Computer crime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network.
 The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target. Netcrime refers to criminal exploitation of the Internet. Cybercrimes are defined as: "Offences that are committed against individuals or groups of individuals with a criminal motive to intentionally harm the reputation of the victim or cause physical or mental harm to the victim directly or indirectly, using modern telecommunication networks such as Internet (Chat rooms, emails, notice boards and groups) and mobile phones (SMS/MMS)". Such crimes may threaten a nation’s security and financial health.
Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile, particularly those
surrounding cracking, copyright infringement, child pornography, and child grooming. There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost or intercepted, lawfully or otherwise. Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cybercrimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. Activity crossing international borders and involving the interests of at least one nationstate is sometimes referred to as cyber warfare. The international legal system is attempting to hold actors accountable for their actions through the International Criminal Court. Computer crime encompasses a broad range of activities. Generally, however, it may be divided into two categories: (1) crimes that target computers directly; (2) crimes facilitated by computer networks or devices, the primary target of which is independent of the computer network or device. Crimes that primarily target computer networks or devices include:
Computer viruses Denial-of-service attacks Malware (malicious code)
Crimes that use computer networks or devices to advance other ends include:
Cyberstalking Fraud and identity theft Information warfare Phishing scams
Spam, or the unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes, is unlawful in some jurisdictions. While anti-spam laws are relatively new, limits on unsolicited electronic communications have existed for some time.
Main article: Computer fraud
Online predator. usually to conceal unauthorized transactions: this is difficult to detect. extortion.
Altering or deleting stored data. One area of Internet pornography that has been the target of the strongest efforts at curtailment is child pornography.
Drug traffickers are increasingly taking advantage of the Internet to sell their illegal substances through encrypted e-mail and other Internet Technology. harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender. through newsgroups.
Obscene or offensive content
The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful. or stealing output. obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons.
Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems. or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes. It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with strong beliefs. This often occurs in chat rooms. Over 25 jurisdictions place limits on certain speech and ban racist. This requires little technical expertise and is not an uncommon form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data. race. blasphemous.Some drug traffickers arrange deals
. including bank fraud. destroying. Altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages. In some instances these communications may be illegal. harassment by computer. seditious. nationality. libelous or slanderous. and theft of classified information. or altering or writing code for fraudulent purposes. the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by:
Altering computer input in an unauthorized way. and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties (see cyber bullying. A variety of Internet scams target consumers direct. suppressing. Harassment Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way. and stalking).Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss. The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries. cyber stalking. identity theft. or inflammatory material that tends to incite hate crimes. In this context.
Altering. hate crime. religion. and even within nations. Any comment that may be found derogatory or offensive is considered harassment. politically subversive. sexual orientation.
e-mail server. network. a simple propaganda in the Internet. demonstrate power. families. who demand money in return for promising to stop the attacks.at internet cafes. that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. and the information stored on them. organized by groups within networks. But there is a growing concern among federal officials[who?] that such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyberterrorists. These virtual exchanges allow more intimidated individuals to more comfortably purchase illegal drugs. Cyberextortion is a form of cyberterrorism in which a website. robberies. As such. Perpetrators typically use a distributed denial-of-service attack. crippling their ability to operate and demanding payments to restore their service. The sketchy effects that are often associated with drug trades are severely minimized and the filtering process that comes with physical interaction fades away. More than 20 cases are reported each month to the FBI and many go unreported in order to keep the victim's name out of the domain. and swap recipes for amphetamines in restricted-access chat rooms. or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems. As well there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals. The rise in Internet drug trades could also be attributed to the lack of face-to-face communication. tending to cause fear among people. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation. or computer system is subjected to repeated denial of service or other attacks by malicious hackers. collecting information relevant for ruining peoples' lives. use courier Web sites to track illegal packages of pills.
. blackmailing etc. can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). Cyber terrorism in general.
Government officials and Information Technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching computer-based attack against computers. cyberextortionists are increasingly attacking corporate websites and networks. foreign intelligence services.
 A hacking group called the MOD (Masters of Deception). Fearing that such attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states. and also computers at the University of California at Santa Barbara. Dell. plus a total of ten counts of mischief to data for his attacks. Nynex.S. Russia again allegedly conducted cyber attacks. one company.com. much of its activity was legitimate. allegedly by Russian hackers. and CNN.S.. and other telephone companies as well as several big credit agencies and two major universities. this time in a coordinated and synchronized kinetic and nonkinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. allegedly stole passwords and technical data from Pacific Bell.5 million from hundreds of accounts. Southwestern Bell suffered losses of $370. "In August 2008. In 1983.Sailors analyze. Department of Defense (DoD) notes that cyberspace has emerged as a national-level concern through several recent events of geo-strategic significance. The chief teller at the Park Avenue branch of New York's Union Dime Savings Bank embezzled over $1. On 3 August 2000. Amazon.
One of the highest profiled banking computer crime occurred during a course of three years beginning in 1970. Between 1995 and 1998 the Newscorp satellite pay to view encrypted SKY-TV service was hacked several times during an on-going technological arms race between a pan-European hacking group and Newscorp. About fifty computers at Stanford University. The Russian Business Network (RBN) was registered as an internet site in 2006. E*TRADE. But apparently the founders soon discovered that it was more profitable to host illegitimate activities and started hiring its services to criminals. the Melissa worm infected a document on a victim's computer. detect and defensively respond to unauthorized activity within U. including Yahoo!. The original motivation of the hackers was to watch Star Trek re-runs in Germany. In February 2000 a individual going by the alias of MafiaBoy began a series denial-of-service attacks against high profile websites. Among those are included the attack on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007. a nineteen year old UCLA student used his PC to break into a Defense Department international communications system. which was something which Newscorp did not have the copyright to allow. Canadian federal prosecutors charged MafiaBoy with 54 counts of illegal access to computers. Initially. Navy information systems and computer networks
Main article: Cyber warfare The U. The damage caused was extensive. the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future. eBay. The RBN has been described
.000 alone. On 26 March 1999. were amongst the zombie computers sending pings in DDoS attacks. then automatically sent that document and copy of the virus via e-mail to other people. Inc.
Some hackers hack for personal monetary gains. operating under the aegis of the Department of Homeland Security. Hackers enjoy the media coverage. cracking. It is the originator of MPack and an alleged operator of the Storm botnet.by VeriSign as "the baddest of the bad". according to investigators. The website had approximately 600 members. It specialized in and in some cases monopolized personal identity theft for resale. The "botnet" of infected computers included PCs inside more than half of the Fortune 1000 companies and more than 40 major banks. but from Indian Laws perspective there is no difference between the term hacking and cracking. and may have distributed up to 123 terabytes of child pornography (roughly equivalent to 16. Government websites are the hot targets of the hackers due to the press coverage. Every act committed towards breaking into a computer and/or network is hacking. Spanish investigators busted 3[clarification needed] in infection of over 13 million computers around the world. On 2 March 2010. They possess the desire to destruct and they get the kick out of such destruction. To date this is the single largest U. it receives. transferring money from various bank accounts to their own account followed by withdrawal of money. Hackers write or use ready-made computer programs to attack the target computer. shut down the international pedophile ring Dreamboard. with an individual activities earning up to $150 million in one year. prosecution of an international child pornography ring. such as to stealing the credit card information. They extort money from some corporate giant threatening him to publish the stolen information which is critical in nature. Motive Behind The Crime • • • • • • • • Greed Power Publicity Revenge Adventure Desire to access forbidden information Destructive mindset Wants to sell n/w security services
. There is an equivalent term to hacking i.000 DVDs). Hacking Hacking in simple terms means an illegal intrusion into a computer system and/or network.e.S. 52 arrests were made worldwide. It offers web hosting services and internet access to all kinds of criminal and objectionable activities. In August 2010 the international investigation Operation Delego.
f. more children would be using the internet and more are the chances of falling victim to the aggression of pedophiles. Befriend the child/teen. Hence the children are left unprotected in the cyber world. Then slowly pedophiles start sexual chat to help children shed their inhibitions about sex and then call them out for personal interaction. In physical world.The Internet is being highly used by its abusers to reach and abuse children sexually. Pedophiles take advantage of this situation and lure the children. The internet is very fast becoming a household commodity in India . then they start becoming friendlier with them and win their confidence. But in case of cyber world. who are not advised by their parents or by their teachers about what is wrong and what is right for them while browsing the internet How do they Operate
a. the pedophile set up a meeting with the child/teen out of the house and then
drag him into the net to further sexually assault him or to use him as a sex object. Pedophiles use false identity to trap the children/teenagers b. Pedophiles lure the children by distributing pornographic material. The pedophiles then sexually exploit the children either by using them as sexual objects or by taking their pornographic pictures in order to sell those over the internet. Gets the e-mail address of the child/teen and starts making contacts on the victimâ€™s email address as well. worldwide. Then starts actual exploitation of the children by offering them some money or falsely promising them good opportunities in life. As more homes have access to internet. The easy access to the pornographic contents readily and freely available over the internet lower the inhibitions of the children. parents know the face of dangers and they know how to avoid & face the problems by following simple rules and accordingly they advice their children to keep away from dangerous things and ways. then they try to meet them for sex or to take their nude photographs including their engagement in sexual positions. At the end of it. Extract personal information from child/teen
h. Extract personal information from the child/teen by winning his confidence. Starts sending pornographic images/text to the victim including child pornographic images in
order to help child/teen shed his inhibitions so that a feeling is created in the mind of the victim that what is being fed to him is normal and that everybody does it. Itâ€™s explosion has made the children a viable victim to the cyber crime. most of the parents do not themselves know about the basics in internet and dangers posed by various services offered over the internet. g. Sometimes Pedophiles contact children in the chat rooms posing as teenagers or a child of similar age.
. c. Pedophiles contact children/teens in various chat rooms which are used by children/teen to
interact with other children/teen.
making harassing phone calls. If the stalker is one of the acquaintances of the victim he can easily get this information. who come across this information. killing the victims pet. leaving written messages or objects. In online stalking the stalker can make third party to harass the victim. Stalking may be followed by serious violent acts such as physical harm to the victim and the same has to be treated and viewed seriously. People of all kind from nook and corner of the World. Stalker even uses very filthy and obscene language to invite the interested persons. Some stalkers keep on sending repeated e-mails asking for various kinds of favors or
threaten the victim. The stalker may post this information on any website related to sex-services or dating services. d. posing as if the victim is posting this information and invite the people to call the victim on her telephone numbers to have sexual services. f. making sure the victim is aware that he/she is being
g. asking for sexual services or relationships. because of which victim starts receiving such kind of unsolicited e-mails. who then want to harass the victim because they failed to satisfy their secret desires.
e. start calling the victim at her residence and/or work place. he collects the information from the internet resources such as various profiles. It all depends on the course of conduct of the stalker. If stalker is a stranger to victim. Telephone Numbers of residence and work place. read the tips under Tips & Tricks heading. daily routine of the victim. date of birth etc. Cyber Stalking Cyber Stalking can be defined as the repeated acts harassment or threatening behavior of the cyber criminal towards the victim by using internet services. Most of the stalkers are men and victim female. Follow their victim from board to board. Collect all personal information about the victim such as name. vandalizing victims property. Stalking in General terms can be referred to as the repeated acts of harassment targeting the victim such as following the victim.In order to prevent your child/teen from falling into the trap of pedophile. b. address of residence and place of work. Some stalkers subscribe the e-mail account of the victim to innumerable pornographic and sex sites. They “hangout” on the same BB’s as their victim. Both kind of Stalkers â€“ Online & Offline – have desire to control the victims life. the victim may have filled in while opening the chat or e-mail account or while signing an account with some website. Majority of the stalkers are the dejected lovers or ex-lovers. family background. c. How do they Operate a.
many times posting notes to the victim.
there also have been many instances of cyberstalking by strangers.
h. As the Internet becomes an
. If the stalker is able to access the victims telephon.
Definition of Cyberstalking? Although there is no universally accepted definition of cyberstalking.followed. However. although there have been reported cases of women cyberstalking men and of same-sex cyberstalking. Many times they will “flame” their victim (becoming argumentative. Nature and Extent of Cyberstalking An existing problem aggravated by new technology Although online harassment and threats can take many forms. and the cyberstalking begins when the victim attempts to break off the relationship.
j. making harassing phone calls. The fact that cyberstalking does not involve physical contact may create the misperception that it is more benign than physical stalking. Many stalkers – online or off – are motivated by a desire to exert control over their victims and engage in similar types of behavior to accomplish this end. This is not necessarily true. the term is used in this report to refer to the use of the Internet. The letters may be
i. As with offline stalking. He will many times use multiple names when contacting the victim. harass. or vandalizing a person’s property. In many cases. or sexually explicit. he will many times make calls to the victim to threaten. the available evidence (which is largely anecdotal) suggests that the majority of cyberstalkers are men and the majority of their victims are women. cyberstalking shares important characteristics with offline stalking. or intimidate them. a cyberstalker can easily locate private information about a potential victim with a few mouse clicks or key strokes. insulting) to get their attention. such behavior may be a prelude to stalking and violence and should be treated seriously.
Track the victim to his/her home. and still others require only that the alleged stalker’s course of conduct constitute an implied threat. Most stalking laws require that the perpetrator make a credible threat of violence against the victim.(1) While some conduct involving annoying or menacing behavior might fall short of illegal stalking.
Contact victim via telephone. leaving written messages or objects. or other electronic communications devices to stalk another person. e-mail. others include threats against the victim’s immediate family. such as following a person. Stalkers will almost always make contact with their victims through email. Stalking generally involves harassing or threatening behavior that an individual engages in repeatedly. the cyberstalker and the victim had a prior relationship. appearing at a person’s home or place of business. Given the enormous amount of personal information available through the Internet. threatening.
as with physical stalking. whereas a potential stalker may be unwilling or unable to confront a victim in person or on the telephone. he or she may have little hesitation sending harassing or threatening electronic communications to a victim. like Virus. But. IRC Crime Internet Relay Chat (IRC) servers have chat rooms in which people from anywhere the world can come together and chat with each other. Virus Dissemination Malicious software that attaches itself to other software. including physical violence. exploit limitations in the TCp/IP protocols. there are software fixes that system administrators can install to limit the damage caused by the attacks. Credit Card Fraud The unauthorized and illegal use of a credit card to purchase property. online harassment and threats may be a prelude to more serious behavior. (virus. Trojan Horse. Denial of service Attack This is an act by the criminal. the ease of use and non-confrontational. Many DoS attacks. Rabbit and Bacterium are the malicious Software Piracy Theft of software through the illegal copying of genuine programs or the counterfeiting and distribution of products intended to pass for the original. Time bomb. who floods the bandwidth of the victimâ€™s network or fills his email box with spam mail depriving him of the services he is entitled to access or provide Short for denial-of-service attack. For all known DoS attacks. new DoS attacks are constantly being dreamed up by Hacker.ever more integral part of our personal and professional lives. such as the Ping of Death and Teardrop attacks. In addition. and sometimes anonymous nature of Internet communications may remove disincentives to cyberstalking. impersonal. a type of attack on a network that is designed to bring the network to its knees by flooding it with useless traffic. Net Extortion Copying the companyâ€™s confidential data in order to extort said company for huge amount Phishing The act of sending an e-mail to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity
. Finally. Logic Bomb. stalkers can take advantage of the ease of communications as well as increased access to personal information. worms. Put another way.
social security. is a variation on â€œfishing. that the legitimate organization already has. The e-mail directs the user to visit a Web site where they are asked to update personal information. and bank account numbers. however. is bogus and set up only to steal the userâ€™s information. The Web site. Phishing. By spamming large groups of people.â€ the idea being that bait is thrown out with the hopes that while most will ignore the bait.. also referred to as brand spoofing or carding. such as passwords and credit card. the â€œphisherâ€ counted on the e-mail being read by a percentage of people who actually had listed credit card numbers with legitimately.
.theft. some will be tempted into biting.