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Conveyor Chain Designer Guide
I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue
Selecting the right chain for a given application is essential to obtain long service life. This guide has been developed for use with Renold conveyor chain to help in specifying the right chain and lubrication for your conveyor system. The significance of the Renold conveyor chain design is emphasised, followed by guidance on selection procedure. Detailed descriptions are given of the various methods of application in a variety of mechanical handling problems and under widely varying conditions. The supporting material includes various reference tables and statistics. From the pyramids to the railway revolution, muscle-power of men and animals has moved goods and materials, but throughout history, machines, however primitive, have played some part, becoming more and more versatile.
Renold conveyor chain is made up of a series of inner and outer links. Each link comprises components manufactured from materials best suited to their function in the chain; the various parts are shown in Figure 1. An inner link consists of a pair of inner plates which are pressed onto cylindrical bushes, whilst on each bush a free fitting roller is normally assembled. Each outer link has a pair of outer plates which are pressed onto bearing pins and the ends of the pins are then rivetted over the plate. Within the immediate past, mechanical handling has emerged as a manufacturing industry in its own right, of considerable size and with countless applications. This is a consequence of its coverage, which now ranges from the simplest store conveyor system to the largest flow line production layouts, and also includes the movement of personnel by lifts, escalators and platforms. Amongst the most widely used types of handling equipment are conveyors, elevators and similar assemblies. These can take many forms, employing as their basic moving medium both metallic and non-metallic components or a mixture of the two. For the great majority of applications Renold conveyor chain in its many variations, when fitted with suitable attachments, provides a highly efficient propulsion and/or carrying medium, having many advantages over other types. Roller chain has been employed as an efficient means of transmitting power since it was invented by Hans Renold in 1880. Later the principle was applied to conveyor chain giving the same advantages of precision, heattreated components to resist wear, high strength to weight ratio and high mechanical efficiency.` From the foregoing, it will be seen that a length of chain is a series of plain journal bearings free to articulate in one plane. When a chain articulates under load the friction between pin and bush, whilst inherently low because of the smooth finish on the components, will tend to turn the bush in the inner plates and similarly the bearing pin in the outer plate. To prevent this the bush and pin are force fitted into the chain plates. Close limits of accuracy are applied to the diameters of plate holes, bushes and bearing pins, resulting in high torsional security and rigidity of the mating components. Similar standards of accuracy apply to the pitch of the holes in the chain plates. To ensure optimum wear life the pin and bush are hardened. The bush outside diameter is hardened to contend with the load carrying pressure and gearing action, both of which are imparted by the chain rollers. Chain roller material and diameter can be varied and are selected to suit applicational conditions; guidance in roller selection is given on page 80. Materials used in chain manufacture conform to closely controlled specifications. Manufacture of components is similarly controlled both dimensionally and with regard to heat treatment. For a given pitch size of transmission chain, there is normally a given breaking load. However, conveyor chain does not follow this convention. For each breaking load, conveyor chain has multiple pitch sizes available. The minimum pitch is governed by the need for
adequate sprocket tooth strength, the maximum pitch being dictated by plate and general chain rigidity. The normal maximum pitch can be exceeded by incorporating strengthening bushes between the link plates, and suitable gaps in the sprocket teeth to clear these bushes. CHAIN TYPES There are two main types of conveyor chain hollow bearing pin and solid bearing pin. Hollow Bearing Pin Chain Hollow pin conveyor chain offers the facility for fixing attachments to the outer links using bolts through the hollow pin and attachment, this method of fixing being suitable for use in most normal circumstances. The attachments may be bolted up tight or be held in a ‘free’ manner. Bolted attachments should only span the outer link as a bolted attachment spanning the inner link would impair the free articulation of the chain.
Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue
Solid Bearing Pin Chain Solid bearing pin chain, while having exactly the same gearing dimensions in the BS series of chain as the equivalent hollow pin chain, i.e.pitch, inside width and roller diameter, is more robust with a higher breaking load and is recommended for use where more arduous conditions may be encountered.
CHAIN ATTACHMENTS An attachment is any part fitted to the basic chain to adapt it for a particular conveying duty, and it may be an integral part of the chain plate or can be built into the chain as a replacement for the normal link. K Attachments These are the most popular types of attachment, being used on slat and apron conveyors, bucket elevators etc. As shown in Fig. 2 they provide a platform parallel to the chain and bearing pin axes. They are used for securing slats and buckets etc. to the chain. Either one or two holes are normally provided in the platform, being designated K1 or K2 respectively. K attachments can be incorporated on one or both sides of the chain. For the more important stock pitches where large quantities justify the use of special manufacturing equipment, the attachments are produced as an integral part of the chain, as shown in Fig. 2(a). Here the platform is a bent over extension of the chain plate itself. On other chain or where only small quantities are involved, separate attachments are used, as shown in Fig. 2(b). These are usually welded to the chain depending on the particular chain series and the application. Alternatively, (see Fig 2(c)), K attachments may be bolted to the chain either through the hollow bearing pins, or by using special outer links with extended and screwed bearing pin ends.
usually secured by welding. Each wing can be provided with one or two holes, being designated F1 or F2 respectively.
(a) F1 attachments welded to link plates on one or both sides of the chain as required. (b) F2 attachments welded to link plates on one or both sides of the chain as required. Spigot Pins and Extended Bearing Pins Both types are used on pusher and festoon conveyors and tray elevators, etc. Spigot pins may be assembled through hollow bearing pins, inner links or outer links. When assembled through link plates a spacing bush is necessary to ensure that the inside width of the chain is not reduced. Gapping of the sprocket teeth is necessary to clear the bush. Solid bearing pin chains can have similar extensions at the pitch points by incorporating extended pins. Both spigot pins and extended pins, as shown in Fig. 4, can be case-hardened on their working diameters for increased wear resistance.
Deep Link Chain Hollow and solid pin chain has an optional side plate design known as deep link. This chain’s side plates have greater depth than normal, thus providing a continuous carrying edge above the roller periphery.
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS Conveyor chain, like transmission chain, can be manufactured to a number of different international standards. The main standards available are: British Standard - BS This standard covers chain manufactured to suit the British market and markets where a strong British presence has dominated engineering design and purchasing. The standard is based on the original Renold conveyor chain design. ISO Standard Chain manufactured to ISO standards is not interchangeable with BS or DIN standard chain. This standard has a wide acceptance in the European market, except in Germany. Chain manufactured to this standard is becoming more popular and are used extensively in the Scandinavian region.
(a) K1 bent over attachment. (b) K1 attachment, welded to link plate. (c) K2 attachment bolted through hollow bearing pin. F Attachments These attachments as shown in Fig. 3 are frequently used for pusher and scraper applications. They comprise a wing with a vertical surface at right angles to the chain. They can be fitted to one or both sides and are (a) Spigot pin assembled through outer or inner link. (b) Spigot pin bolted through hollow bearing pin. (c) Extended bearing pin.
I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue
Staybars Types of mechanical handling equipment that use staybars are pusher, wire mesh, festoon conveyors, etc., the staybars being assembled in the same manner as spigot pins. When assembled through link plates a spacing bush and gapping of the sprocket teeth are necessary. The plain bar-and-tube type shown in Fig. 5 has the advantage that the staybar can be assembled with the chain in situ by simply threading the bar through the chain and tube. The shouldered bar type has a greater carrying capacity than the bar-and-tube type. Staybars are normally used for either increasing overall rigidity by tying two chains together, maintaining transverse spacing of the chains, or supporting loads.
extended beyond one bearing pin hole and then bent round. The attachments can be plain or drilled with one or two holes, being designated L0, L1 or L2 respectively. They can be supplied on one or both sides of the chain. With this type of attachment the chain rollers are normally equal to the plate depth, or a bush chain without rollers is used.
Outboard Rollers The main reasons for using outboard rollers are that they increase roller loading capacity of the chain and provide a stabilised form of load carrier. As shown in Fig. 10 the outboard rollers are fixed to the chain by bolts which pass through hollow bearing pins. Outboard rollers have the advantage that they are easily replaced in the event of wear and allow the chain rollers to be used for gearing purposes only.
Fig. 10 Outboard Rollers
L2 attachments on both sides of the outer link. S and Pusher Attachments These are normally used on dog pusher conveyors. As shown in Fig. 8 the S attachment consists of a triangular plate integral with the chain plate; it can be assembled on one or both sides of the chain, but may also be assembled at the inner link position. S attachments are intended for lighter duty, but for heavier duty a pair of attachments on one link is connected by a spacer block to form a pusher attachment. This increases chain rigidity and pushing area.
Chain Joints Conveyor chain is normally supplied in convenient handling lengths, these being joined by means of outer connecting links. This can be accomplished by the use of any of the following:
(a) Staybar bolted through hollow bearing pin. (b) Staybar assembled through outer or inner link.
G Attachments As shown in Fig. 6 this attachment takes the form of a flat surface positioned against the side of the chain plate and parallel to the chain line. It is normally used for bucket elevators and pallet conveyors. When the attachment is integral with the outer plate then the shroud of the chain sprocket has to be removed to clear the plate. G Attachments are normally fitted only to one side of the chain.
(a) S attachment outer plate; assembled on one or both sides of chain as required. (b) Pusher attachment. Drilled Link Plates Plates with single holes as shown in Fig. 9(a) are associated with the fitting of staybars or spigot pins. Where G or K attachments are to be fitted then link plates with two holes as shown in Fig. 9(b) are used. Where attachments are fitted to inner links then countersunk bolts must be used to provide sprocket tooth clearance.
Outer link used for rivetting chain endless. It is particularly useful in hollow bearing pin chains where the hollow pin feature is to be retained. No. 69 Bolt-type connecting link with solid bearing pin. Loose plate is a slip fit on the bearing pins and retained by self locking nuts.
(a) G2 attachment outer plate. (b) G2 attachment, welded or rivetted to link plate. L Attachments These have some affinity with the F attachment, being in a similar position on the chain. A familiar application is the box scraper conveyor. As shown in Fig. 7 the attachments are integral with the outer plates, being
Renold suggest that for most applications a factor of safety of 8 is used. weight.e. 12 Basic Requirements To enable the most suitable chain to be selected for a particular application it is necessary to know full applicational details such as the following: No. Type of conveyor. If it is imagined that the chains are ‘cut’ at position X then there will be a lower load pull or tension at this position than at Y. This principle has been used to arrive at the easy reference layouts and formulae (Page 83 84) to which most conveyor and elevator applications should conform. Method of feed and rate of delivery. the connecting plate being an interference fit on the bearing pins. f. Fig. Selection of Chain Pitch In general the largest stock pitch possible consistent with correct operation should be used for any application. Renold always specify minimum breaking load. 14 Total chain tension C Travel D A Driver B Y X Section 4 .500 lbf series chain only. spacing and method of fixing to the chain. 85 No. 11 For 4. Type of chain attachment. 58 On lower breaking strength chain a soft circlip retains the connecting plate in position on the pins. Advantages of Renold Conveyor Chain These can be summarised as follows:a. i. 86 but allows attachments to be bolted to both sides of the chain. For uniformly loaded conveyors there is a progressive increase in chain tension from theoretically zero at A to a maximum at D. The use of high grade materials ensures reliability on onerous and arduous applications.g. Number of chains and chain speed. This fact is significant in the placing of caterpillar drives in complex circuits and also in assessing tension loadings for automatic take-up units. Low friction due to a smooth finish of the components. buckets. accurate gearing and low sprocket tooth wear. No. Description of material carried. 11 No.. Extra pull required to turn the idler wheels and shaft. 85 Similar to No. e. 14 the maximum pull at D comprises the sum of: (a) (b) Pull due to chain and moving parts on the unloaded side. some have quoted minimum breaking loads depending upon their level of confidence in their product. Factors of safety Chain manufacturers specify the chain in their product range by breaking load. This is illustrated graphically in Fig. e. No. chain roller loading (see Page 76) and the necessity for an acceptable minimum number of teeth in the sprockets where space restriction exists. The latter is particularly important in multi-strand systems where equal load distribution is vital. Other factors include size of bucket or slats etc. The accuracy of components provides consistency of operation. 86 Thus. since economic advantage results from the use of the reduced number of chain components per unit length.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 73 Designer Guide Fig. Large bearing areas and hardened components promote maximum life. No. The facility to obtain a variety of pitches with each chain breaking strength and a variation in attachment types provides adaptability. Fig. As a general rule. the summation of which gives the total tension in the chain. Where conveyors do not easily fit these layouts and circuits are more complex then see page 85 or consult Renold Applications Department for advice. in Fig. Some have quoted average breaking loads. 58 No. Pull due to the load being moved. This is particularly necessary where changes in direction occur or where the load is not constant over the whole of the conveyor. d. etc. circlips are fitted to both ends of hollow connecting pins. weight of slats. Working Load = Breaking Load 8 No. Details of conveying attachments. b. 14 where the vertical distances represent the chain tension occurring at particular points in the circuit. Pull due to chain and moving parts on the loaded side. c. Chain Pull Calculations The preferred method of calculating the tension in a conveyor chain is to consider each section of the conveyor that has a different operating condition. size and quantity. To obtain a design working load it is necessary to apply a “factor of safety” to the breaking load and this is an area where confusion has arisen. The connecting pins are extended to permit the fitment of attachments on one side of the chain only. 13 (c) (d) Conveyor centre distance and inclination from the horizontal. The inclusion of a chain roller and the high strength to weight ratio enable lighter chain selection and lower power consumption. 86 A modified version of the bolt-type connecting link.
Chain Life There are a number of factors affecting the life of a chain in a particular environment. etc. These steels have yield strengths that vary from 50% to 65% of their ultimate tensile strength. well lubricated conditions and this is allowed for by increasing the factor of safety as shown in table 1. A further consideration when applying a factor of safety to a chain application is the chain life. thus lowering the bearing pressure. or cause pitting of the pin. Corrosion. This means that if chains are subjected to loads of 50% to 65% of their breaking load. . Materials such as Nitrates will cause the failure of stressed components due to nitrate stress cracking. abrasiveness. POINT Lubrication -30 / +150°C 150 . Experience has shown that. and the motors used today are capable of up to 200% full load torque output for a short period. If. 3. The pitting of the surface has the effect of reducing the bearing area of the component and therefore increasing the bearing pressure and wear rate. a factor of safety of 8 seems very high and suggests that the chain could be over-selected if this factor is applied. The design of conveyor chain is such that at the calculated working load of the chain (relative to the breaking load) then the bearing pressure between the pin and the bush will be at a maximum of 24N/mm2 (3500lb/in2) for a clean well lubricated environment. Page 107 shows some materials together with their corrosive potential for various chain materials. then permanent pitch extension is likely to occur. and this is without considering any over-selection of the motor nominal power. Table 1 gives a general guide to the appropriate safety factors for different applications. This pressure should be reduced for anything less than clean. the increase in factor of safety is applied with the object of lowering the pin/bush bearing pressure to improve the chain life. i. The load on the chain and therefore the bearing pressure between the pin and the bush. For the basic maintenance measures required to obtain the maximum useful life from your chain consult the Installation and Maintenance section. if some detriment to the working life of the chain is to be avoided. The tension applied to a chain is carried by the pin/bush interface which at the chain sprockets articulates as a plain bearing.200°C 200 . bush and roller surfaces. The characteristics of the material handled. given a good environment. see page 91. Most chain side plates are manufactured from low or medium carbon steel and are sized to ensure they have adequate strength and resistance to shock loading.74 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide On first inspection. however. It is possible to improve the d. Table 1 . 15 In anything other than a clean well lubricated environment the factor of safety should be increased. a. c. b. A safety factor of 8 will give this bearing pressure.Factors of Safety CLEANLINESS/LUBRICATION Lubrication Clean Moderately Clean 10 12 14 Dirty Abrasive abrasion resistance of chain components by more sophisticated heat treatments at extra cost but the usual way of ensuring an acceptable life is to reduce the bearing pressure. and 2 when the possible instantaneous overload on the drive is considered. Some materials are aggressive to normal steels and the nature of the attack will be to reduce the side plate section and therefore the chain strength. and a clean and well lubricated chain. 2. we examine the situation in detail. In some instances it is possible to use block chain to improve chain life. a bearing pressure of up to 24N/mm2 (3500 lb/inch2) will give an acceptable pin/bush life. 5.300°C Regular Occasional (a) O EXTENSION 8 10 12 10 12 14 12 14 16 None Section 4 PERMANENT EXTENSION In all the listed applications and conditions. Regular Occasional None LOAD 8 10 12 12 14 16 14 16 18 TEMPERATURE/LUBRICATION P MATERIAL YIELD. See page 101 for the abrasive characteristics of materials. Fig. 4. It is the tendency to over-select drive sizes “just to be sure the drive is adequate”. The process will also introduce (onto the bearing surfaces) corrosion products which are themselves abrasive. the following points arise:1.e. Some materials are extremely abrasive and if the material cannot be kept away from the chain then the bearing pressure must be reduced to lessen the effect of the abrasion. The consequences of this are that a chain confidently selected with a factor of safety of 8 on breaking load is in effect operating with a factor of safety of as low as 4 on the yield of the material. Maintenance by the end user is one of the most important factors governing the life of a chain.
10 Thus the overall theoretical coefficient of chain rollers moving on a rolled steel track = 0.4 25.15 0.10 0.14 0.07 0.14 0.90 + μF d μC = overall coefficient of friction for chain.13 Roller radius (mm) 0.10 0.8 47.09 0.16 0. 17 BS Series BS13 BS20 BS27/BS33 BS54/BS67 13 20 27/33 54/67 25.10 0.005 x Bd) .12 0.4 31. D = roller outside diameter in mm.14 0.13 0. . which becomes: MC56 M80 M112 MC112 M160 M224 MC224 M315 M450 M630 M900 Table 2 Section 4 Regular Lubrication μF = 0.14 0. Thus overall coefficient of friction for a chain roller fitted with ball bearings and rolling on a steel track: μc = 0. therefore: Coefficient of rolling friction = 0. μF is taken as 0.12 0.12 0.08 0.12 0.09 0.26 + (μF x Roller bore) (mm) Roller diameter (mm) In practice.10 0. Coefficient of sliding friction = μF x Roller bore (mm) The following table shows values for overall coefficient of friction for standard conveyor chain with standard rollers (μc).12 0.10 0.17 0.15 0.7 88.18 0. D Fig. and therefore the roller diameter is used in an additional part of the formula.11 0.09 0.00013 Roller radius (m) = = 0.08 0.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 75 Designer Guide Assessment of chain roller friction In conveyor calculations the value of the coefficient of friction of the chain roller has a considerable effect on chain selection.9 88.09 0.26 + (0. Firstly there is a resistance to motion caused by rolling friction and the value for a steel roller rolling on a steel track is normally taken as 0.26 + (μF x d) + 1.25 should be used.15 0.12 0.09 0. Again this applies at the bush/roller contact faces and needs to be related to their diameters.64 Roller diameter (mm) .11 0.005. The need for this is more evident as roller diameters become smaller. the latter being assumed to apply to most conditions.11 0. d = roller bore diameter in mm.25 .9 88.08 0.20 No Lubrication μF = 0.06 0.10 0.13 Roller diameter (mm) Fig. OVERALL COEFFICIENTS OF ROLLING FRICTION FOR STANDARD CONVEYOR CHAIN (μc) Chain Reference Ultimate Strength (kN) Roller Diameter (mm) D Chain Overall Coefficient of Friction μc Roller diameter (mm) + 1.17 0.19 0.11 0. However this figure applies to the periphery and needs to be related to the roller diameter.09 0. 16 Bush/Roller clearance (exaggerated) D BS107/BS134 107/134 Bd Chain Pull Roller d BS160/BS200 160/200 BS267 BS400 267 400 Bush Sliding Friction F Rolling Friction ISO Series M40 M56 40 56 56 80 112 112 160 224 224 315 450 630 900 36 42 50 50 60 70 70 85 100 100 120 140 170 0. would be used as the roller bore.13 0. μF = bush/roller sliding friction coefficient. μc = 1.10 0.15 Occasional Lubrication μF = 0.6 66.20 0. Alternative values can be calculated as above if the roller diameter is modified from the standard shown.07 0.15 is used and for poor lubrication approaching the unlubricated state.14 0.09 0.005 x Mean diameter of balls (mm)) Roller diameter (mm) Secondly a condition of sliding friction exists between the roller bore and the bush periphery. a contingency is allowed.09 0.07 0.09 0.11 0.90 + (0.11 0. The formula is applicable to any plain bearing roller but in the case of a roller having ball. When a chain roller rotates on a supporting track there are two aspects of friction to be considered. a value of 0.10 0.9 0.11 0.64 D and simplified: Where D D μC = 1.11 0.12 0. roller or needle bearings the mean diameter of the balls etc.00013.09 0.08 0.26 Overall coefficient of friction = μC = 0.0025 to 0.13 0. For well lubricated clean conditions a coefficient of sliding friction μF of 0.13 0. (Bd). to account for variations in the surface quality of the tracking and other imperfections such as track joints.13 0.13 0.
2N/mm2 0. Roller Sizes and Types 1. These rollers can be either plain or flanged in steel. Most chain can be supplied with ball bearing rollers either outboard or integral. Delrin. Bush/Roller Bearing Areas and Bearing Pressures The bush/roller bearing areas for standard BS and ISO series conveyor chain are as follows: Bush/Roller Bearing Area – BS Chain Reference Bearing Area mm2 Bearing Pressure Normal maximum permitted bearing pressures for chain speeds up to 0. higher bearing pressures and PVR values than normal can be tolerated. If it does. Unhardened mild steel rollers are used in lightly loaded.ISO Chain Reference Bearing Area mm2 M40 M56 MC56 M80 M112 MC112 M160 M224 MC224 M315 M450 M630 M900 232 333 447 475 630 850 880 1218 1583 1634 2234 3145 4410 Table 3 (Continued) . 4. These depend upon a combination of bearing pressure and rubbing speed between bush and roller. They create an acceptable rolling clearance above and below the chain side plates. e. and the degree of cleanliness and lubrication on the application. 2. Please enquire. This special design option can be justified by the selection of a lower breaking load chain in many applications and a reduction in the drive power required. nylon or other plastics can be used where either noise or corrosion is a major problem.5m/sec. Synthetic rollers. Roller Loading (Bush/Roller Wear) In the majority of cases a conveyor roller chain will meet bush/roller wear requirements if it has been correctly selected using factors of safety on breaking load. 3.8N/mm2 1. Cast iron rollers are used in applications where some corrosion is likely and a measure of self-lubrication is required. 4. or if the conveyor speed exceeds 0..76 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide ROLLER SELECTION AND ROLLER LOADING CONSIDERATIONS Roller Selection Roller Materials 1. known as the PVR value. and in reasonably clean and lubricated applications are listed below: Roller Material Bearing Pressure P Normal Maximum Mild steel case hardened Sintered steel through hardened Cast iron 1. 5. Flanged rollers are used where extra guidance is required or where imposed side loads would otherwise force the chain out of line. If cleanliness and lubrication are much better than average for example. Hardened steel rollers are used in the majority of applications where a hard wearing surface is required. cast iron or synthetic material.5m/sec. On all other BS and on ISO chain the standard hardened rollers are in case hardened mild steel. which could cause the bearing pressure between the chain bush and roller to be excessively high. Small (gearing) rollers are used for sprocket gearing purposes only to reduce abrasion and wear between chain bush and sprocket tooth. clean and well lubricated applications subject to occasional use. Standard projecting rollers are used for most conveying applications and are designed to operate smoothly with optimum rolling friction properties. Larger diameter rollers are occasionally used where the greater diameter of the roller reduces wear by reducing the rubbing velocity on the chain bushes and promotes smoother running at slow speeds. Note that through hardened sintered rollers are standard on BS chain of 26 to 67kN breaking load. Doubt can arise where heavy unit loading is involved. 2. In such cases further checks have to be made. when not operating vertically.68N/mm2 Table 4 The formula: bearing pressure P (N/mm2) = roller load R (N) Bearing area BA (mm2) is used first to check whether actual pressure exceeds the above recommendation. In order to make this judgement the following table is used. These rollers do not project and consequently.g. 3. the chain may still be acceptable if alternative conditions can be met. or where the chain speed may exceed the recommended maximum. the chain will slide on the side plate edges. along with the formula: Rubbing Speed VR (m/sec) = Chain Speed (m/sec) x Bush diameter (mm) Roller Diameter (mm) BS13 BS20 BS27 BS33 BS54 BS67 BS107 BS134 BS160 BS200 BS267 BS400 99 143 254 254 420 420 803 803 1403 1403 1403 1403 Section 4 Table 3 Bush/Roller Bearing Area .
0. The oil film builds up between the bush and roller at the leading edge of the pressure contact area and the resulting vacuum condition between the two surfaces requires force to break it down.0. b.68 over 0. The other features that are necessary for stick slip to occur are: a. 2.0.15 mild steel over 0.25 use PVR =1. If the speed is below 0. Use ball bearing rollers. 0. it is possible for the chain between the loads to experience stick slip due to light loading. then this force is not immediately available and the roller slides along the track without rotating.15 over 0. serving to increase the chain load pull.If the chain is loaded at intervals. The load pull effect resulting from the chain transversing a curved section.035m/sec. Irregular loading . even if this be in the vertical downward direction. Although the friction is insufficient to cause the roller to turn. then great care should be taken in system design: 3.55 use PVR =0.025 . and.17 encountered causes of stick-slip is overlubrication of the chain. if possible. calculate the PV value to see if it is below the max value in the table.15 Sintered through0.30 0. Once rotation returns then the cycle is repeated causing regular pulsations and variations of chain speed.718) μc = ‘Stick Slip’ ‘Stick-Slip’ is a problem that occurs in some slow moving conveyor systems which results in irregular motion of the chain in the form of a pulse. Avoid irregular loading. Avoid speeds in the critical range up to approx. If the rubbing speed is below 0.59 use PVR =0. or use ball bearing inboard or outboard rollers with the required load capacity. relative to the former.25 3. and friction between the belt and pulley.1 Control the application of lubricant to avoid track contamination.80 over 0. Use outboard rollers. Heavy loads tend to break the oil film down on the chain tracks. An analogy is a belt on a pulley whereby the holding or retaining effect depends upon the extent of wrap-around of the belt.25 use PVR =0. is always considered as a positive value.. If it is not possible to avoid the speed and loading criticality.35 1. 3. Light loading . Stick slip only occurs under certain conditions and the purpose of this section is to highlight those conditions to enable the problem to be recognised and avoided. If any of the other stick-slip conditions are present then μR1 is insufficient to cause the roller to turn against the roller/bush friction μF and the roller slides along on a film of oil.25 10. b. If the calculated bearing pressure or PV exceeds the guidelines given in the tables then consider one of the following: a. 3. If the chain tracks are coated with oil. whether upwards or downwards in direction. If the rubbing speed is above 0. 0.25 6.025 . 18).025 m/s it is best to use rollers with an o/d to bore ratio of 3 or higher. either plain or ball bearing. If in doubt consult Renold. (Fig.90 1. e. if possible.e. or improve mechanical efficiency. For a conveyor running at a linear speed of approx. As a rough guide. Precautions to Avoid Stick Slip 1.025 .025 .04 use PVR =0.7:1 or greater should eliminate stick slip at the critical speeds. μF.2 If light loads are to be carried then chain rollers should be either larger than standard or be fitted with ball bearings to lower the bush/roller friction. where plain (not ball bearing) rollers are used. one of the most often Coefficient of friction between chain and track θ = Bend angle (radians) Section 4 .0. over a period. 18 Bush/Roller Clearance(Exaggerated) od id Roller Bush µ F W (kg) µ R1 P1 = Chain pull at entry into bend (N) P2 = Chain pull at exit from bend (N) e = Naperian logarithm base (2. or oil residue.0. Use larger diameter rollers to reduce the rubbing speed. the roller will develop a series of flats which will compound the problem. This applies whether the curved tracks are in the vertical or horizontal planes. Bearing Pressure P (N/mm2) Very Good Conditions Average Conditions 0.15 hardened steel over 0.45 0. In either case the change from the sliding state to rotation causes a pulse as the velocity of the chain decreases and then increases. The vacuum then fails.If the loading on the roller is very light then it is easy for a vacuum condition to develop.20 over 0.025 .0.15 m/s.025 . TRACKED BENDS Where chain is guided around curves there is an inward reaction pressure acting in the direction of the curve centre.25 use PVR =1. Use a larger chain size with consequently larger rollers. a ratio of roller diameter to bush diameter of 2. friction is present and. Referring to the diagrams this relationship is given by: P2 = P1e Where μcθ d. c. either due to the static condition of the bush/roller surfaces or by the breakdown of the dynamic film of lubricant on the track. Similarly there is a definite relationship between the tension or pull in the chain at entry and exit of the curve. Fig.91 0.15 Average Conditions Max.15 calculate the bearing pressure to see if it is below the maximum given in the table. Too much oil on the chain leads to the chain support tracks being coated with oil thus lowering μR1.15 Cast iron 0. with unloaded gaps. i.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 77 Designer Guide Table 5 Roller Material Rubbing speed VR (m/sec) Very Good Conditions Case hardened 0.035m/sec or less.
06 0.35 0.2712 μcθ 0.5841 1.0497 6.16 0.4191 1.0552 4.48 1.21 0. RL(N) = P2(N) x Chain Pitch (mm) Chain curve radius (mm) Values of eμcθ for variable Values of μcθ μcθ 0.34 0.2092 1.6859 7.58 0.1163 1.25 0.1275 1.39 0.5068 1.2586 1.1618 1.2200 2.22 0.30 0.4050 1.5220 1.31 0.30 1.38 0.9530 5.0833 0.10 0.1972 1.3499 1.2969 1.14 0.47 0.4770 1.1835 1.33 0.28 1.90 2.5683 1.0408 1.46 0.15 0.4333 1.12 0.5527 μcθ 0.70 1.32 0.0138 2.57 0.6693 4.41 0.11 0.0042 3.24 eμcθ 1. C R .60 1.6487 1.1505 1.3910 1. and it will be noted that these will vary according to pitch.17 0.43 0.5373 1.3771 1.6000 1.10 1.37 0.13 0.4900 1.3231 0.2900 1.7183 3.4817 4.3634 1.1052 1.4596 2.6161 1.4477 1.40 0.2337 1.20 1.33 0.00 1.04 0.02 0.4739 6.0202 1.3201 3.2461 1. Table 6 gives values of eμcθ.2214 1. roller diameter and plate depth.00 eμcθ 1.59 1.23 0.2840 1.8221 2. This can be done from the following formula where RL is the load per roller due to the reaction loading at the bend section.1388 1.63 0.44 eμcθ 1.4918 1. Since high reaction loadings can be involved when negotiating bend sections it is usually advisable to check the resulting roller loading.18 0.27 0.20 0.3100 1.1735 1.19 0.08 0. Relevant minimum radii against each chain series are listed in table 7 on page 79.40 1.0618 1.56 0.26 0.3891 Section 4 The reaction loading value obtained should then be added to the normal roller load and the total can be compared with the permitted values discussed in the section on roller selection and roller loading considerations.50 0. Minimum Track Radius for Link Clearance There is a minimum radius which a chain can negotiate without fouling of the link plate edges.80 1.78 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide Fig.42 0.36 0.4623 1.50 1. 19 VERTICAL PLANEUPWARDS P2 θ P1 θ P2 P1 θ P2 P1 VERTICAL PLANEDOWNWARDS HORIZONTAL PLANE The above formula applies whether the chain is tracked via the chain rollers or by the chain plate edges bearing on suitable guide tracks.45 0.
30 127.10 50.0 M450 120 6.0 M900 170 8.20 228.60 101.00 152.3 Pitch mm 38.10 177.30 38.0 BS400 88.20 228.3 MC56 M80 50 2.9 5.40 177. mm 25.00 152.3 Pitch mm 63 80 100 125 160 63 80 100 125 160 200 250 80 100 125 160 200 250 80 125 160 200 250 315 400 100 125 160 200 250 315 125 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 160 200 250 315 400 500 630 200 250 315 400 500 630 800 250 315 400 500 630 800 1000 315 400 500 630 800 1000 Track Radius R mm 136 218 340 530 867 77 138 228 368 618 978 1540 163 253 393 643 1003 1565 106 299 506 806 1275 2040 3306 182 283 461 718 1120 1775 222 388 628 1003 1615 2628 4128 6576 593 953 1515 2433 3953 6202 9875 304 505 833 1376 2179 3491 5661 537 891 1475 2340 3753 6090 9552 653 1100 1762 2842 4629 7276 BS13 M56 50 2.00 304.5 BS20 25.40 76.40 165.4 Clearance C mm 1.80 63.0 Section 4 .00 304.8 1.50 76.0 BS160 BS200 BS267 88.0 M224 85 5.60 114.60 Track Radius R mm 60 115 190 280 380 500 635 90 160 255 375 160 255 370 510 670 845 1050 1270 1500 305 425 560 720 890 1295 1755 2300 2920 295 480 710 830 970 1280 1630 2020 2920 185 285 400 540 690 860 1250 1980 2870 335 810 1470 2320 3350 5990 ISO SERIES Chain Ref.6 2.5 M112 60 4.80 63.5 MC112 M160 70 4.60 254.20 228.70 152.20 152.0 M630 140 7.10 50.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 79 Designer Guide Minimum Track Radii for BS and ISO Series Chain Table 7 BS SERIES Chain Ref. Roller Dia.90 101.40 228.20 88.50 76.80 381.80 127.30 127. mm M40 36 Clearance C mm 1.20 88.80 381.80 63.40 177.60 114.7 4.00 152.00 457.20 50.0 BS107 BS134 66.9 5.80 203.20 88.80 203.60 127. Roller Dia.90 101.90 101.3 BS27 BS33 31.0 MC224 M315 100 5.0 BS54 BS67 47.60 304.00 139.20 609.80 203.60 114.50 76.00 457.60 254.4 1.
but it is recommended that a machine cut tooth form is also used to ensure equal load sharing. i.g A and B. SPROCKETS Where chains have been matched. Due to manufacturing tolerances on chain components actual chain length may vary within certain limits. in which handling lengths placed opposite each other are as near equal in length as possible. and B1. ACCURACY In order to maintain the accuracy of matched chains it is important to ensure equal tensioning and even lubrication of the chain set. This would be to maintain the same fixed relationship between handling lengths throughout the length of the chains. etc. ATTACHMENTS It should be noted that chains can only be matched as regards the chain pitch length. A1 with B1. i. c) This list will give a series of lengths in which A and B are matched. b) A list is produced (for a two chain system) of chains. A2 with B2. These displacements tend to become more pronounced with increasing length. within approximately 300/500mm depending on breaking load.80 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide MATCHING OF CONVEYOR CHAIN Any application in which two or more strands of chain are required to operate side by side may require the strands to be matched. as in a normal conveyor drive. 2) On very long or long and complex circuits. the drive sprockets should not only be bored and keywayed as a set in relation to a tooth. Due to extra tolerances involved in attachment positioning and holing it is not possible to match chains relative to attachments. 3) Where load positioning/orientation at load or unload is important. PROCEDURE The procedure used for matching conveyor chain is as follows:a) Each handling length is accurately measured and numbered. Section 4 . where required. etc. the chain length. corresponding sections of random strands would be slightly out of register. even given identical overall lengths. different sections along any chain length may vary within the permissible limits and therefore. A2 B4 etc and. d) The chains are then tagged with a brass tag containing the appropriate identity.e.e. e. CONVEYOR TYPES The types of conveyors where this is likely to have the greatest effect are: 1) Where chains are very close and tied together. Also. Thus. ON-SITE ASSEMBLY When assembling the chain on site it is important that lengths A and B are installed opposite each other as are A1. two strands of any given pitch length would not necessarily have the same actual overall length if chosen at random.
05 x Wc x Lxμc )] N D For a layout similar to the above.g. Chain Rolling Cp = 9.051 and 0. 21 TRAVEL C DRIVEN W. This reaction load pull should then be added to the total chain pull Cp obtained using layout B page 83 and ignoring the term X (side guide friction). to move loads along a separate skid rail (e. the chain pull can be calculated as follows: Where Cp = Total chain pull (N) W = Weight of material on conveyor (kg) Wc = Weight of chain(s) and attachments (kg/m) L μR1 μR3 μc D R3 d Cp P Where μm μc Fig. the pressure of material sliding against the skirt will increase the required load pull of the chain. For many applications it is sufficiently accurate to take μR3 as being 0. This load can be calculated by the following formula: Reaction Load Pull PL = μm W Fig. H This additional pull is given by the expression: 2.64) x (1 x μc )) + (2.13. loads are carried directly on the projecting rollers of the chain. The rolling friction between the roller and the load is also variable depending upon the latter.25 x 104 GLH2 (N) Where H L G = = = the height of the material (m) the length of the loaded section of conveyor (m) a factor depending upon the material being handled. SIDE FRICTION FACTORS d D TRAVEL hu It must be appreciated that on apron conveyors carrying loose materials. kg D B L A DRIVER hu μc = Coefficient Friction. billet transfer conveyors). In this case the loads will travel at twice the speed of the chain.81 [(W x (2μr1 + 2μr3 + 1. For normal duty the tracks can be standard rolled sections but for heavy unit loads hardened tracks may be necessary. 20 W(N) CHAIN PITCH LINE Rolling friction μR1 for a steel roller on a rolled or pressed steel track is variable between 0. 22 STATIC SKIRT PLATES CHAIN PULL P m CONVEYING DIRECTLY ON CHAIN ROLLERS In some applications. instead of on attachments connected to the chain side plates. then there will be an extra load in the chain due to the reaction in the pushers. Section 4 . 22 W = Load (N) hu = Pusher Height from Chain Pitch Line (mm) P = Chain Pitch (mm) W R1 = Conveyor centres (m) = Coefficient of rolling friction between chain roller and track = Coefficient of rolling friction between chain roller and load = Chain overall coefficient of friction = Roller I/D (mm) = Roller O/D (mm) If there is more than one pusher and load position then the total reaction load can be found by either multiplying by the total number of loads or by assuming that the total load acts at one pusher. .See page 82 table 8. Note: The roller hardness should always be greater than track hardness. Where high unit loads are involved the rollers must be either case hardened mild steel or through hardened medium carbon steel. Load on Steel = Coefficient Friction. Fig. Fig.13 depending on the track surface condition. and where static skirt plates are employed.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 81 Designer Guide PUSHER CONVEYORS Where chain is used with pusher attachment plates.
14 0.90 0.04 0.70 0.50 0. Apply the correct factor of safety for the application from Table 1 page 74. 5. slack.17 0. Wm = Mass of load/metre (kg/m) W T V μc Examine the diagrams A to K (page 83 84) and select the layout nearest to the conveyor under consideration. Calculate a preliminary chain pull using an estimated chain mass.60 0.02 0. Note: The power calculated is that required to keep the conveyor moving. dry. = Total carried load (kg) = Conveying capacity (Tonnes/Hour) = Chain speed (m/sec) = Coefficient of friction.50 0. Headshaft torque can be calculated as follows: Torque = Cp x PCD (Nm) 2 J a = Chain sag (m) = Idler centres (m) m = Metres N = Newtons kW = Kilowatts kg = Kilograms Note: . If temperature and type of application affect your selection.62 0.60 0. ground Lime. dry Sand.50 0. Bituminous.40 3. chips 0. screened Lime. of sprocket (m). then select the highest factor from other relevant sections.40 0. dry.page 76.03 0.82 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide Table 8 METHODS OF SELECTION 1.07 0. pebble Limestone.70 0. Anthracite. allowance should be made for starting and transmission losses.09 0. 13mm and under Ashes.04 0. 13mm and under Ashes. Ashes.07 0.02 0.04 0. If loads are carried by the chain.see Table 2 page 75.05 0.50 0. Vb = Bucket capacity (m3) Wb = Bucket mass (kg) Section 4 8. they are based on the materials sliding on steel. not the motor size required.09 0. recalculate maximum chain pull Cp using actual chain mass and check the factor of safety obtained.13 0. lumps and fines Soda ash (heavy) Sodium carbonate Wood. fine Grain Gravel.70 0. To select a motor. Conveyor headshaft power may be calculated by using the appropriate formula for K which will give the results in Kilowatts. Chain breaking load = Chain Pull Cp x factor of safety. See table 8 opposite. ρ α G C H S K X = Load density (kg/m3) = Angle of inclination (degrees). crushed Sand.90 0.03 0. Portland Cement. RPM = V x 60 PCD x π where PCD = Pitch circle dia. wet.70 0. load on steel.to tail-shaft Wc = Chain total mass per metre (kg/m) including attachments and fittings.40 0.01 0. = Side friction factor. wet. 7.60 0. Identify and allocate values to the elements of the formulae by using the reference list opposite.sin α [See page 108] μs2 = (μc x cos α) + sin α [See page 109] μsm = (μm x cos α) + sin α 9.See page 81] = Chain pull at B (N). clinker Coal. then the roller capacity should be checked . 4. chain on steel (sliding or rolling) .90 0. wet Coke. prepared Sawdust Stone.45 0. 2.02 0. dust Stone.08 0. nuts Coal.01 0. PB μs1 = (μc x cos α) . μm = Coefficient of friction. Material Factor G (Side Friction) μm REFERENCE LIST Cp = Chain pull total (N) L = Centre distance (m) . 6. Examine the formulae printed under the selected layout for the conveyor chain pull (Cp).09 0.40 0.25 x 104 GLH2 (N) .05 0. Df = Dredge factor (spaced bkts)(N) = 90 x Vb x ρ S Dredge factor (continuous bkts)(N) = 30 x Vb x ρ S 10.70 0. damp Sand. Headshaft RPM can be calculated after selecting a suitable size of drive sprocket.50 0.40 0.10 0. breeze.08 0. See table 8 opposite. sized 13mm Coke. 75mm and under Cement. For the chain breaking strength established in the preliminary calculation. Values given are nominal and are for guidance only. = Conveyor width (m) = Material height (m) = Bucket spacing (m) = Power at headshaft (kW) = Extra chain pull due to side guide friction [X = 2. foundry.head.
81 [(wb x L) + (Wc x L) + (L x Vb x ρ ] + Df (N) s s K = [(9.81 x Wc x L x μs1 (N) Cp = 9.81 x μc [(2.81 x μc [(2.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 83 Designer Guide LAYOUT A Chain and material sliding LAYOUT E Chain and material sliding Cp = 9.05 x Wc x L ) + W] (N) K = Cp x V (kW) 1000 LAYOUT D Chain sliding and material carried LAYOUT H Vertical elevator PB = 9.81 x μs2 [(Wc x L) + W] + PB (N) K = Cp x V (kW) 1000 Cp = 9.05 x Wc x μc) + (Wm x μm)] + X (N) K = Cp x V (kW) 1000 LAYOUT C Chain rolling and material carried LAYOUT G PB = 9.81 x L [(2 .81(L/S x Vb x ρ)) + Df] x V (kW) 1000 Section 4 K = Cp x V (kW) 1000 .81 x L [(Wc x μs2) + (Wm x μsm)] + PB + X (N) K = Cp x V (kW) 1000 Chain rolling and material sliding Cp = 9.81 x L [(Wc x μs2) + (Wm x μsm)] + PB + X (N) Chain rolling and material carried Cp = 9.05 x Wc x μc) + (Wm x μm)] + X (N) K = Cp x V (kW) 1000 LAYOUT B Chain rolling and material sliding LAYOUT F PB = 9.81 x Wc x L x μs1 (N) Cp = 9.81 x Wc x L x μs1 (N) Cp = 9.05 x Wc x L) + W] (N) K = Cp x V (kW) 1000 Cp = 9.81 x L [(2.
Cp (Chain pull) = 9.81 x 0. Final Calculation Cp = 9.84 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide LAYOUT J Chain rolling. L W Cp DRIVE LAYOUT K Chain rolling. material carried. Operating conditions are clean and well lubricated.05 (L2 x Wc + (Wc x J)) + (μc x Wc x L) + ( μc x W)] (N) 8xJ K = 9. 33.7 x 36) + 1800 ] N = 5005 N Section 4 Factor of Safety = Breaking load x 2 = 33000 x 2 = 13.2 mm PCD) sprocket would be RPM = Chain Speed (m/sec) x 60 PCD (m) x π = 0. .19 Total chain pull 5005 Thus the selection is confirmed.15 can be used. 50 boxes will be the maximum load and two chains are required with K attachments at every pitch one side. i. not the motor size required. and for rolling friction a figure of 0. Mass of Load on Conveyor = 50 x 36 = 1800 kg Mass per Metre of Slats = 15 kg/m Estimated Mass of Chain = 15 kg/m Estimated Mass of Chain & Slats = 15 + 15 = 30 kg/m Preliminary Chain Pull = 9. L W Cp J J a Cp = 9. It is now necessary to check the roller loading. material carried.7 kg/m Mass of Chain + Slats = 6.81 x . .81 [1.05 (L2 x Wc + (Wc x J)) + (μc x Wc x L) + ( μc x W)] x V (kW) 1000 8xJ SELECTION EXAMPLE A continuous slat conveyor.05 x 30 x 36)+1800 ] N = 5907 N Factor of safety for this application is 8 (from table 1 page 74). 152.81 [0.000N (7500lbf) breaking load BS series chain with standard sintered steel rollers (Chain No. Return strand on idlers.05 x Wc x L)+W ] N = 9. .81 x μc [ (2. Bearing Pressure of Rollers = 58 = 0.05 x L (a2 x Wc + (Wc x J)) + (μc x Wc x L) + ( μc x W)] x V (kW) 1000 a 8xJ This is well below the allowable maximum of 1. .e. Layout C.398 2 = 996 Nm .05 x 21.35 x 2 = 6.5 152.05 x Wc x L) + W ] N Cp Cp = 9. Conclusion The selection for this application would be 2 strands of 152. Headshaft RPM required using an 8 tooth (398. of mass 36kg each.4 mm pitch BS series.81x μc [(2. Allowance should be made for starting and transmission/gearing losses when selecting a drive motor. 36 metre centres of head and tail sprockets.4 mm pitch. Chain speed would be 0.7 + 15 = 21.7 kg/m μc = 0.4mm pitch chain is preferred and the mass of the slats is 15kg/m.5 Bearing Area of Roller (see table 3 page 76) = 254 mm2 .15 [ (2.taken from table 2 page 75. 145240/16) and K3 bent over attachments one side every pitch.81 [1.23 N/mm2 254 Note: This is the power required at the headshaft to keep the conveyor moving. Return strand unsupported. Minimum Breaking Load Required = 5907 x 8 = 23628 N 2 per chain As a solid bearing pin chain is preferable for this application then two strands of 152. It is first necessary to carry out a preliminary calculation to arrive at a chain size on which to base the final calculation.398 x π Headshaft Torque = Cp x PCD 2 Nm = 5005 x 0.81 x 0. Box = 650 mm long Load = mass x g (gravity) = 36 x 9.45 m/sec using 8 tooth sprockets.81 [0.6 RPM 0.45 1000 = 2.25 kW Chain mass + K3 integral attachment one side every pitch = 3.15 [(2. is to carry boxed products 650mm x 800mm.7 x 9. 33000 N (7500 lbf) breaking load chain may be suitable.05 x L (a2 x Wc + (Wc x J)) + (μc x Wc x L) + ( μc x W)] (N) a 8xJ K = 9. . (Regular lubrication). Power required to drive the conveyor would be: K = Chain pull x Chain speed = Cp x V kW 1000 1000 = 5005 x 0. A rough assessment of chain mass can be done by doubling the slat mass.45 x 60 = 21. The example is of chain rolling and material carried.4 Load Per Roller = 491 = 58 N 8.81 = 353 N Load of Chain and Slats over 650 mm = 21.35 kg/m (from chain catalogue) Mass of Both Chains = 3.2 N/mm2 (see page 76 table 4 sintered steel) therefore the roller loading is acceptable.65 = 138 N Total Load on Rollers = 353 + 138 = 491 N Number of Rollers Supporting Load = 650 x 2 = 8.15 .
15 .81 (N) 0 (-665)* 0 E .68 + 0) x 1] x 9.0786 1.Horizontal section [(19. . The loads are put on the conveyor at position H and unloaded at the drive point.81 = 478N 478 (-665)* F . To calculate the maximum chain pull it is first necessary to estimate a chain mass.84 + 9.866) + 0. 24 Sideview of conveyor circuit UNLOAD 4m R AD Q P 2m R 3m A B 3. or by using a guideline such as the staybar (attachment) mass.81 (N) Vertically downward Pull = [(Wc + Wm) x . 24.L] x 9.5 x 0.37 Declined section Pull = [(Wc + Wm) x L x μs1] x 9.81 (N) Inclined section Pull = [(Wc + Wm) x L x μs2] x 9. Each type of section can be calculated as follows:Vertically upward Pull = [(Wc + Wm) x L] x 9. Mass of staybars = 3 kg at 304.8 mm spacing Mass of load per metre = 20 x 1000 = 65.524 radians 0.63 At the bend sections it is necessary to establish the bend factor eμcθ. . Each staybar carries 20 kg load. which do not conform to one of the layouts A to K. μθ . A 152. For this example we will use the staybar mass.6] x 9.Vertically up [(Wc + Wm) x L] x 9. or a typical chain mass from the Renold catalogue. i.15 x 0.025 To establish the total chain pull it is necessary to break the circuit into convenient sections as in fig.6 m 10 m 1m C DRIVE D N 15 m J E 16.81 (N).025 C . .5m centres and each staybar has a mass of 3 kg. or Renold Applications Department may be contacted.15 x 0. μs1 = (μc x cos 30°) . i.695N D.62 kg/m 304. Chain pull in these sections can be calculated separately and the values added together starting at the point of lowest tension which is immediately after the drive sprocket.81 = .5 m M K I L LOAD G F 1m H On the circuit shown in fig.05 (N) For 90° sprocket lap Pull = Total pull at entry x 1.2 ft/min).e.81 (N) For 180° sprocket lap Pull = Total pull at entry x 1. .68 + 0) x -3.90° sprocket lap 0 x 1.81 = 29N B .81 [(19. .866) .8 = 9.84 kg/m Total estimated mass of chain + staybars Wc = 9.68 + 0) x 1 x 0.68 kg/m Mass of load Wm = 20 kg at 304.5 = – 0.025 (N) For bend section Pull = Total pull at entry x eμcθ (N) Chain pull calculations for the example would be: Section Cumulative Total (N) 29 30 .5 = 0.Horizontal Section [(Wc + Wm) x L x μc] x 9.81 = 193N 490 683 Section 4 . c .e c A .15 x 0.81 [(19.90° sprocket lap 29 x 1. The chains are spaced at 1.8 mm (12") spacing and carried by two chains. A to R. Chain speed is 0.082 θ .15 30° i. the following method can be used as a guide. On all horizontal and inclined sections the chain is supported on tracks and runs on its rollers.15] x 9.8mm spacing 3 x 1000 kg/m 304.sin 30° = (0. μc = = = = 0. This can be either an educated guess.81 [(19. negative Horizontal section Pull = [(Wc + Wm) x L x μc] x 9.8 For initial calculation assume coefficient of friction μc = 0. Assume occasional lubrication. = (μc x cos 30°) + sin 30° = (0. loads are suspended from staybars at 304.68 + 0) x 16.4 mm (6") pitch chain is to be used running on 12 tooth sprockets to ensure adequate clearance of the loads at each turn.90° sprocket lap 478 x 1.e. μθ .067 m/sec (13.025 G. μs2 . Fig.Vertically down [(Wc + Wm) x -L] x 9.e. 0.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 85 Designer Guide CALCULATING COMPLEX CIRCUITS For calculating chain pull Cp of complex circuits.0.15] x 9. 24.524 = 0.84 = 19.
78 + 9. Safety Factor = 2 x 54000 = 12.63] x 9.Horizontal section [(19. Using a general safety factor of 8. the P VR value for average conditions can be checked by the method shown on page 76-77.62 kg/m Coefficient of friction μc = 0.81 = 1582N Q.89 kg/m per chain For two chains = 9.15] x 9.665) x 0.81 (N) 1000 = 255 N Load per roller R 6579 = 255 = 127.067 1000 = 0.81 [(19. . Total roller load R = 636 + 127.82 mm . pull at exit of top bend (Q) = 8337 N .58882 x π = 2. .2 RPM 6080 8830 R .78 kg/m total Total mass of chain + staybars = 9. Power required at headshaft = Cp x V kW 1000 = (8805 .82 N/mm2 420 Headshaft torque = (8805 .62) x 3 x 0. .067 x 60 0.082 700 By recalculating. Rubbing speed VR 2583 2712 This is quite satisfactory. Due to the bend sections it is necessary to check the imposed roller load due to the bend and staybar loads.15] x 9. Our figure of 1. .180° sprocket lap 4595 x 1.15] x 9.Bend section 6080 x eμcθ 6080 x 1.05 K .05 M . . Total chain pull Cp = 9332 N *NOTE: The negative figure is ignored when establishing chain strength required. From catalogue.86 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide H. .15] x 9.30.62) x 15 x 0. chain no.62) x 15 x 0. 105241/16. . The standard roller is satisfactory. It would now be correct to recalculate the above using the actual mass of 54 kN (12000 lbf) chain and μc from the friction factors listed on page 75 table 2.3 8805 As this series of chain has a sintered steel roller. RPM = V (m/sec) x 60 PCD (m) x π = 0.Horizontal section [(19. Load at staybar 4595 4825 = [20 + 3 + (9.68 + 65.665) x 0. .82 x 0.6 .2 mm pitch.082 P .55 kW PCD (12 tooth) . Chain total mass Wc = 4.5 = 763.5 N Bearing pressure P = 763. . However. PVR = Pressure x Rubbing Speed = 1.180° sprocket lap 2583 x 1.81 = 1883N L .Horizontal section [(19.Inclined section [(Wc + Wm) x L x μs2] x 9.78 x 304.067 m/sec.14 (occasional lubrication) .8)] x 9. . maximum allowable pressure P = 1.81 = 502N 9332 (-665) Section 4 .68 + 65.84 = 19.90° sprocket lap 683 x 1.5 N 2 Bearing area of roller 8161 = 420 mm2 (See page 76 table 3) Bearing pressure P = 127.62) x 4 x 0.68 + 65.6 = 0.033 = 0.8 N/mm2 is above this figure but as the chain speed is only 0.81 = 1883N J .2 N/mm2 at 0.06 Maximum P VR for average condition for a sintered steel roller is 0.68 + 65. this figure is taken into account when calculating headshaft power or torque.81 = 1255N N. .4 mm (6'' pitch) would be suitable.5 = 0.62) x 10 x 0.Horizontal section [(19.5 = 1.5 m/sec.025 I .067 x 23. = 588.Bend section 8161 x eμcθ 8161 x 1. .5882 2 = 2394 Nm Nm . . Use 2 strands of 54 kN (12000 lbf) chain. .3 N/mm2 420 Imposed load due to bend = Chain speed (m/sec) x roller bore (mm) Roller dia (mm) = 0. 154.033 m/sec 47. then chain breaking load required would be: 9332 x 8 = 37328 (N) per chain 2 As a hollow bearing pin chain will be required for fitting the staybars then 2 strands of 54 kN (12000 lbf) chain of 152. = Pull at exit (N) x Pitch (m) Bend Rad (m) On recalculating.68 + 65. the maximum chain pull would be 8805 (N) with negative value 665 (N).3048 = 1271 N 2 Imposed load per roller = 1271 = 636 N 2 . Imposed load = 8337 x 0.
and allowance should be made for this in the boot design. Material should be fed to the Fig. greater chain wear and stresses on the buckets. Mild steel case hardened rollers should be used but where these are not required for guiding purposes. Where bucket elevators are an integral part of a production process. DRIVE FEED TENSION FEED TENSION BOOT (a) BOOT (b) a. Versions with both single and double strand chain are commonly used. Spacing of the buckets depends upon the type of bucket and material handled. To aid bucket filling the boot sprocket size should be the same as that of the head sprocket. Certain materials handled by this type of elevator have a tendency to pack hard. 55). Irrespective of size or material handled the boot sprocket teeth should be relieved to reduce material packing between the tooth root and the chain. the selection of the latter type depending on the width of bucket required. it is usual to have interlocks on the conveyor and elevator systems to avoid unrestricted feed to any unit which may for some reason have stopped. clean duty application. (See page 96 Fig. Discharge relies on the velocity to throw the material clear of the preceding bucket. The selection of the correct shape and spacing of the buckets relative to the material handled. and therefore material in the boot should be cleared before adjusting the chains to avoid fouling. but a high wear rate of buckets and chain must then be accepted. High speed with dredge feed and dynamic discharge. Fig. Materials having abrasive characteristics can be dealt with. This will result in increased chain tension. and common practice on say a 20m elevator would be to introduce three equally spaced 2m lengths of guide for each strand of chain. Bucket capacities as stated by manufacturers are normally based on the bucket being full. but each application must be considered individually in relation to achieving an effective discharge. The buckets then collect it by a scooping or dredging motion. Solid bearing pin chain is essential for other than light. Due to the high loadings which can occur during dredging. Material to be moved is fed into the elevator boot by an inclined chute. 27 Y X Y Y X 2 1 3 Fg = Fc RESULTANT FORCE Fg Fc Fr Fc Fg RESULTANT FORCE ß Fr Section 4 X . are important factors in efficient operation. guiding of the chain is necessary to avoid a whipping action which can be promoted by the dredging action.25 to 1. The selection of the head sprocket pitch circle diameter is related to obtaining correct discharge as described later. b. 26 illustrates typical examples. buckets and bucket bolts are sufficiently robust to withstand these loadings. The discharge sequence of a dynamic discharge elevator is shown on Fig. as the buckets operate at a greater radius than the sprocket pitch circle diameter. It is usual to operate elevators of this type at a chain speed of about 1. Fig. Medium speed with dredge feed and dynamic discharge. 27. Feed chute angles vary with the materials handled but are generally arranged at 45° to the horizontal. bucket shape and spacing.5m/sec. fig. otherwise the large variation in polygonal action which occurs with fewer numbers of teeth will cause irregular discharge and impulsive loading.DYNAMIC DISCHARGE This system incorporates a series of buckets attached at intervals to one or two chains as shown. Where abrasive materials are involved boot sprockets should be manufactured from steel. Generally the head sprocket should have a minimum of 12 teeth. the latter being dependent on the peripheral speed of the bucket around the head sprocket. It is not always necessary to provide continuous guide tracks. Chain pitch is normally dictated by bucket proportions and desired spacing. On long centre distance installations. smaller diameter gearing rollers of the same material are preferred. Where the material handled has abrasive characteristics and/or high tooth loadings exist.5 times the bucket projection is satisfactory. Two chain strands are necessary if the bucket width is 400mm or more. particular care is necessary in ensuring that the chain attachments. For extremely high engaging pressure the sprockets should have flame hardened teeth. Integral attachments are not recommended for this type of elevator. 26 This type is particularly useful for handling materials not exceeding 75mm cube. steel sprockets are necessary. but generally 2 to 2. Other important factors influencing discharge are the type of material. 25 DRIVE buckets at or above the horizontal line through the boot sprocket shaft. Normally K2 welded attachments are used.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 87 Designer Guide BUCKET ELEVATOR . Inclined elevators must have continuous chain guides irrespective of the length of the elevator. This means that lower chain speeds can be used to effect adequate material discharge speeds. Chain adjustment is normally provided by downward movement of the boot shaft. but this capacity should be reduced in practice to about 66% or water level to ensure that the desired throughput is obtained.
where the bucket will completely discharge. 9. Fig. . . The formula then is modified to: .(m). 29) At position 2 the gravitational force Fg and centripetal force Fc are in line and for many materials handled it is the design objective to ensure that discharge begins to occur at this point. In that case the gravitational force would not provide sufficient centripetal force to ensure that the material followed the bucket path. 30) Section 4 1 RESULTANT FORCE Fc Fg Fr At position 3.. 5.7 rmg This is the required linear speed for the material at a radius of rm around a sprocket.e. . 4. . = Vm2 rmg The nett effect of the forces at position 1 is that the material is held into the bucket and not allowed to discharge at this point unless the speed of the chain is excessive. . i. 28 Y X At Position 2 (Fig. Gravitational force. Fr. then the material in the bucket will try to continue in a straight line from any position on the sprocket. Fg = mg Centripetal force. When the material leaves the bucket it will have the tendency to travel in a straight line but will be immediately acted upon by gravity. Vm2 = 0. at the top of the elevator. Fc = mvm2 rm The vertical component will be: Vg = Vm cos (90-ß) = Vm Sin ß and the horizontal component will be: Vh = Vm sin (90-ß) = Vm Cos ß Where m = material mass in the bucket. X Fc Fr Fg RESULTANT FORCE 1. 2.7 rmg . It is now possible to calculate the angle ß (see fig. Fig. Centripetal force towards the centre of the wheel which works to ensure the material travels in a circular path. Fc. b. such as coal or rock. . . which presses the material into the bucket. mg cos ß = mVm2 rm 6. It is therefore necessary to calculate the value of cosß for both cases using the respective values for rm and Vm. it is the usual practice to delay discharge until after the top centre position. 27 page 87) which is the angle at which the bucket will discharge. A component force at 90° to a. Fc = mg cos ß. at radius rm rm 3. = radius of material from centre of wheel . At the balance point at top centre mg (Position 2) = mvm2 rm . The material will therefore attempt to move in a path parallel to the tangent to the chain sprocket. chain speed (m/sec). . Vm = 0. (kg) g = gravitation acceleration.88 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide Newton’s first law states that “Every body will continue in its state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless compelled to change that state of rest or uniform motion”. 30 Y Also the centripetal component of gravitational force at point of discharge. At any point on the circular path the material is attempting to move in a straight line and the only restraining force is gravity acting vertically downwards. cos ß where ß is the discharge angle. At Position 3 (Fig. To achieve this the speed of rotation should be such that the gravitational force exactly balances the centripetal force required to maintain the material in a circular path. To determine the trajectory of the material it is then necessary to plot the path from this discharge point by resolving the initial velocity into vertical and horizontal components. Fig.81m/sec2. The application of the first law to an elevator discharge means that as an elevator bucket moves around a chain sprocket. At Position 1 (Fig. Centripetal force = mvm2 rm Fg = Fc Given this situation the material is in effect weightless and immediately after the top centre position the material will begin to discharge from the bucket. . If the resolved component of Fc is not sufficient to ensure that the material will continue on a circular path then the material will discharge on a tangential path subject only to the effects of air resistance and gravity. 30 for position 3. and material would flow over the outer lip of the bucket. Vm2 = rmg Vm = rmg For heavy and coarse materials. see fig. For heavier materials such as coal and rock this is usually about 40°. 28) The gravitational force Fg can be split into two components: a. 3 Note! It is usual to calculate the discharge values at both the tip and the back of the bucket. . the gravitation force Fg can be resolved into two components Fr and Fc. 29 Y X 2 Vm = linear velocity.
the centre of gravity of the material. POSITIVE DISCHARGE ELEVATOR Fig. if the buckets are unevenly spaced relative to chain pitch. Conversely. 31. This tooth impact will be greatest at the bucket positions. i. Dv = Vgt + 1/2 gt2 Dh = Vht Dh = horizontal displacement (m).AB2 in ABC in ABC in ACD Sin ß = BC AC Sin q = AD AC AD = CG α = 90° .e. Because of their particular function. the distance E-F being the equivalent of an equal number of pitches plus half a pitch. The chains are mounted on the ends of the buckets as shown in fig.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 89 Designer Guide At intervals of say 0. and secondly to calculate the chain length between the head sprocket and snub sprocket to ensure that the ‘even pitch length plus a half pitch’ rule is observed. the buckets are spaced at an even number of chain pitches. caused by the reaction load of the hanging chain and buckets descending after negotiating the head sprocket. or in some cases slide down the back of the preceding bucket. and formula 7 becomes: Dv = 1/2gt2 Some elevator designs. Section 4 This type of elevator has a series of buckets fixed at intervals between a pair of chains. The method of calculation of this length is as follows: TENSION WHEEL If the speed selection sets the discharge point at top centre then the initial vertical velocity will be zero. The shape of the buckets used. t g = elapsed time (seconds).e. Vg = initial vertical velocity (m/sec). due to the slow speed of the elevators.5 are satisfactory.(ß + θ) VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT DISCHARGE POINT OF BUCKET BACK HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT m. Length EF = BC Calculate EF in pitches. BC = AC2 . the snub sprocket should have an odd number of teeth to equalise wear. = acceleration due to gravity. is such that they cannot dredge efficiently and the material must be fed directly into them.5 seconds it is now possible to plot the trajectory of the material by using the following formulae: 7. GE Fig. 8. In such designs it is possible to achieve a good discharge from material at the tip of the bucket while material at the back of the bucket has insufficient velocity and will fall back down the elevator. 32. A sensible rule to ensure good filling is that the lowest point on the inlet chute should be two bucket pitches above the highest position of the tail/tension shaft.81m/sec2. The method of pick-up on this type of elevator is usually by direct filling of the bucket. bearing in mind that the material will fall out of the buckets due to gravity alone. as to achieve an adequate capacity it is necessary to oversize the elevator to compensate for the material recirculated by not discharging correctly. an even or odd number of sprocket teeth can be used providing the selected number is not divisible by the bucket spacing. DISCHARGE AT 1 SECOND INTERVALS POINT OF BUCKET TIP CALCULATED POINTS Compare this with the theoretical ideal where a = 360 N where N is the number of teeth on the snub sprocket. normally 4. This arrangement facilitates the discharge operation which. Snub sprockets should be of steel with flame hardened teeth. and consideration of space. EF Chain Pitch MATERIAL TRAJECTORY ENVELOPE This figure should be X + 1/2 where X is a whole number of pitches. Such designs are false economy. Vh = initial horizontal velocity (m/sec). In these cases it is necessary to check the discharge characteristics for both the back and the tip of the bucket rather than. The minimum value must be 4 1/2 chain pitches. and therefore if. the contents of which fall clear. in an attempt to economise on casing size. Some material will inevitably escape and fall into the boot but this will be only a small proportion of the throughput and the buckets can be relied upon to dredge this small amount. as previously described. as is usual. snub sprockets are smaller than the head and boot sprockets. FE SNUBWHEEL TWO BUCKETS ED To find the best position for the snub sprocket on a particular application it will be necessary to first set out the discharge characteristics of the buckets relative to the elevator discharge chute to ensure a full and clean discharge. is accomplished by inverting the bucket. use small head wheels and large bucket projections. On high capacity elevators they are subjected to impact tooth loading. and if the back of the bucket discharges correctly then the tip will discharge before top centre. i. 32 C R1 G F O ˚ B α D E R2 A AC = AD2 + CD2 in ADC AB = R1 + R2 . 9. The recommended snub sprocket position is shown in fig. the angle back type. 31 HEADWHEEL DIS CH AR Where Dv = vertical displacement (m).
Some loss of conveying efficiency will be caused by the inclines which will become progressively more significant as the angle approaches 15°. a remarkably large volume of material can be moved by using flights of quite small depth. where shock loads are likely on an intermittent basis and where failure of chains would be catastrophic to production. it is possible for the speed to be increased above the 0. Integral L attachments as illustrated in fig.5-0. The effect of the side friction. 35. and when handling grain for example. In ideal handling situations. such as grain. where the cohesion of the particles of material is greater than the frictional resistance of the material against the internal surface of the box. dry grain. an example of this is shown opposite. The bottom surface of the box which supports the material is also used to carry the chain (fig. Conveying can if desired be carried out contradirectionally by using both top and bottom runs of the chain. The general construction is that of an enclosed box or trunking in which the chain is submerged in the material. Bush chain is sometimes used.5-0. It is usual for the chain rollers and scraper plate depth to be equal to chain plate depth thus ensuring that as flat a surface as possible is moving along the scraper floor. Excessive speeds reduce efficiency as the chain and attachments tend to pull through the material. which are dimensionally identical to the base chain but have twice the breaking strength. may be used in either single or double strand light duty systems. The chain pitch is normally governed by the required proportions of the box allied to the linear spacing of the scraper. e. on the material having free flowing properties. 33 percentage of the moving mass of material.6m/sec as the conveyor width increases. which causes a ‘boundary layer’ of slower moving (and almost stationary) material becomes less significant as a Standard chain of any size or strength may be adapted to the system. On wide scraper conveyors speeds of up to 0. 34 Fig. a speed of 0.g. Head and tail sprockets are normally cast iron with cast teeth and should have relieved form to reduce packing of material between the chain and the teeth. The amount of inclination is largely governed by the repose angle of the material and depth of the scraper. 8 or 12 teeth being commonly used. but these may incline from the horizontal. flaky and sticky materials. furthermore. Suitable applications for double strength chain are on systems with long centres but limited use. as stated. where chain wear would not be a problem. . 55. special scraper attachments are available. However pin/bush bearing areas are as the original chain. Effectiveness of flow can be prejudiced on inclines. the maximum inclination from the horizontal should not exceed 15°. For aeratable materials however.2m/sec should not be exceeded.15m/sec. Abrasive materials increase the amount of maintenance required. Fig. The conveying movement relies on the ‘en masse’ principle. In general a depth of material approximately equal to 2/3 of the conveyor width can be successfully conveyed by the ‘en masse’ principle. The feed-in to the box may take the form of a manually fed side chute or a hopper with regulated feed. a chain speed of up to 0.6m/sec is practicable. 33). page 96. Fig.90 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide BOX SCRAPER CONVEYOR Description and chain type The box scraper type of conveyor can use either a single strand or two strands of chain. leaving the top strata either stationary or moving at reduced speed. In addition to using L attachments. but the roller type is recommended wherever possible to avoid high pressure movement between the bush and the sprocket tooth as the chain engages with the sprocket. 34 HOPPER DRIVER Section 4 FEED OFF OR DISCHARGE APERTURE When conveying non-abrasive and free flowing material.8m/sec are common. See fig.25m/sec maximum. For stringy. as for example cement or pulverised starch. as shown in fig. 35 For some series of chain double strength versions are available. Because of this feature. the chain speed must be reduced to 0. turbulent conditions may be set up. Alternatively the chain assembly itself can function as a regulator. and to keep this within reasonable bounds the chain speed should not be more than 0. Operation is confined to straight sections. The operating principle depends. Sprocket sizes are generally governed by box proportions.
The weight of malleable iron scrapers tends to maintain the chain on the box base. thus increasing the power requirement of the conveyor because of the higher friction factor. which in fig. it is used successfully for other free flowing granular materials such as animal food pellets. • • • • Whilst this type of chain was introduced primarily for the handling of damp grain. 38 • Use of steel conveyor chain retains the advantage of large bearing area and high hardness at articulation points. The chain can operate in either direction but conveying of material can only be done on one strand of the chain. Block chain is also used extensively in highly abrasive environments where their minimum of moving parts and relatively cheap cost ensures that they are an option worth considering. A continuous unbroken scraping surface is presented to the material being conveyed. etc. cement. inner block links and pins. To use special heat resistant steels. To treat the chain as sacrificial and accept that a relatively short life will be experienced at high temperature. At temperatures above 450°C there are two main options: 1. The block chain (Fig 38) is comprised of just outer links. cotton seed. Block chain is often used for high temperature applications where it is not possible to protect the chain from heat. This is further assisted by the angled face of the scraper. Above 300°C and up to 450°C then alternative materials with tempering temperatures above 450°C must be used to avoid softening and loss of wearing properties. pulverised coal. An additional feature is that the side plate edges can be induction hardened to reduce the rate of wear due to sliding. At temperatures of up to 300°C. 37 The advantages of this type of scraper are: BLOCK CHAIN A variation on the standard design of steel conveyor chain is the block chain. The pins are a tight fit in the outer side plates and a clearance fit in the inner block link and for most applications it is not necessary to incorporate any heat treatment other than to case harden the pin bearing surface. The absence of a roller removes a source of problems in arduous applications but this means that the chain must slide on the side plate edges. 37 is the bottom strand. It is rarely economic to specify these steels due to the difficulty of obtaining them in the small batch quantities used in most block chain production. The relatively high tensile working loads enable long centre distance conveyors to be used. and it has also been found to successfully handle dry grain and similar materials when the depth of material is maintained at the 2/3 of width criterion. and has the advantage that for use in hostile environments there are fewer moving parts to wear.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 91 Designer Guide Fig. For heavy duty applications a case hardened bush can be pressed into the centre block link holes to enhance the wear properties. Section 4 . 36 Scraper Attachments Fig. Fig. 2. If neither of these options is acceptable the system design should be examined to determine a method of protecting the chain from the heat and using a chain suitable for the expected chain temperature. low carbon steel materials can be used for heat treated components such as the pin. The limited area of the top of the malleable scraper reduces material carry-over across the discharge aperture to a minimum.
More frequent use may demand an induction hardened surface to the pin. plate and pin dimensions. it is usual to set out the chain and wheel positions (as shown). The chain may be of rivetted or detachable construction. the latter enabling length adjustment and occasional dismantling for safety inspections. Surface coatings such as dry film lubricants or zinc can be added for special applications and because the chain is often exposed to the elements. and are therefore a more economic solution in selected cases. where full width slats would prevent the return strand using the chain rollers. numbers of link plates per pitch and given breaking loads. but there are certain points which should be borne in mind when designing any conveyor or elevator. they should be correctly aligned. Section 4 Galle chain is normally used for very slow moving lifting applications. this chain pre-dates the familiar chain of pin/bush/roller construction by several decades. is used in wire and tube drawing mills where chain speeds of up to 1 m/sec can be allowed. Tracks should at all times be maintained in a clean condition.92 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide GALLE CHAIN Patented by a Frenchman named Galle in 1830. Generally. Fig. heavy protective greases or other coatings are applied in service. etc. For this purpose. The width of the track must allow full seating of the roller width and avoid the possibility of the bearing pin ends fouling the structure. At sprocket positions. as shown in fig 40. which specify the chain pitch. The spacing of the wheels will in each case be determined by the particular application. despite the usual non-hardening of plate hole and pin rubbing surfaces. Fig. support tracks are required for both the loaded and unloaded strands of a conveyor chain. and those sections subject to heavy wear should be fitted with renewable wear strips. However. It may be described as similar to leaf chain but built in a double strand system with the bearing pins also providing a sprocket gearing member between the strands. Draw bench chain. it can be driven by or pass over toothed wheels rather than plain pulleys if required. especially with hardened steel bushes in the link plate holes and hardened pin surfaces. 39 Typical 8x8 Combination Galle Chain Detachable Type Because this chain is not manufactured to the highest standards of dimensional accuracy and surface finish and because the plate/pin assemblies have clearance fits allowing hand assembly. 41 with dimension A a minimum of 5mm and dimension B a minimum of 10mm. 40 Fig. Tracks should be made of adequate strength to prevent deflection or twisting under dynamic load conditions. to avoid the side plates catching the chain guides. sizes and degrees of complexity. As a pull will be induced in the chain due to catenary or chain ‘sag’ between the supporting wheels. are given in table 7 page 79. Return strands may be carried on toothed or plain faced idler wheels. Standards exist for Galle chain and a derivative known as draw bench chain. the track ends should be provided with adequate lead-in and -off radii (Fig 41). This allows the chain to lift into and fall out of engagement with the sprocket and reduces wear on the chain rollers and the track. If the designer feels that this type of chain may be suitable for a particular application he should contact the Renold Technical Sales Department for advice. the Galle and draw bench chains provide a lower cost/strength ratio compared to other types of chain. unlike leaf chain. and set as close as possible to the sprocket. CONVEYOR CONSTRUCTION Conveyors and elevators come in many variations. this method being particularly suited for slat or apron plate conveyors. free from dirt. superfluous lubricant and other extraneous matter. generally wheels are spaced 2 to 3 metres apart. To determine the optimum track setting. for example in large flood water control sluice gates. variations on these standards are often introduced for specific applications. the sprocket and the support tracks should be as shown on Fig. . This means that. 41 A B The relationship between the chain rollers. long chain life is achievable. and is still used today for selected applications. Joints should be smooth and free from any projections such as welds. commercially rolled angles or channel are normally used. The Galle chain is normally subjected only to occasional use at very slow speed and therefore. Minimum track radii relative to pitch and roller diameter for all chain series.
but if this is not possible then two or more prime movers will have to be used. By the slat end faces rubbing against guide tracks. 44. 4.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 93 Designer Guide Chain Guiding Conveyor Drives Conveyors and elevators are normally driven at the position of maximum load pull in the chain circuit. should be never to have less than 3 teeth in engagement. fig. hinged or fixed tooth. but this is not always possible. Careful attention to the conveyor layout design sometimes allows the drive points to be located fairly close to each other. 45 Fig. rivetted or sometimes welded to chain plates. 43 An alternative method of driving conveyor chain is by caterpillar drive (see fig. may need to be driven at more than one point. all driving points being synchronised. 45. i. or alternatively fitted through chain hollow bearing pins. fig. With the fixed tooth type the load is taken by the chain rollers and can be used for a reversing drive Fig. In general.g. 2. 46 Simple methods used are: 1. 5. this position coincides with the delivery or off-load end of the system. e. Fig. and the return length slack. By guiding the chain rollers between continuous strips spaced along the length of track. 48). fig. 47 Fig. These drives will need to be electrically interlocked or have slip characteristics incorporated to prevent ‘hunting’. They are normally not required at every pitch and for most applications a linear spacing of 1 metre is adequate. On simple conveyors of the horizontal or inclined slat type. The general rule. The fitting of pads to the chain to limit side movement by bearing against a side guide. 44 Fig. 42 Fig. This ensures that the loaded length of the chain is taut. 42. 46. The aim should be to provide a driving lap angle on the sprocket of 180°.e. 3. particularly on complicated circuits. 48 Backing Guide DRIVER Guide Track Adjustment DRIVEN Section 4 . running on an inverted angle section track. fig. such conveyors should have one driver sprocket for every seven idler sprockets. Such pads may be bolted. By use of Vee tread rollers on one chain. The simplest method of ensuring drive synchronisation is to take chain drives of identical ratio to each conveyor drive point from one common drive shaft. fig. The use of chain with flanged rollers. 43. Two types of caterpillar drive are available. In this case it is common to fit wearing strips on the ends of the slats. The most commonly accepted and widely adopted method of providing a final drive to a conveyor or elevator chain is by toothed sprocket. Conveyors having several sections. but these can only be used to drive in one direction. Fig. therefore. tiered drying ovens. The former has the advantage that the load on the tooth is taken by a roller in the tooth and not by the chain rollers.
(Assuming a simply supported beam). minus 0. Fig.270 Chain Series M40 MC56 M80 MC112 M160 MC224 M315 M450 M630 ISO Factor 0. then a minimum adjustment of plus 1.28 1. Fig. 51 FEED CHUTE BOOT WHEEL On dredging feed elevators. To ensure that the chain runs satisfactorily it is important that the staybars or slats are sufficiently stiff so that the chain is not tilted to one side when loaded. counterweight and chain catenary take-up. 51.016 1. Normally. if possible.5° (0. Where the calculated figure exceeds twice the pitch of the chain. pre-tensioning of the chain is not necessary. 52 W α Section 4 Methods of Adjustment Table 9 ADJUSTMENT FACTORS BS Chain Series 13-20kN 27-33kN 54-67kN 107-134kN 160-200kN 267kN 400kN Factor 0.03 The most common type of adjuster in use is the screw take-up. particularly during variations in load conditions. . the negative adjustment providing sufficient slack for the initial connecting up of the chain.762 1.016 1. Routine Adjustment A chain system should be maintained in correct adjustment throughout its life. see fig. This ensures that the effort required to adjust the chain is at a minimum. This amount of adjustment will allow the removal of two pitches of chain as wear occurs. provision should be made not only for sprocket adjustment but also for the boot curved plate so that the buckets maintain a constant clearance. 50 L The maximum load or strength of the staybar/slat can then be calculated as follows. the chain take-up will be equal to twice the adjustment. The amount of adjustment should allow for the joining up of the chain and elongation due to wear. particularly on overhead conveyors.32 1. In this arrangement the tail shaft bearings are mounted in slides and adjusted by screws.76 0. Fig. Such methods are dead weight. on a chain conveyor or elevator. Take-up positions should. as each system has its advantages and disadvantages. At these positions.5 pitch on the nominal centre distance should be provided. all chain systems should be provided with means to compensate for chain elongation due to wear. staybars or similar components to join two chains together and/or carry the conveyed loads. or a specialist in conveyor manufacture.94 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide Chain Adjustment For optimum performance and correct running.97 1.71 1.0087 radians). If a 90° position is unavoidable. Where multiple drives are used it is preferable to provide an adjustment for each drive point. then track movement is necessary.80 2.508 0. 49 adjusting load or tension in the chain consistent with the removal of chain slack.5 pitches. STAYBAR OR SLAT STIFFNESS ADJUSTMENT CENTRE DISTANCES Many conveyors use slats. Early adjustment will probably be found necessary due to initial ‘bedding in’ of the mating components.270 1. spring.406 0.02 0. The only adjustment required is the ‘take-up’ of the clearance between the pins and bushes in each link. The amount of total adjustment throughout a chain’s life varies according to the length and pitch of the chain and can be estimated as follows: Adjustment = Centre distance (mm) x factor (mm) Chain pitch (mm) For adjustment factor see table 9. pneumatic or hydraulic. Before deciding upon which of these methods to use it is advisable to consult our engineers. For a central load α = WL2 where 16 = constant 16EI For a uniformly distributed load α = WL2 where 24 = constant 24EI Where α = Slope (radians) W = Total load on staybar/slat (N) L = Length of staybar/slat (m) E = Modulus of elasticity (210 x 109 N/m2) I = Second moment of area (m4) There are basically five methods of achieving automatic adjustment and the aim of each method should be to impose a minimum When a chain has been adjusted to this extent it will be worn out and due for replacement. When the correct chain tension is achieved the bearings are then locked in position (Fig. where the boot wheel is the adjustable member. This can be done by limiting the slope due to deflection at each end of the staybar/slat to 0. be introduced at positions where the conveyor makes a 180° bend Fig 49. 50). Fig. Wherever possible the adjusting sprocket or track should be positioned at a convenient point immediately following the drive sprocket. and this should be done before the conveyor is run.68 1.
it may be necessary to use steel sprockets having a 0.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 95 Designer Guide CONVEYOR SPROCKET DETAILS The normal function of a chain sprocket is not only to drive or be driven by the chain. Fig. If quick detachability is necessary without dismantling shafts or bearings then sprockets may be of the split type. These are made in two half sections and the mating faces machined to allow accurate assembly with the shaft in place.4% Carbon Steel with hardened teeth Cast Iron or Fabricated Steel The vast majority of sprockets in use are of the one piece cast iron or fabricated steel design and are usually parallel or taper keyed to a through shaft. No Shock Loading Cast Iron Abrasion and Heavy Shock Loading 0. 54 d da db de dg bf1 bf2 bf3 = = = = = = = = Pitch circle diameter Top diameter Boss diameter Bore diameter Shroud diameter Shroud width Face to sprocket centreline Distance through boss Section 4 . Table 10 gives a guide to the material required. Sprocket dimensions Salient sprocket dimensions are shown in fig. Shaft sizes should be selected taking into account combined bending and torsional moments. whether they are through shafts or of the stub type. There are other materials which may be specified for particular requirements.4% Carbon Steel Abrasion. With this type of sprocket. should be of such proportions and strength that sprocket alignment remains unimpaired under load. 53 Table 10 Normal Conditions Moderate Shock Loading Cast Iron or Fabricated Steel Heavy Shock Loading 0. Sprockets with removable tooth segments are particularly useful where sprocket tooth wear is much more rapid than chain wear. For arduous duty. In this case it is necessary to remove the complete shaft to be able to remove the sprockets. This type of sprocket is particularly useful on multi-strand conveyors where long through-shafts are used. Fig. Shafts.4% carbon content. Stainless steel for example is used in high temperature or corrosive conditions. Sprockets manufactured from good quality iron castings are suitable for the majority of applications. segments of teeth can be replaced one at a time without having to disconnect or remove the chain. but also to guide and support it in its intended path. Considerable expense can be saved in sprocket replacement time. 54. thus considerable expense and downtime can be saved. For extremely arduous duty the tooth flanks should be flame hardened.
vertical or inclined (one or two chains) Slow speed. fabricated sprockets can be manufactured from medium carbon steel and the teeth can then be flame hardened to give a very tough.156 No. Table 12 sprockets. Bar. The accuracy of flame cut tooth forms is usually better than the cast tooth form and has generally replaced it for non-stock No. 55 below).838 11. vertical (two chains) Continuous Bucket Medium speed. • Where synchronisation of the chain to a predetermined stopping position is required. Application Normal range of sprockets Section 4 Tooth form For most applications sprocket teeth as cast and unmachined are satisfactory.792 12. 55. Soft Fruit and similar elevators Cask. In some handling equipment such as elevators and scraper conveyors. Table 11 shows pitch circle diameters for sprockets to suit a chain of unit pitch.926 Machine cut teeth with their closer tolerances are employed in the class of applications listed because of their greater accuracy.336 14. the shape of the teeth facilitates a smooth gearing action. The teeth shape. of teeth Unit pitch circle diameter 2. vertical or inclined (two chains) Head Boot Deflector 14 14 12 11 11 11 9 Fig. 55 8 8 Driver 12 8 8 Top Corner Follower 12 8 Gravity Bucket Conveyor/Elevator . Where an application calls for a size of sprocket and a number of teeth that are not contained within the stock sprocket range then fabricated steel sprockets are supplied with flame cut teeth. Table 11 No. This is liable to enter the spaces between chain rollers and sprocket teeth.759 6. Below this the effect of polygonal speed variation is pronounced. Steel Apron.864 4. Package and similar elevators Swing tray elevators Ore feed conveyors Scraper conveyors Box scraper conveyors 8-12 8-12 8-12 16-24 6-8 8-12 8-16 Normal minimum number of teeth in sprocket Bucket elevators Spaced Bucket High speed. of teeth Unit pitch circle diameter 11.392 No.290 15.979 8.063 13. both the chain and sprockets have to operate in contact with bulk material.179 4.e. vertical (one or two chains) Medium speed. The pitch circle diameters for sprockets to suit a chain of any other pitch are directly proportional to the pitch of the chain. i. where the roller pressure can cause it to pack.810 5.018 14. and possibly breakage.000 2.442 5. of teeth Slat.661 7.567 9. If necessary.344 7. unit PCD x Chain Pitch = Sprocket PCD. inclined (one or two chains) Slow speed. If this is allowed to occur the chain then takes up a larger pitch circle diameter leading to excessive chain tension.428 12. Table 12 indicates the normal range of sprockets for conveyors and elevators. Wire Mesh or similar Conveyors Tray.110 12.931 9.9m/s. is based on chain roller diameter and pitch for each specific chain.305 2.709 7.236 3.608 15. but machine cut teeth may however be preferable as referred to later.654 14.972 15. This packing effect can be minimised by relieving the tooth gap as shown in fig.924 3.126 5.202 10. To ensure easy entry and exit of the chain the teeth have a radius on their outside faces at the periphery (fig.076 6.614 8. This applies particularly where the sprockets are closely spaced in either the horizontal or vertical planes or in close proximity in combined planes.382 13.520 10. with the angular sprocket movement as the controlling mechanism. hard-wearing surface. 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 • Where the linear chain speed variation has to be reduced to a minimum.700 14.249 9. • Where numerous sprockets are employed in a closed circuit and variations in tooth form and pitch circle diameter could result in a tendency to tighten or slacken the chain on straight sections.494 4. • High speed applications with chain speed in excess of about 0. whether cast or cut.549 3.474 11.613 2. Number of teeth For the majority of conveyor applications. In conjunction with the chain rollers.885 10.027 7. of teeth Unit pitch circle diameter 6.746 13.96 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide The pitch circle diameter is a circle drawn through the bearing pin centres when a length of chain is wrapped round a sprocket.296 8. experience shows that eight teeth represents a reasonable minimum size for sprockets.
87 16 3.2 2. or driving radius from the sprocket centre to the chain is gradually doubled.45 0. as the sprocket rotates further there is an increasing deceleration to the minimum speed followed by a rapid acceleration from the minimum speed. However.4 2.6 4. if the chain speed is increased significantly. As the tooth comes into engagement. rises and falls relative to the sprocket axis. the chain. As a result of this the larger the pitch of the chain the lower the recommended maximum chain speed for a sprocket of a given number of teeth.066 0. as well as causing greater noise.2 24 6. for each revolution of the sprocket the chain is subjected to a three-phase cycle. three.2 3.8 3.1 3. polygons having a number of sides equal to the number of teeth.2 2. for the remaining sixth of a revolution.53 0. Chain Pitch mm (in.4 (6”) 160 203.5 20 5.4 3. as the sprocket rotates the transition from maximum speed is in the form of a smooth curve.7 3.42 0.0 2.46 and 0.0 0.8 1.0 2.2 1. This reversal takes the form of an impact of the chain roller (or bush in a bush chain) into the root of the tooth.5 3.7 2.039 0.033 The percentage speed variations for typical sprockets are: Table 14 Number of Teeth % Speed variation 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 RADIUS 1R 7.5m/sec.5 1.3 4. on engagement and disengagement.38 10 1.9 1.6 (4”) 127 (5”) Number of Teeth 8 0.47 0.1 3.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 97 Designer Guide CHAIN SPEED VARIATION All chain sprockets are. the chain speed fluctuates by 50% six times during each revolution of the driver sprocket. Fig. For less than 8 teeth this variation is quite significant: Fig.5 1. These are based on unit pitch chain. In this instance. OF TEETH 25 MAX SPEED 152.83 0.3 5.65 0. in effect.6 1.95 0. 57 Cyclic speed variation % 50 40 30 20 10 0 As can be seen from the graph (fig. as the linear speed of the chain is directly related to the effective driving radius of the driver sprockets.9 2.044 0.2 1.2 (8”) 228.0 1. However.86 0.61 0.55 0.099 0.1 2.4 2. 57) shows.3 3. Thus.4 4.8 (12”) 315 Section 4 For example.73 0. each phase being associated with the engagement of a single tooth.049 0. For slow conveyors this is a very small impact and has little or no effect on the life of the chain. ROTATION 254 (10”) 304.0 0. 56 Fig. (see fig 56).86 0.8 3.70 0.7 1. Large chain pitches used on sprockets with a small number of teeth will also cause an increase in the impact.9 5.6 (9”) TIME 1 2 TOOTH MIN SPEED Actual variations are given in Table 13. When sprocket rotation takes place.78 0.61 0.60 12 2.057 0.6 3.77 0. for a sixth of a revolution the effective distance.2 1.036 0.9 1.1 1.8 1.1 3.2 1.5 2.5m/sec. i.2 1.7 1.5 (2”) 63 76. Fig. 59 Table 15 Maximum recommended chain speed (m/sec).1 0.2 2.4 1. The effect of this cyclic variation can be shown in the extreme case of a sprocket with the absolute minimum number of teeth. the percentage of cyclic speed variation decreases rapidly as more teeth are added.6 4.2 (3”) 80 101.6 2. a chain operating on an 8 tooth sprocket at a nominal speed of 0.4 1.079 0.e.) 50.9 3. will be subject to a theoretical speed variation of between 0. therefore ‘x’ (fig 58) should be multiplied by the actual chain pitch to obtain the finite dimension. it falls back to its original position.7 2.9 Section 4 RADIUS 2R As the graph (fig.39 0. 59).88 0.96 0.9 4.4 2.1 1. .5 1. 58 X Table 13 Number of Teeth Factor (x) 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 0.6 CHAIN SPEED 5 10 15 20 No.5 1.96 0.68 0. Table 15 shows maximum recommended speeds for chain pitches against numbers of sprocket teeth.4 4. then the impact will have a greater and greater effect on the chain and the sprocket.5 5.
r1) The stress concentration factor at the corner of the keyway is approximately 2. This will result in a jerky motion in the chain and the faster the chain travels the worse the situation will become. or by contacting Renold for advice. It is also important where sprockets of less than 12 teeth are used to check the amount of chain lap on each sprocket. (see fig 60 section A). It is usual to secure the sprockets to the shaft with gib-head taper keys. giving maximum support to the load.e. Fig. (see fig. Non-driving. 8 If this guideline is followed then the effective radius of the chain will be the same at entry and exit from the sprocket. To establish if the standard boss will be satisfactory. 61 D = Distance through boss (mm) T = Torque transmitted (Nm) r = Boss outside radius (mm) r1 = Radius to top corner of keyway (mm) R = Radius to midway between boss outside rad (r) and keyway corner radius (r1) (mm) f= f= Tensile stress above keyway (N/mm2) T x 1000 R x D x (r .58/8.00 N/mm2 Section 4 r R r1 Fig.76 to 9. The teeth should be in line to ensure equal load sharing.98 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide CHAIN AND SPROCKET LAYOUT In a conveyor or elevator where two chains and four sprockets are employed it is normal practice to keyway the driving sprockets to the shaft as a pair.24 m/min for each tooth rotation. This will mean that if a chain is being pulled at a constant 10 m/min. This allows the sprockets to lie close to the shaft bearings. where N = number of teeth. When a pair of sprockets is mounted on a shaft the long bosses of the sprockets should be assembled so as to face each other.5 x 45°) the radii at entry and exit will be at the maximum variation (see fig.54 m/min Section C . Calculation of sprocket boss stress In some circumstances it is necessary to bore and keyway a sprocket to just over the maximum recommended bore size. while at the same time requiring only the minimum width of conveyor structure.76 / 9. or tail sprockets on the same shaft are arranged so that one sprocket only is keyed to the shaft. the chain speed at the entry to the sprocket will vary from 10. for an 8 tooth sprocket the chain lap should be a whole number multiple of 360.43 N/mm2 72.50 10.29 N/mm2 110. In this way the slight increase in load pull imposed by the effort of turning the shaft is distributed more evenly over both the chains. it is usual practice to apply a minimum factor of safety of 6 to the calculated value of f to allow for this. N i. which is 45°.e. 1. i.e. Therefore. or whether a sprocket with a larger boss will be required. 60 10 m/min 10 m/min 90 10 m/min 67.24 m/min 11. making an even worse situation. However. 60 section C). the free sprockets should alternate from one side to the other along the circuit path. In the case of more complex installations.24 m/min R R 10. the key head being at the long boss end. This should be a whole number multiple of 360°. Thus there will be no further variation in chain speed due to polygon effect. The un-keyed sprocket should be located between fixed collars secured to the shaft on each side. If this situation is followed by a further lap angle of the same value a further variation will occur. but generally this is not necessary since the relative movement between the free sprocket and shaft is small. if the lap angle varies to say 671/2° for an 8 tooth sprocket (i. The free tail sprocket may have a phosphor bronze or similar bush.S the maximum allowable stresses are: Cast Iron Carbon Steel (080 M40) Mild Steel 57. the other being free to rotate. Based upon a factor of safety of 6 on U.25. so accommodating minor differences in phasing between the chain strands. it is necessary to calculate the stress in the boss. 60 section B).T. This can be done using the following formula. such as two-chain conveyors having several stages. towards the shaft mid point. which compounds the first.76 m/min R Section A 10 m/min Section B R 9.
Hence. making any interpolations which may be required. where CALCULATION OF BENDING MOMENT . having calculated a value for K. Assuming both strands of conveyor chain are experiencing equal tension then the bending moment due to the conveyor chain pull will be half the total chain pull CP(N) multiplied by distance A(m). If a shaft is subjected to a twisting moment only.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 99 Designer Guide SHAFT DIAMETERS Having selected the size of conveyor chain required for a system. select the shaft diameter by reference to column 2 (twisting moment) and the appropriate column ‘K’. The diagram shows a simple headshaft arrangement where the two conveyor sprockets are located equidistant from the respective nearby shaft bearings (distance A). or the conveyor chain pull. it is generally found that the ratio ‘K’ will not exceed 1.FIG 62 The maximum bending moment induced in the conveyor headshaft may be related either to the transmission drive chain pull. In the more usual situation a shaft subjected to both bending and twisting moments must be selected from column 2 and the appropriate column ‘K’. 62 CALCULATION OF TWISTING MOMENT (TORQUE) . A B = = Distance from shaft bearing to nearest conveyor sprocket. Most conveyor systems use two strands of conveyor chain and the headshaft is driven usually by either a transmission chain drive or by an in-line motorised reduction gearbox. Hence. Bending Moment MC = CP A (Nm) 2 Transmission chain pull (N) = headshaft torque (Nm) x 2 PCD of transmission chain sprocket (m) Section 4 When selecting a shaft subjected to twisting moments only. along with the twisting moment are now used to establish the constant K = Max Bending Moment (Nm) Twisting Moment (Nm) Page 100 table 16 gives the method for determining shaft diameters based on the use of mild steel bar of 430/490 N/mm2 (28/32 tons/in2) tensile strength. Hence. the diameter can be determined from columns 1 and 3. for a two strand chain system with sprockets mounted close to the bearings. SIMPLE CONVEYOR HEADSHAFT DIAGRAM Fig. A CONVEYOR CHAIN PULL A B Cp 2 Cp 2 TRANSMISSION DRIVE CHAIN PULL KW rev/min and then select a shaft diameter from column 3. another important consideration is the diameter of the sprocket shafts. and these need to be evaluated first in order to select a suitable shaft size see page 100 table 16. When selecting a shaft subjected to both bending and twisting.FIG 62 The maximum twisting moment or headshaft torque is the product of the total conveyor chain pull (N) and the pitch circle radius of the conveyor sprocket (m). a distance B from the nearest bearing.0. By comparison. Distance from shaft bearing to transmission chain sprocket. whilst the transmission chain sprocket (if applicable) is positioned on the overhanging shaft. The headshaft takes the greatest stress and this is where attention is focused. the bending moment due to the transmission chain pull will be the transmission chain pull (N) multiplied by distance B (m). Stresses are induced in the shaft material by bending and twisting moments. first determine the ratio . Twisting moment (Nm) = Cp x PCD 2 The greater of the two bending moment values calculated as above. Bending moment MT = Chain Pull x B (Nm). As a general rule.
28 61.49 97.97 161.79 101.99 82.238 2.29 52.849 5.58 57.00 130.77 83.87 52.70 56.45 48.63 32.18 174.83 152.12 170.56 65.75 150.009 0.86 123.15 155.99 209.40 70.76 100.01 58.93 77.77 41.72 80.037 0.679 1.63 K = 1.61 74.58 169.84 105.39 170.66 189.92 55.46 30.95 95.22 72.42 188.18 191.50 99.34 hp 1 newton = 0.97 178.21 160.88 187.86 185.119 1.83 167.16 174.31 87.06 105.261 0.01 117.65 127.222 1 kilowatt = 1.597 0.59 167.12 202.82 120.84 66.47 97.38 28.24 178.96 209.224 0.37 156.336 0.85 201.22 145.15 156.57 104.47 36.90 94.22 226.94 173.41 109.17 77.798 2.28 47.00 132.75 mm 24.865 2.18 140.85 88.57 88.89 156.671 87 181 362 544 726 1089 1452 1815 2178 2541 2904 3268 3631 4357 5083 5809 6535 7261 9077 10892 12707 14523 16338 18153 19969 21784 23599 25415 27230 29045 30860 32676 34491 36306 39937 43568 47198 50829 Section 4 0.522 0.10197 kg .55 86.99 177.984 3.54 164.39 172.93 94.40 156.730 4.09 120.08 30.100 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide 1 kW/ rev/min 2 Twisting moment T Nm 3 K Shaft diameters (minimum) Table 16 For twisting only mm 19.84 136.54 117.16 110.80 166.25 45.41 112.72 143.50 179.42 70.425 2.20 For bending and twisting K = 0.40 124.53 70.65 123.73 113.14 108.476 4.88 91.0 mm 25.75 161.23 193.171 3.51 0.72 191.55 85.492 1.611 2.82 232.37 142.12 203.357 3.746 0.64 138.13 24.91 141.22 147.149 0.45 158.80 198.056 0.58 mm 28.11 220.07 59.05 132.81 44.95 61.92 52.5 mm 22.02 163.103 4.27 135.68 K = 1.77 83.79 105.61 74.28 38.42 51.55 214.81 38.18 143.00 147.54 120.83 72.933 1.27 41.448 0.87 90.95 127.21 160.72 80.54 74.13 141.052 2.74 99.544 3.65 65.84 138.11 66.72 82.187 0.99 57.60 36.05 182.81 35.03 148.42 45.18 205.306 1.77 196.92 238.90 78.67 64.97 163.49 83.77 198.373 0.00 147.60 66.07 152.46 134.112 0.53 68.44 128.90 93.83 184.075 0.57 90.17 95.93 78.45 48.59 152.14 74.05 181.80 213.30 77.84 44.85 105.90 128.019 0.57 151.20 112.93 61.74 115.298 0.16 113.01 120.84 135.34 186.02 K = 0.27 132.29 180.
abrasive index from 1 to 3 where 1 is non abrasive. refuse Barley Bauxite. fine Bread crumbs Brewer’s grain. wet Bronze chips Calcium carbide Calcium lactate Calcium Oxide (Quicklime) Carbon black powder Carborundum. hygroscopic Aerates Interlocks and matts MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS The values included in table 17 are for approximate density. Section 4 . wet. wood. 15mm and under Bonemeal Borate of lime Borax. crude Bicarbonate of soda (H2CO3) Blood. dry Brewer’s grain. please contact Renold for further advice. 75mm and under Bentonite. coal. 75mm and under Cast iron chips Cement. packs under pressure Corrosive. dry 12mm and under Ashes. crushed. The values in the tables are given as a guide only. crystalline Ammonium nitrate Ammonium sulphate Ashes. spent. coal. please contact Renold for further advice. spent.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 101 Designer Guide Table 17 Material Density kg/m3 Abrasive Index Special Properties Alum Alumina Aluminium chips Aluminium hydrate Aluminium oxide Aluminium silicate Ammonium chloride. and any special features of the material that should be taken into account in any conveyor design. 12mm and under Asphalt. dried Bones Bonechar. crushed. Portland Cement clinker Chalk. lumpy 720-960 800-960 110-240 290 1070-1920 785 830 720 720 560 720-800 720 110-160 660 2560 1150 160-320 610 1200-1360 545-640 660 560-720 560-800 430-640 880-960 1 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 2 1 2 2 2 1 Packs under pressure Interlocks and matts Contains explosive dust Interlocks and packs under pressure Mildly corrosive. 12mm and under Bagasse Baking powder (NaHCO3) Barite Barium carbonate Bark. 850 1 1 Degradable 400-480 880-960 480-800 1120-1280 415-460 1530 65-95 1000 2080-3200 1040-1360 1200-1280 1360-1440 1 1 3 2 1 1 1 3 2 2 3 2 Packs under pressure Aerates Degradable . 2 is mildly abrasive and 3 is highly abrasive.packs under pressure Mildly corrosive The values in the tables are given as a guide only.
interlocks Interlocks Section 4 Compost Copper ore Copper sulphate Copra cake. roasted bean Coke.102 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide Table 17 Material Density kg/m3 Abrasive Index Special Properties Chalk. 6mm and under 1120-1200 290-400 350-380 2000-2240 910 640 1280 1600-1920 770 960 380 480-640 480-560 320-350 400 350-410 370-510 560-720 400-560 450 1920-2400 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 1 3 1 Aerates and packs under pressure Degradable Very light and fluffy. packs under pressure Contains toxic dust Contains explosive dust Mildly corrosive Contains explosive dust. calcined Clay. please contact Renold for further advice. blast furnace Cinders. . ore Cinders. loose Coke. 100 mesh and under Charcoal Cheese. seed Corn. aerates The values in the tables are given as a guide only. degradable Aerates. shredded Coffee. cracked Corn. ground Coffee. petroleum. packs under pressure Contains explosive dust. granulated Corn. lumpy Ebonite. grated Chrome. crushed. 12mm and under Egg powder Highly corrosive 400-480 640-720 640-720 190-240 190-240 720-800 720 720 335 610-640 1760 1280-1920 175-225 690 400-500 1440-1600 1040-1120 225 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 1 Mildly corrosive. anthracite Coal char Cocoa beans Cocoa powder Coconut. aerates Degradable Packs under pressure Degradable. coal Clay. lumpy Copra cake. shelled Corn germs Cornmeal Cryolite Cullet Diatomaceous earth (Kieselguhr) Dicalcium phosphate (Calcium Dihydrogen Phosphate) Disodium phosphate (Disodium Hydrogen Phosphate (V)) Dolomite. ground Copra meal Cork. degradable Contains explosive dust Very light and fluffy. calcined Coke. breeze. fine ground Cork. fine dry Clover seed Coal.
spent. pebble Limestone. 100 mesh and under Lactose Lead arsenate Lignite. raw Gelatin. raw Lime. dry Hops. flake Graphite. wet Ice. hydrated. 15mm and under Feldspar. raw. broken Grass seed Gravel. spent. oil filter. crushed Ilmenite ore (Iron Titanate) Iron ore Kaolin clay. flour Granite. packs under pressure Aerates. Section 4 . calcined. 12mm and under Gypsum. 3mm and under Lime. powdered Ferrous sulphate Fish meal Fish scrap Flaxseed Flour. burned Fuller’s earth. packs under pressure Gives off toxic dust Mildly corrosive Contains explosive dust. calcined. dry Graphite. 25mm and under Hops. air dried Lignite. wheat Flue dust. distillery. please contact Renold for further advice. spent.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 103 Designer Guide Table 17 Material Density kg/m3 Abrasive Index Special Properties Epsom salts (magnesium sulphate) Feldspar. powdered Gypsum. packs under pressure Aerates. boiler house. 3mm and under Lime. ground. fluffy Aerates Very light and fluffy Degradable Contains explosive dust Easily contaminated Aerates The values in the tables are given as a guide only. 75mm and under Kaolin talc. pulverized Lime. oil filter. dry Fluorspar Fuller’s earth. crushed 640-800 2040-2240 1200 800-1200 560-640 640-800 720 560-640 560-720 1310 640 560-640 510 1440-1600 640 480 640 450 1520-1600 160-190 1440-1600 880-960 960-1280 1440-1600 560 800-880 560-720 2240 2000-2400 2610 670-900 510 1155 720-880 640-720 960 640 510-640 860-900 1360-1440 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 3 2 3 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 Packs under pressure Aerate. granulated Glass batch Gluten meal Grains. hydrated. screened Gypsum. ground. packs under pressure Easily contaminated.
fresh loose fruit Palm oil. dry ground 3mm and under Malt. please contact Renold for further advice. whole Palm oil. fresh fruit bunches Palm oil. scraps Mica. .104 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide Table 17 Material Density kg/m3 Abrasive Index Special Properties Limestone dust Lithopone (BaSC4) Magnesium chloride Malt. very light and fluffy Easily contaminated Easily contaminated. pulverized Mica flakes Milk. ground Meat. packs under pressure Section 4 Milk. sterilised stripped fruit Palm oil. dry Oxalic acid crystals Oyster shells. 20% consistency Paper pulp. dry whole Malt. nuts Palm oil. shell Paper pulp. dried flake Milk. empty fruit bunches Palm oil. whole powdered Monosodium phosphate Muriate of potash Mustard seed Naphthalene flakes Niacin Nickel-cobalt sulphate ore Oats Oil seed rape Orange peel. ground Mica. wet or green Malt meal Manganese dioxide Manganese ore Manganese sulphate Marble. packs under pressure Easily contaminated. malted 1200 720-800 530 350 430-480 960-1040 575-640 1280 2000-2240 1120 1440-1520 1280 800-880 640 210-240 210-240 270-350 80-95 480-560 320 800 1230 720 720 560 1120-1280 415 770 / 880 240 960 850 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 Aerates Aerates Contains explosive dust. 10% consistency Paper pulp. crushed. light and fluffy Contains explosive dust Interlocks and matts Aerates Aerates. 30% consistency Contains explosive dust Mildly corrosive Contains explosive dust 1 1 2 2 Interlocks and matts Hygroscopic 432-513 202-238 609-641 641-705 659-705 593-609 720-800 400-480 160-240 2 2 2 1 2 2 1 1 1 Corrosive Mildly Corrosive Mildly Corrosive The values in the tables are given as a guide only. ground under 12mm Oyster shells. 12mm and under Marl Meat.
dry Sawdust Sesame seed Shale. degradable Mildly corrosive Mildly corrosive Packs under pressure 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 2 2 1 3 3 3 2 2 1 Degradable Degradable Mildly corrosive. dry Sand. degradable Degradable Interlocks and matts Easily contaminated Contains explosive dust Contains explosive dust Contains explosive dust Hygroscopic Mildly corrosive. damp Sand. common.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 105 Designer Guide Table 17 Material Density kg/m3 Abrasive Index Special Properties Peanuts. prepared Sand. in shells Peanuts. shakeout Sand. crushed. hygroscopic Contains explosive dust 240-400 240-800 80-240 320-400 640-800 1 1 1 1 2 Packs under pressure The values in the tables are given as a guide only. dried Phosphate rock Phosphate sand Phosphorus Polystyrene beads Potassium carbonate Potassium chloride. granular Slag. 12mm and under Slate. hygroscopic Mildly corrosive. shelled Peas. foundry. crushed Shellac. dry fine Salt cake. rough Rubber. ground. reclaim Rye Salicylic acid Salt. dry course Salt cake. bank. silica. pelletized Rubber. pellets Quartz powder Rape seed Rice. dry pulverized Saltpetre Sand. 3mm and under Pyrites. furnace. pellets Potassium nitrate Potassium sulphate Pumice. 3mm and under Soap beads or granules Soap chips Soap detergents Soap flakes Soap powder Soapstone talc. powdered or granulated Silica gel Slag. please contact Renold for further advice. bank. furnace. hulled or polished Rice. Section 4 . dry course Salt. foundry. common. lumpy Slate. fine 240-320 560-720 720-800 1200-1360 1440-1600 1510 640 820 1920-2080 1220 670-770 670-720 1920-2080 1240 770/880 720-770 575 800-880 400-480 705 465 720-800 1120-1280 1360 1040-1360 1280 1760-2080 1440-1760 1440 1440 1440-1600 160-210 430 1360-1440 500 720 960-1040 2560-2880 1280-1440 1310 1 1 1 2 3 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 Degradable Degradable Contains explosive dust.
packs under pressure Very light and fluffy. pulp. 75mm and under Sulphur. over 12mm Soybean flakes. knifed Sulphur. dry Sugar beet. cracked Soybeans. cold Soybean meal. heavy Soda ash.106 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide Table 17 Material Density kg/m3 Abrasive Index Special Properties Soda ash. powdered Sugar. light Sodium nitrate Sorghum seed Soybeans. interlocks and matts Very light and fluffy Degradable. whole Soybean cake. cracked Wheat germ Wood chips Zinc concentrate residue Zinc ore. spent Soybean flour Soybean meal. interlocks and matts Contains explosive dust Contains explosive dust Contains explosive dust. contains explosive dust Easily contaminated. aerates Interlocks and matts Interlocks and matts Easily contaminated. raw. 12mm and under Sulphur. hot Starch Steel chips. cane Sugar. crushed Zinc oxide. wet 880-1040 320-560 1120-1280 750-830 480-640 720-800 640-690 320-415 290-320 430 640 640 400-800 1600-2400 1200-2400 800-880 800-960 880-1040 880-1040 190-240 400-720 240-290 800-960 1280-1360 800-960 640-960 960-1120 190-225 240-400 480 240 960 800-880 640 225 1280 560-640 720-770 640-720 450 160-480 1200-1280 2560 480-560 160-240 2 2 Very light and fluffy Corrosive 2 2 2 1 1 1 Very light and fluffy Very light and fluffy Contains explosive dust Contains explosive dust 1 1 Mildly corrosive Mildly corrosive 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 Packs under pressure Very light. crushed. wet. raw Soybean flakes. aerates Aerates Section 4 Sugar cane. powdered Talcum powder Titanium sponge Tobacco leaves. heavy Zinc oxide. crushed Wheat Wheat. beet Sugar beet. contains explosive dust Packs under pressure Packs under pressure Mildly corrosive Corrosive Corrosive. crushed Steel turnings Sugar. please contact Renold for further advice. expanded Vermiculite ore Walnut shells. pulp. light The values in the tables are given as a guide only. . gives off toxic fumes Degradable. granulated Sugar. dry Tobacco scraps Tobacco snuff Tobacco stems Trisodium phosphate (Sodium Orthophosphate) Triple super phosphate (Calcium Phosphate (V)) Urea Vermiculite. interlocks and matts Contains explosive dust Contains explosive dust Very light and fluffy Highly corrosive.
such as abrasion. All factors should be checked before a material is finally selected. i.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 107 Designer Guide Steel Type Material Formula A Acetic Acid Alcohol Ammonia Acetone (Propanone) Aluminium Chloride Aluminium Silicate Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Sulphate Beer Benzene Borax (Disodium Tetraborate) Brine Carbon Tetrachloride (Tetrachloroethane) Caustic Soda Solution Citric Acid Coal Cocoa Beans Cocoa Powder Formaldehyde (Methanal) Formic Acid (Methanoic Acid) Fruit Juices Hydrochloric Acid (2%) Hydrogen Peroxide Hypochlorite Soda (Chlorate) Iodine Iron Pyrites Lactic Acid Lead Ores (Galena) Milk Nitric Acid (Low Concentrate) Oil (Vegetable & Mineral) Oxalic Acid (Ethanedioic Acid) Paraffin (Alkanes) Phosphate Fertiliser Potassium Carbonate (Potash) Potassium Chloride (Potassium Muriate) Petrol (Gasoline) Phosphoric Acid Sea Water Soaps and Solutions Sodium Chloride Sugar Sulphur Sulphuric Acid Vegetable Juices Vegetable Oils Vinegar Water Whisky Wine H20 NaCI C12H22011 S H2SO4 H3P04 1 3 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 1 3 3 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 (COOH)2 CNHN H3P04 K2CO3 KCI HN03 FeS2 CH3CH(OH)COOH PbS HCL H 202 CI03 HCHO HCOOH C H O(COOH) 3 5 3 Table 18 RESISTANCE OF STEELS TO CORROSION C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 B 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 1 3 1 3 3 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 1 1 CH3C00H C2H50H NH3 CH3C0CH3 AICI3 NH4CI NH4N03 (NH4) 2SO4 C6H4(OH)2 Na2B407. A material may be satisfactory from the point of view of corrosion but may be affected by other factors. AISI 420 or similar Represents austenitic stainless steels AISI 316 or similar Levels of Resistance 1 2 3 Fully resistant Partially resistant Not resistant Please note that the table is for determining corrosion resistance only.10H20 CCI4 3 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 2 1 2 3 3 1 3 2 1 2 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 1 3 1 3 1 3 2 2 Explanation of the Table Steel type A B C Represents carbon steels Represents martensitic stainless steels. Section 4 .e.
22 -0.35 -0.57 -0.68 -0.42 -0.11 0.71 -0.00 0.57 -0.70 -0.16 -0.56 -0.11 0.59 -0.23 -0.03 0.13 -0.04 0.56 -0.69 -0.71 -0.54 -0.05 -0.13 0.11 -0.13 0.22 -0.55 -0.09 -0.09 -0.10 -0.01 -0.10 0.53 -0.09 0.27 -0.09 0.07 -0.34 -0.33 -0.70 -0.51 -0.09 0.71 -0.20 0.57 -0.69 -0.67 -0.00 0.71 -0.11 0.10 0.42 -0.14 0.10 0.21 -0.05 -0.17 0.38 -0.68 -0.03 -0.23 -0.68 -0.12 -0.07 -0.14 -0.18 -0.21 -0.14 -0.00 0.43 -0.22 -0.15 -0.24 -0.07 -0.49 -0.22 -0.01 0.25 -0.9 BS400 400 88.58 -0.04 -0.57 -0.00 0.20 -0.71 -0.01 -0.01 10° -0.08 -0.71 -0.13 -0.40 -0.05 -0.45 -0.40 -0.08 -0.05 0.40 -0.39 -0.17 -0.56 -0.8 BS54/BS67 54/67 47.40 -0.23 -0.0 M630 630 140.68 -0.16 -0.70 BS13 13 25.53 -0.0 M450 450 120.41 -0.13 0.71 -0.18 -0.18 -0.08 0.69 -0.16 -0.71 -0.43 -0.42 -0.27 -0.07 -0.40 -0.08 -0.03 0.41 40° -0.55 -0.09 0.67 -0.42 -0.68 -0.54 -0.40 -0.56 -0.14 -0.68 -0.07 0.10 -0.57 50° -0.0 M112 112 60.68 -0.15 -0.01 0.06 0.07 -0.54 -0.08 0.09 -0.44 -0.07 -0.42 -0.56 -0.06 -0.57 -0.02 0.26 -0.59 -0.08 0.54 -0.70 -0.67 -0.04 0.05 -0.70 -0.01 0.17 -0.26 -0.71 -0.70 -0.08 -0.20 -0.08 0.24 -0.60 -0.08 -0.13 -0.17 -0.0 M315 315 100.70 -0.72 -0.37 -0.59 -0.10 0.108 I Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue Designer Guide TABLE OF μs1 CHAIN REF UTS (kN) ROLLER DIA (mm) LUBRICATION 0° R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N 0.14 -0.6 BS107/BS13 107/134 66.13 -0.17 0.15 -0.24 -0.06 -0.0 M56 56 42.22 -0.0 R = REGULAR O = OCCASIONAL N = NONE .40 -0.55 -0.40 -0.03 -0.17 -0.40 -0.00 0.25 -0.01 0.16 0.09 0.54 -0.21 -0.44 -0.09 -0.09 0.04 -0.18 0.38 -0.11 0.05 0.05 -0.9 BS267 267 88.12 -0.42 -0.0 M900 900 170.41 -0.05 0.09 -0.12 -0.13 -0.16 20° -0.39 -0.02 0.40 -0.23 -0.00 0.57 -0.71 -0.09 -0.02 0.50 -0.25 -0.53 -0.70 -0.01 0.58 -0.11 0.19 -0.0 MC224 224 100.00 0.01 0.04 -0.70 -0.51 -0.44 -0.54 -0.69 -0.42 -0.26 -0.02 -0.19 0.08 -0.20 -0.29 -0.09 0.16 -0.10 0.18 -0.70 -0.39 -0.0 M224 224 85.14 -0.64 -0.11 -0.42 -0.04 0.73 -0.70 -0.19 -0.11 0.20 -0.57 -0.01 0.19 -0.68 -0.03 0.04 -0.66 -0.14 -0.15 -0.02 0.06 -0.09 0.01 0.40 -0.18 -0.10 5° 0.38 -0.06 -0.57 -0.03 -0.09 -0.15 0.14 -0.17 -0.43 -0.0 M160 160 70.58 -0.06 -0.4 BS20 20 25.05 0.41 -0.14 0.17 -0.02 -0.08 -0.56 -0.26 -0.06 0.11 0.54 -0.03 0.55 -0.01 -0.69 -0.71 -0.70 -0.57 -0.25 -0.71 -0.70 -0.23 -0.09 -0.18 -0.13 0.07 0.11 0.11 -0.02 0.13 0.57 -0.23 -0.7 BS160/BS20 160/200 88.41 -0.68 -0.71 -0.40 -0.28 -0.39 -0.10 0.06 -0.68 -0.08 -0.57 -0.17 -0.00 0.25 -0.06 -0.57 -0.15 -0.11 -0.12 0.01 0.01 0.24 -0.03 0.09 -0.64 -0.14 0.02 -0.37 -0.15 -0.10 0.39 -0.05 0.26 -0.57 -0.07 -0.36 -0.05 -0.22 -0.13 -0.17 -0.54 -0.04 0.14 0.70 -0.07 -0.15 0.54 -0.11 0.57 -0.39 -0.24 -0.15 -0.09 -0.12 0.06 0.03 -0.24 -0.04 -0.13 0.12 -0.26 -0.10 0.00 0.0 Section 4 MC56 56 50.03 -0.02 0.24 -0.54 -0.57 -0.09 -0.56 -0.26 -0.05 -0.10 0.12 0.17 -0.13 -0.57 -0.16 -0.26 -0.17 -0.19 -0.15 -0.21 -0.21 -0.0 M80 80 50.23 -0.42 -0.25 -0.40 -0.0 MC112 112 70.09 -0.15 0.56 -0.41 -0.09 0.28 -0.07 0.08 CONVEYOR INCLINATION 15° -0.72 -0.66 -0.68 -0.25 -0.16 -0.43 -0.69 -0.04 0.26 -0.09 -0.16 -0.66 -0.69 -0.13 0.27 -0.70 -0.42 -0.12 0.08 0.00 0.06 0.55 -0.57 -0.07 -0.16 -0.26 -0.70 -0.24 -0.57 -0.07 0.00 0.68 -0.28 -0.01 0.12 0.09 -0.09 0.25 -0.02 -0.40 -0.14 0.9 M40 40 36.38 -0.03 0.71 -0.27 -0.04 0.54 -0.12 -0.02 0.35 -0.12 0.16 -0.09 0.15 -0.38 -0.41 -0.04 -0.08 0.55 -0.22 -0.72 -0.39 -0.50 -0.55 -0.12 0.34 -0.52 -0.10 -0.02 0.65 -0.08 -0.25 30° -0.40 -0.37 -0.4 BS27/BS33 27/33 31.17 -0.58 -0.08 -0.02 0.70 -0.41 -0.10 -0.01 -0.41 -0.09 -0.54 -0.09 -0.
27 0.45 0.83 0.37 0.19 0.86 0.84 0.37 0.70 0.32 0.77 0.29 0.76 0.83 0.24 0.29 0.28 0.0 M80 80 50.42 0.58 0.64 0.09 0.27 0.74 0.77 0.33 0.40 0.84 0.82 0.29 0.62 0.39 0.34 0.11 0.76 0.22 0.29 0.25 0.57 0.10 0.10 0.73 0.36 0.30 0.74 0.19 0.34 0.17 0.65 0.42 0.06 0.50 0.56 0.45 0.36 0.60 0.48 0.20 0.31 0.84 0.43 0.08 0.59 0.75 0.85 0.45 0.73 0.59 0.19 10° 0.82 0.34 0.21 0.61 0.16 0.21 0.75 0.60 0.37 0.22 0.37 0.18 0.33 0.22 0.16 0.26 0.45 0.19 0.27 0.44 0.09 0.36 0.26 0.59 0.71 0.10 0.24 0.47 0.84 0.86 0.37 0.84 0.21 0.38 0.59 0.15 0.4 BS20 20 25.46 0.62 0.17 0.24 0.45 0.18 0.72 0.60 0.34 0.83 0.89 0.39 0.0 M56 56 42.13 0.85 0.11 0.87 0.30 0.88 0.59 0.12 0.44 30° 0.26 0.58 0.27 0.36 20° 0.4 BS27/BS33 27/33 31.86 0.71 0.21 0.38 0.09 0.73 0.38 0.32 0.11 0.08 0.48 0.25 0.59 40° 0.27 0.13 0.71 0.19 0.82 0.58 0.14 0.17 0.46 0.58 0.37 0.44 0.81 0.73 0.18 0.12 0.42 0.86 0.57 0.39 0.70 0.88 0.73 0.76 0.26 0.34 0.63 0.27 0.0 M160 160 70.60 0.17 0.0 M450 450 120.46 0.32 0.45 0.15 0.84 0.71 0.34 0.82 0.84 0.66 0.43 0.45 0.43 0.85 0.37 0.34 0.Renold Conveyor Chain Catalogue I 109 Designer Guide TABLE OF μs2 CHAIN REF UTS (kN) ROLLER DIA (mm) LUBRICATION 0° R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N R O N 0.31 0.66 0.40 0.81 0.9 M40 40 36.23 0.29 0.65 0.41 0.73 0.09 0.17 0.24 0.73 0.86 0.9 BS400 400 88.60 0.83 BS13 13 25.34 0.23 0.18 0.39 0.45 0.71 0.84 0.21 0.27 0.61 0.20 0.82 0.12 0.31 0.60 0.30 0.56 0.43 0.55 0.82 0.47 0.28 0.72 0.0 R = REGULAR O = OCCASIONAL N = NONE Section 4 .72 0.45 0.08 0.09 0.25 0.71 0.10 0.59 0.0 MC112 112 70.60 0.83 0.72 50° 0.37 0.70 0.48 0.70 0.20 0.31 0.60 0.82 0.58 0.36 0.28 0.0 M630 630 140.57 0.26 0.61 0.75 0.20 0.10 0.23 0.36 0.34 0.63 0.74 0.73 0.46 0.19 0.71 0.62 0.63 0.36 0.77 0.71 0.22 0.43 0.43 0.61 0.30 0.70 0.32 0.45 0.82 0.73 0.85 0.12 0.9 BS267 267 88.28 0.07 0.27 0.26 0.58 0.10 5° 0.73 0.85 0.29 0.33 0.37 0.13 0.15 0.74 0.45 0.0 M900 900 170.41 0.17 0.22 0.85 0.73 0.34 0.19 0.11 0.80 0.43 0.21 0.30 0.75 0.61 0.67 0.46 0.36 0.34 0.86 0.50 0.30 0.28 0.74 0.14 0.73 0.37 0.43 0.44 0.23 0.20 0.84 0.69 0.85 0.71 0.83 0.37 0.15 0.29 0.27 CONVEYOR INCLINATION 15° 0.0 MC56 56 50.73 0.36 0.0 M224 224 70.16 0.58 0.42 0.37 0.53 0.41 0.79 0.44 0.89 0.82 0.26 0.72 0.8 BS54/BS67 54/67 47.18 0.07 0.60 0.74 0.81 0.82 0.25 0.28 0.57 0.14 0.60 0.29 0.61 0.17 0.0 M112 112 60.72 0.39 0.37 0.19 0.31 0.83 0.42 0.28 0.72 0.11 0.12 0.41 0.82 0.43 0.10 0.36 0.86 0.11 0.07 0.37 0.86 0.16 0.12 0.71 0.26 0.37 0.13 0.60 0.49 0.74 0.58 0.60 0.22 0.59 0.40 0.56 0.52 0.13 0.38 0.60 0.58 0.09 0.73 0.62 0.34 0.25 0.59 0.10 0.08 0.70 0.34 0.83 0.11 0.47 0.46 0.34 0.09 0.26 0.43 0.78 0.73 0.60 0.21 0.09 0.84 0.27 0.23 0.44 0.11 0.6 BS107/BS13 107/134 66.24 0.18 0.18 0.38 0.45 0.60 0.20 0.33 0.34 0.20 0.18 0.28 0.43 0.28 0.70 0.14 0.09 0.18 0.75 0.46 0.24 0.30 0.0 M315 315 100.10 0.84 0.20 0.47 0.38 0.38 0.44 0.18 0.23 0.82 0.42 0.45 0.83 0.47 0.80 0.58 0.82 0.09 0.45 0.26 0.84 0.35 0.22 0.0 MC224 224 85.44 0.72 0.45 0.88 0.13 0.7 BS160/BS20 160/200 88.44 0.45 0.44 0.19 0.84 0.12 0.34 0.82 0.37 0.84 0.20 0.13 0.40 0.18 0.19 0.14 0.61 0.72 0.84 0.62 0.26 0.26 0.
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