And Allah (God) sends down from the Qur‘an that which is healing and mercy to those who

believe, and it increases the wrong-doers nothing but loss. The Qur’an(17(: 82

The Qur’an in Practice
Dr. Zaid Kasim Mohammad Ghazzawi Website: www.quran-miracle.com

Learning Diffusion from The Qur’an
‫انتقال المادة في النظمة الحيوية‬

Mass Transport

Diffusion
   

Capillary Kidney Lung O2/CO2 Exchange Cell Membrane Cell Membrane Gastrointestinal Tract (Ville) Hydrostatic Pressure

Active Transport
 

Osmosis

Diffusion mass transfer phenomenon
Medium 1
Atoms comprising medium 1

Medium 2
Atoms comprising medium 2

Added atoms

Diffusion of added atoms from 1 to 2 across a dividing barrier

Diffusion from fluid surrounding cells to flowing blood:
 

Carbon dioxide (CO2) Water (H2O)

Diffusion from blood to the fluid surrounding cells:
 

Oxygen (O2) Sugar (C6H12O6)
Oxygen (O2)

Diffusion in human lungs from air to blood

Diffusion in human lungs from blood to air

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful

Whatever you may be doing, and whatever portion you may be reciting from the Qur'ân, - and whatever deed you may be doing, Allah (God) is a Witness thereof, when you are doing it. And nothing is hidden from your Lord the weight of an atom on the earth or in the heaven. Not what is less than that or what is greater than that but is in a Clear Record
The Noble Qur’an (10: 61)

It can be deduced from this Qur’anic verse that the weight of an atom is the main parameter which dictates and explains all the behavior of matter and energy, thus it will be used to explain mass transport

Diffusion mass transfer in water
NaCl (Sodium Chloride)

‫مثقال ذرة – فتثير سحابا‬
Membrane

Diffusion flow

Medium 1

Medium 2

Diffusion phenomenon explained fully from the Noble Qur’an

The weight of the atom (‫(مثقال ذرة‬

Atomic gravity weaved ropes

Causes foreign atoms to link with the atoms comprising the medium

Pull of gravity weaved ropes of the atoms comprising the barrier

Brings the atoms of foreign material closer to the barrier and within the spaces of the pores of the barrier

The combined pull of the gravity field on the atom of the medium linked with foreign atom causes them to drop to a lower level

Causing another atom to be displaced from its location (i.e. causing turbulence in the medium) (diffusion fluid current)

Added atoms

Diffusion fluid current

The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following parameters

The difference in the concentration of the suspended material in the two media

The rate of diffusion is proportional to the concentration gradient Case 1: The thickness of the barrier does not allow the atoms in medium 2 to see (i.e. attract) the atoms in medium 1. In this case diffusion won’t occur Case 2: The thickness is such that atoms comprising medium 2 see the atoms of the suspended material in medium 1 which results in the flow of matter across the barrier. As the thickness of the barrier increases the rate of diffusion will decrease Thus the rate of diffusion is inversely proportional to the thickness of the dividing barrier between the two media

2.

The thickness of the barrier

The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following parameters
 

The area of the barrier perpendicular to the direction of atom movement The weight of the atoms in medium 1 and 2

Case 1: The weight of the atoms in medium 1 and 2 is the same. For this case 2 sub cases would result, which are:

The two media have heavy atoms: In this case diffusion rate would be high while taking into account the level of saturation of the medium into which the external material is added. The two media have light atoms: The rate of diffusion would be generally low. Also taking into account the level of saturation of the two media.

The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following parameters
4. The weight of the atoms in medium 1 and 2

Case 2: The weight of the atoms comprising the two media is different. Two cases can occur in this case:

The weight of the atoms in medium 2 is larger: In this case the attraction of the atoms in medium 2 to the suspended material in medium 1 will be high and thus this will increase the rate of diffusion . The weight of the atoms in medium 1 is larger: The attraction of the atoms comprising medium 1 would be high and in the same time the attraction of the atoms of medium 2 would be small. This will result in a reduced rate of diffusion.

5. Density of the barrier

The rate of diffusion of matter between medium 1 and 2 will depend on the following parameters

Density of the two media

Case 1: The density of medium 1 is larger than 2 which results in the binding of more atoms of the external material with medium 1 and thus the rate of diffusion decreases Case 2: The density of medium 2 is larger than 1 which results in an increased rate of diffusion Turbulent or laminar

2.

The state of the fluid in media 1 and 2

Derivation of the law that governs diffusion phenomenon from the Noble Qur’an

Diffusion rate (atoms/s) = weights × concentration gradient of input matter A ρ ρ Diffusion rate = × 2 × mat × D × (∇C ) t ρ1 ρ b Where : A Area of barrier perpendicular to mass transfer t Thickness of barrier ρ1 , ρ 2 Density of medium 1 and 2, respectively.

ρ b , ρ mat Density of the atoms comprising the barrier and external material, respectively. ∂C ∂C ∂C ∇C Concentration gradient in x, y, and z direction = + + ∂x ∂y ∂z D Experimental parameter describing the speed of the travel of added atoms

Diffusion Mass Transfer

Mass transfer is mass in transit as the result of a species concentration difference in a mixture. (Incropera)
How to derive diffusion law? 1 Diffusion = f( ρ , D12 , ∆C , ) ∆tbarrier ∆C A J1 = ρ D12 ∆xbarrier Where : kg ρ = ρ1 + ρ 2 (Mixture mass density 3 ) m m2 D12 (Mass diffusivity ) s kmol ∆C (Concentration difference 3 ) m ∆xbarrier (Thickness of barrier m)
Fick’s law of diffusion

Diffusion depends on the membrane between the two media

Types of membranes:
1. 2. 3.

Not-permeable: Does not contain pores of adequate size for any atoms to diffuse. Semi-permeable: The size of the pores allow some atoms to diffuse through. Permeable: The size of the pores allows all atoms to diffuse through.

Diffusion in the human body
Capillary network ‫شبكة الوعية الدموية الشعيرية‬

Blood capillary

http://www.schoolscience.co.uk/content/4/biology/abpi/skin/skin4.html

Typical characteristics of a blood capillary
           

Inside Diameter = 10 µm Length = 0.1 cm Wall thickness = 0.5 µm Average blood velocity = 0.05 cm/sec Pore fraction = 0.001 Wall pore diameter = 6-7 nm Inlet pressure = 30 mmHg Outlet pressure = 10 mmHg Mean pressure = 17.3 mmHg Colloid osmotic pressure = 28 mmHg Interstitial fluid pressure = -3 mmHg Interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure = 8 mmHg

Model for a blood capillary

Model for a blood capillary

‫)لقد خلقنا النسان في أحسن تقويم( , )وفي أنفسكم أفل تبصرون( صدق ال العظيم‬ The optimal piping network for maximum diffusion can be found from the optimal design of blood capillary

The optimal length to diameter ratio = 100

Maximizing diffusion surface area Minimizing the thickness of the barrier

The optimal thickness to diameter ratio = 1/20

Fluid velocity inside the capillary = 0.05 cm/sec = 0.5 mm/sec

Allowing adequate time for diffusion to occur Does not allow blood to escape Selectively permeable membrane

Pore diameter = 6-7 nm
 

‫)لقد خلقنا النسان في أحسن تقويم( , )وفي أنفسكم أفل تبصرون( صدق ال العظيم‬ The optimal piping network for maximum diffusion can be found from the optimal design of blood capillary

Barrier is light (Collagen, elastin, endothelial cells) (atoms of low weight)

Minimum resistance to diffusing atoms (due to atomic gravity weaved ropes)

Blood capillaries are located near to cells, alveoli, etc. (i.e. regions that need substances)

Reduces the distance the atoms have to travel (i.e. faster diffusion) Maximum number can be packed in a given space (Maximum diffusion rate)

Capillary form fold (like water waves)

Diffusion in and out of the cell

Substances need to enter the cell:
   

Glucose (energy source) Oxygen Calcium (Ca) Sodium (Na) Carbon dioxide Water

Substances need to leave the cell:
 

Mass diffusivity of various substances
Diffusivity of selected substances :
2 cm 2 −9 m Glucose ( D = 0.91×10 = 0.91×10 ) sec sec Glucose molecular weight = 180 (1 mole of glucose weighs 180 g) −5 2 cm 2 −9 m Oxygen ( D = 2.11×10 = 2.11×10 ) sec sec m2 Vitamin B12 ( D = 0.5 ×10 −9 ) sec Vitamin B12 molecular weight = 1300 −5

Example on diffusion in blood capillary

Example

Calculate the rate of diffusion of glucose, knowing that its molecular radius = 0.36 nm. The average concentration of glucose in plasma = 5 µmole/ml and it is assumed that all glucose transported to the extracapillary space is consumed instantly by the cell. Assume that all of the plasma proteins are retained by the capillary wall.

Diffusion rate (atoms/s) = weights × concentration gradient of input matter A ρ ρ Diffusion rate = × 2 × mat × D × (∇C ) t ρ1 ρ b Where : Diffusion area of capillary = πDL = π ×10 × 10 −6 × 0.1×10 − 2 = 3.14 ×10 −8 m 2 t = 0.5 ×10 −6 m

ρ2 =1 ρ1 ρ mat ρ glu cos e 1150 = = = 2.875 ρb ρ capillary 400
m2 D = 0.91× 10 −9 s ∆C = 9 ×10 −7 kg / ml = 9 ×10 − 4 kg / m 3 3.14 × 10 -8 −9 −4 −13 kg Glucose diffusion rate = ×1× 2.875 × 0.91×10 × 9 ×10 = 1.48 ×10 −6 0.5 ×10 s

Diffusion resistance maps

Medium 1
Atoms comprising medium 1 Added atoms

Medium 2
Atoms comprising medium 2
Diffusion of added atoms from 1 to 2 across a dividing barrier

Resistance of medium 1

L1 D1 A1

Resistance of Resistance of medium 2 barrier

L2 Lb Db Ab D2 A2

Depends on: -Atomic weight of atoms comprising medium 1 and added material (D) -Area of medium - Thickness of medium -Motion of the atom in the medium

Diffusion in human lungs

Derive the diffusion map for the human lung

Blood Oxygenator
A device to oxygenate blood in the case of partial or full lung failure (or in the case of heart surgery) Designed fully based on the Noble Qur’an

And in the earth there are signs for those who have certainty in faith * and in your own self will you not then see
The Noble Qur’an (51: 2021)

In The Name of Allah (God) The Most Compassionate The Most Merciful

The optimal design for mass and heat exchanger can be learnt from the design of human lungs, the human body is a textbook in optimal engineering

Studying the Design of Human Lungs

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs
1.

Two fluids involved in the exchange
 

Air (Oxygen + Nitrogen) Deoxygenated Blood Pumping air and blood into the system

How to make an engineering design?

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs
2. The two fluids involved in the exchange are in a cross flow configuration:

Maximizing mass transfer by not allowing boundary layer to form Pumping air and blood in a cross flow fashion

How to make an engineering design?

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs
3. Blood flows in small branches (capillaries)
 

Maximizing surface area Minimizing film thickness Branching the blood taken from the body into many small membrane tubes

How to make an engineering design?

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs
4. There exist many back up units (alveloi)

Mercy requirement in the case of damage to some alveoli the others can compensate Making additional tubes in the membrane design (more than needed) in the case that some might be blocked

How to make an engineering design?

Reflection upon the Design of Allah (God) Almighty in Human Lungs
5. All membranes in the human lung have pretension and hardening spring behavior

Mercy mechanism to protect the membrane from rupture due to increased pressure Using natural fibers for the membranes (like cellulose) that has these phenomena

How to make an engineering design?

Composition of Membranes within the Human Body
Elastin

Pre-Tension Phenomena

Collagen

Elastin

Blood flow

Collagen

Hardening Spring Behavior in Membrane
F

Linear spring Non-linear spring

F

Slope = k (Stiffness) = Constant x Slope = k (Stiffness) = decreasing x F Slope = k (Stiffness) = increasing x

Softening spring

Non-linear spring

Hardening spring

Sample Calculation for Membrane Section

(100 mmol) of Oxygen needs to be added to the blood in 1 hour, calculate the area to thickness ratio of a single membrane to be used in the membrane section?

Design Calculations
N = DA ∆C t
2 −9 m D = 2.11× 10 sec 100 × 10 −3 mol N= = 2.8 × 10 −5 mol / sec 60 × 60 sec 100 × 10 −3 mol CO = = 20 × 10 −3 mol / L 5L 2.8 × 10 −5 A = 2.11× 10 −9 × t 20 × 10 −3 A = 0.2 × 107 = 2 × 10 6 t πDL π × 300 × 10 −6 × 30 × 10 −2 6 = 2 × 10 = t t 1 t= × 10 −11 m = 0.1× 10 −11 m 14.14
2

Can use multiple tubes to achieve the required mass transfer rate

Design of blood oxygenator as derived from the Noble Qur’an
6. Capillaries are not straight they are folded (packing maximum material in a given space – maximizes surface area)

The tubes of the oxgenator need to be folded, however, this is not possible due to damage to red blood cells

Blood in

Gas out

Gas in

Blood out

Design of blood oxygenator as derived from the Noble Qur’an

Air in the human lungs is in a turbulent state (no formation of diffusion boundary layer)

Need to cause diffusion to the gas flowing on the tubes (fan, pressure gradients, etc.)

In the lungs gas flows in a pulsating fashion (like the flow of water waves)

Need to have a pulsating pump in the blood oxygenator

Operational characteristics of lung and blood pump oxygenator
Characteristic Blood flow rate Pressure head Blood volume Blood film thickness Length of blood flow channel Blood contact time Surface area for mass transfer Gas flow rate pO2 and pCO2 blood in pO2 and pCO2 blood out pO2 and pCO2 Gas in pO2 and pCO2 Gas out Lung 5 L/min 12 mmHg 1 Liter 5-10 microns 100 microns 0.7 sec 70 m2 7 L/min 40 and 45 mmHg 95 and 40 mmHg 149 and 0.3 mmHg 120 and 27 mmHg Blood Oxygenator 5 L/min 0-200 mmHg 1-4 Liters 100-300 microns 2-30 cm 3-30 sec 2-10 m2 2-10 L/min 40 and 45 mmHg 100-300 and 30-40 mmHg 250-713 and 0-20 mmHg 150-675 and 10-30 mmHg

Different types of blood oxygenator

Bubble oxygenator
 

Damage to blood cells Low efficiency Damage to blood cells Low efficiency Reduced damage to blood cells Moderate efficiency

Flat bed oxygenator (film oxygenator)
 

Membrane oxygenator (best available choice)
 

Dr. Zaid Kasim Ghazzawi my For detailed information please visit
Website at:

E-mail: zaidquran@yahoo.co m

www.quranmiracle.com