autobiography—Franklin. Pilgrim's Progress—Bunyan. Non-fiction: Sesame and Lilies—Ruskin. Twice Told Tales—Hawthorne. The Luck of Roaring Camp—Bret Harte. Certain Delightful English Towns—Howells. Critical Periods of American History—Fiske. Tales of a Traveller—Irving. The American Commonwealth—Bryce. Conspiracy of Pontiac—Parkman. The Declaration of Independence. On Conciliation with America—Burke. The Man without a Country—Hale. Dr. Ivanhoe—Scott. Tales of Mystery and Imagination—Poe. The Scarlet Letter—Hawthorne. Hyde—Stevenson. The Sketch Book—Irving. A History of the English People—Green. Robinson Crusoe—Defoe. Stones of Venice—Ruskin. Lincoln—Douglas Debates. The Spy—Cooper. . Rip Van Winkle—Irving.
Examples: locomote pluralized suicided burglarized derailment refereed 3. Provincialisms are expressions current and well understood in one locality. (3) Present. Examples: guess (think) reckon (suppose) . The offenses against good use are usually said to be of three classes: Solecisms. A word is in good use when it is used grammatically and in its true sense. and Improprieties. The following rules may be given on this subject: Page 1. is a word not in reputable. Examples: billet-doux (love letter) ad nauseam (to disgust) ad infinitum (infinitely) conversazione (conversation) distingué (distinguished) entre nous (between us) 4. Examples: an invite enthuse an exposé a combine a try fake A common newspaper fault is the coining of a verb or adjective from a noun. Avoid foreign words. not foreign or local in its use. Since there are almost always English words just as expressive as the foreign words. used by the writers of one's own time. 191. Words 189. present or national use. is that it be in good use. but not current or differently understood in another locality. Good Use. the use of the foreign words usually indicates affectation on the part of the one using them. though many of these words may in time come into use. he must be able to choose words and phrases that accurately express his meaning. one must have a good working vocabulary.—SPELLING. 192. The first essential that a word should have. There are a great many words current in the newspapers and in other hasty writing that have not the sanction of general good use at the present time. Avoid obsolete words. This rule might also be made to include obsolescent words: words that are at present time passing out of use. Barbarisms. A safe rule is to avoid all words that are at all doubtful. or a noun from a verb. in use by good authors and writers in general. Solecisms have been treated under the earlier chapters on grammar. Barbarisms. Offenses against Good Use. and he must be able to spell and pronounce correctly the words that he uses. 190. he must employ only words that are in good use. reputable use. the use must be general. Avoid newly coined expressions or new uses of old expressions. Avoid provincialisms. (2) National . Examples of obsolete words: methinks yclept yesterwhiles afeard twixt shoon 2. have since passed out of general 186 use. The second offense against good use. A foreign word should not be used until it has become naturalized by being in general. a barbarism. Obsolete words are words that. once in good use. The use of a word by one or two good writers is not sufficient to make a word reputable. and is also: (1) Reputable. To write and to speak good English.CHAPTER XII WORDS. Solecisms are the violations of the principles of grammar. He must know words and be able to use them correctly.—PRONUNCIATION Page 185 188.
swell. a combine. cinch. The use of such words is another form of vulgarism. down town. When Barbarisms May be Used. suicided. Avoid clipped or abbreviated words. biz. Practice using the good expressions that you have made.near (stingy) tuckered (tired out) tote (carry) smart (clever) lift (elevator) ruination (ruin) Page 187 5. pluralized. on tick. knocker. reckon. cracker-jack. galoot. nary a one. railroaded. deceased (verb). spake. in cahoot. a poke. mayhap. Slang is a form of vulgarism that is very prevalent in its use even by educated people. tote. corker. entre nous. The safest rule is to avoid slang expressions because of their general bad taste and because of their weakening effect on one's vocabulary of good words. chink. orate. cuss. classy. 2. in hock. But barbarisms may sometimes be used properly. EXERCISE 77 Make a list of such barbarisms as you yourself use. a right smart ways. erst. prof. Avoid slang. disremember. locomote. per se. incog. quoth. to rattle. complected. technical words permissible in technical writing. hadn't oughter. chic. dern. Examples: pard (partner) doc (doctor) musee (museum) rep (reputation) cal'late (calculate) a comp (complimentary ticket) 8. twain. He spends all his time grinding. burglarized. and even vulgarisms and provincialisms permissible in dialect stories. puny. booze. enthused. cute. They can go everywheres. his'n. and in a measure true of their use in composition of a special Page 188 nature. eld. a boom. zoo. sometimes come into good repute and usage. getable. busted on the bum. mal de mer. get left. outclassed. Such words are usually clearly understood only by persons of one class or profession. callate. . Avoid technical or professional words. a rig. a try. grind. bike. Obsolete words would be permissible in poetry or in historical novels. grub. Such words as the following are always in bad taste: chaw gal haint nigger flustrated dern your'n hadn't oughter his'n 6. dole. to watch out. rep. Avoid vulgarisms. near. peradventure. Slang words. Examples of slang: grind long green pinch swipe on a toot peach booze dough dukes 7. When in doubt consult a good dictionary: Chaw. EXERCISE 76 Substitute for each of the barbarisms in the following list an expression that is in good use. tuckered. afeard. yore. alter ego. Vulgarisms are words whose use shows vulgarity or ignorance. secondhanded. This is true of their use in general composition. photo. fess up. gents. forsooth. fake. bug-house. swipe. pants. ain't. it is true. mucker. opry. ruination. yclept. In the foregoing rules barbarisms have been treated as at all times to be avoided. an invite. mesalliance. on a toot. up against it. exam. guess. dub. distingué. tollable. Examples: valence kilowatt hagiology sclerosis allonge estoppel 193. and devise for them as many good substitute expressions as you can. but the process is slow. EXERCISE 78 Correct the italicized barbarisms in the following sentences: 1. nouveau riche.
an impropriety. I could of jumped across. In each group of sentences fill the blanks with the proper words: Accept. You make such dumb mistakes. is the use of a proper word in an improper sense. 12. He left the room unbeknown to his mother. That can't be done nohow. 25. I never saw such a bum show. I finally got shut of him. 1. 1. There ain't a sightlier town in the state. 4. I wouldn't be such tight-wad. He —— the invitation. 29.3. 18. 9. In many cases an offense against good use may be called a barbarism. 31. 26. 11. See Glossary at end of book. Let me say en passant we did not ask for the tickets. I didn't go for to do it. 36. Many improprieties have their origin in the similarities in sound. It's a right smart ways to Williamsport. but he is very near. Improprieties. That woman is the Countess of Verdun. since the fields covered by the three terms somewhat overlap one another. 7. except. Aggravate. 22. an impropriety. née Smith. Have you no books —— these? Cicero was not —— from the list of those condemned. The third offense against good use. If manners are any indication. 5. 27. I hadn't thought on that. I reckon all will be able to get seats. 2. 15. John is a crazy cuss. 4. 4. Brown runs a pretty classy store. 16. See Glossary. 38. under except. 21. irritate. effect. 35. . Come now. It will be published inside of two months. 23. she belongs to the nouvea riche. He bought a poke of apples for his lunch. 32. There is little difference twixt the two. Page 189 Page 190 194. He has money. Do you callate to get there before noon? If I had as much long green as he has. Even at that time John had a bad rep. The following exercises deal with a number of common improprieties resulting from the confusion of two similar words. 8. 3. Not muchly will I go. 14. I cannot —— your gift. Smith's new house is very showy. 24. How was the bank —— by the indictment of its president? The change of schedule was —— without a hitch. You wot not what you say. or a solecism. 34. He was the beau ideal of soldier. Methinks you are wrong. fess up. All were ready for breakfast before sun-up. 3. 13. spelling or meaning of words. I feel pretty tollable today. 20. 33. 10. See Glossary under effect. Do you like light-complected people? I had never orated before. Will your plan —— a reform from the present condition? The sad news will seriously —— his mother. The duke and his wife were travelling incog. EXERCISE 79 Study the proper use of the words given under each of the following divisions. 17. Their clothes are always tasty in appearance. 30. The teacher spake sharply to her. 39. 37. He ate the whole hunk of cake He was treated very illy. 19. 28. 6. 2. Affect.
never his ——. assert. An avocation is something aside from or subordinate to that principal calling. 2. Counsel means an adviser. The young physician enthusiastically pursues his ——. 2. To argue is to state reasons for one's belief. augur. He —— that the work will take ten years. The attorney —— (to) no names. He —— to sell books this summer. The ministry should be one's ——. The crime was —— by being committed in cold blood. To claim means to make a demand for what is one's own. Besides. In this community his —— is excellent. 1. 1. 4. 4. 1. but politics is his ——. reputation. That passage in his book delicately —— (to) his mother. The United States has a —— in every important foreign port. 4. He —— (to) certain events which he dared not name directly. counsel. See that your —— is right. 3. 3. school teaching was for a time his ——. beside. To augur means to foretell. 3. 2. 3. 4. or advice that is given. Avocation. 4. 3. 5. Law is his ——. Argue. His illness was —— by lack of proper food. 2. 1. but it will not destroy his ——. to adjust or to adapt. 2. One's friends may endow him with a good ——. 2. 1. 3. The reported quarrel —— ill for the army. He will —— at length on any subject. The children do everything they can to —— her. He —— to finish it as soon as he can. 3. In the colonies each governor had his ——. In his speech the labor leader boldly —— (to) his recent arrest. Slander may ruin one's ——. 1. It should not be confused with assert. 2. To calculate means to compute. 4. A vocation is one's principal work or calling. Her manner —— me. consul. He sits beside you. 3. 4. and your —— will establish itself. Beside refers to place. Consul is an officer of the government. A council is a group of persons called in to hold consultation. The oil is —— to flow at the rate of a gallon a minute. but not with a good ——. See Glossary. 2. John —— the property as his. —— you.1. Besides means in addition to. Intend means to have formed the plan to do something. The advisers gave him —— when he desired it. to presage. who else was there? Is there nothing —— this to do? John walked —— me. Page 191 Allude. In criminal cases the accused must be provided with ——. 4. 2. as. 1. They —— their right to the land. mention. The cashier —— the money in payment of a note. as a lawyer. Page 192 Character. While preparing for his life work. . vocation. —— me was a tree. 1. I —— that I am innocent. 5. 3. Claim. Do you still —— that you were born in America? Council. See Glossary. intend. Her darkening looks —— a quarrel. The president's cabinet constitutes for him a sort of ——. Calculate.
3. 1. 4. —— me here for a while. 2. 6. 3. The —— of the citizens of the United States to Canada is becoming a matter of concern. Page 193 Good. 6. 4. 2. This book I —— with you. House means only a building. He is —— to arrest for doing that. 3. 1. 5. 4. 5. Do not —— that danger disturb you. 4. 5. I shall —— at noon. Do —— what you are doing. 1. 5. 1. lend. 3. Such a place is not fit to be called a ——. It is wrongPage 194 to say. The —— discouraging thing was his indifference. I was —— injured when the machine broke. It is —— to rain to-day. 3. Did you have a —— time? Recite it as —— as you can. but his —— is in Lewisburg. even if she does not write ——. 5. She talks very ——. They have recently bought a —— which they intend to make their ——. Like. Liable refers to an unpleasant or unfavorable possibility. liable. 2. Does she look —— me? She thinks of it —— I thought. In Rome two —— were elected to manage the affairs of the state. Let. Almost is an adverb meaning nearly. He is likely to come. Home means a place that is one's habitual place of residence. Do like I do. Most never has this meaning. though sometimes an adjective. 2. It is —— time for him to come. 4. but right to say. Will his employer —— him go so early. Is he —— to write to us? Continued exposure makes one more —— to serious illness. 3. as. He looks —— James. probably. House. immigration. —— me help you with your coat. 1. 6. What will —— come of it? Loan. almost. Emigration. well. Foreign —— into the United States is greatly restricted. leave. See Glossary. I —— missed the car. —— of the books are torn. Our —— Bureau enforces the Chinese Exclusion Act. Lincoln could do a thing —— that. 4. Probably refers to any sort of possibility. He has several miserable —— that he rents. 2. She prepares a —— paper. Likely. It is better to avoid using likely as an adverb. The president's car will —— arrive at noon. Other men could not do —— Lincoln did. See Glossary. Good is an adjective. Loan should be used only as a noun. it should not be used as equivalent to likely. Heim lives here now. as. Do as I do. Well is usually an adverb. 4. home. 2. As a preposition it is correct. He thought often of the flowers about the door of his old ——. 1. under leave. Mr. but it may be used as an adjective. Are you well to-day? 1. 2. 5. Like should not be used as a conjunction in the sense of as. . 3. Most. and lend only as a verb. Read —— James does.6. The treatment of the royalists caused a great —— from France. as.
a holiday. Transpire. A —— is something that one —— to another. Page 196 Suspect. 2. I —— that he will come. 3. 2. uncontrollably excited through fear. 3. To —— a class to study is a difficult task. 1. Observation applies to a fact or an object. Is the work —— finished? The man was —— the end of the porch. many to number. Observation means to watch. 2. 1. Quite. Mad means insane. 2. 4. It means to become gradually known. Respectively means particularly. It has now —— that some money was stolen. No more important event than this has —— in the last ten years. Mary is not —— so old as John. Mad. The —— of the astronomer proved the theory. When do you —— to finish the work? The man was never before —— of having done wrong. Near is an adjective. learn. nearly an adverb." "graceful. 1. The class —— informed the faculty of their desire. These three kinds of architecture were characterized —— as "severe. 1. very. Respectively. 3. 2. 2. Respectfully means characterized by high regard. 1. Sunday —— is of value to one's bodily as well as to one's spiritual health. 3." Their shares were —— two hundred dollars and five hundred dollars. 4. to leak out. to look at. Sometimes they have as —— as fifty in a class. . Much refers to quantity. She knows everything that —— in the village. —— of the trouble comes from his weak eyes. respectfully. 4. Observance means to celebrate. The —— of the sanitary regulations was insiste d upon. He must —— to be careful. observance. It was —— noon when Blucher came. 1. 1. many. Much. His manner of speaking makes me ——. 5. etc. 3. The noise almost drove me ——. I wish to obtain a —— of fifty dollars. angry. It —— that he had secretly sold the farm. It makes one —— to see such behavior. 3. 2. 4. Expect means to look forward to. 4. to keep. Suspect means to mistrust. 3. 2. Teach." Sign your letter "Yours ——. 3.1. 1." not "yours ——. Do you use —— horses on the farm? How —— marbles did the boy have? Page 195 Near. nearly. The scientist needs highly developed powers of ——. or a rule. Observation. You must —— him to be careful. Who —— your class to-day. relating to each. Transpire does not mean to happen. They are —— insane with worry. expect. 4. 3. 2. 4. observance to a festival. happen. He —— his brother of hiding his coat. Quite is not in good use in the sense of very or to a great degree. 4." and "ornate. It properly means entirely. See Glossary under learn. Will you —— me your knife? A —— of money loses both itself and friend. It should not be used for angry or vexed.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
The book is —— easy to study. Have you —— finished your work. The train ran —— slowly for most of the distance. That is —— easy to do. We were —— unable to reach the city any sooner. EXERCISE 80
The following list includes some groups of words that are often confused. Far the proper meaning of the words refer to a good dictionary. Write sentences using the words in their proper senses:
practical, skilled couple, two future, subsequent folk, family evidence, testimony party, person, firm plenty, many, enough of portion, part solicitation, solicitude human, humane bound, determined fix, mend foot, pay creditable, credible exceptionable, exceptional sensible, sensitive access, accession allusion, illusion, delusion conscience, consciousness identity, identification limit, limitation majority, plurality materialize, appear invent, discover prescribe, proscribe some, somewhat, something mutual, common noted, notorious wait for, wait on in, into
Show how the use of each of the two italicized words in the following sentences would affect the meaning of the sentence:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. We experienced a succession series of hindrances. That statement assertion was made by an eye witness. The student has remarkable ability capacity. In my estimate estimation the cost will be higher than fifty dollars. The import importance of his words is not fully understood. The union unity of the clubs is remarkable. The acts actions of the president were closely watched. The man needed a new stimulus stimulant. He was captivated captured by her unusual charms. We are quick to impute impugn motives that we think to exist. He was convinced convicted by John's argument. The dog's suffering was alleviated relieved by the medicine. He persuaded advised me to consult a lawyer. His behavior was funny odd. The plan seems practical practicable. That is the latest last letter. That certainly was not a human humane action. He waited on waited for his mother. The completeness completion of the work brought many congratulations. EXERCISE 82
Supply a word which will remedy the italicized impropriety in each of the following sentences. When in doubt consult a dictionary:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The majority of the illustrations are good. No one can accurately predicate what the weather will be. Shall you except the invitation? They claim that the assertion cannot be proved. They finally located the criminal in Dravosburg.
6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
I shall leave you go at noon. The balance of the essay was uninteresting. By questions they tried to eliminate the true story. They impugn false motives to me. He was greatly effected by the news. Sabbath observation was then very strict. They expect that she wrote the letter. The invention of electricity has revolutionized all manufactures. Who learned her to sing? Edison discovered the phonograph. One cannot comprehend the enormity of a billion of dollars. Many complements were paid to her beauty. His consciousness pricked him. How could any one be guilty of such a cruel action. The advancement of the army was very slow.
195. Idioms. There are in English, as in other languages, a number of expressions that cannot be justified by the rules of grammar or rhetoric; and yet these expressions are among the most forcible ones in the language, and are continually used by the best writers. These expressions that lie outside all rules we call idioms. Compare the following idiomatic expressions with the unidiomatic expressions that succeed them. The second expression in each group is in accord with the strict rules of composition; but the first, the idiomatic, is far more forceful.
Idiomatic: The book which I read about. Unidiomatic: The book about which I read. Idiomatic: More than one life was lost. Unidiomatic: More lives than one life were lost. Idiomatic: Speak loud. Speak louder. Unidiomatic: Speak loudly. Speak more loudly. Idiomatic: A ten-foot pole. Unidiomatic: A ten-feet pole. Idiomatic: He strove with might and main. Unidiomatic: He strove with might. (Might and main are two words of the same meaning.) Idiomatic: He lectured on every other day. Unidiomatic: He lectured on one day out of every two.
Idioms are not to be avoided. On the contrary, because they contribute great ease and force to composition, their use is to be encouraged. But the distinction between idiomatic and unidiomatic expressions is a fine one, and rests solely on usage. Care must be taken not to go beyond the idiomatic. There is probably little danger that the ordinary writer or speaker will not use idioms enough. The following expressions are examples of commonly used idioms:
He was standing at the door in his shirt sleeves. I don't think it will rain (I think it will not rain). She walked out of the room on her father's arm. John was a poor shot. Do you feel like a little candy? See what my foolishness has brought me to. What part of the city will they settle in? What was the house built for? John needs a match to light his pipe with. That is all I ask for. What are you driving at?
Hard put to it. By all odds. Must needs.
I must get up by noon.
Get rid of. Get used to. Never so good. Whether or no. I can't go either. You forget yourself when you speak so harshly. I can come only every other day. If the bell rings answer the door. I take it that you will be there too. Come and see me. Try and do it. The thief took to his heels.
196. Choice of Words. The words in which a thought is expressed may not offend against good use, and yet still be objectionable because they do not accurately and appropriately express the thought. One should choose not merely a word that will approximately express the thought, but the one word that best expresses it. The following suggestions are given to aid in the choice of words: 1. Choose simple English words and avoid what is called "fine writing." Young writers and newspaper writers are greatly given to this offense of fine or bombastic writing. Examples:
FINE WRITING Was launched into eternity Disastrous conflagration Called into requisition the services of the family physician Was accorded an ovation Palatial mansion Acute auricular perceptions A disciple of Izaak Walton SIMPLE STYLE Was hanged Great fire Sent for the doctor Was applauded Comfortable house Sharp ears A fisherman
Page 201 2. Distinguish between general and specific terms. In some cases general words may be used to advantage, but more often specific words should be used, since they call to the mind a definite image. Compare these sentences:
The high color of his face showed his embarrassment. His crimson face showed his embarrassment. He was a large man. He was a fat man. He was a man of large frame. He was a tall, heavily proportioned man. He was a man six feet four inches tall and heavy in proportion. It was an impressive building. It was a building of impressive size. It was a building of impressive beauty. His fault was robbery. His crime was robbery.
3 . Avoid over-statement of facts. The use of words that are too strong is a fault especially characteristic of Americans. Examples:
Poor: The concert was simply exquisite. Better: The concert was very good. Poor: She was wild over the mistake. Better: She was much annoyed by the mistake.
Avoid hackneyed phrases. 7. 4. Performed his matutinal ablutions. Was gathered to his fathers. Failed to materialize at the banquet. She is nice looking. Finger of scorn pointed at him. We had a perfectly gorgeous time. 9. 17. 6. We had a great time. 14. The play was simply exquisite. 8. 8. Partook of a magnificent collation. 3. 6. John is a professional man. The infuriated beast. twisted. 21. 25. 13. Pugilistic encounters. Piscatorial sport. EXERCISE 85 Substitute for each of the following expressions some expression that will be less general or less exaggerated: 1. Dissected the Thanksgiving bird. 18. and undoing. 10. 16.4. 2. The opposing team was completely annihilated. A noise caught our attention. Individual was precipitated. 5. 22. Tonsorial artist. Solemnized the rites of matrimony. hanks. His manners are horrid. 11. 24. 20. 2. Tendered him a banquet. The green eyed monster. The whole aggregation of knowledge chasers. The devouring element was checked. Amid the plaudits of the multitude. Such arrogance is unendurable. The blushing bride was led to the hymeneal altar. weakness. 7. This sort of exercise may be continued by choosing passages from any careful writer and studying the words that he has used. 12. 5. Study the specific nature of these words by grouping about each Page 203 of them other words of somewhat similar meaning. 4. Applauded to the echo. Twirler of the sphere. and then comparing the force of the various words in each group. At the witching hour of midnight. 23. Examples: His paternal acres. 10. To hear his voice makes me feel funny. 11. 19. 9. That is a good book. . EXERCISE 83 Page 202 For each of the following expressions devise the best simple English expression that you can: 1. annoyed. Maternal ancestor. Shuffled off this mortal coil. Caudal extremity. Passed to his long home. The gentle zephyrs of springtime. Presided at the organ. EXERCISE 84 In the third paragraph of the selection from Cranford (see §186) observe the use of the following words: human. 15. 3. Pedal extremities. Wended his way. expressions that have been worked to death. Fraught with tremendous possibilities.
Page 4. Accede. Instruction. antique. ability. forsake. remainder. and spelling of each new word that you meet. Discover. precept. 29. criticism. Cultivate the society of those who use good language. mute. Pride. clear. dislike. training. desert. watch. Old. pronunciation. 27. invent. 8. Bring. joy. 2. speechless. acquiesce. ill-will. Spelling 198. 13. carry. Maxim. expression. notorious. fetch. Only when these three things are grasped about each word. does one really know the word. Silent. 19. Only by a knowledge of synonyms can you express204 fine shades of meaning. 14. term. plain. 2. tuition. fraud. 18. cunning. In your writing and speaking use as much as possible the new words that you acquire. Propose. 9. Read good books and good magazines. Crabbe's English Synonyms and Fernald's Synonyms and Antonyms are good books of reference for this purpose. 21. purpose. Delight. 28. scholar. Student. Learn the meaning. agree. Observe.197. censure. difficulty. 23. Kill. 26. enmity. obstacle. 22. chicane. pleasure. Where possible. education. In addition to these books. 25. rest. Balance. and then use the good expressions instead of the bad ones. famous. 7. Hardship. pupil. task. pattern. intend. 30. and read them carefully. labor. wholesome. 24. Capacity. 6. words of similar form and meaning. murder. toil. 6. swarm. evidence. conceit. humor. an effort has been made to arrange them in groups in order that they may be more easily remembered. Hatred. Some persons have found it an invaluable aid to carry with them a small note book or card on which they note down to be looked up at a convenient time words concerning which they are in doubt. Work. 3. like. law Multitude. 4. How to Improve One's Vocabulary. happiness. The few following suggestions may be found helpful in the acquiring of a good vocabulary: 1. rule. aged. apparent. vanity. Cultivate the dictionary habit. 17. power. Blame. crowd. 11. testimony. healthy. hindrance. drudgery. Love. antiquated. 12. Proof. ancient. EXERCISE 86 Look up the meaning of each of the words in the following groups of synonyms. 20. The word with an added ending has Page 205 . Try to get the one word that will best express the idea. 7. assassinate. eminent. 15. Trickery. Noted. obsolete. dumb. Example. 16. Obvious. 3. Healthful. Abandon. 5. model. The following is a list of words that are frequently misspelled or confused. fine writing. lists of synonyms will be found in many books that are designed for general reference. throng. prominent. sample. Wit. 5. Word. Construct sentences in which each word is used correctly: 1. and hackneyed phrases that you meet. Construct good English expressions for all the slang. Study synonyms. slay. yield. 10.
conferred. or if the last syllable is accented. Page 207 . impelled. impelling. double the final consonant before the ending -ed and -ing. as. A few rules have been included. transmit. rob. Words ending in a single consonant preceded by a single vowel.been used in most cases in place of the bare word itself as. impel. transmitting. robbed. but not before -ence. confer. robbers. impulsion. occasional instead of occasion. if monosyllables. accede accident accommodate accordance accuracy succeed occasional occur across amount apart arouse already all right amateur grandeur appal apparatus appetite approximate opportunity opposite disappoint disappearance choose chosen boundary elementary final finally usual usually ascend ascent discerning discipline discontent discreet descent descend fascinate mischievous miscellaneous muscle susceptible existence experience sentence foregoing forehead forty foreign forfeit formally formerly fulfill willful guardian guessing imminent immediately accommodation commission grammar inflammation recommend summary symmetrical committee ledger legible assassin dissimilar essential messenger necessary necessity passport pressure misspelled possession recollection dispelled miscellaneous monosyllable intellectual parallel embellishment wholly woolly village villain till Page 206 perpetual persuade perspiration police policies presence precede preceptor fiend siege friend yielding seize receive receipt succeed proceed recede secede accede intercede concede supersede 199. transmission. conference. transmitted. robbing. conferring.
finance. Similar are: move. arrange. balance. Similar are: differ. commit. arrived. peace. or -se. Similar are: duty. Words ending in -ge. arranging. use. Words in -dge do not retain the e before endings. tame. model. woe. summon. -ce. permit. concede. preceding. refer. busied. mob. write. Words of similar sound: canvas (cloth) canvass (all meanings except cloth) capitol (a building) capital (all meanings except building) counsel (advice or an adviser) council (a body of persons) complement (a completing element) compliment (praise) principle (rule) principal (chief) stationary (immovable) stationery (articles) miner (a workman) minor (under age) angel (a spiritual being) angle (geometrical) Page 208 205. Most words ending in y preceded by a consonant change y to i before all endings except-ing: busy. receive. pity. preceded. mercy. grieve. abhor (abhorrence). beneficial . blame. 204. penny. manage. Similar are: nudge. received. defer. repel. the consonant is not doubled. precede. 201. 202. 200. Miscellaneous words: annual awkward laundry leisure schedule separate . construe. believe. as. arrangement. receiving. arrive. If these words are not accented on the last syllable. seize. pursue. acknowledging. acknowledged. compel. precede. occur (occurrence). impel. acknowledge. receive. weary. as. rub. arrival. service. business. Words ending in silent e drop the e before a suffix beginning with a vowel. relieve. amuse. recede. busying. remit. study. perceive. rue. arriving. precedence. 203. supersede. excel (excellence).Similar to the above are. infer. judge. benefit. as. omit. prefer. deceive. argue. retain the e before endings: as. arrange. benefited. sob. beset. come. Similar are: gauge. skid. conceive. acknowledgment. vary. benefiting. transfer.
ā as in hate: Word alma mater apparatus apricot attaché audacious ballet blasé blatant chasten Cleopatra compatriot gratis harem heinous hiatus implacable nape née négligé patron protégé résumé tenacious Correct Pronunciation alma māter apparātus āpricot ăttashā' audāshus băl'lā blazā' blātant chāsen Cleopātra compātriot grātis or grahtis hārem or hahrem hānous hīātus implākable nāp nā nāglēzhā' pātron prōtāzhā' rāzumā' tenāshus Page 210 . The following list is made up of words that are frequently mispronounced. An effort has been made to arrange them in groups according to the most frequent source of error in their pronunciation. The only marks regularly used are the signs for the long and short sounds of the vowel. ā as in hate ă as in hat ē as in me ĕ as in met ī as in high ĭ as in hit ō as in old ŏ as in hop ū as in use ŭ as in run ōō as in boot ŏŏ as in foot When sounds are not otherwise indicated take the sound that comes most naturally to the tongue.beneficial decimal exhilarate familiarize fiber fibrous genuine gluey height hideous hundredths hysterical icicle irremediable laboratory laid larynx lenient license mechanical mediæval medicine militia motor negotiate origin pacified phalanx physique privilege prodigies rarefy rinse saucer Spaniard speak specimen speech spherical subtle surely technical tenement their therefore thinnest until vengeance visible wherein yielding Page 209 Pronunciation 206. 207.
not fawlt băd not ketch defăl'kāte. ĕ as in met: again agĕn . ă as in hat: alternative Arab arid asphalt bade catch defalcate dilletante forbade granary program rapine rational sacrament ălternative Ăr'ab. not krick ēēther (preferable) mēdiocre na'ēve (a as in arm) nēēther (preferable) precē'dence prēcē'dent (when an adjective) prēdecessor prēdilection prēmature kē rēsplen'dent sacrilēgious. not fawl dilletăn'te forbăd grănary pro'grăm.tomato valet vase veracious vivacious tomāto or tomahto vă'lā or văl'et vās. not ārab ăr'id asfălt. not grum răp'ĭn rătional săcrament 209. not klick krēk. not like boot 211. ē as in me: amenable clique creek either mediocre naïve neither precedence precedent predecessor predilection premature quay resplendent sacrilegious series sleek suite amēnable klēk. vahz. or vāz verāshus vivāshus 208. not -religious sērēz slēk. not slick swēt. ä as in arm: aunt behalf calf calm half laugh psalm änt behäf käf käm häf läf säm Page 211 210.
not stĭddy tĕn'ĕt wĕpon. ī as in high: appendicitis biennial biography bronchitis carbine decisive demise dynasty finis grimy hiatus inquiry long-lived peritonitis privacy short-lived simultaneous tiny appendicītis bīennial bīography bronkītis carbīne decīsive demīse dī'năstў fīnis grīmy hīā'tus inquī'ry long-līvd peritonītis prīvacy short-līvd sīmultaneous tīny. ō as in old: Adonis apropos bowsprit Adōnis aprōpō bōwsprit . ĭ as in hit: bicycle breeches breeching feminine genuine hypocrisy italic Italian maritime pretty puerile respite tribune bī'sĭcle brĭches brĭching femĭnĭn genuĭn hĭpŏk'rĭsў ĭtăl'ĭk ĭtalyan marĭtĭm prĭtty pū'erĭl rĕs'pĭt trĭb'ŭn Page 213 214. not like hero mĕzhure. not mā mĕtrik prĕc'edent (noun) prĕl'āt prĕzentation sĕs'amē stĕdy. not wēpon Page 212 212. not tēny 213. not dēf hĕroĭn.against crematory deaf heroine measure metric precedent prelate presentation sesame steady tenet weapon agĕnst krĕm'atōrў dĕf.
ŏ as in hop: choler dolorous florid molecule obelisk probity solecism solstice stolid kŏler dŏlorous flŏrid mŏlecule ŏbelisk prŏbity sŏlesism sŏlstice stŏlid 216.brooch compromise jowl molecular ogle trow vocable zoology brōch not brōōsh comprōmize jōl. not zōō 215. ŭ as in us: constable courtesan hover iron monetary nothing wont kŭnstable kŭr'tezăn hŭver iŭrn mŭnetary nŭthing wŭnt (different from won't) 219. ū as in use: accurate culinary gubernatorial jugular ăk'kūrāt kūlinary gūbernatorial jūgular 218. not alien . not like owl mōlecular ōgle trō vōcable zōology. adobe algebra alien adō'bā not brā ālyen. ōō as in boot: bouquet canteloupe coup d'état coupon ghoul hoof roof root route routine wound bōōkā' can'talōōp kōō data' kōō'pŏn gōōl hōōf rōōf rōōt rōōt rōōtine wōōnd Page 214 217. Miscellaneous words.
Helē'na) inconvenyence izrael. or chōōr mĕshyerz or mĕsyerz -alogy. not -ology natūre.ameliorate antarctic anti archangel archbishop arch fiend architect awkward Beethoven Bingen blackguard Bowdoin brougham business caldron calk Cayenne courtier cuckoo dilemma directly dishevelled Don Juan drought drouth extempore familiarity gaol genealogy gemus Gloucester gooseberry Hawaiian Helena inconvenience Israel jeans joust larynx literature Messrs. not ark arkitect awkward. not ark arch. as in get orkid owst. not ōōst pecūlyar pēkūn'yārĭ not prespiratian prĕs'tĭj or prĕstēzh' pronunzēāshun or pronunshēāshun not săssy skedyŭl not semī thē'āter not thēā'ter Page 215 Page 216 . not gōōs Hawī'yan (a as in arm) hĕl'ena (except St. Mineralogy nature oleomargarine orchid oust peculiar pecuniary perspiration prestige pronunciation saucy schedule semi theater amēlyorate antarktik not antī arkangel arch. not -ology genyus gloster gōōz. not ard bātōven Bĭng'en blag'gard bōdn brōōm bizness kawldron kawk kīen' kortyer kŏŏkōō dīlĕm'ma not dīrectly dishev'ld Don Jūan or hōōan drowt drowth extĕmpore (four syllables) familyarity jāl -alogy. not issrael jānes jŭst or jōōst lăr'inx' or lā'rinx. not larnix literatūre. or chōōr g is hard.
two syllables kazh'ualte. not ath e lete attakt. not dōōit three syllables. not diffrunt not ellum not hel um three syllables. not ārēal two sylables. Words with a silent letter: almond chasten chestnut glisten kiln often ostler poignant psalter salmon schism soften subtle sword thyme toward ahmŭnd chāsen chesnut glissen kill ofen ŏsler poin'ant sawlter samun sism sofen sutle sord time tord Page 217 221. Words often pronounced with a wrong number of syllables: aerial athlete attacked casualty conduit different elm helm history honorable āēreal. Works chiefly of foreign pronunciation: Word bivouac chargé d'affaires connoisseur dishabille ennui finale foyer massage naïve papier maché piquant prima facie pro tempore régime Correct Pronunciation biv'wak shar zhā'daffār' connissur dis'abil onwē. not ongwē finah'le fwayā' masahzh nah'ēv papyā mahshā pē'kant prīma fā'shiē prō tĕm'porē rāzhēm' 222. not histry not honrable .turgid usage usurp vermilion wife's Xerxes turjid uzage uzurp vermilyun not wives zerxes 220. not ality cŏndit or kŏndit.
not zēus Page 218 223. Words accented on the first syllable: admirable alias applicable bicycle chastisement construe despicable desultory disputant exigency explicable exquisite extant formidable Genoa gondola harass hospitable impious industry inventory lamentable mischievous obligatory pariah peremptory preferable Romola vehemence ad'mirable ā'lias ap'plicable bī'sĭkle chas'tisement con'strue des'picable des'ultory dis'putant ex'ijency ex'plicable ex'quisite ex'tant for'midable jen'ōa gon'dōla har'ass hos'pitable im'pious. not tickelish valuable.hygienic interest interesting ivory omelet realm separable ticklish valuable vaudeville Zeus hy gi en' ic. four syllables not intrust not intrusting not ivry not omlet not rellum not seprable two syllables. not impīous in'dustry in'ventory lam'entable mis'chievous ob'ligatory pa'riah per'emptory pref'erable Rōm'ola vē'hemence Page 219 224. Words accented on the second syllable: Word abdomen acclimate acumen albumen artificer bitumen chicanery illustrate incognito Correct Pronunciation abdō'men acclī'mate acū'men albū'men artif'iser bitū'men shikā'nery illus'trate ĭnkŏg'nĭtō . not valuble vŏdvĭl zūs.
Place the ac'cent upon the first syllable. Words whose pronunciation depends on meaning: accent Accent' the first syllable. aged blessed contrast converse desert . Words accented on the last syllable: address adept adult ally commandant contour dessert dilate excise finance grimace importune occult pretence research robust romance tirade address' adept' adult' ally' commandänt' (ä as in arm) contour' dessert' dilate' ĕksīz' finance' grimāce' importūne' occult' prētence' rēsearch' rōbust' rōmance' tīrade' Page 220 226. Did you converse' with him? Is the con'verse true? The sandy des'ert. Properly aged wine (one syllable). The bless'ed saints. They desert' their friends. The strange con'trast. An a'ged man.incomparable indisputable inexorable inexplicable inhospitable inquiry irrevocable misconstrue nitrogenous opponent pianist refutable syllabic telegraphy vagary Yosemite incom'parable indis'putable inex'orable inex'plicable inhos'pitable inquī'ry irrev'ocable miscon'strue nītroj'enous oppo'nent pian'ist refut'able syllab'ic teleg'raphy vagā'ry yō sĕm' ĭ te 225. Let them be blessed (one syllable). Contrast' the two.
To project' from.learned He learned (one syllable) to sing. It establishes a prĕc'edent. A new proj'ect. A learn ed man. precedent project . A prēcē'dent place.
As. Do not use as in the sense of since or because. Right: I should like to be able to do that. Wrong: She wanted badly to come. Wrong: He alluded by name to John Milton. Page 222 At. Wrong: Because of the injury he can not see any. or are not. Ain't. Do not use admire in the sense of like. These are two very much overworked words. Do not use allude in the sense of refer. . Right: He alluded to Milton by the term "Blind Poet. Besides means in addition to. I am sick now. I intend to be back before noon. Allow. besides. As. there are three sons. Not that I remember. Beside means next to. Awful. Do not use allow in the sense of assert. Do not use this form for attacked. awfully. say. Right: I cannot come because I am sick now.GLOSSARY OF MISCELLANEOUS ERRORS Admire. is not. Wrong: I am the man as digs your garden. Wrong: I should admire to be able to do that. I allow to be back before noon. Right: His impudence irritates me. Wrong: His impudence aggravates me. Do not use as for the relative pronouns who and that. Wrong: He allowed that he had better start. Ain't and hain't are never proper as contractions of am not. Wrong: We have had an awfully good time. Page 221 Aggravate. Aggravate means to make worse. Allude. Right: He lives in Philadelphia. Beside. Do not use badly in the sense of very much. Do not use any in the sense of at all or to any degree." Any. Substitute other and more accurate expressions. or intend. Do not use at for in with the names of large cities Wrong: He lives at Philadelphia. Right: She wanted very much to come. That is an awfully pretty dress. Badly. Right: He said that he had better start. Not as I remember. Right: I cannot come. Do not use aggravate in the sense of irritate or disturb. Right: We have had an exceedingly nice time. Right: Besides the daughters. Right: John lives beside his mother. Attackted. Right: I am the man who digs your garden. That is a very pretty dress. To allude to a thing means to refer to it in an indirect way. Wrong: I cannot come as I am sick now.
The first means death. Right: I was forced to conclude that I had made an error. Wrong: The property of the diseased will be sold at auction. amusing. Bound. Right: He was determined to go skating. the second sickness. Do not use between when referring to more than two objects. Clum. expect. Page Best. Do not use complected for complexioned. Wrong: He was bound to go skating. Conclude. Cute. Do not use bound for determined. Use some expression that is more accurate. But. Best should be used only when more 223 than two are referred to. Do not use best when only two objects are referred to. Do not use can to denote permission. etc. Use better. Right: Finally. There is no such word. Wrong: This lesson is considerable better than yesterday's. Page 224 Decease. Right: There is but one apple left. as. Demand. Right: He is the best of the three brothers. Wrong: He is the best of the two brothers. Complected. Wrong: There isn't but one apple left. Wrong: He demanded John to pay. There is no such form of the verb climb. Do not use calculate in the sense of think. The deceased means a person who is dead. Wrong: The diseased will be buried at four o'clock. Character means one's moral condition. Wrong: His father deceased last year. Do not confuse decease and disease. Considerable. It denotes ability or possibility. See §69 Wrong: Can I speak to you for a minute? Right: May I speak to you for a moment? Character. pretty. Do not use but after a negative in the sense of only. Do not use decease as a verb in the sense of die. . Decease. Right: He is the better of the two brothers. Can.Between. or intend. See §46. Do not use considerable in the sense of very much. Blowed. Right: There is bad feeling among the members of the class. A much overworked word. Right: He bound himself to pay three hundred dollars. Do not confuse these two words. Do not use conclude in the sense of forming an intention. See §40. Demand should not have a person as its object. May denotes permission. disease. Calculate. Wrong: There is bad feeling between the members of the class. Do not use blowed for blew or blown. I decided to go home. reputation. Reputation means the morality that others believe one to possess.
Do not confuse emigrate and immigrate. Drownded is not a proper form of the verb drown. . and means and so forth. See §21. Wrong: The affect of this news was to cause war. Enough. Right: He tried to arouse enthusiasm in his audience. Do not use it in composition that is intended to be elegant. Wrong: Our football team has downed every other team in the state. Either you or John has done it. Etc. immigrate. Either. Do not use each other to refer to more than two objects. Either you or John have done it. Effect means a result. Drownded. Down. (Pronounced drownd. accept. Wrong: The news effected him seriously. not than. Do not use don't with a subject in the third person singular. Do not use enthuse in the sense of to create enthusiasm. Do not spell it ect. Enthuse. Right: I studied enough to recite the lesson. affect. Accept means to acknowledge. Do not use except for unless. Etc. or to cause a thing to be done. a large number are Italians. Wrong: I can not sleep except it is quiet. Say drowned. Don't.) Each other. Right: The effect of this news was to cause war. Wrong: Either of the three will do. Page 225 Effect. stands for et cetera. Wrong: He tried to enthuse his audience. Right: I cannot accept such slovenly work. Wrong: The members of the regiment helped each other. See §44. Except means to exclude. Do not confuse these two words. See §85. Except. Wrong: I studied enough that I could recite the lesson. To emigrate means to go out of a place. Do not use either with reference to more than two objects. Do not confuse effect and affect. Different. to immigrate means to come into a place. Page 226 Except. nor follow it by a plural verb. Emigrate. Everybody. He demanded that John pay. Right: Any one of the three will do. Use the preposition from after different. Do not follow enough by a clause beginning with that or so that. See §43. Wrong: I except your apology. Affect means to disturb or have an influence on. Right: The Italians emigrate from their country. Right: Our football team has defeated every other team in the state. Everybody should not be followed by a plural verb or a plural pronoun.Right: He demanded payment from John. Do not use down as a verb in the sense of defeat or overthrow. See §64. Right: The members of the regiment helped one another. Right: The news affected him seriously. Right: Of those who immigrate to America.
Right: It is singular that he died. to denote a person of refinement. Do not use guess in the sense of think or suppose. Say first. Wrong: The book is fine for class-room work. Do not use expect in the sense of suppose or think. Wrong: We have had a grand time this afternoon. Lincoln was a gentleman in the true sense of the word. See §40. hence and thence. Right: I can hardly believe that. Do not use got with have or had to indicate merely possession or obligation. Do not use first-rate as an adverb in the sense of very well . Right: I suppose you have read that book. Fine is a much overworked word. Right: Mr.Expect. Gentleman is properly used. Do not use former when more than two are referred to. Say man. Do not use fine in place of some more definite word. Right: The book is well adapted for class-room work. See §46. Wrong: I guess the trains are late to-day. Right: After much study I have got my lesson. Say gentleman or man. Do not use grand in place of some more definite and accurate expression. Firstly should never be used. See §54. Do not use funny for singular or strange. First-rate. Do not use from with whence. Right: That does very well. Right: He is a first-rate fellow. See §41. Firstly. Wrong: I have got the measles. Got. Right: I suppose the trains are late to-day. Page 227 Gentleman. Do not use had with ought. Wrong: It is funny that he died. Hardly. Grand. Wrong: I can not hardly believe that. Right: I have the measles. however. Wrong: I expect you have read that book. Wrong: Only gentlemen are allowed to vote in Pennsylvania. From. Guess. Say first. It is another overworked word. You have got to do it. You must do it. Right: Can you guess the riddle? Had ought. Former. . Funny is an overworked word. Do not use the word at all. Gent. Wrong: From whence have you come? Right: Whence have you come? From where have you come? Funny. Wrong: That does first-rate. Got means acquired through effort. Do not use hardly after a negative. Right: We have had a very pleasant time this afternoon. Do not use gentleman to denote sex only. Fine.
Learn means to acquire knowledge. Latter. Do not use latter to refer to more than two objects. Do not use heighth for height. Do not confuse hung and hanged. Kind. Leave means to let remain. Right: He exercised in a gymnasium. Let means to give permission. Do not confuse learn and teach. Do not precede kind by those or these. See §57. Illy. Use last. Kind of a. Wrong: Will your mother leave you go? Right: Will your mother let you go? Right: I shall leave my trunk in my room. Lay. Do not confuse leave and let. Johnson a colored woman? Right: Mrs. Johnson is a colored woman. Page 229 Liable. Do not use have after had. Do not use illy for the adverb ill . Hanged is the proper word to use in reference to executions. . Right: He went into the house. Right: He can teach you as much as any one can. Wrong: If I had have been able to go. Right: It is likely to rain to-day. Wrong: He has humbugged the people for years. Wrong: I do not like those kind of plays. See §47. Page 228 Humbug. See §41. It is properly used to indicate persons of refinement. Do not use humbug as a verb.Have. Lady. Wrong: He was condemned to be hung. See §40. into. Right: The picture was hung in the parlor. Wrong: He can learn you as much as any one can. Teach means to impart knowledge. Right: It is one kind of mistake. Right: If I had been able to go. Johnson a colored lady? Right: Is Mrs. Hung. In. Do not use lady to designate sex only. Learn. Right: He was condemned to be hanged. Do not confuse in and into. Do not confuse lay and lie. Wrong: Is Mrs. Right: He is liable for all that he has agreed to pay. Leave. Heighth. and a lady. Wrong: He went in the house. Do not use a or an after kind of. Wrong: It is liable to rain to-day. Right: I do not like that kind of play. Wrong: It is one kind of a mistake. Do not use liable for likely.
Notorious means of evil reputation. Mrs. Right: John and William had a mutual liking for each other. No place. it lightnings frequently. Like is a preposition. Right: I am not going anywhere. Do not use no good in the sense of worthless or not good. She talks a lot. Right: During the storm. Wrong: He doesn't talk like he did yesterday. Wrong: The book is no good. Do not use much for many. Lot. Wrong: During the storm. Wrong: A lot of people were there. Right: He ran nearly all the way to the station. Wrong: I at last lit on this plan. Do not use newsy in the sense of full of news. Right: As many as five hundred people were present. it lightens frequently. Do not use lightning as a verb in place of lightens. Do not use lot in the sense of a great number or a great deal . Right: John and William had a common liking for Mary. Do not use neither with reference to more than two objects. Do not use most for almost. Mutual means interchanged. I came near making the same mistake. Newsy.Lightning. Notorious. Wrong: He ran near all the way to the station. Do not use notorious in the sense of famous or noted. Mrs. Do not use near for nearly. Nerve. Do not use Mrs. as. . President. Professor. Neither of the two are here. Neither of the two is here. Right: I have almost completed the book. Do not use no place after a negative. Page 230 Mutual. Right: No one of the three could come. Much refers to quantity. Much. No good. Lit on. Mrs. before titles. See §46. Wrong: I am not going no place. Do not use nerve in the sense of impudence. Doctor. Do not use lit on in the sense of met with or discovered. Like. Wrong: John and William had a mutual liking for Mary. Wrong: Neither of the three could come. Right: It looks like a mahogany chair. nor follow it by a plural verb. Mrs. Most. Do not use like for as. As is a conjunction. Neither. I am going nowhere. Wrong: As much as five hundred people were present. Right: He doesn't talk as he did yesterday. Wrong: I have most completed the book. Do not confuse mutual and common. Many refers to number. Right: He has done the most of the work. I came nearly making the same mistake. Near.
no. Wrong: Nowhere near so many people came as were expected. Do not use providing for if or on the condition. Wrong: There are not only four books on that subject. Right: I intend to tell all I know. He is quite able to do it. principal.. Right: Money is plentiful. Do not use nowhere near for not nearly. Pants. Wrong: He feels very poorly. Outside of. Page 232 Principle. Plenty. Do not use propose in the sense of intend. the most important. Right: There are only four books on that subject. Do not confuse principle and principal . Place. Right: James was nowhere near the scene of the fire. etc. . Propose. Do not use over with for over. everywhere. Wrong: I will go providing you can get tickets for three. Do not use photo for photograph. Right: Not nearly so many people came as were expected. Do not use the word pants for trousers. Piece. See §40.Wrong: Gladstone was a notorious statesman of England. every. Principle means a rule or truth. Providing. Wrong: Outside of James. See §46. might have. He is plenty able to do it. Principal means leader. Wrong: I must write the letter and have it over with. Right: Aside from James. should have. Do not use piece in the sense of way or distance. Right: Several notorious thieves were arrested. Guard against the improper use of only after a negative. Photo. Page 231 Of. Over with. have. chief. Do not use place after any. Do not use of for have in such expressions as could. etc. Do not use plenty as an adjective or an adverb. Wrong: I shall walk a little piece with you. Right: If I could have been there. nowhere. Wrong: Money is plenty. all had a good time. etc. Poorly. Only. Right: I shall walk a little way with you. Nowhere near. Do not use poorly for ill or bad. Right: I can not find it anywhere. Do not use outside of for aside from. Wrong: I propose to tell all I know. in the sense of anywhere. Wrong: I can not find it any place. all had a good time. Wrong: If I could of been there.
Fires seldom. Say. or that as relatives. See §57. Wrong: Fires seldom ever occur. Sight. Sort. . Right: A great many people flocked to hear him. Do not use same as a pronoun. Wrong: He plays the violin some. Do not confuse these two words. Say instead seldom or seldom. See §46. Do not precede sort by these or those. Wrong: All such persons who think so will soon see their mistake. Recommend. Sit. Right: He spoke in the open air. Wrong: After the play we will come right off. Do not use scarcely after a negative. Right: After the play we will come at once. Wrong: Your mother said for you to come home at once. See §57. Some. Right: I will write the letter and mail it at once. Wrong: Her employer gave her a good recommend. Right: He plays the violin a little. Do not use a after sort of. so that more could see and hear him. Right away. Scarcely. Page 233 Shut of. Do not use so alone as a conjunction. Do not use right away or right off in the sense of immediately. Wrong: A great sight of people flocked to hear him. Do not use sight in the sense of many or much. Wrong: I will write the letter and mail same at once. so more could see and hear him. So. Right: There was scarcely a pound of meat for us all. recommendation. Do not use recommend as a noun. Sort of a. which. if ever occur. See Kind. Right: Her employer gave her a good recommendation. Do not use shut of in the sense of rid of. Wrong: There was not scarcely a pound of meat for us all. Wrong: We are shut of him at last. right off. Recommendation is the noun.Right: I will go on the condition that you get the tickets. Right: Fires seldom occur. Do not use say in the sense of order or command. Same. Do not confuse raise with rise. rise. set. Wrong: He spoke in the open air. Do not follow such by who. Do not use some as an adverb in the sense of somewhat or a little. See Kind of a. Seldom ever. if ever. Do not use seldom with ever. Say so that. Right: Your mother said that you should come home at once. Raise. Such.
Do not use very alone before a verb or a participle. Right: Bring me those books. those there. Right: He spoke with such force that we were compelled to listen. There and here. Do not use too alone before a verb or a participle. There can be only one first. but first three. Do not say three first. Very. Do not confuse these two expressions. Do not use tasty in the sense of tasteful . Three first. Page That there. Right: Do not wait for me if I do not come at noon.Right: All such persons as think so will soon see their mistake.) Tasty. awake. Right: He is too much excited to listen to you. Wrong: Bring me them there books. Wrong: Do not wait on me if I do not come at noon. two first. Wrong: He is too excited to listen to you. Do not use them there for those. Wrong: I did not think the book was that small. these here. Them there. That. Too. Do not confuse wake and awake. Right: You are very much mistaken. etc. See §57. this here. Wake. Wrong: You are very mistaken. Wait on. (That is not a relative here. wait for. in all these expressions are worse 234 than unnecessary. Wait for means to await. Do not use that as an adverb. Wait on means to serve. . Right: I did not think that the book was so small.
101-102. rules for. 27-28. Appositives. 87. by Channing. 33. mispronunciation of attacked. 90-91. 152. for like. 185. 137 (§102). Glossary." 121. for intend. 190. rules for avoidance of. Glossary. agreement of verb with. Glossary. Balanced sentence. of pronoun and antecedent. case of word in apposition. 4. 32. Compound sentence. 28. indefinite. how to gain in paragraph. 103-104. 194. 36-37. irregular forms in. 161-162. Comparison. and could. confusion with adjectives. compound. 32-33. 162. for effect. 20. subordinate or dependent. At. use of. 22 (4) (note 2). 8 (6). As. rules for forming plurals of. for badly. 141 (§121). 36-37. explained. errors in comparison. 158. Bible. But that. 32. Attackted. Christmas. 64-65. Glossary. for in. 191. for better. 10. in reference to more than two things. improper forms of. 92-100. Complimentary close. 105. 15. for between. misuse of. case forms of relative pronouns. 137 (§100). exercises on any subject may be found by looking up that subject in this text index. 3. for vocation. 69 (4). Glossary. Glossary. list of irregularly compared. And. 13." in letters. Clauses. 177. 32-33. of relative pronouns. Compound subject. 163. 187. Glossary. Admire. for awfully. of sentence. agreement. adjective pronouns. for like. omission of. 141. Apposition. 142. Books for reading. conjunctive. should and would. Page 236 Apostrophe. Glossary. for irritate. Capitalization. of verb and subject. Antecedents. Barbarisms." misuse of c|o for. use of. 44. Avocation. Among. explained. 185-188. 161. 2. 39-40. list of irregular. case forms of pronouns. Argue. 32. manner of comparing. 151-153. capitalization of proper. Agreement. 105. comparison of. for blew. 69. outline for use of case forms. 4. use of. Complected. 4. clearness of. adjective. Glossary. Since the EXERCISES follow throughout the subjects treated. 192. 22. 29 (10). Claim. degrees of. 22. Bad. 103-104. Cases. 151. Adjectives. 4. 14. use of. 2. quotation from. 56 Articles. 192. 140 (§116). of pronouns. Comma. with a negative. might. Can. rules for forming possessive. 191. 8. 160. in letters. 32-33. 76-77. 159. 101. Awful. rule against. 104. Compound pronouns. by Washington Irving. Character of Napoleon Bonaparte. for among. 138 (§108). substantive. case of. Glossary. 191. defined. with a dependent clause. 33. Page 235 A. explained. 183-184. 5. Glossary. of adjective and noun. relative. errors in comparison of. of verb in clauses. may. 4. with possessive nouns. use of article. principal or independent. for assert. Aggravate. 8. Abbreviations. 36. 39-40. 190. 42. Arise. 5. 29 (6). 137-140. Glossary. 191. 42. 32. Glossary. 69 (5). 101. shall and will. An. 163. Glossary. Active voice and passive voice. Any. Awake. Glossary. punctuation of. can. 67. 33. 29 (4). 44. Calculate. Glossary. with plural nouns. words of 152. Accept. Blowed. for complexioned. classified and defined. 237 Colon. as a relative pronoun. 200-201. for assert or intend. explained. confused with adverbs. Clum. . rules to aid in. 69. 136-137. of whole composition. Adverbs. punctuation of. 178. for augur. 138 (§106). 36. 32. quotation from. defined. Between. Glossary. 44. Body. 13-14. 190. 105. personal. 101-102. Choice of words. "Cant expressions. forms of. 26. Affect. for climbed. placing of. defined. quotation from. 152. Also. 4. 37. 141 (§122). distinguished from adverbs. Character. 86. in letters. 20. list of. 67. 105. Glossary. 156. 21. without and. model conjugation of. Allow. 21-22. 153. illustrations of in paragraph. 45. Page 180. Glossary. Auxiliary verbs. for except. for but what. Brackets. 46. punctuation of. double negative. 131 (3). Bound. Compound nouns. 43. Beginning of the composition. 191. as conjunction or adverb. But. for since. use of article. for determined. 152-153. Complex sentence. 9. to introduce two succeeding statements. defined. punctuation of two or more adjectives modifying same noun. Glossary. Glossary. Sections or subdivisions on the pages are sometimes indicated in parenthesis after the page numbers. for at all. 126-128. 32. 5. 187. Æsop's Fables. 143. when and where clauses. Glossary. Glossary. 79. Allude. 126 (2). Beside. with possessive pronouns. punctuation of. singular and plural. for besides. Clipped words. 165. for wake. capitalization of. Coherence. use of. Comparative degree. defined. 97-98. of paragraph. Climax in sentences. 10.INDEX References are to pages. 33. "Comma blunder. Glossary. of the letter. when proper. Attribute complement. 33. 150-151. 56. Abbreviated words. 163-164. explained. explained. of verb in. Common gender. for refer. 2. 162. "In care of. 18. agreement of pronouns and. rule against. for reputation. errors in. as a relative pronoun. 187. adverbial. Ain't. 18. 13. 71-73. 56. 136 (95). 171. 41. Best. Close of letter. 117. 36-37. 13. distinguished from adjectives. general use of. of nouns and pronouns. defined.
Etc. Glossary. 166-171. misuse with more than two objects. for to form an opinion. Double negatives. misuse after Mr. Cranford. misused as a conjunction. 69 (5). of ending of whole composition. 192. 97-98. or counsel. Guess. Heading. Grand. First-rate. for singular. Glossary. of beginning of whole composition. Good use of words. Glossary. 162. in sentence. etc. 2. 105." 200. Final words. 69 (5). Gaskell. Don't. Former. Ending of whole composition. 106. Page 238 Either. for considerably. for fell. 190. 69 (5). 105. Glossary. 41. 163. 36. confusion with participle. 140 (§§118. Different. Gettysburg speech. Glossary. Euthuse. Exclamation point. Decease. of correctly written letters. Glossary. 133.. 119. 185. Examples. Glossary. 177. Glossary. in letters. Gent. Dictionary. mispronunciation of drowned. 81. punctuation of. punctuation before. 201. 120). Hackneyed expressions. Glossary. Correlatives. Hanged. for affect. Glossary. punctuation of. 90-91. 141. 158. used to introduce two succeeding clauses. for accept. for pretty. 180. Except. for fall. Either-or. Glossary. Expletives. for council. (§§122. misuse after had. Dash. From. Fell. Demand. 192. Effect. Gentleman. 155-157. 46.. Cute. 14. Hain't. capitalization of. clever. Form of letters. 131. Glossary. punctuation of. 141-142. 140 (§§119. predicate. selection from. Directly. defined. by Mrs. Glossary. Could. followed by a plural form. Glossary. Glossary. 105-106. Firstly. misuse with more than two objects. Each other. Glossary. Council. placing of. adverbial modifier. defined and classified. 164. explanation of. 182-183. classified. Hardly. 40. for suppose.. Had. 166-171. Geographical names. 2. For. Concluded. 175. 81-82. Glossary. 32. 139 (§111). 4. Everywheres. defined. Consul. Glossary. 196. use of. Conjunctions. 144 (§140). for immigration. 138 (§108). use of. 105-106. Conditional clauses. Explanatory relative clauses. 2. Everybody. 33. placing of. Glossary. Esq. Fine. with noun or pronoun modifier. 185-190. of outline of whole composition. Glossary. Father. Co-ordinate clauses. Glossary. 12. 139 (§§112. Glossary. Glossary. 4. use of. 3: Principal elements. with a negative. Foreign words. 80. ought. General terms. 120). capitalization of. 105-106. Contractions of not. 42. 137. 12. of nouns and pronouns. 2. Gender. 190. 14. for think. Good. 161. 203. Glossary. 36. 127 (4). Expect. East. Glossary. Glossary. 106. punctuation of. offenses against. 192. 136 (§99). 137 (§100). counsel and consul confused. 162. use of. Glossary. Down. Elements of the sentence. 2. Euphony. "Fine-writing. Dependent and conditional clauses. 193. 153. Subordinate elements: attribute complement. Grave forms of personal pronouns. 69. 180. Glossary. use of. by Lincoln. general rule against. confused with hung. 56. 106. value of its use. 166-171. 3. 132. misspelling of. 144 (§139). Copulative verb. 56. Glossary. misuses of. Feminine gender. in formal composition. Glossary. 186. Page 239 . Glossary. formation of feminine from masculine. Glossary. adjective modifier. Glossary. subject. Drownded. Division of words at ends of lines. gender of pronouns. Got. 113). in letters. Funny. placing of gerund phrase. Gerunds. 13-14. 29 (2). Considerable. 181-182. Have. 123). use of.Compound words. Disease. Confusion of adjectives and adverbs. punctuation of. Degrees in comparison. use of hyphen with. Enough. 3. 80. Correctly written letters. misuse as a verb. Definition. 4. correlatives. Emphasis. in sentences. 139 (§114). 12. 127 (4). 103-104. of letters. Enumerations. Glossary. model conjugations of. 139 (§114). Emigration. with than. 50. 201.. 42. object complement. for well. Glossary. by a when or where clause. for everywhere. Fall. in paragraphs.
for let. gender of. imperative. 29 (1). for height. Glossary. 7.. Glossary.. Neither-nor. 164. Her'n. 194. of sentences. Him. 162. Most for almost. 138 (§107). heading. subjunctive. 102. Hisself. Glossary. Infinitives. Learn. misuse as a conjunction. No. punctuation of. 36. 4. Glossary. Nouns. Glossary. for many. 90-91. Hyphen. 157-159. of paragraph. Nominative case. notes in third person. Improving one's vocabulary. 117-118. 136 (§99). 9. 29 (1). used for. 102. 15. 156. Newsy. 126 (3-a). Glossary. 105-106. rules for. 164-166. 186. see Transitive. Lend. Glossary. Not muchly. common. 194. Glossary. indicative 62-63. 61-62. 9. misuse with more than two objects. Notorious. 56-57. of pronouns with compounded antecedent. 157-159. 99. 91. 81. confused with into. note 3. for at home. Glossary. 203-204. of paragraphs. of pronouns. 83-84. defined 9. Mother. with plural modifiers. infinitive. 64-69. participal. for worthless. confused with last. confused with emigration. misuse with demonstratives. 21-22. Namely. confused with lie. illustrations of correctly written letters. 161-163. 83. 36. 97-98. inside address. 166-171. use of. 137 (§100). Interrogation point.. In the letter. Modifiers. 230. 90-91. model conjugation of. footnote. sign #. Obligative mode. In. Inflection. capitalization of. 98. 195. 90. 117. Lightning. Kind of a. for angry. Loan. for not nearly. capitalization of. Like. 141 (§122). salutation. defined. Lie. Number. 19. confused with lend. Loose sentences. 7. 7. 26. Imperative mode. capitalization of. Nerve. defined. capitalization of. Messrs. 161. Glossary. confused with nearly. Illy. split. 137 (§102). Indentation. Intransitive verbs. of. 149. 46-47. Letter writing. 21-22. 7. Glossary. defined. Might. 1. 21. rules for sequence of infinitive tenses. 7. 85. 99. number of. explanation of. 91. 98. Glossary. 165. Neuter gender. punctuation of. 88-100. Glossary. when used. No place. miscellaneous directions. 190. 14. 69. use of. 61. explained. 2. outside address. No good. confused with common. Nowhere near. Near. case of. for likely. Lot for a great deal. Mad. Improprieties. . 171. 141 (§122). 7. Name. 196. singular. 155-171. 90 (footnote). I. Objective case. Glossary. Introductory words or phrases. 157. Glossary. Mrs. close. 99-100. Glossary. agreement of verb and subject in number. confused with hanged. 14. Glossary. Much. Hung. 193. 163-164. Glossary. His'n. 40. for teach. proper. Humbug. Number. confused with loan. of pronouns. 122 (2-b). Glossary. Interjection. definition of. use of. form of verb. confused with noted. 155-157. Length. 12. Neither. Idioms. Latter. 69. Glossary. punctuation of. 195. 91. 69. Mode. O and oh. Order of. 158. Lady. defined. confused with house. punctuation of. 80. plural. Lay. body of letter. 193. Muchly. misuse with gerund. 105-106. obligative. Newly coined expressions. 194. Glossary. of paragraph. forms of 83. model conjugations of. 97-98. Mutual. Glossary. defined. 198-199. 137. rule against.Heighth. 101-102. Object complement. e. 7. 97-98. potential. 193. 194. Inside address of letters. Immigration. 171. Liable. 106. 194. 90-91. 144. Glossary. confused with lay. Page 240 Masculine gender. Kind. 26. 44. of nouns and pronouns. 42. May. rules for forming plurals of nouns. 26. in letters. Leave. 192. 12. 137 (§100). when used. placing of. Here. 88-100. 137 (§100). 12. Interrogative pronouns. Not only—but also. Notes in the third person. Lit on. 91. North. 15. i. 148. 36. 80-82. cases used with. 84. 91. 164. of relative pronouns. 36. 159-161. 7. 56-57. Glossary. Home.
40. Possessive case. Glossary. Glossary. rule against. 4. 41. preceded by thus. 29 (3). Pants. Ought. 150. Poorly. 140 (§116). Point of view. 4. in sentence. of adverb much. 201. Obsolete words. 13. Outside of. 108. of inside address. 46-48. Personal pronouns. 175. 153. use of. Paragraphs. 42. One another. 149. Order of heading in letters. 26. Glossary. 42. Outline. 127 (5). 123. classified. use of common and of grave forms of. punctuation in case of 140 (§117). 143 (§138). Plenty. of outside address. 151-153. 81. 159. of letters. Glossary. Past participle. 195. 157. compound personal pronouns. explanation and forms of. Photo. use of. Outside address. 56. Place. 117. Only. Phrases. in paragraph. 121 (1-b). Of. use of in comparison. at beginning of sentence. 46-48. 141 (§121). Parenthesis marks. of complimentary close. Past tense. of important words. rules for forming possessives of nouns. Glossary. 80. 148-153. 32. 97-98. of verbs. of heading. confusion with gerunds. 41. defined. 142. coherence in. 178. explanation and use of. 22. 45. 37. Potential mode. 155-156. Glossary. Participles. 185-186. Parts of speech. unnecessary use of. 163. length of. Paragraphing of letters. explanation of. Piece. 161. confused with observation. verb. 81. 148. dangling. 161. 174-177. 164. prepositional. indentation of. rules for forming plurals of nouns. Glossary. 164-166. Positive degree.Observance. for composition. 1. unity in. 155. Glossary. Passive voice and active voice explained. 7. Periodic sentence. too frequent use of. in whole composition. in letters. 80-81. use of. Period. Other. Position. 50. emphasis in. 7. 149-151. defined. forms of. Over with. illustration of. defined. Page 241 . 90-91. 80. 92-100. in letters. of salutation. 29 (2). when used. 10. 137. Omission. Over-statement of facts. of prepositions. Plural number. Glossary. explained. with a negative. for ill. punctuation of adverbial phrases. Glossary. 13. 4. classified. explanation and use of. Placing of adjectives and adverbs. placing of. 87.
compound personal. S-form of verb.Predicate of the sentence. 140-141. with compound antecedents. 18. defined and explained. Punctuation. 108. 26. use of. 88-100. use of. with plurals. for tasteful. Semi-colon. (§139). Their'n. Should and would. 86. 163-164. compound. 44. agreement of verb and subject. use of when or where clause. So. outline of. 86. confused with character. essential qualities of. 187. Spelling. slipshod construction of. lists of words frequently misspelled. Qualities. Glossary. 187. Glossary. Sentence elements out of natural order. Page 242 Pronunciation. for order or command. relative. Solecisms. case and number of. punctuation of. 187. agreement of verb with. 32. 135 (§111). Right away. 104-105. 157. Glossary. 144. outside address. use of. balanced. rules for use of. punctuation of. Prepositional phrase. 10. Seldom ever. 13. 107. as a restrictive relative. 48. 178. Shut of. Sort of a. Glossary. capitalization. unnecessary use of. 21-22. 73. 56-57. coherence. 67. Sort. euphony. Principal parts of verbs. 88-100. defined. salutation. in dependent clauses. 46. misuse in comparing only two things. The. 4. 13-14. 46. Syllables. defined. 161. compound. 27. Subject matter of letters. 14. 185. Glossary. division of words into. 159-161. compound. words of similar spelling. exclamatory. Synonyoms. Singular number. complex. for expect. essential: Of sentences. infinitive. after you and they. of whole composition. 141 (§123). capitalization of." 127 (3-b) Street. 192. misuse as a pronoun. Of paragraphs. 106. Tasty. use of. restrictive. 136 (§95). 69. interrogative. relative pronoun as. in composition. 18. use of. 47. of words of similar sound. 37. classified. 64-65. punctuation of. 101-102. rules for. unity. 117. 174. 161. 17-18. 105. loose. 61. 18. Slang. 209-217. Quite. 3. Summarizing word." in letters. of. 121-136. punctuation of. for rid of. "Squinting construction. 117. explanation and use of. punctuation of. unity. 56. Right off. adjective. in letters. in principal clauses. Some. 137-144. imperative. declarative. Relative causes. Reputation. 128 (7). Sentences: defined. Proper nouns. with a negative. Glossary. 7. South. 103-104. 139 (§115). Glossary. rules for. defined. 143 (§§132-137). 69 (4). used as conjunctions. Glossary. rules determining gender of. 13. words of foreign pronunciation. 200. in letters. misuse of. interrogative. for if. sequence of. Quotation marks. Glossary. 137 (§100). explained. 196. . Prepositions. omission of in letters. unity. 153. 7. 56-57. 143. 138 (§109). defined 2. 101-102. confused with raise. explanatory or non-restrictive. 88-100. 133 (3). Simple words. 205-208. Technical words. 69 (4). theirself. Recommend. defined 2. 41. 208. 72. body. use of. for many. use of article. Principal verbs. Salutation. 101. misuse as an adverb. cases in. Raise. definition and rule against use of. Principal. 76-77. 48-50. predicate. 209-220. 142 (§131). 46-48. words given wrong sounds. Sight. 17-18. number of. 132 (1). Subject of sentence or clause. Speech. 220. explained. Shall and will. 206-208. list of. Glossary. 28. simple. 149-151. coherence. confused with set. 17. 46. proper use of. 27-28. Simple sentence. use of case forms of. That. case forms of. Singular form of verb. Glossary. Scarcely. 84. Than. lists of frequently mispronounced words. use of. inside address. confused with rise. explanatory or non-restrictive. 15. compound relative. 2. Relative pronouns. 42. 178. for intend. Glossary. 103-104. Glossary. 5. Rise. explained. Glossary. 84. in questions. 195. Scriptures. 136 (§95). 132-133. use of. That is. paragraphing of. placing of. 126-128. 69 (4). capitalization of. 151-153. agreement with antecedent. Specific terms. past tenses of. Tense. Provincialisms. capitalization of. 1. 201. Professional words. Subjunctive mode. emphasis. introduction of successive. Some. model conjugations of. Suspect. Glossary. heading. Providing. 5. omission of. for very. Quotations. Glossary. in letters. with what antecedents used. 142 (§127). use of. 166. Proper adjectives. in clauses. 122 (2). 157. Set. statement of. with different antecedents. 101-102. 62. 204. explained. gender of. Say. 47. defined. 15. 160. theirselves. Signature of writer. Propose. 2. Glossary. 13. defined. confused with sit. Glossary. Sequence of tenses. Somebody else's. 186. 162. 108. Glossary. confused with respectively. 178. Glossary. Superlative degree. length of. 137 (105). 18. 69 (2). Respectfully. 44. Sit. confused with principle. Rev. 102. Glossary. 141 (§122). Of whole composition. compound. 71-72. Pronouns. Glossary. antecedent of. words given wrong accent. 174. 196. 149. 76-77. 137 (§100). 17. 217-220. explained.. 128 (6). Page 243 Series of words. model conjugations of. Glossary. 1. use of. emphasis. "Telegraph style. confused with recommendation. 131. 3. value of. Such. 20-21. 21. periodic. 156. Repetition of similar words or syllables. Similar expressions of similar thoughts. 26. 18. 157. 217. 56.
infinitives. newly-coined. 18. rules for improvement of. 29 (8). confusion of. Third person. in place of figures in letters. Transpire. Transition. 46. 69. with what antecedents used. of coherence. 180. for unknown. 160. Try and. 148. foreign. 108-131. Ways. 200. 131 (1). 141 (§122). Page 244 Verb phrase. mode. 71-73. to-morrow. 217. with singular verb. Title of whole composition. 187. 69 (2). 97). 187. 29 (8). 104. 56. 18. 48-50. 46. Too. 40. 185-190. viz. indefinite use of. 174. 208220. participles. 187. Of sentence. 177. 205-208. Yes. What. 144 (§140). 69 (2). 137 (102). Weak beginnings and endings of sentences. 174-180. use of. 61-63. explanation of. Wait on. 46-47. 150. There. Three first. Glossary. 18. capitalization of. 196. Glossary. punctuation of. 36. 186. Two first. vulgarisms. Verbs. 29 (7). 87. Glossary. Thusly. 144. Vocabulary. They. technical words. confused with wait for. 26. Glossary. 4. pronunciation of. 158. 45. Whole composition. simple English. omission of verbs or parts of. for happen. Transitive and intransitive verbs. Well. with what antecedents. You. 171. Yours truly and yours respectfully. confused with avocation. 178-180. for those. indefinite use of. 83-84. and these sort. . clipped or abbreviated. 36. 203-204. 80-82. see should.Them. slang. Titles. how to gain. Which. Of whole composition. principal. principal parts. 64-65. 45. 198-199. hyphens with. 121-123. 88-100. wrong abbreviation of. 103-104. Your'n. Those kind. to-night. Then. in whole composition. ending of. with what antecedents used. auxiliary. 137 (§100). 56. 157. principal parts. 178. Glossary. Words. 200-201. 56. 136 (§§ 96. West. 187. 203-204. 4. 186. with singular verb.. Who. Vocation. 46. spelling of. abbreviations of. 152-180. 55-56. Where. confused with good. 29 (9). 196. 191. how to improve vocabulary of. with clause or phrase as antecedent. explained. 163. Would. use of. 187. 106. Without. notes in the. Wake. Will. 151. When. list of. choice of. use of auxiliaries. (§139). see shall. 33. Unnecessary words. 76-77. professional. model conjugations of to-be and to see. beginning of. Glossary. 193. defined. transitive and intransitive. good use of. agreement of verb in clauses. division of at ends of lines. To-day. Very. 104. 178. Unity: Of paragraph. misuse as a conjunction. 80-82. 86. Glossary. 149-151. Unbeknown. idioms. Vulgarisms. paragraph composition or paragraph theme. improper use of after demonstratives. voice. agreement of verb and subject. gerunds. punctuation of. capitalization of. Glossary. illustrations of. 187. 2. 186. provincialisms. misuse of. use of. 55-56. confused with awake. 79.
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