Review

Spices as antioxidants
Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BH~ and buty, iated hydroxyanisole (BHA) have been used widely for many years to retard lipid oxida~an. Conc~ about the ~fety of synthetic antioxidants together with consumer preference for natural products has resulted in increased nyr.,earchon natural antioxidants. Many spices hav~ been shown to impart an antioxidative effect in foods. This activity of spices is due to pheaoi~. More geaerai inarticle summarizes the literature on the antioxidativc effects formation concerning phenolic mtiosdda~ caa be of spices. The term spice is defined as dry plant material that found in m~rticl,- by ~ and Wamummlar~. is normally added to food to impart flavour.

Helle LindbergMadsen "and Grete Bertelsen

Early investigations"~.7.ahave demonstgatod that rose~

mary (Rosmar~nus o~Ofcinalis L.) aad rage (Salvia
The oxidation of fipids in foodstuffs results in the development of off-flavour, rendering the product unacceptable for human consumption. The structure of foods is changed doring processing and as a result lipids might become more exposed to oxygen. In addition, the naturally occurring antioxidant systems are impaired during processing, making processed food more susceptible to oxidation. The products of oxidation give rise to offflavonrs, thereby limiting the shelf life o,~ the processed foodstuffs. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BKA) are both powerful synthetic antioxidants, but they are believed to possess carcinogenic ~ctivityL These observations have lead to a demand for antioxidants derived from naturally occurring sources. Since ancient times, spices have been added to diffe:ent types of food to improve the flavour. For example, garlic and red chilli were added to butterfat (ghoc) and red chilli, fennel or clove were often used in the preparation of picHes. Some of the early scientific investigations were carried OUt by Sehti and Aggarwa12, who reported the improved storage stabilityof groundnut oil after the addition of I I different sp[c~; red chilliand cinnamon leaves were found to be the most effective. Chipault et al?.~ investigated ".heanfioxidsnt activity of spices in different substrates. Rosemary and sage were found to be the most effective in lard, while clove showed the highest antioxidant activity in an oil-inwater emulsion and, in general, activity indexes obtained for the spices in the emulsion were several times greater than those in lard, indicating a higher efficiency in the emulsion. The antioxidant activity of 17 different spices was investigated in mayonnaise and French dressing and oregano was found to display the highest activity~. These results emphasize the importance of the substrate used in evaluation studies. Since the early work of Clfipault et alys, the intexest in the antioxidative activity of spices has increased and led to an increase in information abom the compounds and mechanisms involved. It is now well known that the antioxidative

officinatis L.) are two of the most potent spices

uat,.mal antioxidants, p r o m l ~ g a great deal of experimental work aimed at isolating and identifying the compounds responsible for the antioxidati~e ~tiv[ty (Fig. 1). Carno~: (aa odondess and tar~ele~ phenolic diterpenic !actone) m d c a m o ~ acid have hott.~ been found in rosemary9.m. The same compounds have beta isolated from sage, indicating a close botanical relationship between these two spices~ " . Romaanol'zl3, epirosmanol, isoresmanolt4 and rosmarinic acidis have all been isolated from rosemary. Furthermore, the two ditetpenes rosmaridipbenol and romm~quin~e base been found in rosematTj~7. The antioxidative effects of ro~matidipluatol and mariquinoce were measured in lard; the anfioxid~t acti~ty of both d i t c h e s sugi~ssed that ofBHA amt was similar to that of BHT ~t~. The amioxidafive activity of camosic acid was better than that of ~ both measured in an emulsion of methyl linoleatots. Comparison of rosmanol with c a r m e l in laid similarly showed that '..he antioxidafive activity of rosmanol surpassed that of camesoln. The addition of namrai amioxidants (carnosol, ~ acid, rosmanol, epinnnmwl and isorosmanol) at • concentration of 0.0I% in either lard or in an emulsion of linoleic acid produced similar levels of activity as ~ synthetic a n t i o ~ BHA and BHT, added at die same ~ or at a concentration of 0.02%~4.~8;in addition, the activity oftbe ditegpenic antioxidants was found m be higher in oil or in lard than in an aqueous ethanolic solution with linoleic acid 14a9 Camosol and camosic acid were both found to be good scavengers of peroxyl radicah, and were more effective than propyl pilate at inhibiting the peroxiclarion of membrane lipids20. Mcthylafion of the hydroxy groups eliminated the antioxidative effect, indicating that the antioxidative effect is correlated to the hydroxy groups19. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative analysis of the individual phenofic diterpenes was developed fairly recently2', and camosic acid and camosoi were shown to be the main I.Ile~ tlmlbe~Mim~ ar.dGrtqeBcq't~l~m at the Depamnent Daiw phenolic diterpenes in rosemmy and sage. The analysis are ol and Food Science,KVL, RoyalVeterinaryand Agricultural University, revealed that carnosol sad camosic acid were present in Thorvaldsensvej DK-1871Frederik.d~C, Denmark(fax:+45-3528- a concentration ratio of I : I0. The ~-lactones rosmanol, 40, epbosmanol and ?-methyi-epirosmanol were present 3210).
Trendsin FoodScience& TechnologyAugust1995 [Vol.6] ©i~s, z~,v~Sclence ud~z4-2z,e~09.r,o

activity. whereas ethanolic extracts of rosemary and mace showed nearly the highest activity of all the spices tested33.or Fe2÷). Unfortunately. euganol has the strong and characteristic flavour of clove. and Structureof anSoxidative compoundsisolatedfrom rosemary (Rosmarinus off'~inalis L. An ethanol extract of oregano that had been further reextracted with ethyl ether was found to have a high antioxidative Quantification of antioxlda~ve activity A large number of reports concemed with the antioxidative activity of spices have been published. 6] 272 . antioxidative activity Trendsin FoodScience& TechnologyAugust1995 [Vol. and different activities are found for whole spices and extracts of spices. Eugenol and gal0 O fic acid were found to contribute to the antioxidative activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. including cm'cumin. Rosmaridiphenol Rosmarinic acid Purification using chromatographic techniques separated out eight diarylheptanoids. formed in the presence of oxygenu. Another antloxidative compound present in oregano was of special interest because of its glucoside side chain.) five gingerol-related compounds. the main components isolated from the fraction were various flavonoids26.). carvacrol and HO HO thymol have been isolated from the o o o essential oil of oregano. This latter finding underlines the observation that camosic acid is an unstable product. Curcumin was also found to be present in ginger (Zingiber ojO~cinalis Roscoe). and both have been demonstrated to have antioxidative activity. Table 1 outlines the results of the investigations. "~ive different phenolic compounds have been isolated from the methanol extract of oregano (Or/ganum vulgate L. The anfioxidative effects of carvacrol and thymol have been documented by traditional methods. Several other compounds with antioxidative activity were isolated from the non-volatile fraction of ginger.)2s. the early investigations by Chipault et al? -s revealed that the antioxidative activity of a spice was dependent on the substrate used in the evaluation. For example. An electron spin resonance (ESR) study of carnosic acid showed that a free radical was produced when camosic acid was in contact with oxidized methyl oleate in the absence of oxygen. and subsequently that the ~-inctones are all oxidation products of the unstable camosic acid. It was demonstrated that the 8-1actone camosol. Moreover. making it of less OH interest for use as an antioxidant. which makes the compound water soluble2s. In addition. the water-soluble peptide turmerin29 and the fipid-soinble curcumin~° have been isolated. all five showed antioxidative activity. A second free radical was observed at temperatures greater than 1 IO°C. The free radical was stable up to I 10°C. Comparison of the results of different experiments is often complicated by the fact that the antioxidant activity of a specific spice varies according to the country in which it was grown32. the use of model systems is necessary because storage experiments under realistic conditions are very time-consuming. One of the compounds was identified as rosmarinic acidu. rosemary and mace when investigated as whole spices possessed only intermediate activity as compared with other spices. gingerol and [6]-sbogaul being two of the identified substances3L HO only in very small amounts. Despite these observations. some investigations have been carried out using the whole spice.). In [sorosmano[ Epirosmanol Rosmariquinone turmeric (Curcuma longa L. Model systems In the evaluation of spices. such as the determination of the peroxide value in lard or in vegCarnosol Carnosic acid Rosmanol etable oil (the determination of the peroxide value is based on the reduction of the hydroperoxide group with I.). which is oxidized to carnosol. The ESR specmun for dds free radical was identical to a specmnn seen for camosol in the presence of oxidized fipid~. [6]or sage (Salvia officinalis L. and also investigated using HO HO ESR spectroscopy27.

thymol from thyme and thujoue from sage possess antioxidative activity. In contrast to the aforementioned results. savory. and both spices were also found to have a low redox potential in sausages. Rosemary and sage were the most effective antioxidants in lardTM. By using 273 . 46 low level of camosic acid in the methanol extracL Chen concluded that acetone was the most efficient solvent for the extraction of the anfioxiclative substances from rosemary.36. using a technique that included micronization of the spice in an edible oil followed by molecular distillation43.5). however. black pepper. methanol being the most effective. revealed that the efficiency of the extract was directly depeodem on the total concentration of phenofic diterpenes. Chipanlt e t a l . acetone. An odourless and colonrless antioxidant was prepared from rosemary. white pepper. produced using the solvents methanol. they observed lower activity for methanol extracts than for either hexane or acetone extracts: this was probably due to a Trends in Food Science & Technology August 1995 [Vol. In agreement with this finding. coriander. methanol has been widely used as the solvent for extraction procedures9~?~s. 46 analysed the amount of camosol and carnosic acid from rosemary extracted by different solvents. HPLC analysis of five different phenolic c o m p o m ~ in the six commercial extracts of rosemary demonstrated that the level of each compound varied greatly between the different rosemary extracts~. black pepper 32 different 19 different 32 different Ten different Allspice.~t_t _ _ _ _ Sul~rate Lard Analytlcaa~ Peroxidevalue. Many different organic solvents have been used for the extraction of antioxidative compounds from spices (Table 2). Chen e t a l .02% (w/w) had an antioxidative capacity comparable m that of the synthetic antioxidants BHT and BHA. ]'BARS Peroxidevalue O~ uptake O~ uptake O 2 uptake Redoxpotential Relative Rosemary> sa~e>nulmeg> white pepper>marjo~m Rosemary>sage>oregano> num~ >th. the aromatic character of these compounds iimit~ the use of the essential oils as antioxidants in food. The extraction of spices with various solvents or using other fractionating procedures has been widely carried out (Table 2). However. nutmeg. 6] et a l . red paprika. eugenol from clove.Although the compounds in the essential oils such as carvone from caraway.Table 1.only lbe total numberof spicesarementioned / bOnlythe five mosteffectivespicesare listed cTBARS. Chang e t a l . marjoram. 3 used ethanol or petroleum ether to prepare extracts from 32 spices. Redox potent marjoram> aniseed * Forinvestigations involvingten or morespices. all three solvents were usable and extracts added at a concentration of 0. and in almost all cases a higher antioxidative activity was found for ethanol extracts than for petroleum ether extracts.~ne Clove>cinnamon>sage> mace>oregano Clove>turmeric>aUspice> mace> rosemary Clove>allspice>cinnamon> gel. water nutmeg>ginger AUspice>red paprika>savory> marjoram >black pepper Sage> rosematy>papdka> w a t e r Sausage. ~ found that rosemary and sage had higher antioxidative activity the more polar the solvent used for extraction. an antioxidant extract with a very slight odour of rosemary or odourless was produced using a carbonate buffer (~pH 8. indicating antioxidative activity.Thiobarbituricacid reactivesubstances [ was observed for most spices. Similarly. Suspension of the gingeracetone extract in water and successive extraction with hexane (to remove essential oils with prooxidative activity). coriander [15differen_. The evaluation of the essential oil in either emulsions or bulk oil systems revealed some antioxidative activity for most of the spices investigated39-42. Antioxidative compounds were isolated from oregano using ethanol as the solvent for the extraction~. Antioxklafve ~_'tivJtyof sldceb evaltnted as whole slAo~ in different suSstr~tes Spicea Marjoram.sage. rosemary. ethanol. I white pepper. both added at the same concentration as the dried extracts. while the less polar solvent acetone extracted a fraction with high activity from ginger. An investigation of six commercially available rosemary extracts. hexane and CO 2 (supercfitlcal extraction). 34 Lard Oil-in-water emulsion Oil-in-water emulsion Oil-in-water emulsion Sausage. in an oil-in-water emulsion clove was the most effective spice4~S. dichloromethane and ethyl acetate revealed that a strong antioxidafive activity partitioned into the moderately polar dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions¢.

ethyl ether. chicken fat. dittany.sage Extraction method Suspensionin peanut.oil. coriander.calmethod 02 uptake RelativeactivitlF Sage> rosemary Ref.spearmint.thyme Oregano(four types) Ten different Thyme. followed by molecular dist. summersavory and thyme were positive Clove thyme > 39 40 41 42 In dark. TBARS Peroxidevalue ESR Bleaching of [3-carotene.AJn~l. dichloromethane and ethyl acetate Water Saline solution Oleoresind Oleoresind Not specifiedd Linoleic acid emulsion Acetone after further and. rosemary.TBARS Hexane>acetone> methanol Oregano> thyme>dittany > marjoram> spearmint> lavender>basil 46 47 Acetone. methanol Hexane. peroxidevalue Thiocyanatetest. 43 Sage.23 different in light experiment Rosemary. all 16 possessed 44 antioxidant activity. rosemary Not specified =Extractswerep~paredandevaluatedin differentsubstzates bForinvestigationsinvolvingnineor morespices.sage Rosemary Nine different Linoleic acid Fenton. Linoleicacid ethanol Hexane.extractionixocndureis notreportedin the reference TBAICS. marjoram. cumin.dichlommethane and ethyl acetate fractions Ginger Garlic 49 50 Ginger Garlic Rosemary. bexane. 6] . in light.sage Rosemary. Thiobarbitoricacidreactivesubstances ESR.dichloromethane.the relativeactivityis theoverallscore basedon a consensos the resultsof thedifferentmethods of ~Commercialproducts. chloroform.Electronspinresonance spectroscopy 274 Trends in FoodScience& TechnologyAugust 1995 [Vol. conJugateddiene. acid value Diene band (225-235 nm) ESR Nutmeg >white pepper> marjoram Rosemary>suge>nutmeg Rosemary>turmeric Nutmeg.rosemary.clove. for experimer~usingmorethanoneanalyticalmethod. basil. .sage Not specifiedd Turmeric. vegetableoils Bleaching of i3-carotene Peroxidevalue Rosemary Oregano.llation Steam distillation (essential oils) Steamdistillation (essentialoils) Steamdistillation (essentialoils) Steamdistillation (essentialoils) Alcoholic Subshute Chicken fat Analytl-'. peroxidevalue.acetone. caraway.OH Methyl linoleate Cholesterol Lard O2 uptake ESR. lavender Ginger Lard Lard Rancimat Oven test(75°C).Table 2. six possessedantioxidant activity Hexane dichloromethane > or ethanol Polar solvent> non-polar solvent 32 45 n-Hexane. dioxane.further extracted by water.chemiluminescence Gas chromatography Gas chromatography Sage>deodorized rosemary 51 > untreatedrosemary No effect 52 7 Peroxidevalue.Ydve adivity of spiceextracts' sp~ b Rosemary.thyme. 48 extraction. ethylene dichloride. clove 16 different in d a r k experiment.sage Linoleic acid emulsion Lard Essentialoils Cottonseedoil Lard Bleachingof 13-carotene.onlythetotalnumberof spicesarementioned ¢Ofllythefivemosteffectivespicesor themosteffectivesolventsarelis'~. acid value Rosemary> sage> marjoram> mace> black pepper Peroxidevalue.methanol Methanol Lard. white pepper. TBARS. marjoram Not specifieda Lard Lecithin emulsion Active oxygenradicals 34 53 54 Nutmeg. TBARS Peroxidevalue Clove thyme> rosemary> > cumin>sage>caraway No significant difference betweenspices Oregano. benzene.

61 275 . which is a mete effective ~ i oxidant.t c g e p h e ~ and tertimy butylated hydroxyquino~. The oxidative stabifity was measured by the detern~uation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in these experiments.tivity. No synergism has been detected between different spices apart flrom a few exceptions. • claimed that they had produced an antioxidant from rosemary with better activity than a ~ L-. 6 months 4°C.05%). which were examined in meat or in meat products (Table 3). reacted with different substances in the test medium~. and only very poor synmgism was observed for sage and the antioxidants a . such evaluation is critical as the taste of a spice or spice extract often restricts its application. Increasing the heating period further reduced the antioxidative activity but at a much slower rate. but by the end of the storage period the level of TBARS had increased to the same level found in samples to which spices had not been addedsg. Chang et al. The combination of thyme. and in most cases a significant reduction in TBARS was observed. 2 days 4°C. revealed no synergism. 6 months 4°C. 18-35 days 4°C. a 20% reduction in activity was seen after heating the extract for 10rain at 100°C. however. 20 days 4°C.this aqueous solvent.~. owing to the above-mentionod drawbacks of model systems. Effectof spiceson oxkla~e sfabUity. reduced lipid oxidation by 20%. Heating for 60-120min resulted in no change in activity. A taste panel evaluation was. with sage. added in a sensory acceptable amount (0. included in studies by Huisman et aL ss. nuujcmun. 2 days -18°C. and it was found that rosemary. the effect being most pronounced Table3. 10 days 3°C. phenolic in nature. 61 61 S~ae~sm of spices Synergism between a-tocopherol and an extr~_ct of rosemary has been reported67. experiments under realistic storage conditions are necessary to provide the final proof of the antioxidative effect of a spice or a spice extract in a specific food product. rosemary and huge. while some effect was ~ e d for combin. The synmgistic effect of sage and a number of symbetic amioxidaats has been investigated. the levels of aromatic compounds extracted were reduced to a minhmunsT. Only a few storage experiments have been performed and most experiments have studied rosemary or extracts of rosemary. It is remarkable that in some of the investigations a considerable reduction in TBARS was observed during the first part of the storage period.e o.spearmint. 6 days 4°C. Sensory evaluation was only performed in a few of the storage experimentsSS.f. No synergism was observed between rosemary extract and another organic acid. synergism has been observed between different spices and BHA3s. lavender or basil with oregano.. obtained by squeezing and centrifugafion. The most effe~ve ~ was sage and BHA. indieating that the remaining active components were fairly heat stable'9.~io~ of ~tric acid mid nutmeg or db'ic acid and sage.im~ -20°C. 13 days 4°C. Storageexperiments Although storage experiments are very time-consuming. Only the combinatiou of thyme and marjoram or thyme and spearmint showed slight synergism2E Effect of heat treatment Heating resulted in some reduction of the antioxidant activity of most spices3~. 5-8 days eeductiem TBA. probably because steam sterilization reduced the volatile oil content (which possesses antioxidative activity) or because the antioxidative compouncL~. in a crude extract of ginger. Thus. A very proaounced synergistic effect was seen between citt~ acid and rosemary extract. and none for citric acid and ot~gmm~. Likewise. whereas sage and BHT had an intmmedJate ae. ascorbic acid~. 20 days 4°C. the study indicated that a-tocopherol was regenerated by the rosemary extractes.measuredby the determinalionof lhioba~oiluricacid reaclJve~ Spice I Oleoresinrosemary Oleoresinrosemary Groundmustard Extractsof rosemary Oleo~sin rosemary Oleoresinrosemary RosemarytypeW Rosemarytype0 Rosemaryoleoresin Rosemary Rosemary Rosemary Sage Foodstuffs Raw restructuredbeefsteaks Cooked restructuredbeefsteaks Cookedgroundpork Frankfurters Restructured chickennuggets Restructured chickennuggets Cookedbeefpatties Cookedbeefpatties Sausages Cookedmeatballs Cookedmeatballs Debonedturkeymeat Cookedmeatballs Storagecondi'. 5 days 5°C. 6 days -20°C.~(%) in 39 14 34 0-72 !1 ! 56 31 46 35 20 82 0-35 Trendsin FoodScience& TechnologyAugust1995 [Vol.

(1992) Crit. 686-690 Henmann..(1956)FoodTechnol. and Temes. 21.E. Potato chips that were fried in oil stabilized with the spice showed a lower level of oxidation than potato chips fried in either oil containing no antioxidant or oil containing the synthetic antioxidant. (1993) I. 670-672 Gerhardt. A. B.R. H. G. 195.FoodSci. Am.Y. Hewndi.G. 519-524 Nakatani. K.. the interest in commercial antioxidants based on other spices is increasing. whereas a spice extract should be considered as an ingreclient if the purpose of adding the ex~act is to add the flavour of the spice.A. and Goodman.. Am.M.H. Biol..I.. 2081-2085 15 Herrmann. (1994) J. FoodSci. (1952) Food Res. BioL Chem.A.10-16 Inatani.I. Agric.H. Tsimidou.J. and ^gganval. and Sleicbele.Soc. 58. Loller.. Chem.. glekas. I. (1989) L Am. (1990) Crit. and Thornopoulos. and 8~hm.D. 59. 499-504 9 Wu. 800-804 Bracco.J.F.G.Z. and L01iger. Chem.G. and Inatani.(t905)LAm..48. P. and Temes. Am. J.J.M. and Nakatani. Oil Chem. Smistad..KJv). Pharrn. and Pd. R. and Chang.M.. Chem. H. Hsieh.S.S. 30. 20. G. more commonly.and Butterl'teld.. In many commercial products attempts are made to extract the components responsible for the antioxidadve effect and concomitandy to reduce the coextraction of the essential oils that give the spice its aroma. Fuwa. M.. Oreopoulou.C. CM. G. Or8.O. H. Soc.. (1982) J.247-258 Kikuzaki. V. W. Chem.. Biol. Lebensm. Chem..FoodS~:... and Lundberg. (1984) Agric. Ho.A. (1992) Arch. A.. (1992) FlavourFragrancel. U. and 12 Nakatani..K. and Inatani. extracts of rosemary are used commercially.S. Fuchs.-Unters... M.Z. C. Anstrichm. Oil Chem. in order to exploit the synergistic effect67.(1985) J.J.A. 2293-2298 13 In spite of scientific documentation of the antioxidative effects of many spices. SJ.Bndei. Lee. and Baroly.C. 257-268 Schwarz.and Deans.153-166 Al-Jalay. A.. 60-66 Palitzsch. 96-98 Wenkert. Lebensm. Soc. 99-103 Geoffroy. Krizanec. and Boskou.116.53. A u'end towards a growing demand for rosemary extract is evident.. Soc. Lebensm. E.Z.S. (1965) I. Chem.Unters.45. the D ~ s h Ministry of Agriculture and the Danish Ministry of Industry. C.K.51.Soc. Nakatani. H. N.S. Oil Chem.S.54. 29. 792-799 I. Shalini. 6] 276 .. Lebensm. Am. F. V. Food 5ci. 521-528 Aruoma. (1974) Die Fleischwirtsch. T. L61iger.D. Mizuno. and Kikuzaki. K. G. and Kapsalis.W. Bredenberg. Chem. T.H. 2727-2732 Vekiari. E. Bndei. only rosemary or.Forsch. Tzia. BHA.K. Forsch. prowl gallate and citric acid).29.. S. (I 992) Xeeobiotica 22. and Chang. 75.42. The investigation of the antioxidafive effects of spices is fimited by the characteristic aroma that spices tend to possess. 443-448 5 Chipault.L and Huang.Rundsch.26 Farag.B..McChesney. Rev. and Kadsen. 518-519 3 Chipault.1. 32. Masuokka. (1962) Z. V.A. McConnel. and Wanasundara. Kokkini. K. and Dikanovic-Lucan.Forsch.andLundbe~W.S.Nutr.Seifen. J. DJ~.1523-15_.W. and Fuwa.O. C.292. (1992) lnt.R.Mizuno. B.A. S. Oil Chem.A. 79-87 Kikuzaki.synthetic antioxidant (a mixture of BHT. C-T. 7. and McChesney. Hall(well. FoodChem. R. Biol. 339-345 10 Wenkert. 20-23 Deighton. G. (I 977) I. Nakalani.Forsch. (1981) ].D.1407-1410 Kramer. Biol. S.agouri. H-J.S..R. and Lundberg. Industrial applications o f spices as ant(oxidants 8 Henmann. Nutr. N. H. U. 62. OilChem. R.Unters.. (1974) Food TechnoL 28. D. 209-211 6 Shah(d(. Oil Chem. Fuchs. (1982) Agric.Soc. O. The antioxidents were added to a deep-frying oil and the degree of oxidation was measured in potato chips that had been deep fried in the oil. (1993) I.B. (1993) Die FieischwiCrsch. and Baas. Lambelet. (1981) Dtsch.M.. FoodProcess. Soc. H.. and Seto.R. F~d ABric. If a spice extract is regarded as an additive it should follow the legislation concerning additives. B.Forsch.P. and Na~tani. (I 955) Food Res. N.R. (1973) Fette.S.Mizuno.A. (1964)/. M. (1993) I. 66. 63-68 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Brieskom.M. C. (1977) ]. including declaration with a European Union number. 14 SOC. Oil Chem..O.60.K. Deans.L. and Richergert. O. others are oil soluble and. H. G. (1989) Agric. 66.M-H. such that the anfioxidant effect is a favourable side effect. 221-225 Farag. and EI-Baroty. E. 141..M. a spice extract should be regarded as an additive if the only purpose of adding the extract is to add antioxidents. (1981) Agric.Khayal. C-L. P.H..134-139 Chang.i. 10.G.S. Hawkins. 273-300 2 Sehti. 42.. 70. 46-55 4 Chipault. Biol. 483-487 Chan. S.J. Am. and although rosemary has been the spice of major concer~. B. Lebensm. some of them are combined with tocopberols... Schulze. N.W.sen..D. 197. 63.G. Lee. N.E. and Viret. Acknowledgement This research has been performed as part of a cooperation project between the Depaztment of Dairy and Food Science and Danisco Ingredients within the F(~TEK programme sponsored by the Danish Ministry of Education and Research. I-L. N. ^. 25-27 Pal(c. 81-87 Corl.111-113 Srinivas. ~gren.1661-1666 Nakatanl. S.49.W. (1993) Z.M.Ostric-Matijasevic. Aeschbach. 2385-2386 Inatani.M. Blank. 58. Schulze.. (1992) Z. R. Food Protect. (1983) Agric. R. A. C-T. (1969) Die Fleischwirtsch.. F. Preserv. Am. P.. 67-103 7 Palilzsch.R. 47. 46. Ho. 195.1. Glidewell. G. I.J. According to the Danish National Food Agency.H.. Lebensm. R. Bioph). Sci.. (1987) Agric.1102-1106 Trends in Food Science & Technology August 1995 [Vol. (1994) FreeRadicalRes. W. and Chang.(1984) J. Biechem.D.A. 95-98 Schwarz. 62. References i Namiki. Rev.A.-Unters.M.(1989)]. 617-623 Tenn:. K. (1969) Z.W. S. Org. (1950) Nature 166. (1987) I. 2931-2934 11 Brieskom. 224-229 16 Houlihan.S.S. N. J.73. Decker. and Dtmling.. Metzl.1036-1039 17 Houlihan.R.P. 50.. N. S.A.R. 87. B. (1992) Z. H..77. I. 61.1407-1410 Svoboda. 17. OilChem. and Shylaya. I. The legislation related to spice extracts is ambiguous.. (I 980) Die Fleischwirtsch.-Unters. A range of comncrcial products containing extracts of rosemary is available: some of the products are water dispersible.1349-1353 Bishov.

The Netherlands (fax: +31-8370-12260. Food5.Smith. (1990) Sci. h"(19901 I.V.:..E. Fisheries and Food. W.46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 S5 SO 57 Chen..S. based on a more explicit definition./ Drug ges.~ (1990)I.AM.J.nl).P. Waldron (Institute of Food Research.FoodSci. Skibslnd. Temes. So.M.MJVl. Oil Chem..P.H.~5.S..R. and Hou. Shi. UK). and Lotter.1539 Barbut. (1992)J.A.44. YI.~.. vidual viewpoints will likely prove to be a difficult but Belgium) gave an interesting explanation of the goals and nevertheless a rather rewarding task. Rietz.B.H.D.H.K. and lames.G. 20-23 T~6k.M.. Li. Both lectures actually showed the University of East Anglia. X-I.. FoodSci.I.D. 263-274 Fang.Suprapta.5.D. Bofset.-.1 S01-1505.K. Forsch. organizing a multidisciplinary conference on food for purpose.P.I. and Reynolds. 653-655 Schulze. Am. quality without conflicts being generated between indi. O.E.X. and Jacob. 14. Alimeet~ 18.. 68.M. 25-28 June 1995 doughs were traced back to the [3-spiral stereo configuL.M. and Nakatani.E.SO ttd 277 . Palitzsch. Trends in Food Science & Technology August 1995 [Vol.e~e 0924-2244/9~OS.AM. FoodSci.T. and Schmauderer. FoodProcess.631.G. and Pike. The structure and mechanical properties of wheat * Held at the Universityof EastAnglia. aspects. 5oc. e-mail: tijskens@ Crops.FoodProfect.W.G. (1986)J. 68. Int.Boofen.-Forsch.O.M..rod Buddey. The Netherlands) explained how a disci* Thus. and Fang. (1983) Gordian 9. (1993)J. 195.. Food 5ci. (198811.Land Bucldey.R. Y.Tijskens The ancient Romans were already aware of the dilemma: although one can argue about taste and colour. (1988H]~eF/e/schw/dsch. H.. J-W.878-882 McNeil. 1080-1081 W~a. 11993)I.Soc.UK) unravelled the mystery sun'ounding the texture of sophical considerations about how food quality research Chinese water chestnuts. Norwich.-:. ackel.M. (i 991)/.DJ.654 6g Korczak.Crippen. 597-600 62 Saleemi. B.C. Dupuy.K. L.Y.104-107 Viani.H. Norwich.Commission of the European Community.A.. 57-59 Resuneccion.J. FoodChem. Kim.. Dimick. Draper. approaches and sense does exist. 6] o:. Wageningen..D.Untets..641-643 63 Lai. (19941 7_ Lebeflsm. Static descriptions M o v i n g into the f u t u r e K. and held at Union FAIR pmgranune).S... Three plenary lectures were devoted to more philo. Masuda.S-M.W-).. (1977) UK Patent 1 468 271 59 Huisman. Institute of Arable Wageningen.8OI-806 Rankin. 629. and Zdzislaw. Am. 51.improve the understanding of quality in all its facets and wards a mutual goal: the improvement of food from all interactions. and Schr6ter.. the texture of this tuber hardly culture.N. 56. (1992)J. Tangah.A. In contrast to almost every should be conducted. H.R. 616-620 St Angelo.J. 51. Agric.D.O. and Ho.hnportant field.W.. D. Zhao. Gara. Norwich. 247-249 64 65 66 67 68 69 ConferenceReport De gastibus et coloribus non est disputandum Agri-Food Quality '95" L._. 198. FoodChem. H.A.U. 999-1002 Economou.Chem. Sbewry.agro. was to quite clearly that a consensus of quality in an undefined bring together the different disciplines. and Thomopoulos. Madsen. FoodSci.41. B.tC (1990)J. S. one can never come to a sensible conclusion. S.J. 405-411 Han. 51.303-306 Xin. UK) presented an changes upon cooking.Ct. research and its application in practice (the Emopean Fenwick of the Institute of Food Research. FoodSci. B-L. only pliue-integrated approach to quality (added value) could the combination of disciplines and approaches taken tu.40.G. The cell-wall materials are overview of the important aspects of food quality for apparently cmsslinked by a dimer of femlic acid (pbethe UK government in terms of legislation and research nolics).H. P. UK. D. D.. and Shin. Shannon (Ministry of Agri. e~.171-176 Schwarz. 608-611 Cuvelier.R. The perception of the texture of potatoes after cooking (firm or mealy) was linked to the alo.C.~. purpose variation).109-113 Jitoe. London..l. 58.J. Belagyi.64-66 61 Stoick. Intetmed. PO Box 17... Jongun (Agricultural University standing of all types of researchers and practitioners.J. (1990) Res. The aim of the means to reach such goals to improve food quality Agri-Food Quality '95 conference. and to enlarge the scope and mutual under.Gray. Bristol. (1993) Foodges. (1991) I.R'em'v..L.Q.L.. 56.(1992)1.X. the scientific topics presented were not new. J. K. Forsch.L.LH. Baas. no consensus exists fox a more aspects concerned with and connected to food and food formal definition of quality in this vast and very quality. V.C. I.Agdc. Ofepoulou. S~.C. Wanasundara. A..and Ashmore.R. Gray. Flaczyk. ~mdBeddsen. 38.69. UK.1337-1340 Lee.other vegetable or fruit..P.A. (1994) Arzeeim. .A. 8omsasteeg 59. however. Fc~d~L 55.(199111.and Mast. N.and Shahidi. 6700 AA ration of gluten proteins (P.Z.A. organized by G. 55. C-T. (1973)J.H. S..SA.Unters. H. and Wada.P. 8ooeen... (1971) D/e Fleischwirtsch. 26. 16. Lebensm. and Hadley. This finding could point to the contribution of for the ever-changing purpose of the commodity (fitness phenolics in the textural properties of other vegetables and fruit being more important than previously thought. and Richard.171-183 Gerhardt.M-E..-.F. (1992) Z. Oil Chem. Breslin (DG XII. T~ens is at ATO-DLO. Brussels..