New York State P-12 Common Core Learning Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy

This document includes all of the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy plus the New York recommended additions approved on January 10, 2011. All of the New York State additions to the Common Core are highlighted in yellow under the related strand (reading, writing, speaking and listening, and language) or standard.

Standards for English Language Arts and for Literacy in History/Social Studies and Science | Introduction

Table of Contents
 

Introduction ....................................................................... 1 Alignment of NYS Prekindergarten Standards to K-12 Common Core State Standards ……………………… 8 Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K–5 .................................................................................... 15 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading ... 16 Reading Standards for Literature K–5 ............................. 17 Reading Standards for Informational Text K–5 … …………20 Reading Standards: Foundational Skills K–5 ..................... 22 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing ... 25 Writing Standards K–5............................................... 26 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening ................................................................ 31 Speaking and Listening Standards K–5 ............................ 32 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language . 35 Language Standards K–5 ............................................. 36 Language Progressive Skills, by Grade ............................ 40 Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading K–5 ...................................................................... 41 Staying on Topic Within a Grade and Across Grades ............. 43

Standards for English Language Arts 6–12 ........................44 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading....45 Reading Standards for Literature 6–12.............................46 Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–12 .................50 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing ....54 Writing Standards 6–12 ..............................................55 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening............................................................61 Speaking and Listening Standards 6–12 ............................62 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language ..65 Language Standards 6–12.............................................66 Language Progressive Skills, by Grade .............................69 Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading 6–12 ...........................................................70 Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects .......................................72 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading....73 Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6–12 ......................................................................74 Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6–12 ...........................................................75 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing ....76 Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects 6–12 ..............................77

Introduction
 

The Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects (“the Standards”) are the culmination of an extended, broad-based effort to fulfill the charge issued by the states to create the next generation of K–12 standards in order to help ensure that all students are college and career ready in literacy no later than the end of high school. The present work, led by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) and the National Governors Association (NGA), builds on the foundation laid by states in their decades-long work on crafting high-quality education standards. The Standards also draw on the most important international models as well as research and input from numerous sources, including state departments of education, scholars, assessment developers, professional organizations, educators from kindergarten through college, and parents, students, and other members of the public. In their design and content, refined through successive drafts and numerous rounds of feedback, the Standards represent a synthesis of the best elements of standards-related work to date and an important advance over that previous work. As specified by CCSSO and NGA, the Standards are (1) research and evidence based, (2) aligned with college and work expectations, (3) rigorous, and (4) internationally benchmarked. A particular standard was included in the document only when the best available evidence indicated that its mastery was essential for college and career readiness in a twentyfirst-century, globally competitive society. The Standards are intended to be a living work: as new and better evidence emerges, the Standards will be revised accordingly. The Standards are an extension of a prior initiative led by CCSSO and NGA to develop College and Career Readiness (CCR) standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language as well as in mathematics. The CCR Reading, Writing, and Speaking and Listening Standards, released in draft form in September 2009, serve, in revised form, as the backbone for the present document. Grade-specific K–12 standards in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language translate the broad (and, for the earliest grades, seemingly distant) aims of the CCR standards into age- and attainment-appropriate terms.

The Standards set requirements not only for English language arts (ELA) but also for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. Just as students must learn to read, write, speak, listen, and use language effectively in a variety of content areas, so too must the Standards specify the literacy skills and understandings required for college and career readiness in multiple disciplines. Literacy standards for grade 6 and above are predicated on teachers of ELA, history/social studies, science, and technical subjects using their content area expertise to help students meet the particular challenges of reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language in their respective fields. It is important to note that the 6–12 literacy standards in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects are not meant to replace content standards in those areas but rather to supplement them. States may incorporate these standards into their standards for those subjects or adopt them as content area literacy standards. As a natural outgrowth of meeting the charge to define college and career readiness, the Standards also lay out a vision of what it means to be a literate person in the twenty-first century. Indeed, the skills and understandings students are expected to demonstrate have wide applicability outside the classroom or workplace. Students who meet the Standards readily undertake the close, attentive reading that is at the heart of understanding and enjoying complex works of literature. They habitually perform the critical reading necessary to pick carefully through the staggering amount of information available today in print and digitally. They actively seek the wide, deep, and thoughtful engagement with high-quality literary and informational texts that builds knowledge, enlarges experience, and broadens worldviews. They reflexively demonstrate the cogent reasoning and use of evidence that is essential to both private deliberation and responsible citizenship in a democratic republic. In short, students who meet the Standards develop the skills in reading, writing, speaking, and listening that are the foundation for any creative and purposeful expression in language. June 2, 2010

Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects | Introduction

Key Design Considerations
CCR and grade-specific standards
The CCR standards anchor the document and define general, crossdisciplinary literacy expectations that must be met for students to be prepared to enter college and workforce training programs ready to succeed. The K–12 grade-specific standards define end-of-year expectations and a cumulative progression designed to enable students to meet college and career readiness expectations no later than the end of high school. The CCR and high school (grades 9–12) standards work in tandem to define the college and career readiness line—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity. Hence, both should be considered when developing college and career readiness assessments. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards, retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades, and work steadily toward meeting the more general expectations described by the CCR standards.

 

write about what they read. Likewise, Speaking and Listening standard 4 sets the expectation that students will share findings from their research.

Research and media skills blended into the Standards as a whole
To be ready for college, workforce training, and life in a technological society, students need the ability to gather, comprehend, evaluate, synthesize, and report on information and ideas, to conduct original research in order to answer questions or solve problems, and to analyze and create a high volume and extensive range of print and nonprint texts in media forms old and new. The need to conduct research and to produce and consume media is embedded into every aspect of today’s curriculum. In like fashion, research and media skills and understandings are embedded throughout the Standards rather than treated in a separate section.

Shared responsibility for students’ literacy development
The Standards insist that instruction in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language be a shared responsibility within the school. The K–5 standards include expectations for reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language applicable to a range of subjects, including but not limited to ELA. The grades 6–12 standards are divided into two sections, one for ELA and the other for history/social studies, science, and technical subjects. This division reflects the unique, time-honored place of ELA teachers in developing students’ literacy skills while at the same time recognizing that teachers in other areas must have a role in this development as well. Part of the motivation behind the interdisciplinary approach to literacy promulgated by the Standards is extensive research establishing the need for college and career ready students to be proficient in reading complex informational text independently in a variety of content areas. Most of the required reading in college and workforce training programs is informational in structure and challenging in content; postsecondary education programs typically provide students with both a higher volume of such reading than is generally required in K–12 schools and comparatively little scaffolding. The Standards are not alone in calling for a special emphasis on informational text. The 2009 reading framework of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) requires a high and increasing proportion of informational text on its assessment as students advance through the grades. 

Grade levels for K–8; grade bands for 9–10 and 11–12
The Standards use individual grade levels in kindergarten through grade 8 to provide useful specificity; the Standards use two-year bands in grades 9–12 to allow schools, districts, and states flexibility in high school course design.

A focus on results rather than means
By emphasizing required achievements, the Standards leave room for teachers, curriculum developers, and states to determine how those goals should be reached and what additional topics should be addressed. Thus, the Standards do not mandate such things as a particular writing process or the full range of metacognitive strategies that students may need to monitor and direct their thinking and learning. Teachers are thus free to provide students with whatever tools and knowledge their professional judgment and experience identify as most helpful for meeting the goals set out in the Standards.

An integrated model of literacy
Although the Standards are divided into Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, and Language strands for conceptual clarity, the processes of communication are closely connected, as reflected throughout this document. For example, Writing standard 9 requires that students be able to

Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects | Introduction

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Washington. and Technical Subjects | Introduction . For example. consistent with NAEP. Reading framework for the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2007). several standards can be addressed by a single rich task. for example. the Standards follow NAEP’s lead in balancing the reading of literature with the reading of informational texts. The CCR anchor standards themselves provide another source of focus and coherence.1 To measure students’ growth toward college and career readiness.2  Distribution of Communicative Purposes by Grade in the 2011 NAEP Writing Framework Grade 4 8 12 To Persuade 30% 35% 40% To Explain 35% 35% 40% To Convey Experience 35% 30% 20% Source: National Assessment Governing Board. Focus and coherence in instruction and assessment While the Standards delineate specific expectations in reading. revising.Key Design Considerations Distribution of Literary and Informational Passages by Grade in the 2009 NAEP Reading Framework Grade 4 8 12 Literary 50% 45% 30% Informational 50% 55% 70%   three forms. DC: U. the Standards demand that a significant amount of reading of informational texts take place in and outside the ELA classroom. and language. the overwhelming focus of writing throughout high school should be on arguments and informative/explanatory texts. when editing writing. to explain. Because the ELA classroom must focus on literature (stories. Evidence concerning the demands of college and career readiness gathered during development of the Standards concurs with NAEP’s shifting emphases: standards for grades 9–12 describe writing in all The percentages on the table reflect the sum of student reading. Inc. and to convey real or imagined experience. writing. including texts in history/social studies. like the Standards. not just writing in ELA settings. The 2011 NAEP framework. the percentages in the table reflect the sum of student writing. not just reading in ELA settings. When discussing something they have read or written. NAEP likewise outlines a distribution across the grades of the core purposes and types of student writing. speaking. students are also demonstrating their speaking and listening skills. When drawing evidence from literary and informational texts per Writing standard 9. Writing framework for the 2011 National Assessment of Educational Progress. Teachers of senior English classes. In accord with NAEP’s growing emphasis on informational texts in the higher grades. Fulfilling the Standards for 6– 12 ELA requires much greater attention to a specific category of informational text—literary nonfiction—than has been traditional. 3 2 Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. students are also demonstrating their comprehension skill in relation to specific standards in Reading.S. a great deal of informational reading in grades 6– 12 must take place in other classes if the NAEP assessment framework is to be matched instructionally. (2008). science. The Standards aim to align instruction with this framework so that many more students than at present can meet the requirements of college and career readiness. It follows that writing assessments aligned with the Standards should adhere to the distribution of writing purposes across grades outlined by NAEP. Often. or trying a new approach”) as well as Language standards 1–3 (which deal with conventions of standard English and knowledge of language). each standard need not be a separate focus for instruction and assessment. editing. In K–5. students address Writing standard 5 (“Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. and poetry) as well as literary nonfiction. cultivates the development of three mutually reinforcing writing capacities: writing to persuade. Science. and technical subjects. listening. rewriting. are not required to devote 70 percent of reading to informational texts. pre-publication edition. 70 percent of student reading across the grade should be informational. assessments aligned with the Standards should adhere to the distribution of texts across grades cited in the NAEP framework. Government Printing Office. drama. IA: ACT. 1 Source: National Assessment Governing Board. but. As with reading. Rather. Iowa City.

and journalism should be available. 4 What is not covered by the Standards The Standards should be recognized for what they are not as well as what they are. particularly in the early grades. they do not define the whole of such readiness. science. it is possible to meet the standards in reading. language. Furthermore. needs. or speech-to-text technology. and achievement levels of students in any given classroom. The most important intentional design limitations are as follows: 1) The Standards define what all students are expected to know and be able to do. content-rich curriculum consistent with the expectations laid out in this document. For example. 6) While the ELA and content area literacy components described herein are critical to college and career readiness. advanced work in such areas as literature. For instance. and Technical Subjects | Introduction . 2) While the Standards focus on what is most essential. learning rates. the Standards do provide clear signposts along the way to the goal of college and career readiness for all students. but it is welcome as a valuable activity in its own right and as a way to help students meet the expectations in this document. Each grade will include students who are still acquiring English. schoolwide literacy program. rigorous academic preparation and. or other assistive devices. speaking. A great deal is left to the discretion of teachers and curiculum developers. writing. Science. modeled on those in this document are strongly encouraged to facilitate a comprehensive. science.S. while writing should include the use of a scribe. and technical subjects. 3) The Standards do not define the nature of advanced work for students who meet the Standards prior to the end of high school. all students must have the opportunity to learn and meet the same high standards if they are to access the knowledge and skills necessary in their post–high school lives. This means that students can develop mutually reinforcing skills and exhibit mastery of standards for reading and writing across a range of texts and classrooms. foundational U. 4) The Standards set grade-specific standards but do not define the intervention methods or materials necessary to support students Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. No set of grade-specific standards can fully reflect the great variety in abilities. computer. This work should provide the next logical step up from the college and career readiness baseline established here. The Standards must therefore be complemented by a well-developed. they do not—indeed. Students require a wideranging. they do not describe all that can or should be taught. emotional. speaking and listening should be interpreted broadly to include sign language. such as mathematics and health education. and physical development and approaches to learning. The aim of the Standards is to articulate the fundamentals. and Shakespeare. the Standards define literacy expectations in history/social studies. not how teachers should teach. screen-reader technology. composition. Similarly. For those students. while the Standards make references to some particular forms of content. The Standards should also be read as allowing for the widest possible range of students to participate fully from the outset and as permitting appropriate accommodations to ensure maximum participation of students with special education needs. but literacy standards in other areas. including texts in history/social studies. However. For those students. In a similar vein. At the same time.   who are well below or well above grade-level expectations. cannot—enumerate all or even most of the content that students should learn. including mythology. 5) It is also beyond the scope of the Standards to define the full range of supports appropriate for English language learners and for students with special needs. the use of play with young children is not specified by the Standards. attention to such matters as social. The ten CCR anchor standards for Writing cover numerous text types and subject areas. for students with disabilities reading should allow for the use of Braille. and technical subjects. not to set out an exhaustive list or a set of restrictions that limits what can be taught beyond what is specified herein.Key Design Considerations The same ten CCR anchor standards for Reading apply to both literary and informational texts. and listening without displaying native-like control of conventions and vocabulary. documents.

task. speaking. speaking. Speaking. task. They read purposefully and listen attentively to gain both general knowledge and discipline-specific expertise. and discipline. and discipline. They use relevant evidence when supporting their own points in writing and speaking. Likewise. Students are engaged and open-minded—but discerning—readers and listeners. students are able independently to discern a speaker’s key points. and they integrate what they learn using technology with what they learn offline. They tailor their searches online to acquire useful information efficiently. and confirm they have been understood. including teachers. peers. They become proficient in new areas through research and study. such as how the composition of an audience should affect tone when speaking and how the connotations of words affect meaning. and language use as warranted by the task. listening. Science. and print and digital reference materials. Students actively seek to understand other perspectives and cultures through reading and listening. and language.  They use technology and digital media strategically and capably. They work diligently to understand precisely what an author or speaker is saying. articulate their own ideas. Listening. and worldviews. students can vicariously inhabit worlds and have experiences much different than their own.g.  They demonstrate independence. Students establish a base of knowledge across a wide range of subject matter by engaging with works of quality and substance. Students adapt their communication in relation to audience. Writing. Students appreciate that the twenty-first-century classroom and workplace are settings in which people from often widely divergent cultures and who represent diverse experiences and perspectives must learn and work together. they demonstrate command of standard English and acquire and use a wide-ranging vocabulary. but they also question an author’s or speaker’s assumptions and premises and assess the veracity of claims and the soundness of reasoning. documentary evidence in history. listening. request clarification. and Language The descriptions that follow are not standards themselves but instead offer a portrait of students who meet the standards set out in this document. without significant scaffolding. cultures. purpose. They evaluate other points of view critically and constructively.Key Design Considerations Students Who are College and Career Ready in Reading.    They comprehend as well as critique. speaking. They set and adjust purpose for reading.  They come to understand other perspectives and cultures. Students cite specific evidence when offering an oral or written interpretation of a text. They build on others’ ideas. effectively seeking out and using resources to assist them. and language use. listening. Without prompting. and they can construct effective arguments and convey intricate or multifaceted information. They also know that different disciplines call for different types of evidence (e.  They build strong content knowledge. They are familiar with the strengths and limitations of various technological tools and mediums and can select and use those best suited to their communication goals. writing.  They respond to the varying demands of audience. and they constructively evaluate others’ use of evidence. writing. and they are able to communicate effectively with people of varied backgrounds. and Technical Subjects | Introduction 5 . writing. and ask relevant questions. making their reasoning clear to the reader or listener. Students can. They refine and share their knowledge through writing and speaking. As students advance through the grades and master the standards in reading. They appreciate nuances. Students employ technology thoughtfully to enhance their reading.  They value evidence. they become self-directed learners. purpose. they are able to exhibit with increasing fullness and regularity these capacities of the literate individual.. Through reading great classic and contemporary works of literature representative of a variety of periods. More broadly. comprehend and evaluate complex texts across a range of types and disciplines.  Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. experimental evidence in science).

Speaking and Listening: Flexible communication and collaboration Including but not limited to skills necessary for formal presentations. and research The Standards acknowledge the fact that whereas some writing skills. where applicable). and Technical Subjects | Introduction 6 . for example. each CCR anchor standard has an accompanying grade-specific standard translating the broader CCR statement into grade-appropriate end-of-year expectations.1a stands for Writing. the first for the English language arts teacher and the second for teachers of history/social studies. science.5. one for ELA and one for history/social studies. ambiguities. responding to reading. Individual CCR anchor standards can be identified by their strand. and poor reasoning in texts. Each grade-specific standard (as these standards are collectively referred to) corresponds to the same-numbered CCR anchor standard. quantitative. integrate information from oral. informative/explanatory texts.6.4. Speaking and Listening. Writing. writing.3. though skills important to research are infused throughout the document. Informational Text. edit. and media sources. research standards are prominently included in this strand. and narratives. evaluate what they hear. speaking. reflecting the fact that most or all of the instruction students in these grades receive comes from one teacher. use media and visual displays strategically to help achieve communicative purposes. science. such as the ability to plan. and adapt speech to context and task. Whatever they are reading. Who is responsible for which portion of the Standards? A single K–5 section lists standards for reading.   Key Features of the Standards Reading: Text complexity and the growth of comprehension The Reading standards place equal emphasis on the sophistication of what students read and the skill with which they read. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. considering a wider range of textual evidence. Standards for each grade within K–8 and for grades 9–10 and 11–12 follow the CCR anchor standards in each strand. Standard 10 defines a grade-by-grade “staircase” of increasing text complexity that rises from beginning reading to the college and career readiness level. Strand designations can be found in brackets alongside the full strand title.  Writing: Text types. Individual grade-specific standards can be identified by their strand. Put another way. science. Three appendices accompany the main document. Grades 6–12 are covered in two content area–specific sections. grade 5. and number (or number and letter. Science. other skills are more properly defined in terms of specific writing types: arguments. visual. grade 4. including making an increasing number of connections among ideas and between texts. for example). Standard 9 stresses the importance of the writing-reading connection by requiring students to draw upon and write about evidence from literary and informational texts. Because of the centrality of writing to most forms of inquiry. CCR status. and number (R.Key Design Considerations How to Read This Document Overall Document Organization The Standards comprise three main sections: a comprehensive K–5 section and two content area–specific sections for grades 6–12. and technical subjects section focuses on Reading and Writing. Each section uses the same CCR anchor standards but also includes grade-specific standards tuned to the literacy requirements of the particular discipline(s). stands for Reading. and becoming more sensitive to inconsistencies. grade. revise. and Language strands. express and listen carefully to ideas. listening. the Speaking and Listening standards require students to develop a range of broadly useful oral communication and interpersonal skills. are applicable to many types of writing. and technical subjects. K–5 and 6–12 ELA have Reading. the 6–12 history/ social studies. and language across the curriculum.CCR. students must also show a steadily growing ability to discern more from and make fuller use of text. and technical subjects. standard 3 and W. Students must learn to work together. Each strand is headed by a strand-specific set of College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards that is identical across all grades and content areas. standard 1a. and publish. Each section is divided into strands. so that RI.

quality. and language as well as a glossary of key terms. Appendix C includes annotated samples demonstrating at least adequate performance in student writing at various grade levels. and C Appendix A contains supplementary material on reading. Science.   Appendices A. and vocabulary The Language standards include the essential “rules” of standard written and spoken English. their relationships. and Technical Subjects | Introduction 7 . The vocabulary standards focus on understanding words and phrases. but they also approach language as a matter of craft and informed choice among alternatives. speaking and listening. writing. particularly general academic and domainspecific words and phrases. effective use. and their nuances and on acquiring new vocabulary. and range of reading appropriate for various grade levels with accompanying sample performance tasks. B.Key Design Considerations Language: Conventions. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. Appendix B consists of text exemplars illustrating the complexity.

Science. and Technical Subjects | Introduction . and Technical Subjects Prekindergarten Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. Science.  Alignment of NYS Prekindergarten Standards to K-12 Common Core State Standards Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies.

poems. With prompting and support. 2. 5. illustrations. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. Integration and Knowledge of Ideas 7. Not applicable to literature 9. students will engage in a picture walk to make connections between self. ask questions about unfamiliar vocabulary). With prompting and support. retell familiar stories. students will compare and contrast two stories relating to the same topic ( Mercer Meyer series) a. With prompting and support.  Reading Standards for Literature: Prekindergarten Prekindergarteners: Key Ideas and Details 1.. songs). 6.g. With prompting and support. and the world around them (text. can describe the role of an author and illustrator.. text. With prompting and support. and the story. Exhibit curiosity and interest in learning new vocabulary (e. 9 . Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. 8. social interaction). With prompting and support.g. Responding to Literature 11. storybooks. make connections between self. Craft and Structure 4. With prompting and support. 3. students will make cultural connections to text and self. With prompting and support. ask and answer questions about characters and major events in a story. Students interact with a variety of common types of texts (e. media. ask and answer about detail(s) in a text.

2. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. can describe the role of an author and illustrator. actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. With prompting and support. back cover. page turning skills. 8.g. With prompting and support. 3. displays correct orientation of book. descriptions or procedures). describe the connection between two events or pieces of information in a text. With prompting and support. With prompting and support. 6. ask questions about unfamiliar vocabulary). With prompting and support. Identify the front cover. With prompting and support. 10 .. describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e. thing or idea in the text an illustration depicts). Craft and Structure 4. With prompting and support. identify basic similarities and differences between two texts on the same topic (e. Not applicable to prekindergarten. 5. 9. Exhibit curiosity and interest in learning new vocabulary (e.  Reading Standards for Informational Text: Prekindergarten Prekindergarteners: Key Ideas and Details 1. retell detail(s) in a text. what person.g. illustrations. place. ask and answer questions about details in a text.g. Integration and Knowledge of Ideas 7.

Understand that words are separated by spaces in print. a. e. Recognize that letters are grouped to form words. d. f.g. b. c.g. a.  Reading Standards: Foundational Skills Prekindergarten NOTE: In prekindergarten. Differentiate letters from numerals. Phonics and Word Recognition 3. sound patterns). Engage in language play (e. especially those in own name. rhyming. Recognizes own name and common signs and labels in the environment. Displays emergent reading behaviors with purpose and understanding (e. children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow Prekindergarteners: Print Concepts 1. Demonstrate emergent phonics and word analysis skills. a. isolate and pronounce the initial sounds in words. Fluency 4. Follow words from left to right. d. and page by page. Recognize and name some upper /lowercase letters of the alphabet. 11 . syllables and sounds (phonemes). b. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. pretend reading).. With support and prompting. With prompting and support. top to bottom. c. b. Phonological Awareness 2. alliterative language. Demonstrate awareness of relationship between sounds and letters. Recognize and match words that rhyme. demonstrate one-to-one letter-sound correspondence by producing the primary sound of some consonants. Demonstrate an emerging understanding of spoken words. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.

9. use a combination of drawing. with prompting and support as needed. participate in shared research and writing projects (e. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing. Not applicable to prekindergarten (begins in grade 4).g. or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class. as needed.. or writing to express an opinion about a book or topic (e. art work. With prompting and support.. because…) 2. With guidance and support.  Writing Standards: Prekindergarten Prekindergarteners: Text Types and Purposes 1. Responding to Literature 11. 6. 12 .g. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. Create and present a poem. dictating. use a combination of drawing. With prompting and support. respond to questions and suggestions and add details to strengthen illustration or writing. explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). With guidance and support. Not applicable to prekindergarten (begins in grade 3). use a combination of drawing. dramatization. collaborate with peers. recall information from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. Not applicable to prekindergarten (begins in grade 3). 8. 3. dictating. or writing to narrate a single event and provide a reaction to what happened. I like…. or writing to compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. dictating. 5. Range of Writing 10. With guidance and support. With prompting and support. With guidance and support.

Communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds.. b. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about pre. with prompting and support. or clarify something that is not understood. c.g. Describe familiar people. ask and answer questions in order to seek help. 13 .Engage in agreed-upon rules for discussions (e. 5. feelings and ideas. provide additional detail. With guidance and support. 3. listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion). 6. places. things.  Speaking and Listening Standards: Prekindergarten Prekindergarteners: Comprehension and Collaboration 1. With guidance and support. Demonstrate an emergent ability to express thoughts. With guidance and support. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail. 2. get information. confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood. and events and.Engage in extended conversations. a.kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and large groups.

Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on pre-kindergarten reading and content.and lowercase letters. dogs. who. f. in. reading and being read to. to.. march. how). Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs (orally).g. where.g.  Language Standards: Prekindergarten Prekindergarteners: Conventions of Standard English 1. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e.. what. With guidance and support. Knowledge of Language 3. With guidance and support. use words and phrases acquired through conversations. go. by. In speech. why. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e. of. 14 . foods) for understanding of the concepts the categories represent. With prompting and support. in.g. drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships. With guidance and support... a. a. Print some upper. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e.. Sort common objects into categories (e. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e. wishes) (orally). from. shapes. d. b. 6. use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e. b.g. c. Use knowledge of language and how language functions in different contexts Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. dog. on.g.. c.. and responding to texts. up. out). stop. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. note places at school that are colorful). form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e. c. attempt to spell simple words phonetically. e. Capitalize the first letter in their name. when. out. walk. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites ( e. down. wish. knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck). Attempt to write a letter or letters to represent a word.g. 5. With guidance and support. a.g. explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. for.(e. off. produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities. d. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. 2. b. strut.. a. prance) by acting out the meanings.g. letters in their name).g. with).

and Technical Subjects K–5 15 . Science.  Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies.

Analyze the structure of texts. including determining technical. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. reflect upon. extensive increasingly reading of challenging literary and informational texts. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development. which are essential to their future success. and interpret literary texts from a variety of genres and a wide spectrum of American and world cultures. 9. Students can only gain this foundation when the curriculum is intentionally and coherently structured to develop rich content knowledge within and across grades.* 8. *Please see “Research to Build and Present Knowledge” in Writing and “Comprehension and Collaboration” in Speaking and Listening for additional standards relevant to gathering. Responding to Literature 11.g. including how specific sentences. chapter. students gain literary and cultural knowledge as well as familiarity with various By text studies. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. Students also acquire the habits of reading independently and closely. and figurative meanings. summarize the key supporting details and ideas. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. dramas. foundation of knowledge in these fields that will also give them the background to be better readers in all content areas. and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. 6. other reading students 3. 5. and myths from diverse cultures and different time periods. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. Through stories. and larger portions of the text (e. textual features. and forms to read and comprehend. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it. cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. Note on range of student reading and content To build a foundation for college and career readiness.. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. including visually and quantitatively. events. and in and a elements. paragraphs. as well as in words. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text. scene. structures texts build science. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. a section. and applying information from print and digital sources. Key Ideas and Details 1. 16 . including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 2. students must read widely and deeply from among a broad range of high-quality.  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading The K–5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. Science. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats. and Technical Subjects | K–5 history/social disciplines. poems. Respond to literature by employing knowledge of literary language. Craft and Structure 4. assessing. Analyze how and why individuals. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. connotative.

17 Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters. With prompting and support. what moment in a story an illustration depicts). poems).  Reading Standards for Literature K–5 [RL] The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. text. 5.g. (Not applicable to literature) 9. Describe characters. With prompting and support. Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e. how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action. drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information. identify characters. 5. poem. regular beats. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text. including key details. ask and answer questions about key details in a text. retell familiar stories. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and 4. 8. 8. (Not applicable to literature) 9. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. students will make cultural connections to text and self. 1. alliteration. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. setting. social interaction). and major events in a story. 5. Recognize common types of texts (e. and the world around them (text. With prompting and support. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. With prompting and support. With prompting and support. 10. media. read and comprehend literature. 4. challenges. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters. Responding to Literature 11. 3. Responding to Literature 11. including describing 6. setting. or events.g. social interaction). rhymes.g. With prompting and support. read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade 1. Grade 2 students: 1. With prompting and support. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. Describe how words and phrases (e. adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. make connections between self. storybooks. 10. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e. 6. 10. Describe the overall structure of a story. Ask and answer such questions as who. 2.. 7. social interaction). Retell stories. describe the relationship 8. Science. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters. With prompting and support. Make connections between self. 6. including key details. text. Kindergartners: Key Ideas and Details Grade 1 students: 1. or moral. With prompting and support. and the world around them (text. compare and contrast the a. (Not applicable to literature) 9. repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story... settings. a. Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures. 7. and the world around them (text. and major events in a story. or plot. or song. settings.g. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. where. lesson. media. students will make cultural connections to text and self. Recount stories. and Technical Subjects | K–5 . 2. including stories and poetry.. and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. using key details. Responding to Literature 11. By the end of the year. 7. including fables and folktales from diverse cultures. media. name the author and Integration of Knowledge and Ideas illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story. in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently. 2. why. what. 3. Craft and Structure 3. 4. Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses. and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson. when. Make connections between self. text. including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud. With prompting and support. and determine their central message.

Explain how specific aspects of a text’s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e. their traits. Determine a theme of a story. or beauty of a text (e. how characters interact). (Not applicable to literature) 9. in books from a series). events in a story or drama. including the difference between first. lesson.g. 5. descriptions. and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g. drama. Grade 5 students: 1. 8. or actions). drama. 4. Compare and contrast two or more characters. Science. myths. including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic.. graphic novel. 2. including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. or poem. Determine a theme of a story. and prose.g. tone. or poem from details in the text. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e. or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. Refer to parts of stories. 1. myth. scene. or poem from diverse cultures.. Describe characters in a story (e.g. 3.. using terms such as chapter.. referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.. 8. summarize the text. distinguishing literal from non-literal language. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. 3. including fables. 8. describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. drama. drawing on specific details in the text (e.and third-person narrations. 5. Describe how a narrator’s or speaker’s point of view influences how events are described. stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. or event in a story or drama. mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.. (Not applicable to literature) 9. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies.. and poems when writing or speaking about a text. dramas. create mood. 7. 6. Explain how a series of chapters. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text. or Craft and Structure 4. opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e. Herculean). a. settings.g. drama. Recognize and describe how an author’s background and culture affect his or her perspective. or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story. different stories are narrated. and Technical Subjects | K–5 18 . scenes. casts of characters.. (Not applicable to literature) 9. determine the central message. 6. the quest) in stories. folktales. 4. Compare and contrast the themes. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.g. settings. folktale.g. Recount stories. Compare and contrast the point of view from which 6. 2.  Reading Standards for Literature K–5 Grade 3 students: Key Ideas and Details [RL] Grade 4 students: 1. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text... summarize the text.g. rhythm. emphasize aspects of a character or setting). verse. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. setting. details in the text. and refer to the structural elements of poems (e. and myths from 2.g. poem). meter) and drama (e. dialogue. drawing on specific details in the text (e.g.g. and traditional literature from different cultures. 7. Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text. Explain major differences between poems.g.. and stanza. words. settings. 3. multimedia presentation of fiction. 5. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning. motivations. Describe in depth a character. a character’s thoughts. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text.

  Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Self-select text based upon personal preferences. including stories. and poetry. select texts and assess to make informed judgments about the quality of the pieces. and drama to other texts. cultural perspectives. By the end of the year. ideas. a. interpret and make connections in narratives. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. and situations. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. ideas. and Technical Subjects | K–5 19 . By the end of the year. a. ideas. including stories. at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Science. 10. to other texts. cultural perspectives. to other texts. a. 10. Self-select text based upon personal preferences. read and comprehend literature. Self-select text to develop personal preferences regarding favorite authors. dramas. eras. Responding to Literature 11. and poetry. Use established criteria to categorize. personal events. and drama. and make connections in narratives. Recognize and make connections in narratives. poetry. cultural perspectives. poetry. read and comprehend literature. Responding to Literature 11. personal events. dramas. in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently. and situations. poetry. read and comprehend literature. b. and poetry. and drama. personal events and situations. dramas. interpret. By the end of the year. Responding to Literature 11. including stories. Recognize. Recognize.

8. icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. Craft and Structure 4. and title page of a 5. glossaries. 9. Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e. Describe how reasons support specific points the author makes in a text. ask and answer questions about key details in a text. descriptions. By the end of year. events.. thing. 6. Explain how specific images (e. describe the relationship between illustrations and the text in which they appear (e. Name the author and illustrator of a text and define the role of each in presenting the ideas or information in a text. why. 5. With prompting and support. Determine the meaning of words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 2 topic or subject area. ideas. what. read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1. ideas. 9. what person. Know and use various text features (e. where.. read and comprehend informational texts. in the grades 2–3 text complexity band proficiently.g.. 3. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 7. With prompting and support. Know and use various text features (e. 6. or pieces of information in a text. wants to answer. Grade 2 students: 1. science.g. descriptions. in illustrations. 4. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Ask and answer such questions as who. Describe the connection between two individuals. or pieces of information in a text. explain. or idea in the text an illustration depicts). including what the author Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. or steps in technical procedures in a text. identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic (e. Ask and answer questions to help determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases in a text. headings. With prompting and support. or procedures). 6. or procedures). 2. a diagram showing how a machine works) contribute to and clarify a text. Describe the connection between a series of historical events. identify the main topic and 3. icons) to locate key facts or information in a text. scientific ideas or concepts. With prompting and support. 5. book. 8. and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. electronic menus. and Technical Subjects | K–5 20 . when. author gives to support points in a text. including history/social studies. With prompting and support. or describe. captions. Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text. Distinguish between information provided by pictures or other illustrations and information provided by the words in a text. Identify the reasons an author gives to support points in a text. describe the connection between two individuals. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. With prompting and support. back cover. 10... Use the illustrations and details in a text to describe its key ideas. in illustrations. With prompting and support. subheadings. Compare and contrast the most important points presented by two texts on the same topic. events. 2. 4. With prompting and support. ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. 2.g. 3. identify the reasons an 9. Identify the main topic and retell key details of a text. indexes.. bold print. 8. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. Identify the main purpose of a text. 7. and technical texts. Science. glossaries. Identify the front cover. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.g. 10. electronic menus. 1.  Reading Standards for Informational Text K–5 Kindergartners: Key Ideas and Details [RI] Grade 1 students: 1.g. retell key details of a text.g. place. tables of contents.

Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account 7. 9..g. problem/solution) of events. diagrams.. 2. and technical texts. demonstrating the ability to locate an answer to a question quickly or to solve a problem efficiently. 3. summarize the text. including history/social studies. ideas. summarize the text. using language that pertains to time. Explain events. including what happened and why. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 3. By the end of the year. events. scientific ideas or concepts. important similarities and differences in the point of view they represent. photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g. science. noting 6. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text. Integrate information from several texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. ideas. Determine the meaning of general academic and domainspecific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 3 topic or subject area. what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. based on specific information in the text.g. or technical text. events. cause/effect.. Use text features and search tools (e. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. and explain how they support the main idea. at the high end of the grades 4–5 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 8. or steps in technical procedures in a text. chronology. Describe the relationship between a series of historical 2. 4. 6. read and comprehend informational texts. By the end of year. and technical texts. comparison. details presented in two texts on the same topic.. concepts. Determine the meaning of general academic and domainspecific words or phrases in a text relevant to a grade 4 topic or subject area. Determine two or more main ideas of a text and explain how they are supported by key details. scientific. Integrate information from two texts on the same topic in order to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. 10. or quantitatively (e. Science. or information in a text or part of a text. or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. 4. graphs. including history/social studies. where. animations.  Reading Standards for Informational Text K–5 Grade 3 students: Key Ideas and Details [RI] Grade 4 students: 1.. cause/effect.g. Compare and contrast the overall structure (e. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text. ideas.g. 9. and how key events occur). problem/solution) of events. 5. sequence. or concepts in a historical. describe the differences in focus and the information provided. chronology. science.. procedures. and Technical Subjects | K–5 21 . Use information gained from illustrations (e. 8.. Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details. Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to 9. 5. orally. referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. time lines. recount the key details 3. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining 2. Grade 5 students: 1. Describe the overall structure (e. comparison. sidebars. Analyze multiple accounts of the same event or topic. science. or technical text based on specific information in the text. and technical texts. Determine the meaning of general academic and domain- specific words and phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. support particular points in a text. scientific. 10. when. of the same event or topic. 1. 7. comparison. or information in two or more texts. 8. 5. why. at the high end of the grades 2–3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. or concepts in a historical. read and comprehend informational texts. key words. Interpret information presented visually. in the grades 4–5 text complexity band proficiently. concepts. including history/social studies. read and comprehend informational texts. and cause/effect. ideas. Determine the main idea of a text.g. more individuals. By the end of the year. Draw on information from multiple print or digital sources.g. hyperlinks) to locate information relevant to a given topic efficiently. in charts. of a text. maps. identifying which reasons and evidence support which point(s). Explain the relationships or interactions between two or Craft and Structure 4. Compare and contrast the most important points and key Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. 7. first/second/third in a sequence). Describe the logical connection between particular sentences and paragraphs in a text (e. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the author Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 6. cause/effect.

d. The point is to teach students what they need to learn and not what they already know—to discern when particular children or activities warrant more or less attention. and segment syllables in spoken words. syllables. top to bottom..) Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple. Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words. including consonant blends. 1. pronounce. Kindergartners: Print Concepts Grade 1 students: 1. b. and other basic conventions of the English writing system. and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant. and Technical Subjects | K–5 22 . These foundational skills are not an end in and of themselves. /r/. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. medial vowel. e. a. *Words. Orally produce single-syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes). syllables. a. /CVC/ is a word with three phonemes regardless of the number of letters in the spelling of the word. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words.* (This does not include CVCs ending with /l/. ending punctuation). c. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. rather. Phonological Awareness 2. comprehensive reading program designed to develop proficient readers with the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines. Note: In kindergarten. they are necessary and important components of an effective. b. a. the alphabetic principle. or CVC) words. and page by page. or /x/.g. first word. syllables. Count. b. capitalization. d. Recognize and produce rhyming words. Follow words from left to right. blend. Instruction should be differentiated: good readers will need much less practice with these concepts than struggling readers will. medial vowel. and final sounds (phonemes) in spoken single-syllable words. Segment spoken single-syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes). Isolate and pronounce the initial. and sounds (phonemes). and sounds (phonemes).and lowercase letters of the alphabet. c.  Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5) [RF] These standards are directed toward fostering students’ understanding and working knowledge of concepts of print. Thus. one-syllable words to make new words. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e. Science. d. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters. or phonemes written in /slashes/refer to their pronunciation or phonology. Isolate and pronounce initial. c. children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print. Recognize and name all upper. a. 2.

b. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. my. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels. d. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. c. and expression on successive readings.g. Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary sound or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant. Read words with inflectional endings. c. and expression on successive readings. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. a. b. and Technical Subjects | K–5 23 . Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. of.  Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5) Note: In kindergarten. Grade 2 students: 3. f. do. c. Science. Identify words with inconsistent but common spelling-sound correspondences. a. Read common high-frequency words by sight (e. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. e. the. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. Fluency 4. rereading as necessary. b. a. c. she. d. c. appropriate rate. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy. to. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding. Kindergartners: Phonics and Word Recognition [RF] Grade 1 students: 3. a. Know spelling-sound correspondences for additional common vowel teams. 3. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy. Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding. e. b. 4. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. a. b. is. rereading as necessary. d. f. are. g. Know the spelling-sound correspondences for common consonant digraphs. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. you. does). Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds. Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. appropriate rate. children are expected to demonstrate increasing awareness and competence in the areas that follow. Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words. 4.

Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. Decode words with common Latin suffixes. b. rereading as necessary. appropriate rate. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy. appropriate rate. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.g. syllabication patterns. c. and morphology (e. b. appropriate rate. syllabication patterns. 6. c. 6. a. rereading as necessary. d. c. and Technical Subjects | K–5 24 . Read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled words. a. a.. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding. and morphology (e. roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. b. roots and affixes) to read accurately unfamiliar multisyllabic words in context and out of context. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.. and expression on successive readings. Grade 5 students: 5. and expression on successive readings. rereading as necessary.g. Fluency 6. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. a. Use combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences. b. a. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy. Science. Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy.  Reading Standards: Foundational Skills (K–5) Grade 3 students: Phonics and Word Recognition [RF] Grade 4 students: 5. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. 5. Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding. and expression on successive readings. c. a. Decode multisyllable words.

*These broad types of writing include many subgenres. and conveying real and imagined experiences and events. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources. 5. purposes. 9. digital. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source. and well-structured event sequences. To meet these goals. They learn to appreciate that a key purpose of writing is to communicate clearly to an external. and thematic connections within and across genres as they respond to texts through written. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. 6. organization. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique. well-chosen details. using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing The K–5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. editing. and analysis of content. employing a variety of media and genres. 3. reflection. revising. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis. and audiences Responding to Literature 11. and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. cultural. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks. sometimes unfamiliar audience. including the Internet. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. and audience. They develop the capacity to build knowledge on a subject through research projects and to respond analytically to literary and informational sources. to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. organization. Develop personal. Science. 2. purpose. and Technical Subjects | K–5 25 . They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. or trying a new approach. producing numerous pieces over short and extended time frames throughout the year. and they begin to adapt the form and content of their writing to accomplish a particular task and purpose. 1. Text Types and Purposes* Note on range and content of student writing To build a foundation for college and career readiness. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. and research. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research. and style are appropriate to task. reflection. rewriting. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts. students must devote significant time and effort to writing. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection. Use technology. textual. 8. demonstrating understanding of the subjects they are studying. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions. Range of Writing 10. and oral presentations. students need to learn to use writing as a way of offering and supporting opinions.

Use a combination of drawing. 2. use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing. and provide a sense of closure. thoughts. explore a number of books by a favorite author and express opinions about them). 3. including in collaboration with peers. students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use. name the book they are writing about. respond to questions and suggestions from peers. use temporal words to signal event order. 4. use linking words (e. read a number of books on a single topic to produce a report. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they topic. introduce a topic. include some details regarding what happened. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or 1. 6. respond to questions and suggestions from peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed. supply a reason for the opinion. 6. state an opinion. My favorite book is . Each year in their writing. Use a combination of drawing. and provide some sense of closure.g. from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. recall information 8. supply some facts about the topic. (Begins in grade 3) 5. With guidance and support from adults. use a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e. compose informative/explanatory texts in which they name what they are writing about and supply some information about the topic. and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. and provide a concluding statement or section. and. Recall information from experiences or gather information 9.). (Begins in grade 4) 9. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a 2.. because. including in collaboration with peers. . explore a number of “how-to” books on a given topic and use them to write a sequence of instructions). recall information 8. Use a combination of drawing. from experiences or gather information from provided sources to answer a question. record science observations). from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. With guidance and support from adults. and provide a concluding statement or section. tell about the events in the order in which they occurred. include details to describe actions. use facts and definitions to develop points. and add details to strengthen writing as needed. (Begins in grade 4) 9. dictating. 4. Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students: Text Types and Purposes 1. and provide some sense of closure. (Begins in grade 3) 5. With guidance and support from adults. explore a variety of digital tools to produce and publish writing. 1. and provide some sense of closure.. (Begins in grade 3) 5. and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e. including in collaboration with peers. and Technical Subjects | K–5 26 . With guidance and support from adults. Write narratives in which they recount a well-elaborated appropriately sequenced events. Write narratives in which they recount two or more 3.  Writing Standards K–5 [W] The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. focus on a topic. With guidance and support from adults and peers.g. Science. focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing. 3. from provided sources to answer a question. supply reasons that support the opinion.. state an opinion. use temporal words to signal event order. With guidance and support from adults. dictating.. and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. 8. and feelings. 7. event or short sequence of events. dictating.. 6. 7. With guidance and support from adults. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about.g. (Begins in grade 4) Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies.g. also) to connect opinion and reasons. Participate in shared research and writing projects (e. and provide a reaction to what happened. . Participate in shared research and writing projects (e. and writing to 2.g. With guidance and support from adults.

dramatization. or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class.  Kindergartners: Range of Writing Grade 1 students: 10. Grade 2 students: 10. art work. or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class. Create and/or present a poem. Create and present a poem. dramatization. play. art work. (Begins in grade 3) Responding to Literature 11. (Begins in grade 3) 10. with support as needed. and Technical Subjects | K–5 27 . art work. with support as needed. Create and present a poem. (Begins in grade 3) Responding to Literature 11. Responding to Literature 11. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. narrative. or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class. with support as needed. Science.

Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. or other information and examples related to the topic. thoughts. Introduce a topic or text clearly. supporting a point of view with reasons. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences and convey ideas and information clearly. c. include formatting (e. definitions. Introduce a topic clearly. b. headings). Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts. c. supporting a point Grade 5 students: 1. Use linking words and phrases (e.. Use narrative techniques. d.g. organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. d. consequently. a. Use dialogue and descriptions of actions..g. of view with reasons and information. c. in order to. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts. Introduce a topic or text clearly. e.. Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely. e. a. a. Link ideas within and across categories of information using words. or events using effective technique. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. and group related information logically. state an opinion. d. b. state an opinion. Use a variety of transitional words. b. Develop the topic with facts. descriptive details. quotations.. because). Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. include formatting (e. for instance. illustrations. and Technical Subjects | K–5 28 . Establish a situation and introduce a narrator and/or characters. Link opinion and reasons using words. headings). Develop the topic with facts. 2. a. 3. d. and.g. Develop the topic with facts. such as dialogue. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about. and clauses (e. 2. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. supporting a point 1.g. of view with reasons and information.g. illustrations. but) to connect ideas within categories of information.. descriptive details. Provide a concluding statement or section.. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. 3. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.. Provide reasons that support the opinion. in contrast. d. c. and clauses (e. definitions. Provide a concluding statement or section. phrases. since. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters. definitions. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. Science. quotations. 2. c. or other information and examples related to the topic. Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters. b. d. a. another. 3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique. provide a general observation and focus. and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer’s purpose. organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. state an opinion. and pacing. and clear event sequences. a. Provide a sense of closure. c. b. d. Introduce a topic and group related information together. Use a variety of transitional words and phrases to manage the sequence of events. c. e. also. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events. and clear event sequences. and details. and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. concrete details. phrases. d. d. Use dialogue and description to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. b. specifically). Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique.g. c. Use linking words and phrases (e. b. to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections. and clauses to manage the sequence of events. for example) to connect opinion and reasons. b. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. e. another. organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally. include illustrations when useful to aiding comprehension. descriptive details. more. c. Use temporal words and phrases to signal event order. phrases.g. b. and feelings to develop experiences and events or show the response of characters to situations. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. a. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. a. therefore. in addition). because.g. especially). description. a. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented.  Writing Standards K–5 Grade 3 students: Text Types and Purposes [W] Grade 4 students: 1.. and clear event sequences. and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer’s purpose. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. concrete details. for example. also.

g. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to literature (e. With guidance and support from adults.g.) produce and publish writing (using keyboarding skills) as well as to interact and collaborate with others. and provide a list of sources. and provide a list of sources. Recall information from experiences or gather information from print and digital sources. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to informational texts (e. With guidance and support from peers and adults. Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. or trying a new approach. 9.. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis.. revising. drawing on specific details in the text [e. purpose. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. and audience. 7. words. reflection. Produce text (print or nonprint) that explores a variety of cultures and perspectives. to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others. identifying which reasons and evidence support which point[s]”). Conduct short research projects that build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic. and research. use technology. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. a. With guidance and support from peers and adults.) development and organization are appropriate to task. rewriting. 6. setting.. and editing. a character’s thoughts. and research. Apply grade 4 Reading standards to literature (e. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. and strengthen writing as needed by planning. Apply grade 5 Reading standards to informational texts (e. 5. revising. take notes and categorize information. or events in a story or a drama. demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of one page in a single sitting. 8. take brief notes on sources and sort evidence into provided categories. reflection. and Technical Subjects | K–5 . (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 5 on page 38.) 5.g. “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text”). (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 3 on page 38. b. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) 5. “Compare and contrast two or more characters. how characters interact]”). Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to 9. Science.. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources. or actions]. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 4 on page 38.. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the Grade 5 students: 4. use technology to 6. Conduct short research projects that build knowledge about a topic. to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others. revising. develop 6.g. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. a. editing. “Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support particular points in a text.”). and audience.) a. including the Internet. With guidance and support from adults. demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of two pages in a single sitting. With some guidance and support from adults.  Writing Standards K–5 Grade 3 students: Production and Distribution of Writing [W] Grade 4 students: 4. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. produce writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task and purpose. purpose. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the 4. 8. 7. settings.) development and organization are appropriate to task. including the Internet.g. use technology. drawing on specific details in the text [e.g. 8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources. support analysis. With some guidance and support from adults. (Begins in grade 4) 9. or event in a story or drama. “Describe in depth a character. and editing. b. 29 Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies.. summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work. With guidance and support from peers and adults.

and Technical Subjects | K–5 30 . play. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for 10. Create and present an original poem. and revision) and shorter time frames research. narrative. purposes.  Grade 3 students: Range of Writing Grade 4 students: 10. Recognize and illustrate social. Science. art work. art work. play. reflection. art 11. play. 10. reflection. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. purposes. and audiences. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research. Create and present a poem. reflection. historical. Responding to Literature 11. specific tasks. and audiences. a. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for Grade 5 students: research. and cultural features in the presentation of literary texts. and revision) and shorter time frames (a (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinesingle sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks. Create and present a poem. or work. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks. studied in class. and audiences. purposes. or literary critique in response to a particular author literary review in response to a particular author or theme or theme studied in class. narrative. or personal response to a particular author or theme studied in class. Responding to Literature Responding to Literature 11. narrative.

respond to and develop what others have said. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. students must have ample opportunities to take part in a variety of rich. Digital texts confront students with the potential for continually dynamically updated changing content combinations and of 1. and Technical Subjects | K–5 31 . and use of evidence and rhetoric. 3. quantitatively. words. findings. 2. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization. structured conversations—as part of a whole class. New technologies have broadened and expanded the role that speaking and listening play in acquiring and sharing knowledge and have tightened their link to other forms of communication. development. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. images. and orally. relevant information. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. Comprehension and Collaboration Note on range and content of student speaking and listening To build a foundation for college and career readiness. hyperlinks. Science. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening The K–5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats. and analyze and synthesize a multitude of ideas in various domains. graphics. purpose. Being productive members of these conversations requires that students contribute accurate. 5. and style are appropriate to task. 6. Present information. and with a partner. including visually. reasoning. make comparisons and contrasts. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. in small groups. and audience. Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners. and embedded video and audio. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies.

Describe familiar people. 2. get information. listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion). 2. places. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. 6. Confirm understanding of a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media by asking and answering questions about key details and requesting clarification if something is not understood. 4. Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.. and events and. and Technical Subjects | K–5 32 . 3. Students advancing through Kindergartners: Comprehension and Collaboration Grade 1 students: 1. and events with relevant details. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds. expressing ideas and feelings clearly. Ask questions to clear up any confusion about the topics and texts under discussion. Create audio recordings of stories or poems. speaking audibly in coherent sentences. 5. 2. d. thoughts. listening to others with care. Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others. Recount or describe key ideas or details from a text read 3.g.. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification. (See grade 1 Language standards 1and 3 on page 36 for specific expectations. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to gather additional information or clarify something that is not understood. or deepen understanding of a topic or issue. Science. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse 1. Produce complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation. 5. aloud or information presented orally or through other media. feelings. Ask and answer questions about what a speaker says in order to clarify comprehension. things. places.. 5. add drawings or other visual displays to stories or recounts of experiences when appropriate to clarify ideas. Speak audibly and express thoughts. things. Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions as desired to provide additional detail.g. b. c. listening to others with care. and ideas clearly. a. Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion. a. gather additional information. 4. and feelings. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text read aloud or information presented orally or through other media. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e. partners about grade 1 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. Ask and answer questions in order to seek help. thoughts. speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). 6. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds. speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. c. 3. c. Tell a story or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant. Describe people.) 6. b. partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups. and feelings.) Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies.g. d. gaining the floor in respectful ways.  Speaking and Listening Standards K–5 the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. provide additional detail. b. descriptive details. with prompting and support. (See grade 2 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 36 for specific expectations. Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse Grade 2 students: 1. a. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e. or clarify something that is not understood. [SL] The following standards for K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. Build on others’ talk in conversations by responding to the comments of others through multiple exchanges.

and Technical Subjects | K–5 33 . f.. speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion). 4. and orally. tell a story. 2.g. Come to discussions prepared. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic. including visually. support particular points. offering appropriate elaboration and detail. Summarize a written text read aloud or information 3. Come to discussions prepared. 2. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. Come to discussions prepared. graphics. having read or studied required material. 4. when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 4 topics and texts. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 3. (one-on-one. gaining the floor in respectful ways. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different cultural backgrounds. descriptive details to support main ideas or themes. a. having read or studied required material. (one-on-one. sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant. address problems creatively. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles. and make comments that contribute to the discussion and link to the remarks of others. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different perspectives and cultural backgrounds. c. c. descriptive details to support main ideas or themes. c. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions Grade 5 students: 1. using appropriate facts and relevant. 5. Review the key ideas expressed and explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e. descriptive details. and link their comments to the remarks of others. including visually. and advocate persuasively. listening to others with care. to think analytically. Summarize the points a speaker makes and explain how 4. explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. as well as culture. tell a story. Report on a topic or text or present an opinion. e. in groups. a. Report on a topic or text. Science. Paraphrase portions of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats. Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others. stay on topic. Add audio recordings and visual displays to presentations 5. Report on a topic or text. Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions. quantitatively. in groups. and orally. and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts.. 5. or recount an experience with appropriate facts and relevant. explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. d. b. Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles.g. Explain their own ideas and understanding in light of the discussion. speak clearly at an understandable pace. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. Ask questions to check understanding of information presented. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions 1. in groups. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. Determine the main ideas and supporting details of a text read aloud or information presented in diverse media and formats. 2. and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts. explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion. b. Identify the reasons and evidence a speaker provides to 3. d. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. presented in diverse media and formats. a.  Speaking and Listening Standards K–5 Grade 3 students: Comprehension and Collaboration [SL] Grade 4 students: 1. including visually. Ask and answer questions about information from a 4. e. speaking clearly at an understandable pace. speaker. quantitatively. d. speak clearly at an understandable pace. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different perspectives and cultural backgrounds. add visual displays when appropriate to emphasize or enhance certain facts or details. each claim is supported by reasons and evidence. sound) and visual displays in presentations when appropriate to enhance the development of main ideas or themes. Create engaging audio recordings of stories or poems that demonstrate fluid reading at an understandable pace. or recount an experience in an organized manner. Pose and respond to specific questions to clarify or follow up on information. quantitatively. and orally. b. having read or studied required material. Include multimedia components (e. e. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one.

.  Grade 3 students: 6. small-group discussion). (See grade 3 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 38 for specific expectations.g. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e. (See grade 5 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 38 for specific expectations. and Technical Subjects | K–5 34 .) Grade 5 students: 6.. (See grade 4 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 38 for specific expectations.g. Speak in complete sentences when appropriate to task and situation in order to provide requested detail or clarification.) Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. use formal English when appropriate to task and situation.) Grade 4 students: 6. Science. presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e. using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.

speaking. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. and expand their vocabulary in the course of studying content. as appropriate. reading. Note on range and content of student language use To build a foundation for college and career readiness in language. and media use. and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. word relationships and nuances in word meanings. 5. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization. to make effective choices for meaning or style. They must also be able to determine or clarify the meaning of grade-appropriate words encountered through listening. 2. usage. and listening at the college and career readiness level. analyzing meaningful word parts. demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when encountering an unknown term important to comprehension or expression. writing. they are inseparable from such contexts. and listening. Knowledge of Language 3. Science. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues. and mechanics as well as learn other ways to use language to convey meaning effectively. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions. writing. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies.  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language The K–5 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. relationships to other words. and consulting general and specialized reference materials. indeed. that words of have non-literal and shadings meaning. and Technical Subjects | K–5 35 . effective language use. Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading. punctuation. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. and vocabulary are unimportant to reading. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. and spelling when writing. 6. students must gain control over many conventions of standard English grammar. come to appreciate meanings. Conventions of Standard English 1. speaking.

including beginning dictionaries. proper. and indefinite pronouns (e.. a. them.g. and exclamatory sentences in response to prompts. We hop). Capitalize dates and names of people. how). told). Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Use determiners (e. Use verbs to convey a sense of past. b. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. with). f. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. teeth. from. and future (e. Consult reference materials. dogs. d. during. g. interrogative. their. Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words. Knowledge of Language 3. and rearrange complete simple and compound sentences (e. 2. wishes). drawing on phonemic awareness and spelling conventions. The little boy watched the movie. hid. Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students: Conventions of Standard English 1. punctuation. Use frequently occurring conjunctions (e. d. of. a.. who. b. Compare formal and informal uses of English. Today I walk home. Yesterday I walked home. c. a. Use frequently occurring prepositions (e. beyond. Use frequently occurring adjectives. Capitalize the first word in a sentence and the pronoun I. Produce and expand complete sentences in shared language activities. they. when. what. children. demonstratives).. so. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e. b.g. Recognize and name end punctuation.g.. e. See the table on page 31 for a complete list and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication. b. (Begins in grade 2) 3.. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. me. b.. but. product names. group).g. a.. and possessive nouns.g. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization. Spell simple words phonetically.g. dog.. f. and spelling when writing. Use collective nouns (e. reading. f. c. Write a letter or letters for most consonant and shortvowel sounds (phonemes). or. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. The boy watched the movie. as needed to check and correct spellings. wish. everything). h. and spelling when writing. Produce. present. on. and Technical Subjects | K–5 36 . Spell untaught words phonetically. to. 1. why.and lowercase letters. where. skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). and spelling when writing. for.g. He hops.. fish). Use commas in greetings and closings of letters. boy → boil). mice. speaking.g..g. feet.. I. possessive. a.g. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.g.g. d. or listening. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e. d. e. drawing on knowledge of sound-letter relationships. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e. Tomorrow I will walk home). Use common. articles. cage → badge. i. Understand and use question words (interrogatives) (e.g. punctuation. 1. Use reflexive pronouns (e. d. punctuation. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e. e. b. ourselves). off. Produce and expand complete simple and compound declarative. The action movie was watched by the little boy). Capitalize holidays. Use adjectives and adverbs. Use personal. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization. Beginning in grade 3.. e. Print many upper. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives. a. j.and lowercase letters. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing. out.g. by. Generalize learned spelling patterns when writing words (e. 2.. anyone.. and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. my. and.g. toward). expand. d. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. a.. c. Print all upper. e. c. Use the most frequently occurring prepositions (e. and geographic names. (Begins in grade 2) 3. Use end punctuation for sentences.  Language Standards K–5 [L] The following standards for grades K–5 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. in. myself. sat. 2. imperative. because). c. c. Science.

meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and 6. prance) by acting out the meanings. and responding to texts. re-. to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases. including using adjectives and adverbs to describe (e... peek.g. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs describing the same general action (e. reading and being read to. additional). Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e. a. a. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple- 4. addition.. When other kids are happy that makes me happy). With guidance and support from adults. knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck). strut. housefly.g.g. colors. a.. glance.g. and responding to texts. b.g... look) and their inflectional forms (e.. a tiger is a large cat with stripes). Use words and phrases acquired through conversations. notebook..g. describe foods that are spicy or juicy). slender. d. lighthouse. looks.. birdhouse. looking). foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent.g.g. b. gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings. thin. -ful. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e. both print and digital. note places at home that are cozy). hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g. including using frequently occurring conjunctions to signal simple relationships (e. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations.. tell/retell).. look.g. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase..g. c. reading and being read to.. glare.g. 5.g. Science. clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. march.g. Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.. shapes. -less) as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e. 5. Use frequently occurring affixes as a clue to the meaning of a word. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e. pre-. a duck is a bird that swims. toss. a. Sort common objects into categories (e. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e. b.g. -s.g. e. d. bookshelf. bookmark).. Use words and phrases acquired through conversations.. and Technical Subjects | K–5 37 . skinny. With guidance and support from adults. a.g. stare.g.. large.g. happy/unhappy. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms). Sort words into categories (e. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and Grade 2 students: 4. note places at school that are colorful). Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (e. 6. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. throw. 5. nuances in word meanings. scrawny). scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e. b. b. explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. -ed. un-. walk... b. d. and responding to texts. multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 1 reading and content. choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. looked. Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g. c. because). Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries. 6. reading and being read to. demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings. Identify frequently occurring root words (e. c. a.  Language Standards K–5 Kindergartners: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use [L] Grade 1 students: 4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content. choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e. c.

or listening.g.  Language Standards K–5 Grade 3 students: Conventions of Standard English [L] Grade 4 students: 1..g. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. e. b.. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization.. Choose words and phrases for effect. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. presenting ideas) and situations where informal discourse is appropriate (e. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. and conditions. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.g. Form and use the perfect (e. to. Science. Correctly use frequently confused words (e. verbs. or italics to indicate titles of works. i. a. Capitalize appropriate words in titles. Use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions. Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e. Use correct capitalization. Choose punctuation for effect. speaking. to set off a tag question from the rest of the sentence (e. and reduce sentences for meaning. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard 2.* b. combine. happiness). h. f. when.g. position-based spellings. Form and use the simple (e. reader/listener interest. why). I walk. as needed to check and correct spellings. 2. dialects. a. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence. b.  d. sequences. states. Form and use possessives. I will have walked) verb tenses. c. or listening. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing. ending rules. f. English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Knowledge of Language 3. Explain the function of conjunctions. Yes. Use a comma to separate an introductory element from the rest of the sentence.* b. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing. smiled. a. isn’t it?)..g. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.  c. Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue. e. and Technical Subjects | K–5 . I will be walking) verb tenses. Form and use prepositional phrases. Use a comma to set off the words yes and no (e. I will walk) verb tenses.g.g. including beginning dictionaries. Produce simple. a. c. English capitalization.. reading. dramas. Form and use regular and irregular verbs. Produce complete sentences. I had walked.. Use relative pronouns (who. punctuation.. d... adjectives. too.* g.* c. e.g. Order adjectives within sentences according to conventional patterns (e. neither/nor). 3. and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. and spelling when writing. I am walking. Consult reference materials. b. may.g. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.g. Compare and contrast the varieties of English (e. and interjections in general and their function in particular sentences. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text. Expand. Use modal auxiliaries (e. speaking. Form and use comparative and superlative adjectives and adverbs. punctuation. I have walked... recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. a small red bag rather than a red small bag).*    English capitalization. g. a. 38 Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard Grade 5 students: 1. b. compound. thank you). and to indicate direct address (e. punctuation. Differentiate between contexts that call for formal English (e. b. whom. quotation marks. c. Use correlative conjunctions (e.g. Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e. cries.. syllable patterns. a. and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. b.g. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly. prepositions. meaningful word parts) in writing words.. word families. 3. I was walking.* g. there. c. and style. Use verb tense to convey various times. Use underlining. Form and use the progressive (e. Spell grade-appropriate words correctly. b. a. e.g. c. or listening. must) to convey various conditions. a. consulting references as needed. English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. a.. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing. childhood). consulting references as needed. or poems. their). two. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard 1. either/or.g. Steve?).g. speaking. reading. can. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard 2. Is that you. d. small-group discussion). Explain the function of nouns. registers) used in stories. and complex sentences. d. f. that) and relative adverbs (where. reading. Use commas in addresses. It’s true.. and spelling when writing. d. which.* Recognize and observe differences between the conventions of spoken and written standard English. sitting. pronouns. d.g.. Use abstract nouns (e.* e. whose. and spelling when writing. I walked.

conversational. Explain the meaning of simple similes and metaphors (e. and domain-specific words and phrases. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language.  Language Standards K–5 Grade 3 students: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use [L] Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students: 4. b.g. dictionaries.. Use the relationship between particular words (e. company. adages. After dinner that night we went looking for them). stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e. grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e. d. autograph). similarly. whined.g.. photosynthesis). companion). or states of being (e. a. b.g. however. conservation.. 4. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms). Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple. a. multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content. c. homographs) to better understand each of the words. emotions.g. quizzed. and nuances in word meanings.g.. heat/preheat). cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.. b. Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. moreover. Interpret figurative language. c. and nuances in word meanings. believed. synonyms. including those that signal precise actions. to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate 6. in addition). 6.g. b. addition. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms.4.g. word relationships. Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e. definitions. and other logical relationships (e.. glossaries. choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Use common. Distinguish the literal and nonliteral meanings of words and phrases in context (e. Identify real-life connections between words and their use (e. antonyms. care/careless. adages. telegraph. and proverbs.. dictionaries.. including similes and metaphors.g. Use common. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content. as pretty as a picture) in context. a.g. c. word relationships.g. or restatements in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. b. glossaries. and Technical Subjects | K–5 39 . c. Use context (e. b. suspected. heard. Consult reference materials (e. including those that signal spatial and temporal relationships (e. thesauruses). thesauruses). wildlife.g... Distinguish shades of meaning among related words that describe states of mind or degrees of certainty (e. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e. take steps). choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.. to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. nevertheless.g. Consult reference materials (e. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language. both print and digital. both print and digital. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases.. a..g. Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general 6. photograph. choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. c.. describe people who are friendly or helpful). academic and domain-specific words and phrases. photograph. Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. 5. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries. a. examples. 5. in context. wondered).g..g. and proverbs.g.. general academic.. 5. although. to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. agreeable/disagreeable. Science. a. including those that signal contrast. Use context (e. comfortable/uncomfortable. knew. c. grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e. and endangered when discussing animal preservation). Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content.g. Demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings. both print and digital.

to/too/two. Vary sentence patterns for meaning.4.3b. Use punctuation (commas. Use parallel structure. dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements. L.g.1c. L. Standard L.3a. ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents).7.1d. L.3.1e.1d. L.e.6. are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking. Correctly use frequently confused words (e. L.7.1c. Choose words and phrases for effect. recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy.3a.2a.9–10.1f. there/their).4. and Technical Subjects | K–5 40 . L. Choose punctuation for effect. recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers.  Language Progressive Skills.. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.3.4. L.1d.11–12. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence.6. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.6.4.8.6.3a.6.. L.7.3a 3 4 5 Grade(s) 6 7 8 9– 10 11– 12 Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. L. * Subsumed by L.1a ‡ Subsumed by L.* L.6. L. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely. reader/listener interest. and style.3a. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person. Maintain consistency in style and tone. L. parentheses.‡ L.† L. Use punctuation to separate items in a series.2a. by Grade The following skills. L. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.9–10. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking. Science. recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons. marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1–3. L.1g.1f.3b. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i.5.3a † Subsumed by L. and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.5. L. Produce complete sentences.1a.

legends. and Technical Subjects | K–5 41 . fables. Range of Text Types for K–5 Students in K–5 apply the Reading standards to the following range of text types. and Technical Texts Includes biographies and autobiographies. and myth Dramas Includes staged dialogue and brief familiar scenes Poetry Includes nursery rhymes and the subgenres of the narrative poem. and knowledge demands Readability measures and other scores of text complexity Reader variables (such as motivation. Scientific. language conventionality and clarity. folktales. Literature Stories Includes children’s adventure stories. and Complexity of Student Reading K–5 Measuring Text Complexity: Three Factors Qualitative evaluation of the text: Quantitative evaluation of the text: Matching reader to text and task: Levels of meaning. fantasy. social studies. knowledge. forms. and digital sources on a range of topics Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies. or maps. science. and experiences) and task variables (such as purpose and the complexity generated by the task assigned and the questions posed) Note: More detailed information on text complexity and how it is measured is contained in Appendix A.  Standard 10: Range. structure. Science. including directions. charts. and the arts. technical texts. realistic fiction. limerick. and information displayed in graphs. with texts selected from a broad range of cultures and periods. Quality. and free verse poem Informational Text Literary Nonfiction and Historical. books about history.

  Texts Illustrating the Complexity. Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies. Rossetti (1893)** Mr. Poetry K1                     * Read-aloud ** Read-along Informational Texts: Literary Nonfiction and Historical. 1 Children at the kindergarten and grade 1 levels should be expected to read texts independently that have been specifically written to correlate to their reading level and their word knowledge. Rossetti (1893) Charlotte’s Web by E. texts need to be selected around topics or themes that generate knowledge and allow students to study those topics or themes in depth. illustrated by Mark Teague (2001) Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll (1865) “Casey at the Bat” by Ernest Lawrence Thayer (1888) The Black Stallion by Walter Farley (1941) “Zlateh the Goat” by Isaac Bashevis Singer (1984) Where the Mountain Meets the Moon by Grace Lin (2009) My Five Senses by Aliki (1962)** Truck by Donald Crews (1980) I Read Signs by Tana Hoban (1987) What Do You Do With a Tail Like This? by Steve Jenkins and Robin Page (2003)* Amazing Whales! by Sarah L. a Dog. Drama. Popper’s Penguins by Richard Atwater (1938)* Little Bear by Else Holmelund Minarik. illustrated by Maurice Sendak (1957)** Frog and Toad Together by Arnold Lobel (1971)** Hi! Fly Guy by Tedd Arnold (2006) “Who Has Seen the Wind?” by Christina G. A Story by Gail E. within and across grade levels. Science & Technical Subjects| K–5 42 . Thomson (2005)* A Tree Is a Plant by Clyde Robert Bulla. Scientific. Many of the titles listed above are meant to supplement carefully structured independent reading with books to read along with a teacher or that are read aloud to students to build knowledge and cultivate a joy in reading. and Range of Student Reading K–5 Literature: Stories. the illustrative texts listed above are meant only to show individual titles that are representative of a wide range of topics and genres. Haley (1970)* Pancakes for Breakfast by Tomie DePaola (1978) Kitten’s First Full Moon by Kevin Henkes (2004)* “Mix a Pancake” by Christina G. B. illustrated by James Graham Hale (2004)* How People Learned to Fly by Fran Hodgkins and True Kelley (2007)* A Medieval Feast by Aliki (1983) From Seed to Plant by Gail Gibbons (1991) The Story of Ruby Bridges by Robert Coles (1995)* A Drop of Water: A Book of Science and Wonder by Walter Wick (1997) Moonshot: The Flight of Apollo 11 by Brian Floca (2009) Discovering Mars: The Amazing Story of the Red Planet by Melvin Berger (1992) Hurricanes: Earth’s Mightiest Storms by Patricia Lauber (1996) A History of US by Joy Hakim (2005) Horses by Seymour Simon (2006) Quest for the Tree Kangaroo: An Expedition to the Cloud Forest of New Guinea by Sy Montgomery (2006) 11 2–3 4–5 Note: Given space limitations. Plain and Tall by Patricia MacLachlan (1985) Tops and Bottoms by Janet Stevens (1995) Poppleton in Winter by Cynthia Rylant. Quality. and range. illustrated by Stacey Schuett (1960)** Starfish by Edith Thacher Hurd (1962) Follow the Water from Brook to Ocean by Arthur Dorros (1991)** From Seed to Pumpkin by Wendy Pfeffer. White (1952)* Sarah. On the next page is an example of progressions of texts building knowledge across grade levels.) At a curricular or instructional level. and Technical Texts                     Over in the Meadow by John Langstaff (traditional) (c1800)* A Boy. and a Frog by Mercer Mayer (1967) A Story. quality. (See Appendix B for excerpts of these and other texts illustrative of K–5 text complexity.

and preventing illness  Germs Make Me Sick by Marilyn Berger (1995)  Tiny Life on Your Body by Christine Taylor-Butler (2005)  Germ Stories by Arthur Kornberg (2007)  All About Scabs by GenichiroYagu (1998)  2–3 Digestive and excretory systems What Happens to a Hamburger by Paul Showers (1985)  The Digestive System by Christine TaylorButler (2008)  The Digestive System by Rebecca L. and the arts. and nervous systems The Mighty Muscular and Skeletal Systems Crabtree Publishing (2009)  Muscles by Seymour Simon (1998)  Bones by Seymour Simon (1998)  The Astounding Nervous System Crabtree Publishing (2009)  The Nervous System by Joelle Riley (2004)  4–5 Circulatory system  The Heart by Seymour Simon (2006)  The Heart and Circulation by Carol Ballard (2005)  The Circulatory System by Kristin Petrie (2007)  The Amazing Circulatory System by John Burstein (2009) Respiratory system  The Lungs by Seymour Simon (2007)  The Respiratory System by Susan Glass (2004)  The Respiratory System by Kristin Petrie (2007)  The Remarkable Respiratory System by John Burstein (2009) Endocrine system  The Endocrine System by Rebecca Olien (2006)  The Exciting Endocrine System by John Burstein (2009) Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies. The knowledge children have learned about particular topics in early grade levels should then be expanded and developed in subsequent grade levels to ensure an increasingly deeper understanding of these topics. What follows is one example that uses domain-specific nonfiction titles across grade levels to illustrate how curriculum designers and classroom teachers can infuse the English language arts block with rich. over time. in the manner called for by the Standards.  Staying on Topic Within a Grade and Across Grades: How to Build Knowledge Systematically in English Language Arts K–5 Building knowledge systematically in English language arts is like giving children various pieces of a puzzle in each grade that. skeletal. orally comparing and contrasting as well as analyzing and synthesizing. At a curricular or instructional level. will form one big picture. texts—within and across grade levels—need to be selected around topics or themes that systematically develop the knowledge base of students. diet. science. Science & Technical Subjects| K–5 43 . structured conversations with an adult in response to the written texts that are read aloud. Children in the upper elementary grades will generally be expected to read these texts independently and reflect on them in writing. rest)  My Amazing Body: A First Look at Health & Fitness by Pat Thomas (2001)  Get Up and Go! by Nancy Carlson (2008)  Go Wash Up by Doering Tourville (2008)  Sleep by Paul Showers (1997)  Fuel the Body by Doering Tourville (2008) 1 Introduction to the systems of the human body and associated body parts  Under Your Skin: Your Amazing Body by Mick Manning (2007)  Me and My Amazing Body by Joan Sweeney (1999)  The Human Body by Gallimard Jeunesse (2007)  The Busy Body Book by Lizzy Rockwell (2008)  First Encyclopedia of the Human Body by Fiona Chandler (2004) Taking care of your body: Germs. exercise. However. K The five senses and associated body parts  My Five Senses by Aliki (1989)  Hearing by Maria Rius (1985)  Sight by Maria Rius (1985)  Smell by Maria Rius (1985)  Taste by Maria Rius (1985)  Touch by Maria Rius (1985) Taking care of your body: Overview (hygiene. Preparation for reading complex informational texts should begin at the very earliest elementary school grades. age-appropriate content knowledge and vocabulary in history/social studies. children in the early grades (particularly K–2) should participate in rich. Exemplar Texts on a Topic Across Grades The Human Body Students can begin learning about the human body starting in kindergarten and then review and extend their learning during each subsequent grade. diseases. Johnson (2006)  The Digestive System by Kristin Petrie (2007) Taking care of your body: Healthy eating and nutrition  Good Enough to Eat by Lizzy Rockwell (1999)  Showdown at the Food Pyramid by Rex Barron (2004) Muscular. there should be an adequate number of titles on a single topic that would allow children to study that topic for a sustained period. Having students listen to informational read-alouds in the early grades helps lay the necessary foundation for students’ reading and understanding of increasingly complex texts on their own in subsequent grades. Within a grade level.

  Standards for English Language Arts 6–12 .

5. including how specific sentences. *Please see “Research to Build Knowledge” in Writing and “Comprehension and Collaboration” in Speaking and Listening for additional standards relevant to gathering. including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. chapter. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. and the timeless dramas of Shakespeare. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media. scene. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. as well as in words. Analyze the structure of texts. Along with high-quality contemporary works. these texts should be chosen from among seminal U. Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 45 .* 8. and larger portions of the text (e. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Analyze how and why individuals. and the capacity to surmount the challenges posed by complex 1. summarize the key supporting details and ideas. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development. reflect upon. paragraphs.S.  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. documents. arguments. 2. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. 3. and figurative meanings. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text.g. students gain a reservoir of literary and cultural knowledge. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. the classics of American literature. connotative. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it. and images. 6. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. Respond to literature by employing knowledge of literary language. or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. and forms to read and comprehend.. assessing. including determining technical. and centuries. events. and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. Through wide and deep reading of literature and literary nonfiction of steadily increasing sophistication. textual features. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. references. students must grapple with works of exceptional craft and thought whose range extends across genres. 9. cultures. Key Ideas and Details Note on range and content of student reading To become college and career ready. and applying information from print and digital sources. Craft and Structure 4. a section. including visually and quantitatively. Such works offer profound insights into the human condition and serve as models for students’ own thinking and writing. Responding to Literature 11. and interpret literary texts from a variety of genres and a wide spectrum of American and world cultures. the ability to evaluate intricate texts.

Compare and contrast the experience of reading a story. analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. setting. Explain how an author develops the point of view of the 6. a. and other genres by authors who represent diverse world cultures. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story 4.g. or poem to its audio. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. including contrasting what they “see” and “hear” when reading the text to what they perceive when they listen or watch. created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor. 4. color. Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script. development over the course of the text. analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. or multimedia version. short stories. or drama propel the action. or plot. Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style. or stanza fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the theme. poems. provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. drama. sound. narrator or speaker in a text. 5. 6. or poems by authors who represent diverse world cultures. staged. 5.g. 7. (Not applicable to literature) 8. filmed. Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.. Analyze stories.. and plot.. Explain how an author’s geographic location or culture affects his or her perspective.  Reading Standards for Literature 6–12 [RL] The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. or provoke a decision. alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. development over the course of the text. Analyze how a particular sentence. 3. 5. analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e. scene. reveal aspects of a character.. and the audience or reader (e. 2.g.g. Describe how a particular story’s or drama’s plot unfolds in 3. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its 2. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. a. soliloquy. Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters view of different characters or narrators in a text. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. 8. or camera focus and angles in a film). Compare and contrast a written story. (Not applicable to literature) 8. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. including figurative and connotative meanings. or poem to listening to or viewing an audio. 4. Analyze full-length novels. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. analyzing the effects of techniques unique to each medium (e. video. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of 1. 2. including figurative and connotative meanings. 7. evaluating the choices made by the director or actors. Grade 6 students: Key Ideas and Details Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students: 1. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its 3. (Not applicable to literature) Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 46 . how setting shapes the characters or plot). provide an objective summary of the text. lighting.. analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone. including figurative and connotative meanings. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. drama. provide an objective summary of the text.g. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Craft and Structure interact (e. setting. drama. or live version of the text. 1. a. including its relationship to the characters. Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of 6. chapter. sonnet) contributes to its meaning. Analyze how particular elements of a story or drama a series of episodes as well as how the characters respond or change as the plot moves toward a resolution. including analogies or allusions to other texts.

traditional stories. Recognize. personal events. at the high end of grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. and poems. personal events. 10. a. By the end of the year. ideas. stories and poems. artistically and ethically by making connections to: other texts. select.  Reading Standards for Literature 6–12 Grade 6 students: Integration of Knowledge and Ideas [RL] Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students: 9. Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 47 . Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes. personal events. Use established criteria to classify. Responding to Literature 11. select. b. or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history. interpret. eras. Interpret. read and comprehend literature. b. Self-select text based on personal preferences. cultural perspectives. read and comprehend literature. b. Recognize. 10. a. and evaluate texts to make informed judgments about the quality of the pieces. including stories. Responding to Literature 11. and drama. analyze. in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently. and evaluate texts to make informed judgments about the quality of the pieces. and situations. place.g. select. including stories. read and comprehend literature.. and situations. and poems. and make connections in narratives. or character types from myths. and make connections in narratives. and poems. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. including describing how the material is rendered new. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. dramas. By the end of the year. cultural perspectives. Self-select text to develop personal preferences. Use established criteria to classify. Self-select text based on personal preferences. and evaluate narratives. historical novels and fantasy stories) in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics. Establish and use criteria to classify. a. ethically and artistically to other texts. Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time. eras. Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres (e. ideas. interpret. Responding to Literature 11. dramas. and situations. including stories. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. poetry. and evaluate texts to make informed judgments about the quality of the pieces. 9. By the end of the year. cultural perspectives. and drama. poetry. ethically and artistically to other texts. dramas. in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently. poetry. ideas. and drama. eras. or religious works such as the Bible. patterns of events. 9.

Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work (e. satire.. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. dramas. 6. drama.g. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text.. irony.. (Include Shakespeare as well as other authors. Analyze how complex characters (e. interact with other characters. and poems. 1. read and comprehend literature. how the language evokes a sense of time and place. 10. nineteenth. in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently. Grades 9–10 students: Key Ideas and Details Grades 11–12 students: 1.) 5. how it sets a formal or informal tone).g. including how they interact and build on one another to produce a complex account. outside the United States.and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature. how the action is ordered. or understatement). evaluating how each version interprets the source text.g. the choice to provide a comedic or tragic resolution) contribute to its overall structure and meaning as well as its aesthetic impact. including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics. including figurative and connotative meanings. Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-.. 8. read and comprehend literature. where a story is set. (Include at least one play by Shakespeare and one play by an American dramatist. Analyze a case in which grasping point of view requires distinguishing what is directly stated in 7.g. dramas. a. analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e. in 10. order events within it 6. including figurative and connotative meanings. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure specific parts of a text (e.. how the characters are introduced and developed). including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.  Reading Standards for Literature 6–12 [RL] The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards. provide an objective summary of the text. By the end of grade 11. and poems. Analyze how an author’s choices concerning how to structure a text. or surprise. dramas. 2. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in the text. over the course of a text. 8. and poems.. Auden’s “Musée des Beaux Arts” and Breughel’s Landscape with the Fall of Icarus). at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. Analyze multiple interpretations of full-length works by authors who represent diverse world cultures. (e.. 4.) a. or poem (e. or beautiful.g. including stories.g.g. how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare). analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone. provide an objective summary of the text. the latter providing additional specificity. the choice of where to begin or end a story. and poems.. including what is emphasized or absent in each treatment (e. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. read and comprehend literature. 48 Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 . drawing on a wide reading of world literature. including stories. Analyze a particular point of view or cultural experience reflected in a work of literature from Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 5. 2. sarcasm. 4. (Not applicable to literature) 9. at the high end of the grades 11–CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. dramas. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 7. By the end of grade 10. and advance the plot or develop the theme. including stories. (Not applicable to literature) 9. pacing. Analyze the representation of a subject or a key scene in two different artistic mediums. including words with multiple meanings or language that is particularly fresh. including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details. those with multiple or conflicting motivations) develop Craft and Structure 3.. engaging. and manipulate time (e. Analyze multiple interpretations of a story. 3. the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently. Analyze the impact of the author’s choices regarding how to develop and relate elements of a story or drama (e. parallel plots). flashbacks) create such effects as mystery.. Determine two or more themes or central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text. tension. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. including stories. Analyze works by authors or artists who represent diverse world cultures. recorded or live production of a play or recorded novel or poetry).g. By the end of grade 12. By the end of grade 9. read and comprehend literature.g.g. a text from what is really meant (e.

and drama. Establish and use criteria to classify. personal events. and situations. ideas. and evaluate narratives. aesthetically and philosophically by making connections to: other texts. a. cultural perspectives. select. eras. Interpret. cultural perspectives. aesthetically and ethically by making connections to: other texts. Self-select text to respond and develop innovative perspectives. and evaluate narratives. personal events and situations. and drama.  Grades 9–10 students: Responding to Literature 11. analyze. poetry. eras. Grades 11–12 students: Responding to Literature 11. b. Establish and use criteria to classify. Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 49 . Self-select text to respond and develop innovative perspectives. poetry. ideas. a. and evaluate texts to make informed judgments about the quality of the pieces. and evaluate texts to make informed judgments about the quality of the pieces. b. Interpret. analyze. select.

and technical meanings. their development over the course of the text. 5.. 9. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development 3. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an 1. or categories). a. over the course of the text. quantitatively) as well as in words to develop a coherent understanding of a topic or issue. connotative. to think analytically. to think analytically. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and 7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e. provide an objective summary of the text. including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to the development of the ideas. connotative. and technical meanings. 5. and technical meanings. paragraph. recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.  Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–12 Grade 6 students: Key Ideas and Details [RI] Grade 7 students: 1. including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept. including figurative. Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis Grade 8 students: 1. 7. and advocate persuasively. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic. analyze the impact of a specific word choice on meaning and tone. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. or events (e. provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. through examples or anecdotes). including figurative. visually. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 5. between individuals. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text. text.g. address problems creatively.. 8. introduced. 2. how ideas influence individuals or events. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. ideas in a text (e. as well as culture. event. provide an objective summary of the text. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions 3.. illustrated. connotative. to think analytically. Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. a memoir written by and a biography on the same person). as well as culture. including its relationship to supporting ideas. how the delivery of a speech affects the impact of the words). Integrate information presented in different media or formats (e. and 3. 6. or how individuals influence ideas or events). Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 50 . Compare and contrast a text to an audio. Compare and contrast one author’s presentation of events with that of another (e. 9.. video.. address problems creatively. multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea. 9. 7. including figurative. a. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic. events. video. analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Determine a central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.. 2. print or digital text. Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a 8.. Determine two or more central ideas in a text and analyze 2. Analyze in detail how a key individual. analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. analogies. address problems creatively. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text 6.g.g. analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints. and advocate persuasively. or multimedia version of the text. of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. including analogies or allusions to other texts. Analyze how a particular sentence. or section fits into the overall structure of a text and contributes to the development of the ideas. assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims. a. through comparisons. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text. and explain how it is conveyed in the text. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not.g. 6. Analyze how two or more authors writing about the same topic shape their presentations of key information by emphasizing different evidence or advancing different interpretations of facts. and advocate persuasively. 8. assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient.g. chapter. and elaborated in a text (e.g. analyzing each medium’s portrayal of the subject (e. 4.g. ideas. Analyze the interactions between individuals. 4. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author distinguishes his or her position from that of others. as well as culture. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic. or idea is Craft and Structure 4.

By the end of the year. read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently. Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 51 . By the end of the year. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. read and comprehend literary 10. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of the year. read and comprehend literary Grade 8 students: 10.  Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–12 Grade 6 students: Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity [RI] Grade 7 students: 10. nonfiction in the grades 6–8 text complexity band proficiently. nonfiction at the high end of the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

  Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–12 Grades 9–10 students: Key Ideas and Details [RI] The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards. in U. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats 8. provide an objective summary of the text. Develop factual. 2.g.. 7.g. including how they address related themes and concepts. Grades 11–12 students: 1. constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning (e. a. interpretive. Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U. texts. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of 3. Analyze how the author unfolds an analysis or series of ideas or events. paragraphs. including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details. sentences. including the order Craft and Structure in which the points are made. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. convincing. analyze how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term or terms over the course of a text (e. or larger portions of a text (e. and rhetorical features. including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain. quantitatively) as well as in words in order to address a question or solve a problem. 10). 9. documents of historical and literary significance (e. the Preamble to the Constitution.S. Roosevelt’s Four Freedoms speech. 5. and analyze informational texts on topics related to diverse and nontraditional cultures and viewpoints. and evaluative questions for further exploration of the topic(s). 3. 2. identify false statements and fallacious reasoning. determining which details are emphasized in each account. including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how an author uses Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 5. and arguments in works of public advocacy (e. a person’s life story in both print and multimedia). including figurative. documents of Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 52 .. analyzing how style and content contribute to the power. the Bill of Rights. including whether the structure makes points clear. and Lincoln’s Second Inaugural Address) for their themes. 6. or events interact and develop over the course of the text.. Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument. Analyze various accounts of a subject told in different mediums (e. analyze the cumulative impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone (e. 4. purposes. how they are introduced and developed. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text.g. 9. persuasiveness. a. how the language of a court opinion differs from that of a newspaper).S. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. and the connections that are drawn between them. rhetoric to advance that point of view or purpose.. a.S. and analyze informational texts on topics related to diverse and non-traditional cultures and viewpoints. eighteenth-..g. annotate. the text. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text.g. King’s “Letter from Birmingham Jail”). including the application of (e. Develop factual. including figurative. Supreme Court majority opinions and dissents) and the premises. and technical meanings.g. annotate. connotative. presidential addresses). The Federalist. historical and literary significance (including The Declaration of Independence. the latter providing additional specificity. 4. a.g. well as inferences drawn from the text. and technical meanings. and nineteenth-century foundational U.. provide an objective summary of the text. purposes. 8. Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as 1. interpretive. assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient. Analyze a complex set of ideas or sequence of events and explain how specific individuals.g. visually. Washington’s Farewell Address. how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. and evaluative questions for further exploration of the topic(s).. the Gettysburg Address. or beauty of the text. connotative.. Read. Analyze seminal U. Analyze seventeenth-. Analyze in detail how an author’s ideas or claims are developed and refined by particular 6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text in which the rhetoric is particularly effective. Read.S. ideas. 7. a section or chapter). and engaging.

read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11–CCR text complexity band proficiently. read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11– CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. By the end of grade 10. 10. Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 53 . By the end of grade 9. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.  Grades 9–10 students: Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity Grades 11–12 students: 10. with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9–10 text complexity band proficiently. By the end of grade 11. read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. By the end of grade 12.

Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. and felt.ready writers. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. textual. reporting findings from their research and analysis of sources in a clear and cogent manner. rewriting. They information. employing a variety of media and genres. imagined. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. 2. demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Use technology. cultural. They need to know how to combine elements of different kinds of writing—for example. To be college. or trying a new approach. and collaborating on writing. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks. Develop personal. organization. Range of Writing 10. and audience. thought. and audience into careful consideration. to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. They must have the flexibility. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types. and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. reflection. information. Responding to Literature 11. reflection. and conveying what they have experienced. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources. including the Internet. choosing words. purpose. *These broad types of writing include many subgenres. and audiences. editing. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. purpose. well-chosen details. students must take task. Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 54 . and analysis of content. evaluating sources. structures. and research. 3. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis. digital. using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. 5. 9. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research. concentration. to use narrative strategies within argument and explanation within narrative—to produce complex and nuanced writing. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts. purposes. and citing material accurately. writing is a key means of asserting and defending claims. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions. 6. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. organization. and formats deliberately. and style are appropriate to task. showing what they know about a subject. Text Types and Purposes* Note on range and content of student writing For students. gathering refining. revising. and fluency to produce high-quality first-draft text under a tight deadline as well as the capacity to revisit and make improvements to a piece of writing over multiple drafts when circumstances encourage or require it. and thematic connections within and across genres as they respond to texts through written. 1. 8. and well-structured event sequences. They need to be able to use technology have to strategically become adept when at creating.  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. and oral presentations.and career.

organization. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. Develop the topic with relevant facts. headings). and analysis of relevant content.. students should demonstrate increasing sophistication in all aspects of language use.g. concepts. and analysis of relevant content. quotations. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. using strategies such as definition. include formatting (e. comparison/contrast. using strategies such as definition.g. Use words. and analysis of relevant content. Use words. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas. Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 55 . Develop the topic with relevant facts. convey ideas.. and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s). reasons. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. and information into broader categories. counterclaims. c. classification. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. Develop the topic with relevant. The expected growth in student writing ability is reflected both in the standards themselves and in the collection of annotated student writing samples in Appendix C.g. and cause/effect. relevant evidence. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. acknowledge alternate or opposing claims. Introduce claim(s) and organize the reasons and evidence clearly. and they should address increasingly demanding content and sources. Establish and maintain a formal style. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and 2. Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. organization.. concrete details. Use appropriate transitions to clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. and cause/effect. charts. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.. Introduce a topic. Support claim(s) with clear reasons and relevant evidence. c. Grade 6 students: Text Types and Purposes Grade 7 students: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and 1. concepts. charts. b. concepts. and evidence. e. phrases. well-chosen facts. Establish and maintain a formal style.g.g. concepts. acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims. e. from vocabulary and syntax to the development and organization of ideas. a..g. d. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the argument presented. c. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. quotations. a. or other information and examples. d. and evidence. Establish and maintain a formal style. a. charts. definitions. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence. Introduce claim(s). f. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and 1. tables). c. c. phrases. 1. e. organization. and clauses to clarify the relationships among claim(s) and reasons. credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. include formatting (e. Establish and maintain a formal style. and information through the selection. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and 2. organize ideas. and information. b. e. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. comparison/contrast. b. definitions. using accurate. a.. f. Establish and maintain a formal style. d. f. quotations. graphics (e. d. organize ideas. b. and organize the reasons and evidence logically. concrete details. a. concepts.  Writing Standards 6–12 [W] The following standards for grades 6–12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. d. Introduce a topic clearly. Introduce claim(s). or other information and examples. Introduce a topic clearly. definitions. e. Each year in their writing. previewing what is to follow. and organize the reasons and evidence logically. using credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. Use words. classification. concepts. and information through the selection. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. 2. headings). phrases. and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s). and information through the selection. Grade 8 students: Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence. convey ideas. using accurate. graphics (e. previewing what is to follow. or other information and examples. c. relevant evidence. tables). a. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from the information or explanation presented. b. headings). b. concrete details. d. and information. organize ideas. tables). Use appropriate transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. reasons. credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text. graphics (e. include formatting (e.

Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. such as dialogue. 5. including the Internet. and/or characters. and style are appropriate to task. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 6 on page 66. 6.) a. and clauses to convey sequence. events using effective technique. relevant descriptive details. such as dialogue. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. revising. events using effective technique. Use technology. events. such as dialogue. a. signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. Produce text (print or nonprint) that explores a variety of cultures and perspectives. e. and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. and sensory language to convey experiences and events. focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or Grade 8 students: 3. purpose. Use narrative techniques. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. Use precise words and phrases. relevant descriptive details. c. organization. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or 3. and description. organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. a.) publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others. and show the relationships among experiences and events. rewriting. Use narrative techniques. and well-structured event sequences. Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.) a. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 8 on page 66.) 4. to produce and 6. relevant descriptive details. and well-structured event sequences. c. including the Internet. revising. or trying a new approach. phrases. or trying a new approach. and reflection.  Writing Standards 6–12 Grade 6 students: Text Types and Purposes (continued) [W] Grade 7 students: 3. and/or characters. revising. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters. events. including linking to and citing sources. editing. 6. and style are appropriate to task. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. organization. rewriting. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 7 on page 66. and style are appropriate to task. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. d. and well-structured event sequences. to develop experiences. relevant descriptive details. and audience. e. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. including the Internet. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. description. pacing. With some guidance and support from peers and adults. and clauses to convey sequence and signal shifts from one time frame or setting to another. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. purpose. to develop experiences. editing. Use technology. purpose. Use narrative techniques. organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. and/or characters. Use a variety of transition words. Use precise words and phrases. With some guidance and support from peers and adults. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and point of view and introducing a narrator and/or characters. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. With some guidance and support from peers and adults. e. Use precise words and phrases. and audience. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on the narrated experiences or events. organization. Produce text (print or nonprint) that explores a variety of cultures and perspectives. to produce and publish writing as well as to interact and collaborate with others.) publish writing and link to and cite sources as well as to interact and collaborate with others. b. and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. d. 4. and description. or trying a new approach. events. and audience. phrases. relevant descriptive details. 5. a.) a. rewriting. Produce text (print or nonprint) that explores a variety of cultures and perspectives. demonstrate sufficient command of keyboarding skills to type a minimum of three pages in a single sitting. Use technology. 5. focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. phrases. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique. Use a variety of transition words. relevant descriptive details. pacing. Use a variety of transition words. to develop experiences. pacing. Engage and orient the reader by establishing a context and introducing a narrator and/or characters. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally and logically. b. and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events. b. c. to produce and Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 56 . d. editing.

Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis. reflection. distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not”).  Writing Standards 6–12 Grade 6 students: Research to Build and Present Knowledge [W] Grade 7 students: 7. and research. c. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research. and thematic connections across genres. or text in response to a literary work with a commentary that identifies connections and explains divergences from the original.. historical novels and fantasy stories] in terms of their approaches to similar themes and topics”). reflection. drawing on several sources and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate. and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. a. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e. plays. Responding to Literature 11. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks. 10. place. (including a self-generated question). including describing how the material is rendered new”). 10.g. a. “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. b.. “Compare and contrast texts in different forms or genres [e. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital 9. stories. art work). Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literature (e.g. art work). plays.. drawing on several sources and generating additional related. a. reflection. drawing on several sources and generating additional related. reflection. Apply grade 6 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e. Range of Writing research. b. art work). art work. and other literary forms (e. a. videos. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for 10. and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and providing basic bibliographic information for sources. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks. textual. 8. Conduct short research projects to answer a question. videos. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source. Develop a perspective or theme supported by relevant details. 9. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources. Recognize and illustrate social. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis. Make well-supported personal. Create a presentation. traditional stories. Create poetry. 8. and audiences. and audiences. and research. plays. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis. and other literary forms (e. or text in response to a literary work with a commentary that identifies connections. b. recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”). or character types from myths. sources. “Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes. and thematic connections across genres. or religious works such as the Bible. Create poetry..g. Grade 8 students: 7. reflection. focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. Make deliberate. a. a. patterns of events. personal. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literature (e. Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literature (e. assess the credibility of each source. art work. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources. focused questions for further research and investigation. assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient. 8. cultural. “Compare and contrast a fictional portrayal of a time. cultural. stories. purposes. 9.g.. Responding to Literature 111. Apply grade 7 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e. and audiences. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. Conduct short research projects to answer a question 7. b. Conduct short research projects to answer a question.g.g. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source.g. Create and present a text or art work in response to a literary work. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of disciplinespecific tasks. Create poetry.g. historical. Standards for English Language Arts | 6–12 57 . and cultural features in the presentation of literary texts.g. stories and poems.. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research. purposes. and other literary forms (e. Responding to Literature 11. assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient to support the claims”). purposes. and research. and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. textual. “Trace and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. or character and a historical account of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history”). stories. b. videos.g. b. Create a presentation. using search terms effectively. reflection. using search terms effectively.

2. supplying evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns. Use appropriate and varied transitions to link the major sections of the text. b. and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection. tables). Explore and inquire into areas of interest to formulate an argument. Explore and inquire into areas of interest to formulate an argument.. and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. create cohesion. and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text. Use appropriate and varied transitions and syntax to link the major sections of the text.g. include formatting (e. graphics (e. or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.  Writing Standards 6–12 [W] The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards. or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic. 2. and sufficient facts. supplying the most relevant evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level. reasons.. and between claim(s) and counterclaims. d. and techniques such as metaphor. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. a. and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. d. and evidence. and create an organization that logically sequences claim(s). c. and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons. concepts.. e. f. and clauses to link the major sections of the text. a. a.g. create cohesion. Introduce precise claim(s). and evidence. knowledgeable claim(s). e. d. counterclaims. tables). c. between reasons and evidence. concepts. and analysis of content. c. phrases. articulating implications or the significance of the topic). e. simile. distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims. values. f. quotations. and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among claim(s). e. d. and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons. establish the significance of the claim(s). and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. create cohesion. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. organize complex ideas. counterclaims. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.. figures. using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. Use words. Introduce a topic. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.g.g. and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic. extended definitions. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts. concepts. concrete details. a. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas. Grades 9–10 students: Text Types and Purposes Grades 11–12 students: 1. Use precise language. Introduce a topic. extended definitions. create cohesion. distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas. the latter providing additional specificity. headings). c. concerns. headings). Introduce precise. b. include formatting (e. and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole. information clearly and accurately through the effective selection. b. and between claim(s) and counterclaims. figures. and analysis of content. concepts. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e. using valid 1.g. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. domain-specific vocabulary. concrete details. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts. quotations. graphics (e. b.g. articulating implications or the significance of the topic). and Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 58 .. organization. relevant. organization. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly.. and information to make important connections and distinctions. between reasons and evidence. and possible biases. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic. organize complex ideas. Use words. reasons. Develop the topic with well-chosen. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts. reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. phrases.

to develop experiences. growth. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 9–10 on page 68. Use precise words and phrases. and update individual or shared writing products. including the Internet. situation. 3. to produce. or resolved over the course of the narrative. Explore topics dealing with different cultures and world viewpoints. focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. and well-structured event sequences. and audience.  c. 8. such as dialogue. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences. narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate. e. or observation and its significance. and sensory language to convey a vivid picture of the experiences. telling details.  e. synthesize multiple sources on the subject. assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the task. purpose. to develop experiences.   f. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. and multiple plot lines. purpose. synthesize multiple sources on the subject. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique. and style are appropriate to task. and audience. suspense. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a 7.  d. Use technology. integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas.) 5. Use narrative techniques. using advanced searches effectively. observed. and style are appropriate to task. Use technology. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. and introducing a narrator and/or characters. reflection. and/or characters. revising. setting. telling details. create a smooth progression of experiences or events. f. narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate. observed. Adapt voice. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem. and/or characters. Use narrative techniques. awareness of audience.g. integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas. or trying 5. a sense of mystery. or resolved over the course of the narrative.) 4.   Production and Distribution of Writing 4. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced. 59 Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 . events. and well-structured event sequences. revising. Explore topics dealing with different cultures and world viewpoints. 8. a. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. publish. 6. to produce. Engage and orient the reader by setting out a problem. b. events. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole. editing. well-chosen details. and use of language to accommodate a variety of cultural contexts. publish. and introducing a narrator and/or characters. a. create a smooth progression of experiences or events. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grades 11–12 on page 68. and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback. organization. description. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. purpose. Use a variety of techniques to sequence events so that they build on one another to create a coherent whole and build toward a particular tone and outcome (e. assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question. including new arguments or information. reflection. editing. avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique. Adapt voice. or trying 6. and audience.  Writing Standards 6–12 Grades 9–10 students: Text Types and Purposes (continued) [W] Grades 11–12 students: 3. demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. pacing. a. focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. and/or characters.  b. events. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources. events. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above. Provide a conclusion that follows from and reflects on what is experienced.) a new approach. a. Use precise words and phrases. establishing one or multiple point(s) of view. description. setting. and/or characters. or resolution). pacing. avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. or observation. rewriting. d. and use of language to accommodate a variety of cultural contexts. organization. demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. and multiple plot lines. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. awareness of audience. establishing one or multiple point(s) of view.) a new approach. self-generated question) or solve a problem. including the Internet. c. situation. rewriting. such as dialogue. using advanced searches effectively. well-chosen details. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources.

and audiences. 10.. and ambiguity. to express personal.g. and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks. and other literary forms (e. videos. and other literary forms (e. including historical b. cultural. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e. and psychological contexts. Create poetry. analyze.. Create interpretive and responsive texts to demonstrate knowledge and a sophisticated of recognized literary merit.. a. irony. “Delineate and evaluate the reasoning in seminal U. videos. assessing whether the reasoning is valid and the evidence is relevant and sufficient. sociological. including the application of constitutional principles and use of legal reasoning [e.. Develop critical and interpretive texts from more than one perspective.. including how two or more texts from the same period treat similar themes or topics”). such as visual representations and the representations. analyze. b. d. reflection. art work). Engage in using a wide range of prewriting strategies. Supreme Court Case majority opinions and dissents] and the premises. 9. such as using a variety of visual a. Responding to Literature Responding to Literature 11. a. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research. social and cultural b. to express personal. to affect meaning. c. texts. b.  Writing Standards 6–12 Grades 9–10 students: Research to Build and Present Knowledge (continued) [W] Grades 11–12 students: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literature (e.. reflection. reflection. stream of consciousness. d. c. Develop innovative perspectives on texts. art work). connections and insights. identify false statements and fallacious reasoning”). Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis. Apply grades 11–12 Reading standards to literature (e.g. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks. and research. how Shakespeare treats a theme or topic from Ovid or the Bible or how a later author draws on a play by Shakespeare]”). social. and 9. Create poetry. in U. Apply grades 9–10 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e. Identify. such as and cultural. audiences. and revision) and Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 60 . “Demonstrate knowledge of eighteenth-. research.S. “Analyze how an author draws on and transforms source material in a specific work [e.g. “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text. purposes.and early-twentieth-century foundational works of American literature. purposes. Engage in a wide range of prewriting experiences. creation of factual and interpretive questions.S. Create literary texts that demonstrate knowledge and understanding of a wide variety of texts 11. Identify. plays.g. and cultural connections and insights. plays. nineteenth.g. The Federalist. including historical. presidential addresses]”). understanding of the connections between life and the literary work.g. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research. and use elements and techniques of various genres of literature.g. allegory.g. and arguments in works of public advocacy [e. purposes. and use elements and techniques of various genres of literature.. Range of Writing 10. stories. reflection. stories. a.g.

and audience. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. creating a new urgency for students to be adaptable in response to change. students must have ample opportunities to take part in a variety of rich. development. Comprehension and Collaboration Note on range and content of student speaking and listening To become college and career ready. and to analyze and synthesize a multitude of ideas in accordance with the standards of evidence appropriate to a particular discipline. and style are appropriate to task. Present information. Technology itself is changing quickly. The Internet has accelerated the speed at which connections between speaking. Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats. New technologies have broadened and expanded the role that speaking and listening play in acquiring and sharing knowledge and have tightened their link to other forms of communication. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. findings. Whatever their intended major or profession. 3. They must be able to contribute appropriately to these conversations. and with a partner—built around important content in various domains. and writing can be made. 1. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. and use of evidence and rhetoric. high school graduates will depend heavily on their ability to listen attentively to others so that they are able to build on others’ meritorious ideas while expressing their own clearly and persuasively. 5. including visually. purpose. 6. Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 61 . reading. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. to make comparisons and contrasts. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations. Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners. requiring that students be ready to use these modalities nearly simultaneously. 2. structured conversations—as part of a whole class.  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. and orally. reasoning. and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization. listening. in small groups. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks. quantitatively. demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.

Present claims and findings. track progress toward specific goals and deadlines. e. d. Present claims and findings. 2. Pose and respond to specific questions with elaboration and detail by making comments that contribute to the topic. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. 4. in groups. or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. commercial. address problems creatively. orally) and explain how it contributes to a topic. or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.. in groups. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse 3. text. visually. and well-chosen details. a. and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics.  Speaking and Listening Standards 6–12 [SL] The following standards for grades 6–12 offer a focus for instruction in each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications. as well as culture. Come to discussions prepared. Seek to understand other perspectives and cultures and communicate effectively with audiences or individuals from varied backgrounds. or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion. explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic. text. c. a. and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 6 topics. coherent manner with relevant evidence. Come to discussions prepared. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims. when warranted. b. Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 . Acknowledge new information expressed by others and. and issues. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims. distinguishing claims that are supported by reasons and evidence from claims that are not. quantitatively. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one. Present claims and findings. and define individual roles as needed. quantitatively. 1. facts. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (oneon-one. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly. e. and advocate persuasively the soundness of the reasoning and the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. Pose questions that elicit elaboration and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant observations and ideas that bring the discussion back on topic as needed. or issue under study. text. Seek to understand other perspectives and cultures and communicate effectively with audiences or individuals from varied backgrounds. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic. and details to accentuate main ideas or themes. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic. Seek to understand and communicate with individuals from different perspectives and cultural backgrounds. sound valid reasoning. track progress toward specific goals and deadlines. Analyze the main ideas and supporting details presented in 2.g. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one. to think analytically. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. 3. a. evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced. and issues. political) behind its presentation. explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic. d. and define individual roles as needed. and. adequate volume. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decisionmaking. modify their own views.1. a.. d. Use their experience and their knowledge of language and logic. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.g. as well as culture. and examples. having read or researched material under study. set specific goals and deadlines. Interpret information presented in diverse media and formats (e. b. orally) and evaluate the motives (e. sequencing ideas logically and using pertinent descriptions. use appropriate eye contact. having read or researched material under study. texts. evaluating 3. and ideas. or issue under discussion. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence.. and issues. use appropriate eye contact. to think analytically. or issue under study. c. a. texts. diverse media and formats (e. and clear pronunciation. c. visually. and define individual roles as needed. and clear pronunciation. and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 7 topics. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 4. quantitatively. 4. adequate volume.g.g. to think analytically. and advocate persuasively 2. facts. 62 5. text. a. coherent manner with pertinent descriptions. adequate volume. Follow rules for collegial discussions. e. having read or studied required material. address problems creatively. on-one. as well as culture. in groups. observations. Acknowledge new information expressed by others. b. media and formats (e. and advocate persuasively. Come to discussions prepared. when warranted. text. use appropriate eye contact. emphasizing salient points in a focused. emphasizing salient points in a focused. qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented. Grade 6 students: Grade 7 students: Grade 8 students: Comprehension and Collaboration 1. visually. Review the key ideas expressed and demonstrate understanding of multiple perspectives through reflection and paraphrasing. texts. address problems creatively. details. explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic. orally) and explain how the ideas clarify a topic. text.. social. and clear pronunciation. Follow rules for collegial discussions.

  Grade 6 students: 5.. demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 7 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 66 for specific expectations. graphics. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks. images. Include multimedia components (e. sound) and visual displays in presentations to clarify information. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information. 6.g. 6. strengthen claims and evidence. demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.) 6.) Grade 8 students: 5. demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 66 for specific expectations. (See grade 6 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 66 for specific expectations.) Grade 7 students: 5. Include multimedia components and visual displays in presentations to clarify claims and findings and emphasize salient points. Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 63 . music. and add interest.

premises. when warranted. Present information. audio. visual. and. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e. or challenge ideas and conclusions. orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas. in 1. and a range of formal and informal tasks. informal consensus. a. or challenge ideas and conclusions. well-reasoned exchange of ideas. texts. quantitatively. visually. Make strategic use of digital media (e. actively incorporate others into the discussion. conveying a clear and distinct perspective. concisely. quantitatively. verify. graphical. and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings. (See grades 11–12 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 68 for specific expectations. and evidence and to add interest. having read and researched material under study. clarify. Come to discussions prepared. textual. development. such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning. audience. qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented. a. findings.. and evidence and to add interest. demonstrating a command of formal English Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 . and supporting evidence. e. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view. visual.. e. and use of evidence and rhetoric. having read and researched material under study. synthesize comments.g. visually. summarize points of agreement and disagreement. and supporting evidence clearly. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks. Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e. and individual roles as needed. texts. 2. Present information. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives. and clarify. explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful.  Speaking and Listening Standards 6–12 [SL] The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e. elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings. d. word choice. when indicated or appropriate. and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 11–12 topics. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.) 64 5.. 6. ensure a hearing for a full range of positions on a topic or issue. and the organization. resolve contradictions when possible. and evidence made on all sides of an issue. and style are appropriate to purpose.. 2. orally) in order to make informed decisions and solve problems. c. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one. audience. links among ideas. and issues. and interactive 6. textual. and promote divergent and creative perspectives. explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful. b. c. reasoning. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. stance. (See grades 9–10 Language standards 1 and 3 on pages 68 for specific expectations. verify.g. reasoning. and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas 3. Make strategic use of digital media (e. and establish individual roles as needed.) 4. reasoning. alternative or opposing perspectives are addressed. and tone used. and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization.g. democratic discussions and decision-making. the latter providing additional specificity. assessing the 4. clear goals and deadlines. and use of evidence and rhetoric. presentation of alternate views). d. substance. taking votes on key issues. demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. audio.  3. Evaluate a speaker’s point of view. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that probe reasoning and evidence. Come to discussions prepared.g. well-reasoned exchange of ideas. Work with peers to promote civil. Seek to understand other perspectives and cultures and communicate effectively with audiences or individuals from varied backgrounds. in groups. Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one. groups. graphical. substance. 5. Grades 9–10 students: Comprehension and Collaboration Grades 11–12 students: 1. reasoning. development.g. Seek to understand other perspectives and cultures and communicate effectively with audiences or individuals from varied backgrounds. and style are appropriate to purpose. points of emphasis. and determine what additional information or research is required to deepen the investigation or complete the task.. evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source and noting any discrepancies among the data. and task. findings. set clear goals and deadlines. building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively. claims. identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. and issues. b.

  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade. Note on range and content of student language use To be college and career ready in language. syntax. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions. as appropriate. 5. and punctuation to express themselves and achieve particular functions and rhetorical effects. students must have firm control over the conventions of standard English. and spelling when writing. effective language use. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. for example. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization. speaking. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts. and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. they are inseparable from such contexts. to make effective choices for meaning or style. built through reading and study. they must come to appreciate that language is as at least as much a matter of craft as of rules and be able to choose words. choosing flexibly from an array of strategies to aid them. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. indeed. Conventions of Standard English 1. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language. 2. They must learn to see an individual word as part of a network of other words— words. They need to become skilled in determining or clarifying the meaning of words and phrases they encounter. They must also have extensive vocabularies. and vocabulary are unimportant to reading. At the same time. analyzing meaningful word parts. Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 65 . and consulting general and specialized reference materials. speaking. and listening. Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading. writing. 6. enabling them to comprehend complex texts and engage in purposeful writing about and conversations around content. and nuances in word meanings. Knowledge of Language 3. word relationships. demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. writing. that have similar denotations but different connotations. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. and listening at the college and career readiness level. punctuation.

speaking. skills and understandings that are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking are marked with an asterisk (*). and spelling when writing. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard 1. Ensure that pronouns are in the proper case (subjective. myself. possessive). ourselves). b. a.* 2. recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers. ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents). It was a fascinating. speaking. and spelling when writing. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others' writing and speaking. or listening. c.  Language Standards 6–12 [L] The following standards for grades 6–12 offer a focus for instruction each year to help ensure that students gain adequate mastery of a range of skills and applications.e.* d. Form and use verbs in the active and passive voice. Choose among simple. Spell correctly. Explain the function of phrases and clauses in general and their function in specific sentences.* e. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization. Explain the function of verbals (gerunds.. punctuation. b. d. conditional. punctuation. a. Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 66 . Use intensive pronouns (e. compound. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person. infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences. a. objective.* b.* 3. b. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence.. c. b. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing. dash) to indicate a pause or break. English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.g. Spell correctly. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing. Spell correctly. a. speaking. Vary sentence patterns for meaning. a. c. Knowledge of Language 3. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i. imperative. a. Form and use verbs in the indicative. and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language. ellipsis. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood. Use a comma to separate coordinate adjectives (e. expressing uncertainty or describing a state contrary to fact).g. punctuation. or listening..* b. emphasizing the actor or the action. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard 2. and spelling when writing. c. English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Use verbs in the active and passive voice and in the conditional and subjunctive mood to achieve particular effects (e. and subjunctive mood. reading. recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy. and style. reader/listener interest. dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades.g. 2. Maintain consistency in style and tone. and compound-complex sentences to signal differing relationships among ideas.* English capitalization. Grade 6 students: Conventions of Standard English Grade 7 students: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. Use an ellipsis to indicate an omission. a. a. interrogative. See the table on page 57 for a complete listing and Appendix A for an example of how these skills develop in sophistication. Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing. b. or listening. reading. complex. Beginning in grade 3. a. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard 1.* 3. participles.] green shirt). enjoyable movie but not He wore an old[. reading. Use punctuation (commas. Use punctuation (comma. parentheses.* Grade 8 students: 1..

Interpret figures of speech (e. cause/effect... Use the relationship between particular words (e. glossaries. word relationships. and nuances in word meanings. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language. secede). grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e. grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e. resolute). Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e. by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). unwasteful. glossaries. to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech. c. bellicose. dictionaries. part/whole. choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Use common.. diplomatic.. c.g.g. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and Grade 8 students: 4. synonym/antonym. a. and nuances in word meanings. item/category) to better understand each of the words.g. d.g. dictionaries. the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph. b. rebel). multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 7 reading and content.g. and mythological allusions) in context. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 6 reading and content.g. Use context (e.. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language. to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.. firm. dictionaries.. personification) in context. Use context (e. thesauruses). Interpret figures of speech (e. Use common. bullheaded. academic and domain-specific words and phrases.g. c. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general 6. thesauruses). a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. a.g. a. 4. gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.  Language Standards 6–12 Grade 6 students: Vocabulary Acquisition and Use [L] Grade 7 students: 4. scrimping. by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). literary.. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e. analogy) to better understand each of the words. belligerent. the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph.. to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning or its part of speech.. both print and digital.. thesauruses).g. a. willful. recede. b. puns) in context. Use context (e. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e. b. Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 67 .. d. Use common.g. 6. choosing flexibly from a range of strategies..g. condescending). thrifty). 5..g. a.g. by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).g. b. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language.g. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e. and nuances in word meanings. polite. economical. c. grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e. the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph.g... both print and digital. Use the relationship between particular words (e. b. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e. Consult reference materials (e... academic and domain-specific words and phrases.. c. word relationships. word relationships.g. verbal irony. respectful. gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.g. a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. precede. gather vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. audience. 5. 5. d. biblical. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e. b. stingy. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general 6. refined. c. both print and digital. Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e. Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiplemeaning words or phrases based on grade 8 reading and content. a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. auditory.g. audible). choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.g. a. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases. glossaries. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e. Interpret figures of speech (e. persistent.

b. Use context (e. sufficient for reading. conception. punctuation. choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.. 3. glossaries. Knowledge of Language 3. Apply the understanding that usage is a matter of convention. or its standard usage. and listening at the college and career readiness level. adverbial.g. dictionaries. verb. conceive. Spell correctly. its etymology.g. MerriamWebster’s Dictionary of English Usage. clarify its precise meaning. Resolve issues of complex or contested usage. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases. 2.. both print and digital. Use parallel structure.g. c. conceivable). by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). advocate. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. b. its part of speech. and nuances in word meanings. thesauruses). Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students: Conventions of Standard English 1. and is sometimes contested.g. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based 5. writing. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grades 9–10 reading and content. glossaries.g. word relationships.  Language Standards 6–12 [L] The CCR anchor standards and high school grade-specific standards work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards. apply an understanding of syntax to the study of complex texts when reading. paragraph. 68 Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 . Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts. the overall meaning of a sentence. analyze. or text. sufficient 6.g. or its etymology. and spelling when writing. Use a colon to introduce a list or quotation. a. prepositional. 4.g. b. hyperbole. demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression. Turabian’s Manual for Writers) appropriate for the discipline and writing type. punctuation. a. Write and edit work so that it conforms to the guidelines in a style manual (e. its part of speech. consulting references (e. noun.g. Interpret figures of speech (e. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. to make effective choices for meaning or style..g. advocacy). b. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or b. Verify the preliminary determination of the meaning of a word or phrase (e. a. a word’s a. c. oxymoron) in context and analyze their a.. b.* b. to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or thesauruses). paradox) in context and analyze their role in role in the text.... absolute) and clauses (independent. phrase important to comprehension or expression. a. the text. Vary syntax for effect.. the latter providing additional specificity. Spell correctly. analytical. Tufte’s Artful Sentences) for guidance as needed. writing or speaking. Use a semicolon (and perhaps a conjunctive adverb) to link two or more closely related independent clauses. a. the overall meaning of a sentence.g. on grades 11–12 reading and content. a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 4. Observe hyphenation conventions. can change over time.g. choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. paragraph.. a. euphemism. or text. c. parts of speech (e. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language. Use various types of phrases (noun. adjectival. analysis.. consulting references (e.g. 2. 5. Analyze nuances in the meaning of words with similar denotations. position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase. by d. relative. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization.. participial. d. Use context (e. b. Interpret figures of speech (e.. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization. a. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when 1. adverbial) to convey specific meanings and add variety and interest to writing or presentations. word relationships. a. Identify and correctly use patterns of word changes that indicate different meanings or parts of speech (e. and listening at the college and career readiness level. and nuances in word meanings. MLA Handbook. and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. speaking. to find the pronunciation of a word or determine or clarify its precise meaning. both print and digital.g. dependent. and spelling when writing. for reading. dictionaries. 6. checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary). Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts. and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e. Acquire and use accurately general academic and domain-specific words and phrases. writing. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language. to make effective choices for meaning or style. Consult general and specialized reference materials (e. Garner’s Modern American Usage) as needed. speaking..

11–12.g. L. L. L. Choose words and phrases to convey ideas precisely.9–10.3a. and style. to/too/two.3.1c.‡ L. recognizing and correcting misplaced and dangling modifiers. * Subsumed by L.6.4.3a 3 4 5 Grade(s) 6 7 8 9– 10 11– 12 Standards for English Language Arts| 6-12 69 . ones with unclear or ambiguous antecedents). recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy. Recognize and correct vague pronouns (i. Use punctuation to separate items in a series. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.† L. L. L. L.1d.1f.1e. L.4.5.8.3a.9–10.1a. parentheses. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb tense. L.2a. Correctly use frequently confused words (e.1d.  Language Progressive Skills. Vary sentence patterns for meaning. are particularly likely to require continued attention in higher grades as they are applied to increasingly sophisticated writing and speaking.* L.6.7. Choose words and phrases for effect. dashes) to set off nonrestrictive/parenthetical elements.7.1g. L.5. Use punctuation (commas. by Grade The following skills.3a. Choose language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely. there/their). and identify and use strategies to improve expression in conventional language.6. Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person.3a † Subsumed by L. Choose punctuation for effect. L. Produce complete sentences. L.1f.4.e. L. Place phrases and clauses within a sentence.2a. marked with an asterisk (*) in Language standards 1–3... L.6. Recognize variations from standard English in their own and others’ writing and speaking.1d. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement. Maintain consistency in style and tone.3b.6. Use parallel structure. Standard L.7. L.4.3a.1c.6.3b.1a ‡ Subsumed by L. recognizing and correcting inappropriate fragments and run-ons.3. reader/listener interest.

 

Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading 6–12
Measuring Text Complexity: Three Factors
Qualitative evaluation of the text: Quantitative evaluation of the text: Matching reader to text and task: Levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Readability measures and other scores of text complexity Reader variables (such as motivation, knowledge, and experiences) and task variables (such as purpose and the complexity generated by the task assigned and the questions posed)

Note: More detailed information on text complexity and how it is measured is contained in Appendix A.

Range of Text Types for 6–12
Students in grades 6–12 apply the Reading standards to the following range of text types, with texts selected from a broad range of cultures and periods. Literature
Stories Includes the subgenres of adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, myths, science fiction, realistic fiction, allegories, parodies, satire, and graphic novels Drama Includes one-act and multi-act plays, both in written form and on film Poetry Includes the subgenres of narrative poems, lyrical poems, free verse poems, sonnets, odes, ballads, and epics

Informational Text
Literary Nonfiction Includes the subgenres of exposition, argument, and functional text in the form of personal essays, speeches, opinion pieces, essays about art or literature, biographies, memoirs, journalism, and historical, scientific, technical, or economic accounts (including digital sources) written for a broad audience

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Texts Illustrating the Complexity, Quality, and Range of Student Reading 6–12
Literature: Stories, Dramas, Poetry 6–8
     

Informational Texts: Literary Nonfiction
    

Little Women by Louisa May Alcott (1869) The Adventures of Tom Sawyer by Mark Twain (1876) “The Road Not Taken” by Robert Frost (1915) The Dark Is Rising by Susan Cooper (1973) Dragonwings by Laurence Yep (1975) Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry by Mildred Taylor (1976) The Tragedy of Macbeth by William Shakespeare (1592) “Ozymandias” by Percy Bysshe Shelley (1817) “The Raven” by Edgar Allen Poe (1845) “The Gift of the Magi” by O. Henry (1906) The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck (1939) Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury (1953) The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara (1975) “Ode on a Grecian Urn” by John Keats (1820) Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë (1848) “Because I Could Not Stop for Death” by Emily Dickinson (1890) The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald (1925) Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston (1937) A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry (1959) The Namesake by Jhumpa Lahiri (2003)

“Letter on Thomas Jefferson” by John Adams (1776) Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave by Frederick Douglass (1845) “Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat: Address to Parliament on May 13th, 1940” by Winston Churchill (1940) Harriet Tubman: Conductor on the Underground Railroad by Ann Petry (1955) Travels with Charley: In Search of America by John Steinbeck (1962) “Speech to the Second Virginia Convention” by Patrick Henry (1775) “Farewell Address” by George Washington (1796) “Gettysburg Address” by Abraham Lincoln (1863) “State of the Union Address” by Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1941) “Letter from Birmingham Jail” by Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964) “Hope, Despair and Memory” by Elie Wiesel (1997) Common Sense by Thomas Paine (1776) Walden by Henry David Thoreau (1854) “Society and Solitude” by Ralph Waldo Emerson (1857) “The Fallacy of Success” by G. K. Chesterton (1909) Black Boy by Richard Wright (1945) “Politics and the English Language” by George Orwell (1946) “Take the Tortillas Out of Your Poetry” by Rudolfo Anaya (1995)

9–10

             

     

11–CCR

      

Note: Given space limitations, the illustrative texts listed above are meant only to show individual titles that are representative of a range of topics and genres. (See Appendix B for excerpts of these and other texts illustrative of grades 6–12 text complexity, quality, and range.) At a curricular or instructional level, within and across grade levels, texts need to be selected around topics or themes that generate knowledge and allow students to study those topics or themes in depth.

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Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
6–12

 

College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading
The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade span. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards, the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate.
Key Ideas and Details

Note on range and content of student reading
Reading is critical to building knowledge in history/social studies as well as in science and technical subjects. College and career ready reading in these fields requires an appreciation of the norms and conventions of each discipline, such as the kinds of evidence used in history and science; an understanding of domain-specific evaluate words and phrases; an attention to precise details; and the capacity to intricate arguments, synthesize complex information, and follow detailed descriptions of events and concepts. In history/social studies, for example, students need to be able to analyze, evaluate, and differentiate primary and secondary sources. When reading scientific and technical texts, students need to be able to gain knowledge from challenging texts that often make extensive use of elaborate diagrams and data to convey information and illustrate concepts. Students must be able to read complex informational texts in these fields with independence and confidence because the vast majority of reading in college and workforce training programs will be sophisticated nonfiction. It is important to note that these Reading standards are meant to complement the specific content demands of the disciplines, not replace them.

1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, or ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
Craft and Structure

4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse formats and media, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.* 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
*Please see “Research to Build and Present Knowledge” in Writing for additional standards relevant to gathering, assessing, and applying information from print and digital sources.

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comparatively.. including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts. 1. 7. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. 7.g. 10). photographs. read and comprehend history/social 10. noting discrepancies among sources.. both primary 10. Evaluate authors’ differing points of view on the same they treat the same or similar topics. Evaluate various explanations for actions or events and determine which explanation best accords with textual evidence. and evidence. a text. provide an accurate summary that makes clear the relationships among the key details and ideas. acknowledging where the text leaves matters uncertain. Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e. By the end of grade 10. 74 Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies.g. text support the author’s claims. By the end of grade 8. 9. secondary source. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how 6. causally). Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or 3. graphs. Grades 6–8 students: Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students: Key Ideas and Details 1. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. and larger portions of the text contribute to the whole. provide an accurate summary of the source distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. 5. and technical subjects are integrated into the K–5 Reading standards. Integrate information from diverse sources.g. historical event or issue by assessing the authors’ claims. claims. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards. how interest rates are raised or lowered). 4. including how key sentences. paragraphs. Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis. visually. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. or maps) with other information in print and digital texts. provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text. 6. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. in charts. including vocabulary describing political.. 8. Describe how a text presents information (e. attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. inclusion or avoidance of particular facts). Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information 8. 5. connecting insights gained from specific details to an understanding of the text as a whole. studies texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. opinion. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text. structured. Analyze in detail how a complex primary source is 6. or economic aspects of history/social studies. 5. into a coherent understanding of an idea or event. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 8. videos. Identify key steps in a text’s description of a process related to history/social studies (e. Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic. quantitatively. sequentially.. Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text.g. presented in diverse formats and media (e.g. reasoning. and evidence by corroborating or challenging them with other information. 4. 2.  Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6–12 [RH] The standards below begin at grade 6. Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources. secondary source. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a 9.. standards for K–5 reading in history/social studies. and secondary. 2. Distinguish among fact.g. and reasoned judgment in 9. including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies. 2. social. Science. and Technical Subjects | 6–12 . research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text. Identify aspects of a text that reveal an author’s point of view or purpose (e. determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them. read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.. By the end of grade 12. Craft and Structure 4.g. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. science. the latter providing additional specificity. Integrate visual information (e. 10. how Madison defines faction in Federalist No. secondary source. 1. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or 3. loaded language. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or 3. as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem. including analyzing how an author uses and refines the meaning of a key term over the course of a text (e. how a bill becomes law. charts. Evaluate an author’s premises. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources..

key terms. or table). read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently. Grades 11–12 students: 1. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed 8. phenomenon. simulations. describing a procedure.g. data. force. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation. key terms. Analyze how the text structures information or ideas into categories or hierarchies. in a flowchart. 7. reaction force. describing a procedure. including how the major sections contribute to the whole and to an understanding of the topic. 7. Evaluate the hypotheses. trace 3. 2. or information presented in a text by paraphrasing them in simpler but still accurate terms. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. resolving conflicting information when possible. Craft and Structure 4. Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.g.. or performing technical tasks. By the end of grade 8. By the end of grade 10. model.. analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text. provide an accurate summary of the text distinct from prior knowledge or opinions. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science 1. domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11– 12 texts and topics. Determine the meaning of symbols. and speculation in a text. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation. quantitative data. energy). or discussing an experiment in a text. Science. texts. Determine the meaning of symbols. Analyze the structure an author uses to organize a text. 2.. a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e. and conclusions in a science or technical text. 9. Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text. processes. and Technical Subjects | 6–12 . diagram. Synthesize information from a range of sources (e. presented in diverse formats and media (e. Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those experiments. graph. simulations) into a coherent understanding of a process. noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts. 9. experiments. or discussing an experiment in a text. including relationships among key terms (e. 8. demonstrating understanding of the information or ideas. taking measurements. describing a procedure. or discussing an experiment in a text. Distinguish among facts. 10.. in an equation) into words. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technical texts. Analyze the author’s purpose in providing an explanation. Compare and contrast the information gained from 9. multimedia) in order to address a question or solve a problem. 3. Determine the meaning of symbols. By the end of grade 12. key terms. summarize complex concepts. attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text. friction. 10.g. 5. Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information 8.. video.. read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. or performing technical tasks. or concept. and other 4.g. Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out 3. taking measurements.g. Determine the central ideas or conclusions of a text. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments. or performing technical tasks. 75 Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. 6. reasoned judgment based on research findings. domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9– 10 texts and topics.g. video. 6. or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic. analysis. attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions. 5. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e. attending to important distinctions the author makes and to any gaps or inconsistencies in the account. experiments. and other Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. phenomenon. provide an accurate summary of the text. Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments. in words in a text into visual form (e. verifying the data when possible and corroborating or challenging conclusions with other sources of information. the text’s explanation or depiction of a complex process. defining the question the author seeks to address. domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6– 8 texts and topics. from other sources (including their own experiments). 4. and other 5. 2.  Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6–12 Grades 6–8 students: Key Ideas and Details [RST] Grades 9–10 students: 1. 6. read and comprehend science/technical texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. taking measurements. or concept. identifying important issues that remain unresolved. and technical texts.

assess the credibility and accuracy of each source. organization. concentration. purposes. 5.  College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing The grades 6–12 standards on the following pages define what students should understand and be able to do by the end of each grade span. including the Internet. the latter providing additional specificity—that together define the skills and understandings that all students must demonstrate. and Technical Subjects | 6–12 76 . Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research. purpose. See Appendix A for definitions of key writing types. and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks. organization. 9. and analysis of content. and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism. Use technology. They must have the flexibility. and audiences. 6. 1. *These broad types of writing include many subgenres. to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others. and conveying what they have experienced. To meet these goals. reflection. imagined. editing. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique. producing numerous pieces over short and long time frames throughout the year. refining. 2. 8. and felt. Science. and formats deliberately. Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. and audience into careful consideration. or trying a new approach. revising. They need to be able to use technology strategically when creating. They correspond to the College and Career Readiness (CCR) anchor standards below by number. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions. purpose. demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence. They have to become adept at gathering information. The CCR and grade-specific standards are necessary complements—the former providing broad standards. choosing words. and fluency to produce high-quality first-draft text under a tight deadline and the capacity to revisit and make improvements to a piece of writing over multiple drafts when circumstances encourage or require it. and audience. well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences. showing what they know about a subject. and style are appropriate to task. information. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection. Range of Writing 10. and collaborating on writing. Production and Distribution of Writing 4. structures. To be college and career ready writers. reporting findings from their research and analysis of sources in a clear and cogent manner. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis. reflection. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. students must devote significant time and effort to writing. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. writing is a key means of asserting and defending claims. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources. evaluating sources. students must take task. rewriting. Text Types and Purposes* Note on range and content of student writing For students. thought. and citing material accurately. 3. and research.

and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons. Introduce claim(s) about a topic or issue. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. e. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. counterclaims. and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s). Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly and thoroughly. Introduce precise claim(s). the latter providing additional specificity. create cohesion. and possible biases. knowledgeable claim(s). reasons. phrases. and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s). and Technical Subjects 6–12 Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons. supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns. supplying the most relevant data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level. phrases. between reasons and evidence. Introduce precise. concerns. Science. Grades 6–8 students: Grades 9–10 students: Grades 11–12 students: Text Types and Purposes 1. c. and organize the reasons and evidence logically. Use words. counterclaims. b. acknowledge and distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims. values. and Technical Subjects 6–12 [WHST] The standards below begin at grade 6. accurate data and evidence that demonstrate an understanding of the topic or text. between reasons and evidence. establish the significance of the claim(s). and Technical Subjects | 6–12 [WHST] 77 . reasons. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. c. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. and evidence. c. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. and between claim(s) and counterclaims. and clauses as well as varied syntax to link the major sections of the text. create cohesion. a. a. Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. 1. b. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly. and evidence. Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant. and evidence. d. reasons. d.  Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims. e. d. distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims. standards for K–5 writing in history/social studies. Establish and maintain a formal style. e. and clauses to link the major sections of the text. 1. science. phrases. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented. counterclaims. using credible sources. b. and technical subjects are integrated into the K–5 Writing standards. Use words. and between claim(s) and counterclaims. Science. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented. Science. Use words. and create an organization that logically sequences the claim(s). a. The CCR anchor standards and high school standards in literacy work in tandem to define college and career readiness expectations—the former providing broad standards.

Develop the topic with well-chosen. including the 2. In science and technical subjects.. organize ideas. d. and information to make important connections and distinctions. domain-specific vocabulary and techniques such as metaphor. convey a knowledgeable stance in a style that responds to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers. and Technical Subjects | 6–12 [WHST] 78 . and Technical Subjects 6–12 Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. c. b. Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text.g. Use precise language. or technical processes. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e. not applicable as a separate requirement) 3. not applicable as a separate requirement) 3. concepts.g.g. quotations. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers. Develop the topic thoroughly by selecting the most significant and relevant facts. quotations. create cohesion..g. and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts. Write informative/explanatory texts. (See note. concrete details. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing. articulating implications or the significance of the topic). d. 3.g. tables). scientific procedures/ experiments. and analogy to manage the complexity of the topic. b.g. include formatting (e. well-chosen facts. graphics (e. charts. d. Science. concepts. figures... previewing what is to follow. or other information and examples. narration of historical events. graphics (e. narration of historical events. graphics (e. e. articulating implications or the significance of the topic). and clarify the relationships among complex ideas and concepts. (See note. Science. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.  Grades 6–8 students: Text Types and Purposes (continued) Grades 9–10 students: 2. Introduce a topic and organize ideas. or technical processes. or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic. Introduce a topic and organize complex ideas. and sufficient facts. (See note. quotations.. c. extended definitions. definitions. c. scientific procedures/ experiments. headings). students must be able to incorporate narrative accounts into their analyses of individuals or events of historical import. extended definitions. including the Grades 11–12 students: 2. e. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation provided (e. or technical processes. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. headings). Introduce a topic clearly. Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text. a. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. headings). tables).g. tables). Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.g. figures. f.. and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. The Standards require that students be able to incorporate narrative elements effectively into arguments and informative/explanatory texts. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone. include formatting (e. b.. Develop the topic with relevant. f. scientific procedures/ experiments. or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic. a. relevant. including the narration of historical events. In history/social studies. create cohesion. not applicable as a separate requirement) Note: Students’ narrative skills continue to grow in these grades. students must be able to write precise enough descriptions of the step-by-step procedures they use in their investigations or technical work that others can replicate them and (possibly) reach the same results. e. simile. Write informative/explanatory texts. concepts. and information into broader categories as appropriate to achieving purpose. include formatting (e. concrete details.. concrete details. Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. Write informative/explanatory texts. and information so that each new element builds on that which precedes it to create a unified whole. a.

to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas clearly and efficiently. and audience. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources. focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. 9. 4. avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. and audience. and update individual or shared writing products in response to ongoing feedback. editing. and audience. taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. purpose. demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. to produce. including new arguments or information. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks. editing. or trying a new approach. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. 10. to produce. assess the strengths and limitations of each source in terms of the specific task. purposes.  Grades 6–8 students: Production and Distribution of Writing Grades 9–10 students: 4. Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. and audiences. and audience. focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question. and research. assess the credibility and accuracy of each source. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 7. editing. drawing on several sources and generating additional related. reflection. 8. Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. Grades 11–12 students: 4. purpose. 10. or trying a new approach. Use technology. purposes. revising. develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning. purpose. avoiding plagiarism and overreliance on any one source and following a standard format for citation. including the Internet. or trying a new approach. rewriting. Draw evidence from informational texts to support Range of Writing 10. 7. including the Internet. Use technology. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks. Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem. Use technology. and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 8. including the Internet. focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed. and research. and audiences. narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate. purposes. 7. 5. Science. 6. and style are appropriate to task. synthesize multiple sources on the subject. analysis. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks. 8. integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas. and update individual or shared writing products. and Technical Subjects | 6–12 79 . rewriting. focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration. 5. using advanced searches effectively. synthesize multiple sources on the subject. and style are appropriate to task. 9. organization. integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas. using advanced searches effectively. publish. reflection. and research. publish. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question). 6. 5. 6. and audiences. organization. purpose. narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development. using search terms effectively. 9. reflection. Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources. revising. organization. and style are appropriate to task. revising. rewriting. With some guidance and support from peers and adults. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem.

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