Formal report

STABILITY OF FLOATING BODY



Name: Nishant Mangesh Jalgaonkar
Matriculation Number: A0074538X
Lab Group: 2B1
Date: 4
th
October 2011
Objectives
The three main objectives of this experiment are to:
1) Determine the position of the centre of gravity (C.G.) and the meta-centric height (GM)
of the floating body on the water
2) Determine the effects of placing a weight vertically above the C.G. on the stability of the
floating body
3) Determine the effects of free surfaces, in the floating body, on the stability of the
floating body itself

Experimental Calculations

This section will look at the experimental data and calculations for the various cases, using the
listed formulae below.

ܩܯ ൌ
௠௚ௗ
ሺఘ௚௏௦௨௕ሻ௧௔௡ఏ
; Where V = submerged volume (V
sub
)

ܶ ൌ ʹߨሾ
௄௢௬
ඥ௚ൈୋ୑
ሿ; Where K
oy
= 0.29m (case 1), 0.39m (case2), 0.28m (case3)

ܤܯ ൌ
ூ௢௬
௏௦௨௕
; Where second moment of area of plane of floatation I
oy
=

ଵଶ
lb
3
, l = 0.1m, b = 0.5m

ܭܩ ൌ ܭܤ ൅ܤܯ െ ܩܯ; Where ܭܤ ൌ


ሺ݀ݎܽݑ݄݃ݐሻ
Part 1: (mass on deck)
Radius of gyration of floating body (K
oy
) = 0.29m
Breadth of floating body (b) = 0.5m
Length of floating body (l) = 1.0m
Mass of weight (m) = 3.0kg
Distance of mass from centre of gravity, C.G. (d) = 0.2m
Readings d(m) Ɍ (
o
) Trials 2T (s) T(s)
1 0.0580 5.00 1 1.38 0.690
2 0.0570 4.00 2 1.46 0.730
3 0.0590 5.00 3 1.39 0.695
4 0.0600 5.00 Average 1.41 0.705
Average 0.0585 4.75

V
sub
= 0.5 × 1.0 × 0.0585 = 0.0293m
3

GM =
଴Ǥଶൈଷ
ଵ଴଴଴ൈ଴Ǥ଴ଶଽଷൈ୲ୟ୬ሺସǤ଻ହሻ
= 0.2464m
T = 2ߨ ×
଴Ǥଶଽ
ξሺଽǤ଼ଵൈ଴Ǥଶସ଺ସሻ
= 1.172s
Difference in theoretical and experimental periods = 1.172 - 0.705 = 0.467s
I
oy
=

ଵଶ
× 1.0 × 0.5
3
= 0.01042m
4

BM =
଴Ǥ଴ଵ଴ସଶ
଴Ǥ଴ଶଽଷ
= 0.3556m
KG =
଴Ǥ଴ହ଼ହ

+0.3556 ʹ 0.2464 = 0.1385m
The experimental value for the period of oscillation is slightly smaller than its theoretical value.
This slight difference in timing can be attributed to human error, in this case, human reaction
time in starting and stopping the stopwatch during the timing of the oscillations. Furthermore,
as the experiment is carried out in a relatively small water tank, waves are created when tilting
and releasing the vessel. These waves bounce back from the tank and hit the vessel, causing the
oscillations to be inconsistent, thus affecting the final timing.
Part 2: (raised mass)
Mass radius of gyration of floating body (K
oy
) = 0.39m
Breadth of floating body (b) = 0.5m
Length of floating body (l) = 1.0m
Mass of weight (m) = 3.0kg
Distance of mass from centre of gravity, C.G. (d) = 0.2m
Readings d(m) Ɍ (
o
) Trials 2T (s) T(s)
1 0.061 6.00 1 2.45 1.225
2 0.060 6.00 2 2.61 1.305
3 0.057 6.00 3 2.5 1.250
4 0.059 5.00 Average 2.52 1.260
Average 0.059 5.75



V
sub
= 0.5 × 1.0 × 0.059 = 0.0295m
3

GM =
଴Ǥଶൈଷ
ଵ଴଴଴ൈ଴Ǥ଴ଶଽହൈ୲ୟ୬ሺହǤ଻ହሻ
= 0.2020m
T = 2ߨ ×
଴Ǥଷଽ
ξሺଽǤ଼ଵൈ଴Ǥଶ଴ଶ଴ሻ
= 1.741s
Difference in theoretical and experimental periods = 1.741 ʹ 1.260 = 0.481s
I
oy
=

ଵଶ
× 1.0 × 0.5
3
= 0.01042m
4

BM =
଴Ǥ଴ଵ଴ସଶ
଴Ǥ଴ଶଽହ
= 0.3532m
KG =
଴Ǥ଴ହଽ

+0.3532 ʹ 0.2020 = 0.1807m
The experimental value for the period of oscillation is, again, slightly smaller than its theoretical
value in this case. This slight difference in timing can be also attributed to human error as well
as inconsistent oscillations due to interfering waves as explained earlier.
KG increases from 0.1385m to 0.1807m, indicating that the centre of gravity of the vessel shifts
upwards. GM decreases from 0.2464m to 0.2020m. This indicates that the meta-centric height
decreases. The decrease in the meta-centric height will cause a reduction to the moment arm
of the righting moment (GZ), reducing the turning moment needed to return the floating body
to its original position after it has been perturbed slightly, which in turns reduce the stability of
the barge. This reduction in turning moment causes slightly slower oscillation, therefore
explaining the longer period of oscillation.
Part 3: (free surface effect)
Mass radius of gyration of floating body (K
oy
) = 0.28m
Breadth of floating body (b) = 0.5m
Length of floating body (l) = 1.0m
Mass of weight (m) = 3.0kg
Distance of mass from centre of gravity, C.G. (d) = 0.2m
Reading d(m) Ɍ (
o
) Trials 2T (s) T(s)
1 0.058 5.00 1 1.5 0.750
2 0.059 6.00 2 1.55 0.775
3 0.055 5.00 3 1.48 0.740
4 0.056 5.00 Average 1.51 0.755
Average 0.057 5.25


V
sub
= 0.5 × 1.0 × 0.057 = 0.0285m
3

GM =
଴Ǥଶൈଷ
ଵ଴଴଴ൈ଴Ǥ଴ଶ଼ହൈ୲ୟ୬ሺହǤଶହሻ
= 0.2291m
T = 2ߨ ×
଴Ǥଶ଼
ξሺଽǤ଼ଵൈ଴Ǥଶଶଽଵሻ
= 1.174s
Difference in theoretical and experimental periods = 1.174 - 0.755 = 0.419s
I
oy
=

ଵଶ
× 1.0 × 0.5
3
= 0.01042m
4

BM =
଴Ǥ଴ଵ଴ସଶ
଴Ǥ଴ଶ଼ହ
= 0.3656m
KG =
଴Ǥ଴ହ଻

+0.3656 ʹ 0.2291 = 0.1650m
The experimental value for the period of oscillation is, again, slightly smaller than its theoretical
value in this case. This slight difference in timing can be also attributed to human error as well
as inconsistent oscillations due to interfering waves as explained earlier. There might also be
human error, hence slight inaccuracy in filling up the compartments with water.
Free surface effect is the tendency of a fluid͛s surface, in a floating body, to remain horizontal,
when the floating body is perturbed. When the floating body is perturbed, the fluid in the
floating body will move in the direction of the disturbance. This causes the mass to be higher on
one side of the barge, while reducing the mass on the other side at the same time. This results
in a shift in the centre of gravity of the floating body, in the direction of the perturbation. The
KG value 0.1385m (Fixed C.G.) increases to 0.1650m (Free Surface Effect). This indicates an
increase in the centre of gravity of the barge. The meta-centric height (GM) decreases from
0.2464m (Fixed C.G.) to 0.2291m (Free Surface Effect), translating to a reduction in the
returning moment, as seen earlier when comparing part (1) and (2). This reduction in turning
moment causes slightly slower oscillation, therefore explaining the longer period of oscillation.
The free surface of a fluid in a floating body will, hence, also raise the C.G. of the floating body,
making it slightly unstable, as compared to a part (1).
Analysis and Discussion
QUESTION 1)
At large heeling angles of ɽ >> 10϶, the value of the meta-centric height GM does not remain
constant. The centre of buoyancy is further displaced from its original position. Since the
metacentre is the intersection between the line of symmetry and the vertical line extended
upwards from the displaced centre of buoyancy, its position will change in relation to centre of
gravity, CG (which is fixed), due to the shifting centre of buoyancy resulting from the heeling
angle change. As a result, GM would also not remain constant.
QUESTION 2)
Static stability of a body refers to the stability of the body to small angular disturbances or
perturbations about equilibrium. The body experiences constant force and no angular
acceleration when it is titled at an angle. Dynamic stability refers to the stability of the body to
large perturbations about equilibrium. The body experiences a force, which varies with time,
and oscillates about a fixed axis. There is also an angular acceleration experienced by the body.

QUESTION 3)
m = mass of pontoon, M = additional mass
m = ʌV = ʌAd => d = m/ʌA
2 = m / (1025 × 10 × 50)
m = 2 × 1025 × 10 × 50 = 1025000 kg
d
m
= (1025000 + M)/ʌA = (102500 + M) / (1025 × 10 × 50) =
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ
ଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴

KB =


× [(1025000 + M)/521500] =
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ
ଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴

BM = I
oy
/V
sub
= (

ଵଶ
× 50 × 10
3
) / [(1025000 + M)/1025000] × 10 × 50 =
ଵ଴଴
ଵଶ
×
ଵ଴ଶହ
ଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெ
=
ଵ଴ଶହ଴଴
ଵଶሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ

KG =
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ൈଶǤହሻାସெ
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ

GM = KB + BM ʹ KG
0 = KB + BM ʹ KG
KG = KB + BM
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ൈଶǤହሻାସெ
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ
=
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ
ଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴
+
ଵ଴ଶହ଴଴
ଵଶሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ

ଶହ଺ଶହ଴଴ାସெ
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ
=
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻሺଵଶሻାሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴ሻሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ሻ
ሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ሻሺଵଶሻሺଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெሻ

(12 × 12300000) (2562500 + 4M) = 12 (1025000 + M)
2
+ (102500 × 1025000)
12M
2
+ 24600000M + 0.126×10
13
+ 5.25×10
13
= 3.152×10
13
+ 49200000M
12M
2
ʹ 24600000M + (0.126+5.25-3.152) × 10
13
= 0
12M
2
ʹ 24600000M + 2.224×10
13
= 0
b
2
- 4ac = -4.6236×
14

b
2
- 4ac < 0
Because the discriminant is negative, the quadratic has no real roots. This means that the
pontoon is stable for all masses added onto it.
However, as the mass added onto the pontoon increases, the draught will increase. Hence the
draught cannot exceed 5m (height of the pontoon).
Therefore:
d
m
൑ 5
ଵ଴ଶହ଴଴଴ାெ
ହଵଶହ଴଴
൑ 5
M ൑ 5(512500) ʹ 1025000
M ൑ 1537500 kg
M ൑ 1537.5 tonnes
Therefore the maximum amount of mass to be placed onto the pontoon has to be less than or
equals to 1537.5 tonnes.

QUESTION 4)
1. m = 10 - 10
3
kg, d = 20 m, A = 10
7
- 9.81 N, p = 1.025 - 10
3
kg/m
3



KG = 5 m,

KM = 6 m,

GM = 6 - 5 = 1 m

a) tanJ
1
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ )
GM
=
10 -10
3
- 20 - 9.81
10
7
-1- 9.81


Q
15 . 1
1
= J
b) GG
2

=
p
f
p
i
¿
V
sub
=

p
f
p
-
1
12
lb
3
V
sub
=
¹
¹
º
¸
©
©
ª
¨
- -
-
- -
-
81 . 9 10 025 . 1
10 81 . 9
10 20
12
1
025 . 1
025 . 1
3
7
3
= 0.171m

tan J
2
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ )GM
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ ) GM GG
2
¸ )
=
¸ ) 81 . 9 171 . 0 1 10
81 . 9 20 10 10
7
3
- -
- - -

Q
38 . 1
2
= J
c) GG
2

=
p
f
p
i
¿
V
sub
=

p
f
p
-
2 -
1
12
lb
3
V
sub

=
¹
¹
º
¸
©
©
ª
¨
- -
-
- - -
-
81 . 9 10 025 . 1
10 81 . 9
5 20
12
1
2
025 . 1
025 . 1
3
7
3
= 0.0427 m
tanJ
3
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ )GM
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ ) GM GG
2
¸ )
=
¸ ) 81 . 9 0427 . 0 1 10
81 . 9 20 10 10
7
3
- -
- - -

J
3
=1.20
o

d) GG
2

=
p
f
p
i
¿
V
sub
=

p
f
p
-
2 -
1
12
lb
3
V
sub

=
¹
¹
º
¸
©
©
ª
¨
- -
-
- - -
-
81 . 9 10 025 . 1
10 81 . 9
10 10
12
1
2
025 . 1
025 . 1
3
7
3
= 0.171 m
tan J
4
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ )GM
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ ) GM GG
2
¸ )
=
¸ ) 81 . 9 171 . 0 1 10
81 . 9 20 10 10
7
3
- -
- - -


Q
38 . 1
4
= J
e) GG
2

=
p
f
p
i
¿
V
sub
=

p
f
p
-
1
12
lb
3
V
sub

=
¹
¹
º
¸
©
©
ª
¨
- -
-
- -
-
81 . 9 10 025 . 1
10 81 . 9
10 20
12
1
025 . 1
005 . 1
3
7
3
= 0.1675 m

tanJ
5
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ )GM
=

mgd
pgV
sub
¸ ) GM GG
2
¸ )
=
¸ ) 81 . 9 1675 . 0 1 10
81 . 9 20 10 10
7
3
- -
- - -

J
5
=1.37
o


QUESTION 5)
Equation can be expressed as aɶ
2
+ bɶ + c = 0
The solution for x can be given as follows:
ɶ =
a
ac b b
2
) 4 (
2
±
, where a =

A
g
k
Oy
2
(1W
xx
), b = B, c = A.GM


As system is slightly damped, b
2
ʹ 4ac < 0

Therefore, solution for ɶ has complex roots.
Complex roots are qi p ± = ¸
, where
a
b
p
2

= ,
a
b ac
q
2
) 4 (
2

=

General Solution: ) cos( C ) sin( C B qt e B qt e
pt pt
= J
, where C
1
and C
2
are constants
@Period,
J
T 2
= T
Conclusion
Looking at the results obtained in cases 1 and 2, we observe that for the same KG, the vessel
will be less stable when the mass is raised vertically above the centre of gravity. When the mass
is raised, the GM value for the vessel will be much lower than that for the case when the mass
is on the deck and the period of oscillation is observed to have increased.
When the ballasting weights are replaced by water, there is a reduction in the righting arm due to
free surface effect. Hence, the vessel is less stable when the ballasting weights are replaced by
water and we observe a slight increase in the period of oscillation obtained in case 1.

0570 0. C. in the floating body.730 0. Where Part 1: (mass on deck) Radius of gyration of floating body (Koy) = 0. on the stability of the floating body itself Experimental Calculations This section will look at the experimental data and calculations for the various cases.G.00 5.Objectives The three main objectives of this experiment are to: 1) Determine the position of the centre of gravity (C. Where Koy = 0. on the stability of the floating body 3) Determine the effects of free surfaces. (d) = 0. 0.39m (case2).705 .0600 0.5m Length of floating body (l) = 1.0m Mass of weight (m) = 3.00 4.0590 0.39 1.0585 ( o) 5.00 5.41 T(s) 0.75 Trials 1 2 3 Average 2T (s) 1.690 0.G. using the listed formulae below. l = 0.5m . .1m.0kg Distance of mass from centre of gravity. 0. b = 0. Where second moment of area of plane of floatation Ioy = .695 0.) and the meta-centric height (GM) of the floating body on the water 2) Determine the effects of placing a weight vertically above the C.38 1.29m Breadth of floating body (b) = 0. Where V = submerged volume (Vsub) .0580 0.46 1.29m (case 1).G.00 4.2m Readings 1 2 3 4 Average d(m) 0.28m (case3) lb3.

5 2.1385m The experimental value for the period of oscillation is slightly smaller than its theoretical value. Furthermore.01042m4 = 0.5m Length of floating body (l) = 1. human reaction time in starting and stopping the stopwatch during the timing of the oscillations.3556 0.61 2.00 6.2464m = 1. thus affecting the final timing. causing the oscillations to be inconsistent.3556m +0.5 × 1.250 1.00 5.057 0.059 ( o) 6.0585 = 0.0.Vsub = 0.0293m3 GM = T=2 ×   = 0.75 Trials 1 2 3 Average 2T (s) 2.G.225 1.467s Ioy = BM = KG = × 1.00 5.2m Readings 1 2 3 4 Average d(m) 0.260 .45 2.00 6. as the experiment is carried out in a relatively small water tank.305 1. in this case.39m Breadth of floating body (b) = 0. This slight difference in timing can be attributed to human error.059 0. Part 2: (raised mass) Mass radius of gyration of floating body (Koy) = 0.53 = 0.2464 = 0. waves are created when tilting and releasing the vessel.0m Mass of weight (m) = 3.0 × 0.172s  Difference in theoretical and experimental periods = 1.060 0.0 × 0.061 0.52 T(s) 1.705 = 0. (d) = 0. These waves bounce back from the tank and hit the vessel.172 . C.0kg Distance of mass from centre of gravity.

0kg Distance of mass from centre of gravity.741s  Difference in theoretical and experimental periods = 1.25 Trials 1 2 3 Average 2T (s) 1. C.2020 = 0. GM decreases from 0.740 0. This reduction in turning moment causes slightly slower oscillation.3532m +0. The decrease in the meta-centric height will cause a reduction to the moment arm of the righting moment (GZ).0m Mass of weight (m) = 3.G.0 × 0.Vsub = 0.059 0.00 5.741 1.5 × 1.1385m to 0.28m Breadth of floating body (b) = 0.53 = 0.0 × 0.00 5.5m Length of floating body (l) = 1.055 0.059 = 0.48 1.481s Ioy = BM = KG = × 1.0295m3 GM = T=2 ×    = 0.056 0. again. reducing the turning moment needed to return the floating body to its original position after it has been perturbed slightly.3532 0.2464m to 0.058 0. This indicates that the meta-centric height decreases.750 0.01042m4 = 0.755 .2020m. which in turns reduce the stability of the barge. therefore explaining the longer period of oscillation.2020m = 1. slightly smaller than its theoretical value in this case.00 5. This slight difference in timing can be also attributed to human error as well as inconsistent oscillations due to interfering waves as explained earlier.1807m. (d) = 0.5 1.51 T(s) 0. indicating that the centre of gravity of the vessel shifts upwards.55 1.260 = 0.2m Reading 1 2 3 4 Average d(m) 0. KG increases from 0.057 ( o) 5.1807m The experimental value for the period of oscillation is. Part 3: (free surface effect) Mass radius of gyration of floating body (Koy) = 0.00 6.775 0.

) to 0. translating to a reduction in the returning moment.3656m +0. When the floating body is perturbed.0 × 0. in a floating body.G. slightly smaller than its theoretical value in this case. the fluid in the floating body will move in the direction of the disturbance.01042m4 = 0. This indicates an increase in the centre of gravity of the barge.2291m (Free Surface Effect).53 = 0.1650m (Free Surface Effect).174 . This results in a shift in the centre of gravity of the floating body. The free surface of a fluid in a floating body will. The centre of buoyancy is further displaced from its original position.0 × 0.G. CG (which is fixed). Since the metacentre is the intersection between the line of symmetry and the vertical line extended upwards from the displaced centre of buoyancy. The KG value 0. Free surface effect is the tendency of a fluid s surface. while reducing the mass on the other side at the same time. This causes the mass to be higher on one side of the barge.0285m3 GM = T=2 ×    = 0. This slight difference in timing can be also attributed to human error as well as inconsistent oscillations due to interfering waves as explained earlier.755 = 0. of the floating body. therefore explaining the longer period of oscillation. This reduction in turning moment causes slightly slower oscillation. as seen earlier when comparing part (1) and (2).Vsub = 0. when the floating body is perturbed.1385m (Fixed C. As a result. hence. to remain horizontal.174s  Difference in theoretical and experimental periods = 1.) increases to 0.419s Ioy = BM = KG = × 1.3656 0. also raise the C. making it slightly unstable. There might also be human error. .2291m = 1.1650m The experimental value for the period of oscillation is. its position will change in relation to centre of gravity.5 × 1.2291 = 0. in the direction of the perturbation. again.G.057 = 0. Analysis and Discussion QUESTION 1) At large heeling angles of >> 10 . due to the shifting centre of buoyancy resulting from the heeling angle change. The meta-centric height (GM) decreases from 0.2464m (Fixed C. the value of the meta-centric height GM does not remain constant. hence slight inaccuracy in filling up the compartments with water. GM would also not remain constant.0. as compared to a part (1).

126×1013 + 5.224×1013 = 0 .126+5. There is also an angular acceleration experienced by the body. Dynamic stability refers to the stability of the body to large perturbations about equilibrium.25-3. M = additional mass m = V = Ad => d = m/ A 2 = m / (1025 × 10 × 50) m = 2 × 1025 × 10 × 50 = 1025000 kg dm = (1025000 + M)/ A = (102500 + M) / (1025 × 10 × 50) = KB = × [(1025000 + M)/521500] = BM = Ioy/Vsub = ( × 50 × 103) / [(1025000 + M)/1025000] × 10 × 50 = × = KG =      GM = KB + BM KG 0 = KB + BM KG KG = KB + BM      = +  = (12 × 12300000) (2562500 + 4M) = 12 (1025000 + M) 2 + (102500 × 1025000) 12M2 + 24600000M + 0.152) × 1013 = 0 12M2 24600000M + 2. which varies with time. and oscillates about a fixed axis. The body experiences a force.25×1013 = 3. QUESTION 3) m = mass of pontoon. The body experiences constant force and no angular acceleration when it is titled at an angle.152×1013 + 49200000M 12M2 24600000M + (0.QUESTION 2) Static stability of a body refers to the stability of the body to small angular disturbances or perturbations about equilibrium.

Hence the draught cannot exceed 5m (height of the pontoon).81 ! a) tanJ1 = 10 7 v 1 v 9.5 tonnes Therefore the maximum amount of mass to be placed onto the pontoon has to be less than or equals to 1537.5 = 1 m mgd 10 v 10 3 v 20 v 9.4ac < 0 Because the discriminant is negative.81 N. This means that the pontoon is stable for all masses added onto it. GM = 6 .5 tonnes.4ac = -4. However. Therefore: dm 5 5 M M M 5(512500) 1025000 1537500 kg 1537. d = 20 m. V = 1. as the mass added onto the pontoon increases.6236×14 b2 . m = 10 v 103 kg. the quadratic has no real roots. the draught will increase. QUESTION 4) 1. KG = 5 m.81 .025 v 103 kg/m3 KM = 6 m. ( = 107 v 9.b2 .

81 v 10 7 © © 1.81 ¹ ¹ ª º       tan J2 = mgd mgd 10 v 10 3 v 20 v 9.81 = = 7 .025 12 b) GG2 ! = = = 0.VgVsub GM   J1 ! 1.025 ¨ ¸ 9.171m v v V Vsub V V sub 1.15Q 1 1 3 v 20 v 10 3 V f § i V f 12 lb 1.025 v 10 3 v 9.

VgVsub GM .

VgVsub .

GM  GG2 10 v .

1  0.81   .171 v 9.

025 v 10 3 v 9.0427 m = v 1.81 ¹ ¹ ª º Vf 2v   mgd mgd 10 v 10 3 v 20 v 9.025 ¨ ¸ 9.81 v 10 7 © © 1.  J 2 ! 1.025 12 = 0.81 = = tanJ3 = .38Q V §i c) GG2 ! f = V Vsub 1 lb 3 12 v V V sub 1 2 v v 20 v 53 1.

VgVsub GM .

VgVsub .

GM  GG2 10 7 v .

81 v 10 7 © © 1.171 m v 1.81 ¹ ¹ ª º Vf 2v tan J4 = mgd mgd 10 v 10 3 v 20 v 9.20 o J  V f §i =  d) GG2 ! V V sub    1 lb 3 12 v V V sub 1 2 v v 10 v 10 3 1.025 v 10 3 v 9.81 = = 7 .025 ¨ ¸ 9.0427 v 9.1  0.81    3 ! 1.025 12 = = 0.

VgVsub GM .

VgVsub .

GM  GG2 10 v .

025 ¨ ¸ 9.81 ¹ ¹ ª º Vf tanJ5 = mgd mgd 10 v 10 3 v 20 v 9.81 = = 7 .1  0.1675 m = v 1.81 v 10 7 © © 1.025 v 10 3 v 9.81   J 4 ! 1.005 12 = 0.171 v 9.38Q   V §i e) GG2 ! f = V Vsub   1 lb 3 12 v V V sub 1 v 20 v 10 3 1.

VgVsub GM .

VgVsub .

GM  GG2 10 v .

81 J    5 ! 1.1  0.37 o    .1675 v 9.

the vessel will be less stable when the mass is raised vertically above the centre of gravity. b = B. there is a reduction in the righting arm due to free surface effect. the vessel is less stable when the ballasting weights are replaced by water and we observe a slight increase in the period of oscillation obtained in case 1. Complex roots are K ! p s qi b .  b2 4ac < 0 Therefore. 2a ( 4ac  b 2 ) 2a p! . solution for has complex roots.QUESTION 5) Equation can be expressed as a 2+b +c=0 The solution for x can be given as follows: =  b s (b 2  4ac ) ( . where C1 and C2 are constants @Period. When the mass is raised. T ! 2T J Conclusion Looking at the results obtained in cases 1 and 2. When the ballasting weights are replaced by water.GM g 2a As system is slightly damped. . where q! General Solution: J ! C e pt sin( qt  B )  C e pt cos( qt  B ) . Hence. the GM value for the vessel will be much lower than that for the case when the mass is on the deck and the period of oscillation is observed to have increased. where a = kOy 2 (1 W xx ). c = (. we observe that for the same KG.

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