Project Summary

Objective- ³Performance of Single Cylinder Diesel Engine using Blends of Jatropha
and Karanja Biodiesel with Diesel & 100% Karanja Biodiesel and Jatropha Biodiesel.´

Scope- 4S Single Cylinder Diesel Engine. Engine Specifications:
TypeBoreStrokeCapacityPowerMakeOutputAV1, Single Cylinder Water Cooled Diesel Engine 85mm 110mm 624.19cc 3.75kW Kirloskar Project outcomes can be interpreted with the diesel fuel for different blend can be

ratio with which blending % for which engine performance will be satisfactory

judged and these blending % can be recommended for the use under certain conditions. Also project may be use full for the comparison of different other fuel blends in future and or certain modifications to the engine can be suggested for obtaining better results with higher blend ratio.

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Project Team
Student Name Roll No. Exam No. Student Name Roll No. Exam No. Student Name Roll No. Exam No. Sisode Ganesh U. 43 47933 Pawar Pradip S. 41 47903 Thakare Jayesh A. 55 47935

Project Resources Required
y y y y y y y Engine Air Box Calorimeter Fuel Blends Testing Foundation Measurement of calorific value for fuels Properties of fuels

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transport. Break Thermal Efficiency. Volumetric Efficiency. Biodiesel degrades four times faster than conventional diesel and is not particularly soluble in water. and reduces serious air pollutants. or biodiesel can be used in its pure form (B-100). such as. It is nontoxic. Temperature of exhaust gas. which makes it safe to handle. and store. and air toxics. but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems.Project GoalsAnalyzing the performance of Diesel & IC Engine using Blends of Karanja Biodiesel. biodegradable. Mean Effective Pressure. Mechanical Efficiency. carbon monoxide. Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel (B-20) can be used in unmodified diesel engines. which increases the margin of safety in fuel handling. Jatropha Biodiesel. Biodiesel is one such alternate fuel which is a domestically produced. 3 . but less so than with 100% petrodiesel The aim of the project is to analyze the engine performance for different blends of Biodiesel (B20 to B100) and comparing the performance of engine with respect to pure diesel engine under the same loading considerations (load varies from 10 % to 80%) and comparing the performance with respect to Break Power. renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils or recycled restaurant greases. particulates. When blended with petrodiesel. Fuel Consumption. A/F ratio. Jatropha Biodiesel & 100% Karanja Biodiesel. Biodiesel is safe. hydrocarbons. Biodiesel has a high flashpoint and low volatility so it does not ignite as easily as conventional diesel. the spills petrodiesel portion is still a problem.

engine performance 4 . Diesel. Break Power. B40. Blends. heat balance. Kirloskar Make was used to test blends of diesel with kerosene and Ethanol. This paper presents a study report on the performance of IC engine using blends of Jatropha & Karanja with diesel with various blending ratio. B60. Paper represents the test results for blends B20. Keywords: IC Engine. BSFC. B80 & B100. Engine test setup was developed to carry the trials using these blends. fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for pure diesel and various combination of dual fuel. The engine performance studies were conducted with rope break dynamometer setup. BTE and heat balance were calculated.75 kW diesel engine AV1 Single Cylinder water cooled. Parameters like speed of engine. fuel properties.ABSTRACT 3.

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Overview of Biodiesel Review of World fuel data Present scenario of petroleum consumption is as shown in table given bellow 5 .

Other countries from Oil & Gas Journal.049 5. data from EIA.20 4.8 639.4 394.5 630 947 609 635 700 660 1168 615 1190 561.2 602.06 577.25 6.7 681.41 3.5 723.) Consumption (Consumption of petroleum products and direct combustion of crude oil.) 557 557 753 779 705 867 991 1059 1051 1080 1122 1122 1047 1086 1086 Proved Reserves (Billion Barrels) (As of January 1. natural gas plant liquids.India Energy Data Petroleum (Thousand Barrels per Day) Total Oil Production (Production of crude oil including lease condensate. Sources: U. (Total crude oil and petroleum products.7 626. Other countries from Oil & Gas Journal.S.8 654.S.73 4.S.672 3.1 1275 534 1311 650. Negative value indicates refinery processing loss.997 6.921 5.7 590 1413 703.354 7. Data through 2007 is currently available. Sources: U.) -400 -343 -288 -299 -269 -302 -361 -429 -426 -487 -551 -673 -734 -763 -805 Total Oil Exports to U.48 3. data from EIA.5 1575 Crude Oil Production (Includes lease condensate.) 2.127 6.776 6 .5 3.6 769. Negative numbers are Net Imports.) 773 824 988 1084 1150 Net Exports/Imports (-) (Net Exports = Total Oil Production-Consumption.516 7. and refinery processing gain (loss).) 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 329. and other liquids.58 2.5 325 729 390 737 485 525 480 519 626 620 895 645.) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 Refinery Capacity (Crude oil distillation capacity as of January 1.

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8 .31 661.625 Billion Barrels only.62 674.4 2184 -1402 14 2113 4.86 651.63 642.71 2940 -2056 NA 2256 5. Short Term Energy Outlook.05 646.61 2658 -1804 12 2255 5.51 (2008) (thousands barrel per day) which is now alarming situation to search for alternative fuels since proved reserve for the same are 5. International Energy Annual.417 2006 854.814 1997 779.848 2007 881.42 1844 -1083 0 1086 4.728 2002 812.367 2004 851.78 652.03 2346 -1531 20 2135 5.03 660.51 693.67 664.333 1998 761.838 2001 781.84 2003 815.16 664.625 2008 883.4 (1981) to 883.66 2512 -1677 28 2255 5.972 2000 770.371 2005 835.625 Reference .34 683.66 2031 -1266 1 1142 3.11 2430 -1578 12 2135 5.75 2263 -1451 21 2135 4.1996 750.53 2800 -1919 29 2256 5.19 688.11 697.Sources: EIA.34 1999 764.34 2127 -1357 6 1858 4.02 1681 -930 4 1086 5.62 1765 -986 5 1086 4. Table 3b With reference to rate of consumption of petroleum fuels which has been increased from 329. Table 3a.

hydrocarbons. such as. Biodiesel has a high flashpoint and low volatility so it does not ignite as easily as conventional diesel. but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems. and air toxics. which makes it safe to handle. transport. biodegradable. or biodiesel can be used in its pure form (B-100). Biodiesel degrades four times faster than conventional diesel and is not particularly soluble in water. When blended with petrodiesel. Blends of 20% biodiesel with 80% petroleum diesel (B-20) can be used in unmodified diesel engines. but less so than with 100% petrodiesel 9 . renewable fuel that can be manufactured from vegetable oils or recycled restaurant greases. which increases the margin of safety in fuel handling. and reduces serious air pollutants. particulates. It is nontoxic. Biodiesel is safe.Biodiesel is one such alternate fuel which is a domestically produced.s petrodiesel portion is still a problem. the spill. carbon monoxide. and store.

there is some variation depending on the specific feedstock used. etc). Current technology yields about 3. In general. tallow and lard.1. The reaction results in a compound called fatty acid alkyl ester (the biodiesel product) and a byproduct called glycerol. 10 .5 units of energy for each unit consumed in the manufacturing process. produced from domestic. The general conversion of feedstock to biodiesel is: 100 lbs. ‡Bio diesel is the most efficient and valuable alternative sourceof diesel engine fuel. and can be derived from a variety of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel generally refers to the mono-alkyl esters of fatty acids.2 Biodiesel Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel. Alternative diesel fuel consisting of fatty acid esters produced by esterification of triglycerides which make up vegetable oils or animal fats. and float grease from waste water treatment plants. Most biodiesel in Europe is made from rapeseed oil. Stated simply.2 units of energy for every unit of energy consumed in the production process. and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. of glycerol However. cottonseed oil. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. the return from ethanol production is less than 1. with other feedstocks being corn oil. ethanol). of feedstock + 10 lbs. it is the product of a chemical reaction between the basic feedstock (vegetable oil or animal fat) and alcohol (in commercial applications usually methanol) in the presence of a catalyst (usually sodium or potassium hydroxide) (Gerpen). of biodiesel + 10 lbs.Biodiesel contains no petroleum. Biodiesel is simple to use. Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transeterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. The most common feedstock in the US is soybean oil. grease recovered from restaurants. the energy yield of the biodiesel process is significantly greater than that of other bio-fuels (for example. In comparison. renewable resources. recycled restaurant oils (fry oil. canola oil. nontoxic. biodegradable. of methanol 100 lbs.

The annual estimated potential is about 20 million tones per annum. global warming and health hazards are the results of ill effects of increased polluted gases like Sox. Tall oil produced from wood pulp wastes is yet another possible feedstock source. Biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels. canola. buses. In India. airplanes. Jetropha.about 175 million hectares are classified as waste and degraded land. CO and particulate matter in atmosphere. I. The ³XX´ indicates the amount of biodiesel in the blend.transportation needs (cars. Biodiesel blends are referred to as BXX.‡It is eco-friendly and its performance is exactly similar to the petro-diesel. with consumption growing at an annual rate of 6. In India. and trains). corn. The petroleum products play on important role in our modern life. A biodiesel blend is pure biodiesel blended with petrodiesel. India is projected to become the third largest consumer of transportation fuel in 2020. trucks. ‡It is referred to as B100 or ³neat´ biodiesel.The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel. after the USA and China.8% from 1999 to 2020. Rising petroleum prices. and some 30 others can also be used in the production of biodieselfuel. ‡Fuels derive from renewable biological resources for use in diesel engines are known as Biodiesel Fuels. virgin and recycled vegetable oils derived from crops such as soybeans. The acid rain. ‡It can be produced from renewable biological sources like edibleand non-edible oils. We can cultivate these crops very easily on this land. sunflower. The costs of these products depend on international markets and petroleum reserves are limited to nearly 30 years. ‡Animal fats. Karanja and Mahua trees has great potential for production of biofuels like bio-ethanol and biodiesel. 2004).e. India¶s economy has often been unsettled by its need to import about 70% of its petroleum demand from the highly unstable and volatile world oil market (India. increasing threat to the environment 11 . out of cultivated area. ‡Biodiesel is a pure 100% fuel conforming to ASTM Specifications D 6751.

from exhaust emissions and global warming have generated an intense international interest in developing alternative non-petroleum fuels for engines. 12 .

unlike straight vegetable oil. transesterified biodiesel comprises a mix of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids.A by-product of the transesterification process is the production of glycerol. ultrasonic methods. or they are esterified (yielding more biodiesel) using an acidic catalyst.1. This is rather energy intensive. One initiative in the UK is The Glycerol Challenge. There are several methods for carrying out this transesterification reaction including the common batch process. Epichlorhydrin is a raw material for epoxy resins. and Cargill announced plans to make propylene glycol in Europe from glycerol and Dow Chemical announced similar plans for North America. and can replace it in most current uses. 13 . However. Dow also plans to build a plant in China to make epichlorhydrin from glycerol. Research is being conducted globally to use this glycerol as a chemical building block. there was a valuable market for the glycerol. biodiesel has combustion properties very similar to those of petroleum diesel. at the cost of a less efficient transesterification reaction. and even microwave methods. The most common form uses methanol (converted to sodium methoxide) to produce methyl esters as it is the cheapest alcohol available.A lipid transesterification production process is used to convert the base oil to the desired esters. which assisted the economics of the process as a whole.Usually this crude glycerol has to be purified. or converted into other products. The following announcements were made in 2007: A joint venture of Ashland Inc.3 Production Biodiesel is commonly produced by the transesterification of the vegetable oil or animal fat feedstock. typically by performing vacuum distillation.Chemically. The refined glycerol (98%+ purity) can then be utilised directly. the market price for this crude glycerol (containing 20% water and catalyst residues) has crashed.After this processing. Originally. Any Free fatty acids (FFAs) in the base oil are either converted to soap and removed from the process. though ethanol can be used to produce an ethyl ester biodiesel and higher alcohols such as isopropanol and butanol have also been used. supercritical processes. Using alcohols of higher molecular weights improves the cold flow properties of the resulting ester. with the increase in global biodiesel production. 100 kg of glycerol are produced. For every 1 tonne of biodiesel that is manufactured.

Figure 1 14 .as shown in Figure 1. Oil was used as medium of heat transfer from heat jacket to the reactor.Pyrolysis. 4. Transesterfication was carried out in a system.Differents methodologies used for production of Biodiesel are: 1.Transesterfication.Fourth opening was used for filling reactants to the reactor. 2. 3.70(c). which was put inside the heat jacket.Direct use/Blending.Reactor consisted of spherical flask. The motor propelled the stirrer. Spherical flask consisted of four openings.Micro-emulsion. Thermometer was put inside the second opening to continuously monitor the temperature of the reaction. Alcohol being volatile vaporized during the reaction so the condenser was put in the third opening to reflux the vapors back to the reactor to prevent any reactant loss. which maintained the temperature of oil and in turn the temperature of the reactants at a desired value. The reaction was carried out at around 65. The center one was used for putting stirrer in the reactor. Thermostat was a part of heat jacket.

there is a need to domesticate them for cultivation under different production systems on degraded lands & community wastelands.They have successfully tested the biodiesel by running a Jana Shatabdi Express from Delhi to Chandigarh. Jatropha oil was collected from a private firm Rural Community Action Centre.run small machinery & generate electricity is another possibility. Daimaler Chrysler is sponsoring Jatropha production with a communication to run their cars on biodiesel. Erode and filtered for solid impurities. The molar ratio and sodium hydroxide amount used for biodiesel production were 1:6 and 0.identifying superior seeds. The Indian Railways has taken the initiative to promote jatropha cultivation along the railways tracks and use biodiesel as engine fuel. respectively. Free Fatty Acid of jatropha oil used in the pilot biodiesel plant was less than 5 per cent. 15 . The fuel properties of Jatropha biodiesel and its blends and diesel fuel are shown in Table 3. The curcas oil was transesterified using methanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide in the pilot biodiesel plant.enhancing the seeds yield & calculation of cost benefit analysis are essential before the farmers accept them as a production option. Mahindra & Mahindra have trials for operting tractors on biodiesel.8 (w/w).Use of biodiesel at the village level for operating oil engines that pump water. proper space management.critical moisture regime for flower induction.Although the species concerned are well known. Determining the specific agro-climatic requirement.

12. 1 16 .1.No. 1. 7. 13. 6. 9. State Andhra Pradesh Chhatisgarh Gujarat Haryana Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharastra Mizoram Rajasthan Tamil Nadu Uttaranchal Uttar Pradesh Bihar Area(ha) 44 190 240 140 80 260 150 20 275 60 50 200 10 Table No. 2. 3. 10.4 Manufacturing in India State-wise area for biodiesel plantation Sr. 8. 5. 11. 4.

Biodiesel is 100% renewable. y Neat biodiesel fuel is non-toxic and biodegradable. y Combustion of biodiesel alone produces over a 90% reduction in total unburned hydrocarbons.. Emissions. Drivability. 3. almost 100% less Sulphurdioxide. we¶re going to run out of oil eventually. It's sustainable & non-toxic. This reduces our trade deficit and creates jobs..Studies have shown biodiesel reduces engine wear by as much as one half.We have yet to meet anyone who doesn't notice an immediate smoothing of the engine with biodiesel. and produces less smoke. National security. Engine life. meaning it contributes almost zero emissions to global warming! Biodiesel also dramatically reduces other emissions fairly dramatically. there's no problem . Biodiesel just runs quieter. you can drink biodiesel if you so desire. y Lubricity is improved over that of conventional diesel fuel. 17 . 5.5 Importance Advantage of Biodiesel 1. 2.Biodiesel is nearly carbon-neutral. primarily because biodiesel provides excellent lubricity. Even a 2% biodiesel/98% diesel blend will help.1.. y Bio-diesel is safe to handle and transport. biodiesel reduces our dependence on foreign oil. and a 75-90% reduction in aromatic hydrocarbons. National economy.Face it.Since biodiesel is made domestically. y Biodiesel produces approximately 80% less carbon dioxide.it's just modified veggie oil! Heck. 4. but it tastes nasty. 6. That's good. And if biodiesel gets into your water supply. we'll never run out of biodiesel.Using biodiesel keeps our fuel buying dollars at home instead of sending it to foreign countries.

from 361 million in 1951 to 1.5 kW load conditions respectively. 2004). The diesel mode exhaust gas temperature was observed as 375ºC. the fuel consumption in the diesel engine was about 14 per cent higher than that of diesel. The population continues to grow at 1.5 and 3. had reported a studies on.al. Coimbatore ± 641 003. 2. A pilot plant was developed for biodiesel production from different vegetable oils and used for this study.5 and 3. Ramesh et. Tamil Nadu.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW D. Agricultural Engineering College and Research Institute. The brake thermal efficiency for biodiesel and its blends was found to be slightly higher than that of diesel fuel at tested load conditions and there was no difference between the biodiesel and its blended fuels efficiencies. The costs of these products 18 . For jatropha biodiesel and its blended fuels. 2001). 2. with real GDP growth rates remaining consistently over 5% (India. Tamil Nadu Agricultural University.027 billion in 2001. The petroleum products play on important role in our modern life. about one-sixth of the world¶s population. The percent increase in specific fuel consumption ranged from 3 to 14 for B20 to B100 fuels. The NOx emissions from biodiesel was increased by 15. ³Investigations on Performance and Emission Characteristics of Diesel Engine with Jatropha Biodiesel and Its Blends´ A 5. 14 and 14 per cent at 2.93% per annum. The CO2 emission from the biodieselfuelled engine was slightly higher than diesel fuel as compared with diesel. The population of India has nearly tripled in the last 50 years. the exhaust gas temperature increased with increase in load and amount of biodiesel.5 kW load conditions. The highest exhaust gas temperature was observed as 463ºC for biodiesel among the three load conditions. which is well above the global average (India. The carbon monoxide reduction by biodiesel was 16. India is home to over a billion people. In the case of jatropha biodiesel alone. India. The country¶s economy has also been growing rapidly in the last decade.2 kW diesel engine with alternator was used to test jatropha biodiesel and its blends. 18 and 19 per cent higher than that of the diesel at 2.

global warming and health hazards are the results of ill effects of increased polluted gases like SOx. increasing threat to the environment from exhaust emissions and global warming have generated an intense international interest in developing alternative non-petroleum fuels for engines (Ajav and Akingbehin. odorless and can easily mix with diesel fuel.. Jatropha oil cannot be used for food or feed because of its strong purgative effect (Corner and Watanabe. essentially sulfur-free and biodegradable (Yuan et al. life span of 40 years and suitable for tropical and subtropical countries like India (Patil et al. Among the various non-edible oil sources. Mali during World War II. In recent years.8% from 1999 to 2020. CO and particulate matter in atmosphere. India is projected to become the third largest consumer of transportation fuel in 2020. Ishil and Takeuchi 1987. The use of non-edible oils compared to edible oils is very significant because of the increase in demand for edible oils as food and they are too expensive as compared with diesel fuel. and reported fair results for thermal efficiency and emission compared with 19 . Cabral 1964. Jatropha curcas oil has added advantages like pleasant smell. The Jatropha plant having advantages namely. The use of physic nut seed oil in diesel engines is reported in the literature (Mensier and Loury 1950. Senthil Kumar et al. 2004. easy propagation. Takeda 1982. 2004). The acid rain. 1992). Biodiesel is described as a fuel comprised of mono-alkyl esters of long chain fatty acids derived from vegetable oils or animal fats. It is oxygenated. 1991). 1998). after the USA and China. 2003). Pramanik 2003. 2002).. India¶s economy has often been unsettled by its need to import about 70% of its petroleum demand from the highly unstable and volatile world oil market (India. Rising petroleum prices. 2004). renewable fuel source to substitute for diesel oil (Jones and Miller. Henning and Kone (no date) reported activities involving the use of physic nut oil in engines in Segou. Mori (1983) using refined curcas oil blends in precombustion chamber engine. rapid growth. Forson et al. with consumption growing at an annual rate of 6.depend on international markets and petroleum reserves are limited to nearly 30 years. Research on this oil was first initiated during World War II to study the use of curcas oil as a liquid. 1979). research has been directed to explore plant-based fuels and plant oils and fats as fuels (Martini and Shell. effectively yielding oilseeds from the 3rd year onwards.

The problems encountered in raw oils are solved by forming biodiesel. ecofriendly fuel. He also pointed out the problems of filter blockage. carbon deposits and oil incompatibility with fuel line materials. 1986). 1997. Goering.´ The bio-diesel was produced from non-edible oils by using bio-diesel processor and the diesel engine performance for water lifting was tested on bio-diesel and bio-diesel blended with diesel. Acrolein is high toxic substance released from the engine due to thermal decomposition of glycerol present in the oils (Schwab et al. 1992. In order to achieve 5% replacement of petrodiesel by bio-diesel by the year 2006-07. Kalbande et. The newly developed bio-diesel processor was capable of preparing the oil esters sufficient in quantity for running the commonly used farm engines. Surendra R.33 million MT. 2004).. it has been reported by most researchers that if raw vegetable oils are used as diesel engine fuel. College of Agricultural Engineering and Technology.. had reported studies on.al. 1987). A study was taken for performance evaluation and and assesses the emissions from jatropha biodiesel fuelled engine. 1996). India. Parbhani (M. CO and HC emissions increase and Nox emissions also decrease accordingly (Sinha and Misra. It is estimated that petrodiesel demand in India by the end of 10th Plan (in 2006-07) shall be 52. ³Jatropha and Karanja Biofuel: An Alternate fuel for Diesel Engine. Marathwada Agriculture University. which is non toxic.diesel No. Pramanik (2003) found the jatropha oil blending up to 40 to 50 per cent with diesel fuel could be used in engine without modifications. engine performance decreases. there is need to bring minimum 2.29 million ha area under Jatropha curcas plantation (India. Altõn. However. CO2 emission by use of biodiesel in diesel engines will be recycled by the crop plant resulting in no new addition in to atmosphere (Peterson and Hustrulid. The fuel properties of bio-diesel such as kinematic viscosity and specific gravity were found within limited of BIS 20 .S. Biodiesel consists of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs) of seed oils and fats and have already been found suitable for use as fuel in diesel engine (Harrington.). 1998 and Shay 1993).2 diesel. In general. et al. and have similar properties of diesel fuel (Krawczyk. 1998).

y The fuel properties of bio-diesel such as kinematic viscosity and specific gravity were found within limited of BIS standard. barren land which is eco friendly also. Bio-diesel can be used as an alternate and non-conventional fuel to run all type of C. Many alternative fuels like biogas. methanol. Operational efficiency of diesel pump set for various blends of bio-diesel were found nearer to the expected efficiency of 20 percent.. rapeseed. the bio-diesel was produced from non-edible oils by using bio-diesel processor and the diesel engine performance for water lifting was tested on bio-diesel and bio-diesel blended with diesel. Fast depletion of the fossil fuels and some times shortage during crisis period directs us to search for some alternative fuel which can reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. further increase requirement of this depleting fuel source. The technology of production.I. In order to propagate and promote the use of bio-diesel as an alternate source of energy in rural sector. non-edible oil of Jatropha curcas and Karanja (Pongamia Pinnata) are evaluated as diesel fuel extender (Racheman et al. The methyl ester obtained from this process is known as bio diesel. 21 . Increased farm mechanization in agriculture thus. The agriculture sector of the country is completely dependant on diesel for its motive power and to some extent for stationary power application. because their calorific value is almost 90-95 percent of the diesel. the collection. 2003). Due to pressure on edible oils like groundnut.standard. y Operational efficiency of diesel pump set for various blends of bio-diesel were found nearer to the expected efficiency of 20 percent. The vegetable oil directly can be used in diesel engine as a fuel. ethanol and vegetable oils have been evaluated as a partial or complete substitute to diesel fuel. extraction of vegetable oil from oil seed crop and oil seed bearing trees is well known and very simple. They Conclude that. The oil is extracted from the seeds and converted into methyl esters by the transesterification process. engine. musterd and soyabean etc. The development in this respect also provides much ecological balance. Bio diesel is renewable source of energy which can be produced locally by our farmers by growing oil seed producing plants on their waste lands.

Biodiesel is the name of a clean burning alternative fuel. The process leaves behind two productsmethyl esters (the chemical name for biodiesel) and glycerin (a valuable byproduct usually sold to be used in soaps and other products.I. Stalin et. Also the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. This paper presents a review of the alternative technological methods that could be used to produce this fuel. fuel consumption and torque were measured at different loads for pure diesel and various combinations of dual fuel. and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency were calculated. It can be used in compression-ignition (diesel) engines with little or no modifications. National Institute of Technology. Biodiesel is made through a chemical process called transeterification whereby the glycerin is separated from the fat or vegetable oil. Parameters like speed of engine. Department of Chemical Engineering.y Bio-diesel can be used as an alternate and non-conventional fuel to run all types of C. but it can be blended at any level with petroleum diesel to create a biodiesel blend. The test results indicate that the dual fuel combination of B40 can be used in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications. engines. Brake power. produced from domestic. Performance of IC engine using Karanja biodiesel blending with diesel and with various blending ratios has been evaluated. Biodiesel is simple to use. Biodiesel contains no petroleum. 22 . Trichy. N. biodegradable. India. renewable resources. The engine performance studies were conducted with a Prony brake-diesel engine set up. Tamil Nadu. Biodiesel from Karanja oil was produced by alkali catalyzed Transesterification process. nontoxic. Had reported studies on ³Performance test of IC Engine using Karanja Biodiesel Blending with Diesel´ Biodiesel production is a modern and technological area for researchers due to constant increase in the prices of petroleum diesel and environmental advantages. al.

y The cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. torque. They Conclude that y For all the fuel samples tested. 23 . brake power and brake thermal efficiency reach maximum values at 70% load. Also the cost of dual fuel (B40) can be considerably reduced than pure diesel. tail pipe particulate matter. The transesterification is achieved with monohydric alcohols like methanol and ethanol in the presence of an alkali catalyst. y The dual fuel combination of B40 can be recommended for use in the diesel engines without making any engine modifications.Biodiesel is better for the environment because it is made from renewable resources and has lower emission compared to petroleum diesel. carbon monoxide. Biodiesel improves lubricity and reduces premature wearing of fuel pumps. hydrocarbons. Biodiesel and its blends with petroleum-based diesel fuel can be used in diesel engines without any significant modifications to the engines. and other air toxics. The advantages of biodiesel are that it displaces petroleum thereby reducing global warming gas emissions.

Lubricating oil specification 10. IS rating at 1500 rpm 5.CHAPTER 3 ENGINE SETUP DESIGN AND DETAIL 3. Maximum permissible back Pressure 11.5 : 1 Single cylinder. Governor type 9.2 24 . Injection pump & type Unit ---KW ---- Type Kirloskar oil engine AV1 Vertical. Compression ratio 7.7 0.533 16. Cubic capacity 6. CI engine 1 3. No. Flange mounted without Camshaft Mechanical centrifugal type HD type 3 as per IS :496-1982 2. of cylinders 4.5 Cooling water 8.4S.1 ENGINE SPECIFICATIONDescription 1. Name of the Engine 2. Type of engine 3. Method of cooling --KPa -- Table No. High speed.

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