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Journal of Science of Technology, 1 (1): 00-00, March 2011

Faruk et al.


MD. OMAR FARUK1*, MST. NURJAHAN KHATUN1, AND MD. ROKON UDDIN2 Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. 2Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Dhaka University, Bangladesh.

The term policeis assumed to be related to secure and peaceful society which would satisfy peoples desire of safety. In spite of a greater level of expectation for service from police in Bangladesh, people are unwillingly restricted to reach their needs. Though there are allegations against police personnel for doing maltreatment and activities need to be judged from their own professional ethics for better understanding of their life. The present study voyages through the mental state of police personnel about job satisfaction. The lower ranked officers working under Tangail district are included as subjects for studying. In selected study areas, probability random sampling has been used and convenience sampling is used for selection of the respondents within the target areas. A total of 150 on-the-job police personnel were included within the study as respondents. The study identifies the level of job satisfaction of police as average or moderate by examining fifteen variables associated with job satisfaction. Variations in job satisfaction have been found in terms of geographical location, education, rank, religion, gender and number family members. Dissatisfaction in job may undermine professionalism; enhance stress; foster corruption and tend to dishonesty; and damage attempts to improve efficiency. Factors related to job satisfaction for police are needed to be improved for efficiency and better policing.

Key words: Police officers, Police life, Job description, Job satisfaction. Introduction Police are the agents or agencies, usually of the executive, empowered to enforce law and to ensure social and public order through legitimate use of force. Peoples safety and security within a community depends on their roles. The police are the only uniformed government civil law enforcement agency in Bangladesh with its long history and heritage for centuries. Though people seek help from police in danger, fear, crime, or suffering; police hold negative reputation from public and receive hostility as well as abhorrence. Many researches have been conducting on the issue of police corruption and inefficiency. Peoples expectation from police touches the sky, but people do not perceive the lag between their expectations and capabilities of police. However, it is also true, in the sense of human resource management, that if police are dissatisfied with their jobs, performance will be minimal or reduced. Job satisfaction of police in Bangladesh may show direction or open new dimension for factors affecting police performance. The present study reveals various aspects of job satisfaction of police and their relation to other variables.

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Faruk et al.

Present Situation of Police Life in Bangladesh In an arrangement (The Daily Star 2007) of 'The Daily Star' roundtable on draft Bangladesh Police Ordinance, 2007, former IGP Mohammad Nurul Huda slated the provision of having police on duty for 24 hours under The Police Act, 1861. They are meant to uphold human rights, "but how come they do that when their minimum rights are not honored." In a report Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) observed that salary given to the police officers and constables is insufficient. Police officers and constables work 1318 hours a day. A police personnel is always confronted with the problem of inadequate logistic support. On an average 5-6 police staffs sit in each room of a police station. Police Stations at districts and thana level have no prison van. Malkhanas of metropolitan and district police stations are narrow and unhygienic, while police stations or thanas have no malkhana. The toilet facilities of police stations are insufficient. Most of the police stations do not have sufficient number of cars, and the available cars are outdated. The police stations are not provided with necessary furniture. More than(45.5) percent arms in the metropolitan police stations are Chinese shot guns, 78.6 percent arms in the police stations at district levels are three-not-three rifles, at thana levels police stations this is 95.5 percent, whereas, criminals are equipped with modern arms. Police get only 18.4 percent times for works relating to criminal cases with huge caseload. Other works vested on maintaining law and order (40.6%), and ensuring the security of VIPs (32.7%) (TIB 2004). In an investigative report (Islam 2007) made by The Daily Star, it is found that an investigation officer (IO) of a case gets a little over Tk. 3.00 a day as conveyance; the IO also gets Tk. 10.00 a day as the cost of three meals for an accused in police custody; An investigator who has a government motorcycle gets around 1.7 litres of fuel a day--50 litres a month, but one who has his personal motorbike gets only Tk 127.00 a month as motorcycle allowance. An investigator has to visit frequently the places of occurrence, interview witnesses, arrange repeated drives for the arrest of suspects, visit the court for hearing of cases and laboratories for forensic test of seized items, and take accident victims to hospitals. All these cost an IO has to personally pay that is a huge amount of money but they get almost no allocation. These phenomena led to bribery in the police force. In another report (Karim 2007) it is found that life appears very difficult for police officials. The study gives ample proof of the neglect and sub-human conditions they live with. For example, in Shyamoli a ramshackle shack was used to live rather than a dormitory. Junior officials practically survive amidst the growing slime around them. Several chowkis (bed) are lined up together in one room, where sometimes two officials have to share one single chowki. These multi- purpose chowkis are also used during meal times since it is practically impossible to eat sitting on the ground that is filled with bricks and debris. Still using wood and coal to cook, the walls and the floors are filled with grime, soot and muck.

Faruk et al.

A report obtained that Police in Dhaka are suffering from insufficient sleeping arrangements and unhygienic conditions in their barracks. After ensuring others safety throughout the day they have to fight for a place to sleep. It is thus really hard for them to behave well with people the next day. A room at Rajarbagh Police Line can accommodate 20 beds, although 50 to 60 beds are crammed into every room with no lockers for clothing. Extra beds are even crammed onto the staircases and balconies of the six-storey buildings. It takes at least six months to get a light bulb after applying for one. The DMP has 23,600 men of different ranks, but Rajarbagh Police Line can accommodate only one or two percent of them ( 2007). Paolo del Mistro, an anti-corruption specialist of the UNDPs police reforms programme (PRP), reviewed that the police do not enjoy their job and the life they are leading is not satisfactory and often destroys their self-respect. Paolo carried out a research on the Bangladesh police for six months to get enough data to formulate strategic plan for reforming it. He emphasized on overwork, low pay, poor living conditions, recruitment, promotion and transfer process of the police that cause dissatisfaction (Azad 2007). Yet behind this all too publicized facade lie the unhappy lot of the individual police person. Not only does he/she generally go without overtime allowance and annual leave but is also often deprived of the weekly holiday and at times religious and national festivals pass them by because of the pressure of work, thus making a total 26% extra days of work per year for the policemen. 70% of them will have to make to do without house to live in and without family. Men of any rank may be frequently and suddenly transferred to take over within short time. It would be difficult to find any profession other than police which has considerable number of injury and casualties while performing their duties (Huq 2004). In a training program arranged by PRP, funded by the UNDP, police officials told about their problems (Ghias 2007). Problems that was addressed during the training program were lack of managerial competence, training and resources, low motivation due to low pay scale, poor working condition, limited promotion prospects, less participation of women, more focus on protocol, inadequate strategy planning, peoples lack of trust on police and police personnels lack of sensitivity on the plight of victims. Government uses the police as a branch of its political organisation and suppresses often the rightful activities of opposition political parties. Extensive political use of police force hinders the development of professionalism, as a result less qualified and dishonest police officers are placed in important positions, and the people remain deprived of the service of honest and sincere police officers (Karzon 2006). Existing police pay, conditions, allowances, accommodation and hours of duty undermine professionalism, foster corruption and damage attempts to improve efficiency. The complex tasks, longer working hours and hazardous working conditions of police are very different to other public servants and go unacknowledged by Government. This phenomenon is a breeding ground for corruption by police officers exists. Other consequences of job dissatisfaction are: morale is adversely impacted; work quality is

Faruk et al. reduced; livelihood security of individual police officers is adversely affected ( Summary- Annex B.htm 2007). Objectives of the study The purpose of this study is to understand the state of job satisfaction of police and examine the relationship between various organizational, behavioral, social characteristics and job satisfaction among line officers in Bangladesh police. The principal objectives of the present study are to: i. identify the factors of job satisfaction of Bangladesh Police; ii. analyze the degree of effects of different variables on job satisfaction; iii. measure job satisfaction level of Bangladesh Police; iv. describe the variation of job satisfaction in respect of place, time, religion, sex, etc.; v. explore on appropriate recommendations on the basis of research findings.

Significance of the study Employees who are more than just satisfied and are happy at work tend to be very productive in service (Cote 1999). Job satisfaction improves the performance of organization in the following ways (Anastasi 1987).

i. Reducing employee turnover the rate at which employees quit and seek new jobs. ii. Reducing absenteeism the frequency with which employees fail to show up for

iii. Improving relations between labor and management.

iv. v. Improving the ability of organizations to recruit good employees. Improving the reputation that employees give to an organization by what they say about in the community. It is necessary for police officers to be satisfied with their jobs for at least two reasons. First, satisfied officers may be more likely to go the extra mile for their organization as well as for serving people. These activities contribute to and are necessary for organizational efficiency, effectiveness, and gaining a competitive advantage. Second, job satisfaction may improve police officers perception of improved life by promoting happiness. This may reduce stress, corruption, misbehavior (e.g., brutality) and other likely obstacles for better service. Methods of the study Participants Tangail district was selected as the study area which is, geographically, situated at the center of Bangladesh. Among the respondents, most of the police personnel occupied rank below of ASP, since those lower rank officers actually shape the police performance

Faruk et al. and image. In the present study, officers below the rank of ASP, including Inspector, Sub-inspector, Assistant Sub-inspector and Constables, were selected to form sample size. Apparatus Variables (about 15 variables) have been used in the present study within a theoretical framework which built up the premise for measuring job satisfaction of police. It is preferable to systemize and set out those positions at the beginning (Baker 1999). The present study used the theory of Abraham Maslow who proposed that all people seek to satisfy five basic kinds of needs: physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization needs (Maslow 1954). The variables derived for the present study are: use of skill, social respect, fair promotion, decision-making, positive supervision, logistical support, cooperation from colleagues, external inspiration, proudfeelings, job stress, job affecting family life, job environment, job security, opportunity for promotion, and salary. Weights were assigned against each variable, according to Likert scale, on the basis of strength and cohesiveness of response. Procedure This study is a cross-sectional study, indeed, and descriptive in nature. Data gathered from questionnaire method formed the data-set of the study from police officers working below the rank of ASP. Though Tangail district was selected through purposive sampling, four police stations among eleven composing Tangail districts were selected through random process. Some sort of data was collected in field level from officers at work. Respondents were selected on the process of convenience or accidental sampling. The total sample size was 150 (one hundred and fifty). Likert scale with specific values against each variable was used. In processing stage, the quantification of qualitative data was completed. Several levels of statistical analyses are performed in conducting analysis. Frequency tables (i.e. frequency distribution, central tendency) were made for univariate analysis. Bivariate (cross-tabulation and correlation) and multivariate (path analysis) analyses were used to see the relation among the variables. All these analyses were performed by using SPSS program. Results 01. Demographic characteristics of respondents Most of the respondents, in respect of age, belonged from a range of 26 to 30 years. The average age of the respondents was 38.81 years. About 46.0% respondents had only a secondary degree. There were also 22.7% respondents having junior secondary certificate. About 82.7% respondents noticed that they were got married. About 55.4% respondents had 4 to 5 family members. This indicates that police as a government employee were aware about having few children in their families. 02. Job description Constables occupied about 76.0% of the total number of respondents. Assistant subinspector, sub-inspectors and inspectors also comprised as to 12.7%, 8.0% and 3.3% successively. As the lower rank officers are called the street level bureaucrats (Lipsky

Faruk et al. 1968), they usually shape the overall police image. For the improvement of police service and of police performance, their mental states related to satisfaction are needed to study first. Most of the respondents (about 20.0%) served in police service for 6 to 10 years. The average working hour a police officer needs to serve in his/her jobs is 16.71 hour per day. About 60.0% police officers had to serve 15 to 17 hours a day. Even, there were 29.33% respondents who used to active at work for more than 18 hours a day. From this value, we get another clear calculation that police have to work 16 days a week in respect of standard working hour. 03. Job satisfaction Job satisfaction of lower ranked police officers was 0.47 (in a scale ranges from 0.0 to 1.0). This value is obtained from calculation of 15 different variables (table 3.1) through the process of quantification of qualitative data. Here, f stands for the number of respondents. Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh Table 3.1: Measure of job satisfaction.
Positive perceptions Use of skill and expertise in service Social respect Fair promotion Freedom in decisionmaking Supervision for betterment of staffs Logistical support for performing job Getting help from colleagues Inspiration from others Proud feeling Always Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Often Sometimes (% .50) 38 25.3% 12.65 55 36.7% 18.35 45 30.0% 15.0 20 13.3% 6.65 41 27.3% 13.65 34 22.7% 11.35 33 22.0% 11.0 42 28.0% 14.0 20 Hardly (% .25) 67 44.7% 11.17 23 15.3% 3.83 33 22.0% 5.5 67 44.7% 11.18 35 23.3% 5.83 87 58.0% 14.5 32 21.3% 5.33 20 13.3% 3.33 2 Never (% 0.0) 23 15.3% 0.00 4 2.7% 0.00 23 15.3% 0.0 41 27.3% 0.00 8 5.3% 0.00 11 7.3% 0.00 5 3.3% 0.00 4 2.7% 0.00 4 150 100.0% 37.09 150 100.0% 63.98 150 100.0% 49.2 150 100.0% 29.53 150 100.0% 58.98 150 100.0% 36.18 150 100.0% 62.31 150 100.0% 67.33 150 Total

(% 1.0) (% .75) 14 9.3% 9.3 47 31.3% 31.3 25 16.7% 16.7 4 2.7% 2.7 39 26.0% 26.0 8 5.3% 5.3 36 24.0% 24.0 48 32.0% 32.0 115 8 5.3% 3.97 21 14.0% 10.50 24 16.0% 12.0 18 12.0% 9.0 27 18.0% 13.5 10 6.7% 5.03 44 29.3% 21.98 36 24.0% 18.0 9

Faruk et al.
about police job Negative perceptions Job stress Service affecting family life Percent Value Value f Percent Value f Percent Value 76.7% 76.7 6.0% 4.5 13.3% 6.65 (% .50) 29 19.3% 9.65 28 18.7% 9.35 1.3% .33 (% .75) 22 14.7% 11.03 12 8.0% 6.0 2.7% 0.00 (% 1.0) 17 11.3% 11.30 15 10.0% 10.0 150 100.0% 38.31 150 100.0% 30.53 100.0% 88.18

(% 0.0) (% .25) 44 29.3% 0.00 64 42.7% 0.00 38 25.3% 6.33 31 20.7% 5.18

Job related perceptions Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value

Very good (% 1.0) 6 4.0% 4.0 2 1.3% 1.3 18 12.0 12.0 00 0.0% 0.0

Job environment Opportunity for promotion Job security

Neither good Poor Very Total nor bad poor (% .75) (% .50) (% .25) (% 0.0) 46 68 4 26 150 30.7% 45.3% 2.7% 17.3% 100.0% 22.65 0.00 50.31 23.03 0.63 20 13.3% 9.98 44 29.3% 21.98 04 2.7% 2.03 62 41.3% 20.65 68 45.3% 22.65 00 0.0% 0.0 12 8.0% 2.0 8 5.3% 1.33 00 0.0% 0.0 54 36.0% 0.00 12 8.0% 0.00 146 97.3% 0.0 150 100.0% 33.93 150 100.0% 57.96 150 100% 2.03



37.1+64.0+49.2+29.5+ 59.0 + 36.2 + 62.3 + 67.3+ 88.2+ 38.3 + 30.5 + 50.3 +33.9 +57.9+ 2.0 Job satisfaction = 15 = 47.02 (in 100 scale) = .47 (in 1 scale) The following figure represents the affiliation of job satisfaction with different single variables separately.

Faruk et al.

Fig. 3.1. Contributory influence on job satisfaction by individual variable. The perceived level of job satisfaction through direct questions was 0.48 (Table 3.2). Table 3.2. Perceived Job satisfaction of the respondents. Perceived opinion Number of respondents 05 49 37 48 6 150 Percentage Value (percent weight) 3.3 24.5 12.3 8.0 0.0 48.1

Very satisfied (weight = 1.0) 3.3 Satisfied (weight = .75) 32.7 Not unsatisfied (weight = .50) 24.7 Unsatisfied (weight = .25) 32.0 Very unsatisfied (weight = 0.0) 4.0 Total 100.0 Therefore, Calculated job satisfaction = 47.02 (in 100 scale) = 0.47 (in 1 scale) Perceived job satisfaction = 48 (in 100 scale) = 0.48 (in 1 scale) As both results approximately resemble together, the reliability of this job satisfaction level is highly significant. At the same time, it is appeared that job satisfaction of Bangladesh police remains in medium level. Interpretations of variables relating to job satisfaction (table 3.1) Use of skill and expertise in service: In police job, officers hardly can use their skills and expertise in their service. In most cases (about 44.7%), they think they have abilities to contribute in the department. However, they were not allowed or expected to use their capabilities and skills. Thus,

Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh

Faruk et al. Bangladesh Police does not benefit from the experience of skilled police officers who have academic qualifications and experience in operational duties. This phenomenon of not using skills and expertness make negative impact on the self-esteem of the police officers. Self-esteem is very much vital for higher level of productivity, service and also for job satisfaction. Officers with high self-esteem believe that they are competent, deserving, and capable of handling most situations (Brockner 1988). Since most of the respondents (from cumulative percent, about 60%) cannot use their capabilities, they deprive from developing confidence; and consequently, self-esteem would be decreased. This psychological deprivation of self-esteem has reverse impact on their satisfaction with their jobs. This variable affects heavily on the job satisfaction of police. Having respect from others About 31.3% respondents always and 36.7 percent respondents sometimes get respect from general people. Though it is not clear whether people respect police in fear or real, this high frequency of respect from people make police officers satisfied much with their duties. Public respect to police shape self-image of police and also their behavior in consequence. Desire for recognition is a usual desire of every people. Since this desire fulfills, police become satisfied. On the contrary, if police are not appraised for their activities in both media and public, dissatisfaction may arise. Fair and unbiased promotion About 30 percent respondents believe that sometimes there may happen fair and unbiased promotion schemes. Unfortunately, about 37.3 percent respondents think that fair and unbiased promotion never or hardly happens. Only 16.7 percent respondents agreed with the fact that there is always fair promotional scheme within the department. Unfair and biased evaluation deprives qualified officers from promotion. Existence of unfair or biased means in case of promotion discourages police personnel to work at maximum level. Consequently, police personnel become corrupted or seek political patronage in terms of getting promotion which undermines professionalism in police service. In promotion on performance, though competitive attitude develops, satisfaction appears among police officers. It affects on satisfaction of police job among police personnel. Freedom in decision-making in service In Bangladesh Police, a total of 72% of police (27.3% never; 44.7% hardly) have little autonomy for decision making. Street level officers hardly decide on matters to do their job and attain organizational goals in their own ways because of over controlled centralization. Decision-making is the process by which police officers respond to the opportunities and threats that confront them by analyzing the options and making decisions about specific organizational goals and courses of actions. It is common that an individuals decision make him accountable for the best course of action in his own job. With a lower level of satisfaction with decision making and with the job, this phenomenon inspires them to be unaccountable to themselves as well as the department

Faruk et al. for attaining organizational goals of keeping peace, ensuring security and public safety within the community. Awareness of senior officers for betterment of staffs Awareness of senior officers for betterment of their subordinates has influence on the job satisfaction of subordinate staffs. It is found that about 71.3% respondents satisfied with the matter that their supervisory officers keep a kind eye on them for their betterment and to reduce their sufferings, though in most cases supervisors have very limited power to make better for subordinate police staffs. Police work with high level of stress and tension that require such type of behaviors to their subordinates. As most of the respondents satisfy to their supervisory officers, it influences them to be satisfied in their job. Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh Proud feeling by the respondents About 76.7 percent respondents felt proud for their work of public safety. This proudfeeling bring confidence among police officers and internally meet up their instinctual desire of satisfaction. Service affecting family life The nature of police job in Bangladesh always affected 42.7 percent police personnel in their family life. Even from cumulative percentage we found that about 63.4 percent respondents always and often suffered in family life in greater extent. People got themselves in service or job to serve their family, for a better and decent life. If the ongoing job affects on family or personal life, it is enough to make officers dissatisfied and unhappy. Negative impact of job on family life creates panic and stress which decreases efficiency and performance too. Logistical support for completing job About 58.0 percent respondents hardly find necessary logistical support for operation. There are also 7.3 percent respondents who reportedly never get logistical support at work. It is quite impossible to perform in a job to serve people and to achieve organizational goals. The insufficiency of logistical support makes police officers very dissatisfied with the department. This finding of inadequacy of logistical support is also supported by other research findings conducted on police life (TIB 2004). In Bangladesh, especially lower rank police personnel confront many operational problems of working room, conference room for meeting, prison vans, malkhanas (stores), toilet facilities, patrol cars, furniture, arms and ammunition, etc. Getting help from colleagues About 29.3 percent respondents often get helps from the colleagues for performing operations. It is also significant that a total of about 53.3 percent respondents always or often get helps from others in their jobs. Police personnel constitute special kind of group, i.e., friendship group rather than interest group. It can help police to solve work-


Faruk et al. related problems because members of these groups typically discuss work-related matters and offer advice, help and cooperation. Friendship groups help satisfy police officers need for interpersonal interaction, can provide needed social support in times of stress, and can contribute to people feeling good at work and satisfied with their jobs. Mutual cooperation also helps police officers innovative. It may be thought that cooperation among officers helps the department to its duties to be done though having very inadequate resources and heavy confrontation with obstacles. Inspiration from others Most of the respondents (about 32%) get inspiration from others. It is also very significant that about 56.0% respondents receive always or often appraisal or inspiration from their surrounding environment. This inspiration makes them feel better and satisfied with their jobs. This topic or variable includes recognition, inspiration, appraisal, feedback, and the like. Though appraisal from others (peers, colleagues, clients) is subjective to nature, it contributes to the individuals psychological state of happiness and satisfaction. Moreover, according to McClellends need theory, the need for affiliation may be achieved through the inspirations from others. The need for affiliation is the extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having other people around them get along with each other (McClelland 1985). Experiencing suffering due to service About 29.3 percent respondents always suffered from various stress and pain in their job. From cumulative frequency (always and often), it is found that about 54.6 percent respondents experienced heavy stressful conditions in police work. It is well established issue that police job is one of the most stressful jobs among all others. However, there is no specialized unit or mechanism to reduce stress for police officers in Bangladesh. Stress and suffering does not make psychological state of police to be remained stable and serve with good manner. It drains into other unfavorable and unexpected mental condition (internal) and service (external). These endeavors result shaping negative and brutal images of police. Government tries to implement various strategies to improve police image and service. But there are little efforts to reduce officers pain, suffering and stress. If they face unfavorable situation, there psychological state will not allow them to behave with smile and friendliness. Job environment The present study reveals that about 45.3 percent respondents have environment surrounding them in their job were neither good nor poor. About 17.3 percent police officers respond that their working environment was very poor. With keeping them with such a job environment it is truly difficult to provide better service to people. A serviceoriented job like policing needs improved working environment. This kind of poor environment creates monotony not only for police personnel but also general people going to police and seeking help from police. In such a situation, it may be said that police officers, who are responsible to uphold the human rights of public, are deprived


Faruk et al. from their basic rights and fundamental needs. Their job environment, in many cases, does not meet up the minimum standards of living. Opportunity for promotion About 41.3 percent respondents perceived that the opportunity for promotion from one Job Satisfaction of Police is neither good nor bad in the police service. At the same time, rank to a superior one in Bangladesh about 36.0 percent respondents thought that the promotional prospects for them are poor. There are three tire recruitment schemes in police services where it is difficult for lower rack officers to catch a superior one due to initial difference during commencement of job. Because of this limited or little opportunity for promotion, dissatisfaction arises among the police officers. As the present study encompasses the officers belonging below inspector ranks, they have limited opportunity for promotion than an officer entering through the rank of ASP. Because of historical processes of lateral entry at ASP level is blocking promotion of all but 33% from SI/Inspector level. There is no clear promotion policy in police department for constables specifically. Lengthy stays (regularly 18 - 20 years) at one rank in lower levels breeds inefficiency and corruption and drives down performance and morale ( Summary- AnnexB.htm 2007). Job security in police service About 45.3 percent respondents felt as to their job security moderately, i.e., neither good nor bad. At the same time, from cumulative percentage (very good and good), about 41.3 percent respondents responded affirmatively to the security of their jobs. These reveal that the job security in police job is not bad, rather it is relatively good. Though there exists an acute allegation of misconduct and deviance against police, they are not anxious about their jobs. However, in some cases, police officers are fired or suspended, this process usually politicized. Thus job security brings satisfaction to the officers ultimately. Satisfaction about job security makes them active to their performances, commitment and operations. Salary for maintaining family Salary as well as remuneration given in police service is very much insufficient to officers to maintaining their family expenses. About 97.3 percent respondents reported that they failed to maintain their family expenses with their concerning salary structure. People satisfy themselves with resources which are obtained from salary. As salary provided to police personnel is very insufficient to about 97.3 percent respondents, it is usual to be very much dissatisfied with their job in terms of salary. Theories of job satisfaction suggest that pay should be based on duties and performance. Police perform tasks which are large in scope. They also serve an average of 16.71 hours per day in their jobs. Their activities desire or expect a decent salary by which they can bear their family responsibilities. Insufficient salary has some sort of external effects, like corruption, deviance, and the like. 04. Distribution of job satisfaction 4.1. Spatial distribution of job satisfaction of police:


Faruk et al. Job satisfaction level increased as we forward to more urbanized area. (Figure 4.1). Urban areas provide more life-supporting materials to develop life style and to enhance life chances. Fundamental needs of human being are become available in urban areas with well-equipped manner. For this, police personnel of urban areas are more satisfied than a rural one. Urban Tangail Sadar .
5 7 7

Rural Modhupur
. 5 4

. 3 8

. 3 6

Fig. 4.1. Distribution of job satisfaction level of police among study area. 4.2. Rank structure and job satisfaction: Inspectors and Assistant Sub-inspectors were most satisfied officers respectively among the respondents (Table 4.1). Among the officers having main consideration, there are two recruiting entry, i.e., constable and sub-inspector. There are no direct recruiting posts for ASIs and Inspectors. ASIs and Inspectors are only appeared when some officers get promotion from their former lower ranks. So we can reveal that officers who got promotion are more satisfied than others. Table 4.2. Rank structure and job satisfaction. Rank of the respondents Level of job satisfaction of police Maximum Average Minimum .92 .46 .18 .68 .53 .40

Constable Assistant Sub-inspector (ASI) Sub-inspector (SI) .55 .36 .18 Inspector .67 .63 .53 4.3. Education and job satisfaction: Officers with Higher Secondary Certificate are most satisfied with their jobs than others. Junior secondary educated personnel were also much satisfied in comparison (Table 4.2). In Bangladesh, unemployment rate is much higher. In such a circumstance, it makes police with lower education to hire or manage a powerful job like police. Table 4.3. Educational qualification and job satisfaction. Education of the respondents Junior secondary Secondary Level of job satisfaction of police Maximum Average Minimum .92 .68 .49 .44 .23 .18


Faruk et al. Higher secondary .70 Honors Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh.68 Masters .67 .54 .48 .45 .38 .18 .27

4.4. Gender and job satisfaction: In respect of gender, females were more satisfied than their male counterparts. (Table 4.4). Table 4.4. Gender differences and job satisfaction. Gender of the respondents Male Female Level of job satisfaction of police Maximum Average Minimum .92 .65 .46 .60 .18 .55

4.5. Religion and job satisfaction in police services: Hindus were more satisfied than Muslims. (Table 4.5). Minority groups are usually become deprived in many respects. Since having police jobs, Hindus become more satisfied. Table 4.5. Religious values and job satisfaction. Religion of the respondents Muslim Hindu Level of job satisfaction of police Maximum Average Minimum .92 .67 .46 .50 .18 .37

05. Influential factors behind job satisfaction Ratings on the job satisfaction variables were correlated with individual level of satisfaction. These results indicated that overall job satisfaction was most strongly related to the perceived characteristics of the organization as a whole (i.e. whether the police 'looked after' its employees), and the related issues e.g., salaries. (Figure 5.1). Their satisfaction of jobs is mostly correlated with cooperation from colleagues (parsons r =.78), inspiration and appraisal from others (r = .73), supervisors willingness of welfare for subordinates (r = .71). On the other hand, respondents satisfaction level is correlated in least condition with logistical support (r = .40), salary (r = .39), decisionmaking ability (r = .38), opportunity for using skills (r = .38), job environment (r = .36).


Faruk et al.

Fig. 5.1. Correlation coefficient for different variable with calculated individual job satisfaction level (in 1 scale). 06. Multivariate analysis Path diagram (Figure 6.1) is made from regression of variables. The arrow sign indicates the direction of causality to dependent variable. The width of the arrows indicates the strength of the relation between the variables and also that whether as it positive or negative. Though education and rank has a direct positive impact on rank and job satisfaction successively, education has a slightly negative impact on job satisfaction. Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh



Individual Job satisfaction



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Fig. 6.1. Path diagram. Summary The majority of police officers enter the police department at the rank of Constable. This results in performance of police only by the acts of constables, as well as other field level officers. Only non-cadre officers are included in this study who actually works in the root level of the community. As the lower rank officers are called the street level bureaucrats (Lipsky 1968), they usually shape the overall police image. For the improvement of police service and of police performance, their mental states related to satisfaction are needed to study first. Among the respondents difference in the distribution of ranks is existed, i.e., constable, ASI, SI, and Inspector. Distribution of ranks in this study is taken on the basis of variation and proportion of ranks and manpower within the organization ( ). One hundred and fifty (150) Bangladeshi police officers (PRB 1943) participated in the study (mean age 38.81 years, range 22 to 57). All participants were currently working in the jurisdiction of Tangail district area from the police station bases (e.g., Tangail Sadar, Modhupur, Delduar, Kalihati) and from field level under an umbrella command of Police Department of Bangladesh. Participation was voluntary. The majority (146) were male, with only 04 female participants. Respondents from all probable age were counted in this study. The normal curve indicates that age of respondents is normally distributed. Only 16.0% respondents were unmarried. Most of the respondent had only a secondary education (46.0%). Subsequent analyses were undertaken using statistical procedures to examine different variables in association to job satisfaction. The calculated level of job satisfaction of police is .47 (in a range from 0 to 1). This calculation is obtained by given weight (Thurstone scaling) distributed within the Likerts scale. The perceived job satisfaction level found from the voluntary responses of the respondents is .48 (in a range from 0 to 1). This shows strong reliability among the results. The present study is worked with the calculated value of job satisfaction. The rating among variables is the highest in the fact that most of the respondents feel proud about their job in police service (score: 88.2). Ratings on the job satisfaction variables were correlated with individual level of satisfaction. These results indicated that overall job satisfaction was most strongly related to the perceived characteristics of the organisation as a whole (i.e. whether the police 'looked after' its employees), and the related issues e.g., salaries. Their satisfaction of jobs is mostly correlated with cooperation from colleagues (parsons r =.78), inspiration and appraisal from others (r = .


Faruk et al. 73), supervisors willingness of welfare for subordinates (r = .71). On the other hand, respondents satisfaction level is correlated in least condition with logistical support (r = . 40), salary (r = .39), decision-making ability (r = .38), opportunity for using skills (r = . 38), job environment (r = .36). Though it is evident that job satisfaction of police varies in terms of place, gender, education, religion, and other factors; however job satisfaction of police in Bangladesh is not satisfactory enough to serve the community at their heartiest concern as a whole. Conclusion In any incident of crime or issue related to the question of security, people have no alternative but to seek the help of police. Though unwilling, people must to confront of police in a welfare state to ensure public safety. Police are not alien but a noble member of society. It is usual that police will serve well, if they feel well. Keeping them in a state of dissatisfaction, expectation for better service is unwise. The present study reveals with these core issues of job satisfaction of police. The picture of Bangladesh regarding to job satisfaction of police is not good enough. Existing police pay, conditions, allowances, accommodation and hours of duty undermine professionalism, foster corruption and damage attempts to improve efficiency. The complex tasks, longer working hours and hazardous working conditions of police are very different to other public servants and goes unacknowledged by Government. This phenomenon is a breeding ground for corruption by police officers exists. Other consequences of job dissatisfaction are: morale is adversely impacted; work quality is reduced; livelihood security of individual police officers is adversely affected ( Summary- Annex B.htm 2007). In order to get better performance from police and, at the same time, honor them as the guardian of safe and secured society, emphases need to be done on the issue of job satisfaction of police. Recommendations Job satisfaction has an affirmative effect on the performance of the organization as a whole (Ostroff 1992). The goal of improving job satisfaction and productivity in service can be met in two principal ways (Lahey 2004). One is to use methods of employee selection to match the right person with the right job. The other way is to improve Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh working conditions and facilities including the ways in which employees are managed and supervised. Here, the latter way is recommended to apply for improving job satisfaction for Bangladesh Police. It is recognized that a good working environment and working condition improve job satisfaction and productivity as well. The following issues are suggested to improvement for enhancing job satisfaction of Bangladesh Police personnel: Logistical support for performing jobs, and resources should be properly allocated to the police officers.


Faruk et al. Workload of police officers needs to be reduced to a tolerable level. Opportunity for recreation and leisure should be managed. Salary and pay should be increased for a decent and humane living for the police officers. Promotion should be offered only on the basis of performance. Working or job environment should be improved. Media should not represent only the negative image of police officers. Their good and positive activities in controlling crime need to be highlighted. Laws and regulations regarding police life should be updated. More research activities should be undertaken relating to the issue of police life and activites and so on.

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