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Faruk et al.
JOB SATISFACTION OF POLICE IN BANGLADESH: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY IN TANGAIL DISTRICT.
MD. OMAR FARUK1*, MST. NURJAHAN KHATUN1, AND MD. ROKON UDDIN2 Department of Criminology and Police Science, Mawlana Bhashani Science and Technology University, Bangladesh. 2Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, Dhaka University, Bangladesh.
The term “police”is assumed to be related to secure and peaceful society which would satisfy people’s desire of safety. In spite of a greater level of expectation for service from police in Bangladesh, people are unwillingly restricted to reach their needs. Though there are allegations against police personnel for doing maltreatment and activities need to be judged from their own professional ethics for better understanding of their life. The present study voyages through the mental state of police personnel about job satisfaction. The lower ranked officers working under Tangail district are included as subjects for studying. In selected study areas, probability random sampling has been used and convenience sampling is used for selection of the respondents within the target areas. A total of 150 on-the-job police personnel were included within the study as respondents. The study identifies the level of job satisfaction of police as average or moderate by examining fifteen variables associated with job satisfaction. Variations in job satisfaction have been found in terms of geographical location, education, rank, religion, gender and number family members. Dissatisfaction in job may undermine professionalism; enhance stress; foster corruption and tend to dishonesty; and damage attempts to improve efficiency. Factors related to job satisfaction for police are needed to be improved for efficiency and better policing.
Key words: Police officers, Police life, Job description, Job satisfaction. Introduction Police are the agents or agencies, usually of the executive, empowered to enforce law and to ensure social and public order through legitimate use of force. People’s safety and security within a community depends on their roles. The police are the only uniformed government civil law enforcement agency in Bangladesh with its long history and heritage for centuries. Though people seek help from police in danger, fear, crime, or suffering; police hold negative reputation from public and receive hostility as well as abhorrence. Many researches have been conducting on the issue of police corruption and inefficiency. People’s expectation from police touches the sky, but people do not perceive the lag between their expectations and capabilities of police. However, it is also true, in the sense of human resource management, that if police are dissatisfied with their jobs, performance will be minimal or reduced. Job satisfaction of police in Bangladesh may show direction or open new dimension for factors affecting police performance. The present study reveals various aspects of job satisfaction of police and their relation to other variables.
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Faruk et al.
Present Situation of Police Life in Bangladesh In an arrangement (The Daily Star 2007) of 'The Daily Star' roundtable on draft Bangladesh Police Ordinance, 2007, former IGP Mohammad Nurul Huda slated the provision of having police on duty for 24 hours under The Police Act, 1861. They are meant to uphold human rights, "but how come they do that when their minimum rights are not honored." In a report Transparency International Bangladesh (TIB) observed that salary given to the police officers and constables is insufficient. Police officers and constables work 1318 hours a day. A police personnel is always confronted with the problem of inadequate logistic support. On an average 5-6 police staffs sit in each room of a police station. Police Stations at districts and thana level have no prison van. Malkhanas of metropolitan and district police stations are narrow and unhygienic, while police stations or thanas have no malkhana. The toilet facilities of police stations are insufficient. Most of the police stations do not have sufficient number of cars, and the available cars are outdated. The police stations are not provided with necessary furniture. More than(45.5) percent arms in the metropolitan police stations are Chinese shot guns, 78.6 percent arms in the police stations at district levels are three-not-three rifles, at thana levels police stations this is 95.5 percent, whereas, criminals are equipped with modern arms. Police get only 18.4 percent times for works relating to criminal cases with huge caseload. Other works vested on maintaining law and order (40.6%), and ensuring the security of VIPs (32.7%) (TIB 2004). In an investigative report (Islam 2007) made by The Daily Star, it is found that an investigation officer (IO) of a case gets a little over Tk. 3.00 a day as conveyance; the IO also gets Tk. 10.00 a day as the cost of three meals for an accused in police custody; An investigator who has a government motorcycle gets around 1.7 litres of fuel a day--50 litres a month, but one who has his personal motorbike gets only Tk 127.00 a month as motorcycle allowance. An investigator has to visit frequently the places of occurrence, interview witnesses, arrange repeated drives for the arrest of suspects, visit the court for hearing of cases and laboratories for forensic test of seized items, and take accident victims to hospitals. All these cost an IO has to personally pay that is a huge amount of money but they get almost no allocation. These phenomena led to bribery in the police force. In another report (Karim 2007) it is found that life appears very difficult for police officials. The study gives ample proof of the neglect and sub-human conditions they live with. For example, in Shyamoli a ramshackle shack was used to live rather than a dormitory. Junior officials practically survive amidst the growing slime around them. Several chowkis (bed) are lined up together in one room, where sometimes two officials have to share one single chowki. These multi- purpose chowkis are also used during meal times since it is practically impossible to eat sitting on the ground that is filled with bricks and debris. Still using wood and coal to cook, the walls and the floors are filled with grime, soot and muck.
foster corruption and damage attempts to improve efficiency. more focus on protocol.600 men of different ranks. A room at Rajarbagh Police Line can accommodate 20 beds. less participation of women. thus making a total 26% extra days of work per year for the policemen. police officials told about their problems (Ghias 2007). Problems that was addressed during the training program were lack of managerial competence. It would be difficult to find any profession other than police which has considerable number of injury and casualties while performing their duties (Huq 2004). but Rajarbagh Police Line can accommodate only one or two percent of them (bdnews24. Extra beds are even crammed onto the staircases and balconies of the six-storey buildings. Paolo carried out a research on the Bangladesh police for six months to get enough data to formulate strategic plan for reforming it. A report obtained that Police in Dhaka are suffering from insufficient sleeping arrangements and unhygienic conditions in their barracks. It is thus really hard for them to behave well with people the next day. promotion and transfer process of the police that cause dissatisfaction (Azad 2007). The DMP has 23. poor working condition. people’s lack of trust on police and police personnel’s lack of sensitivity on the plight of victims. Existing police pay. longer working hours and hazardous working conditions of police are very different to other public servants and go unacknowledged by Government. He emphasized on overwork. After ensuring others safety throughout the day they have to fight for a place to sleep. limited promotion prospects. as a result less qualified and dishonest police officers are placed in important positions. inadequate strategy planning. recruitment. training and resources. low pay. This phenomenon is a breeding ground for corruption by police officers exists. allowances. conditions. funded by the UNDP. Men of any rank may be frequently and suddenly transferred to take over within short time. Paolo del Mistro. 70% of them will have to make to do without house to live in and without family. Extensive political use of police force hinders the development of professionalism. an anti-corruption specialist of the UNDP’s police reforms programme (PRP). It takes at least six months to get a light bulb after applying for one. Not only does he/she generally go without overtime allowance and annual leave but is also often deprived of the weekly holiday and at times religious and national festivals pass them by because of the pressure of work. Yet behind this all too publicized facade lie the unhappy lot of the individual police person. reviewed that the police do not enjoy their job and the life they are leading is not satisfactory and often destroys their self-respect. Other consequences of job dissatisfaction are: morale is adversely impacted. poor living conditions. although 50 to 60 beds are crammed into every room with no lockers for clothing. low motivation due to low pay scale. and the people remain deprived of the service of honest and sincere police officers (Karzon 2006).com 2007). In a training program arranged by PRP. The complex tasks. work quality is 3 . Government uses the police as a branch of its political organisation and suppresses often the rightful activities of opposition political parties.Faruk et al. accommodation and hours of duty undermine professionalism.
The principal objectives of the present study are to: i. identify the factors of job satisfaction of Bangladesh Police. livelihood security of individual police officers is adversely affected (www. Job satisfaction improves the performance of organization in the following ways (Anastasi 1987). First. satisfied officers may be more likely to go the extra mile for their organization as well as for serving people. reduced. etc. iv. iii. measure job satisfaction level of Bangladesh Police. misbehavior (e.. Improving relations between labor and management. These activities contribute to and are necessary for organizational efficiency. This may reduce stress. v. religion. Second. Improving the ability of organizations to recruit good employees.prp. sex. v. Improving the reputation that employees give to an organization by what they say about in the community. iii. iv. i. Methods of the study Participants Tangail district was selected as the study area which is. social characteristics and job satisfaction among line officers in Bangladesh police.g. geographically. ii. most of the police personnel occupied rank below of ASP.Annex B. Reducing absenteeism – the frequency with which employees fail to show up for work.org. situated at the center of Bangladesh. analyze the degree of effects of different variables on job satisfaction.Faruk et al. Among the respondents. Significance of the study Employees who are more than just satisfied and are happy at work tend to be very productive in service (Cote 1999). and gaining a competitive advantage. Objectives of the study The purpose of this study is to understand the state of job satisfaction of police and examine the relationship between various organizational. Reducing employee turnover– the rate at which employees quit and seek new jobs. ii. effectiveness.bd/NeedAssessment/Problem Summary. describe the variation of job satisfaction in respect of place. time. job satisfaction may improve police officer’s perception of improved life by promoting happiness. since those lower rank officers actually shape the police performance 4 . behavioral. corruption. explore on appropriate recommendations on the basis of research findings. brutality) and other likely obstacles for better service.htm 2007). It is necessary for police officers to be satisfied with their jobs for at least two reasons..
Weights were assigned against each variable.e.0% and 3. social respect.3% successively. officers below the rank of ASP. Several levels of statistical analyses are performed in conducting analysis. belongingness needs. Sub-inspector. This indicates that police as a government employee were aware about having few children in their families. job affecting family life. safety needs. cooperation from colleagues.7% respondents having junior secondary certificate. job environment. There were also 22. esteem needs. on the basis of strength and cohesiveness of response.4% respondents had 4 to 5 family members.7%. central tendency) were made for univariate analysis. decision-making. Some sort of data was collected in field level from officers at work. job security. Procedure This study is a cross-sectional study. the quantification of qualitative data was completed. frequency distribution. 8. It is preferable to systemize and set out those positions at the beginning (Baker 1999). indeed. external inspiration. Frequency tables (i. sub-inspectors and inspectors also comprised as to 12. As the lower rank officers are called the street level bureaucrats (Lipsky 5 . opportunity for promotion. About 55. proudfeelings. belonged from a range of 26 to 30 years. Results 01. Assistant Sub-inspector and Constables. and salary. fair promotion. Likert scale with specific values against each variable was used. Assistant subinspector. Respondents were selected on the process of convenience or accidental sampling. Job description Constables occupied about 76. and descriptive in nature. The average age of the respondents was 38. including Inspector. 02. Demographic characteristics of respondents Most of the respondents. and image. The present study used the theory of Abraham Maslow who proposed that all people seek to satisfy five basic kinds of needs: physiological needs. job stress. Apparatus Variables (about 15 variables) have been used in the present study within a theoretical framework which built up the premise for measuring job satisfaction of police.Faruk et al. logistical support. and self-actualization needs (Maslow 1954).81 years. four police stations among eleven composing Tangail districts were selected through random process. The total sample size was 150 (one hundred and fifty). positive supervision. About 46. Data gathered from questionnaire method formed the data-set of the study from police officers working below the rank of ASP. Though Tangail district was selected through purposive sampling. The variables derived for the present study are: use of skill. In the present study. All these analyses were performed by using SPSS program.0% of the total number of respondents. About 82. according to Likert scale. In processing stage. were selected to form sample size. in respect of age.7% respondents noticed that they were got married. Bivariate (cross-tabulation and correlation) and multivariate (path analysis) analyses were used to see the relation among the variables.0% respondents had only a secondary degree.
0% 24. The average working hour a police officer needs to serve in his/her jobs is 16.65 55 36.3% 6.7% 11.3% 31.47 (in a scale ranges from 0.3% 3.3% 0.98 150 100.65 41 27.0% 5.7% 11. About 60.0% 62. Here. From this value.7% 16.0% 32. Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh Table 3.0% police officers had to serve 15 to 17 hours a day.33% respondents who used to active at work for more than 18 hours a day.00 5 3.00 4 2.3 47 31. For the improvement of police service and of police performance.03 44 29.0 8 5.3 36 24. 1968).53 150 100.0) (% × .0 18 12. we get another clear calculation that police have to work 16 days a week in respect of standard working hour.65 34 22. their mental states related to satisfaction are needed to study first.18 150 100.0% 63.83 33 22.98 150 100.0 48 32.00 4 150 100. Positive perceptions Use of skill and expertise in service Social respect Fair promotion Freedom in decisionmaking Supervision for betterment of staffs Logistical support for performing job Getting help from colleagues Inspiration from others Proud feeling Always Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Often Sometimes (% × . there were 29.00 11 7.31 150 100. 03.0% 13.0% 67.7% 0.3% 0.0 27 18.35 45 30. This value is obtained from calculation of 15 different variables (table – 3.0% 9.0% 12.0% 15.0%) served in police service for 6 to 10 years.3% 3.50 24 16.0% 37.7% 11.35 33 22.3% 5.75) 14 9.3% 0.25) 67 44.0% 18.97 21 14.3 25 16.0) 23 15.7 4 2.3% 5.0% 11.1: Measure of job satisfaction.3% 0.0% 14.0 20 13.0 115 8 5.5 67 44.0 20 Hardly (% × . Job satisfaction Job satisfaction of lower ranked police officers was 0.00 8 5.0% 49.0% 10.0 9 6 .3% 21.0 42 28.5 10 6.18 35 23.33 2 Never (% × 0.0% 29.3% 3.33 150 Total (% × 1.0% 26.33 20 13.7 39 26.5 32 21.3% 0.83 87 58.0 to 1.3% 9.0 41 27.7% 0.0% 14.09 150 100.0% 36.50) 38 25.1) through the process of quantification of qualitative data. Most of the respondents (about 20.71 hour per day. f stands for the number of respondents.00 23 15.7% 2.3% 13.3% 5.00 4 2.3% 12.7% 18. they usually shape the overall police image.0% 58.7% 5.98 36 24.2 150 100. Even.17 23 15.0).Faruk et al.3% 0.
3 +33.7% 0.3% 1.33 00 0.0 + 36.0) 17 11.0 12.0% 0.00 38 25.2+29.0+49.65 68 45.Faruk et al.33 (% × .0 00 0.3 + 67.7% 17.75) (% × .5 13.7% 11.0) (% × .65 (% × .3% 11.0% 4.0% 88.0 2.50) 29 19.33 31 20.7% 45. 7 .0% 30.31 23.0% 22.00 12 8. about police job Negative perceptions Job stress Service affecting family life Percent Value Value f Percent Value f Percent Value 76.7% 2.3% 1.0% 10.7% 0.0 8 5.30 15 10.0% 38.7% 5.18 Job related perceptions Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value f Percent Value Very good (% × 1.0) 46 68 4 26 150 30.3 + 30.50) (% × .65 00 0.00 64 42.0 150 100.98 44 29.03 0.0% 0.0% 33.2 + 62.0% 0.65 28 18.3% 6.53 100.0% 0.35 1.25) (% × 0.3% 21.03 12 8.98 04 2.3% 20.03 62 41.3% 100.0% 0.7% 76.9+ 2.96 150 100% 2.1+64.75) 22 14.3% 9.0 54 36.3% .0% 2.3+ 88.03 Good Salary 37.00 50.93 150 100.0 Job environment Opportunity for promotion Job security Neither good Poor Very Total nor bad poor (% × .0 12 8.3% 2.5+ 59.2+ 38.02 (in 100 scale) = .5 + 50.0% 4.0% 57.0 150 100.7% 9.3% 9.0% 6.18 (% × 0.25) 44 29.00 (% × 1.63 20 13.0 Job satisfaction = 15 = 47.0 2 1.47 (in 1 scale) The following figure represents the affiliation of job satisfaction with different single variables separately.3% 0.9 +57.65 0.7 6.3 18 12.3% 0.31 150 100.0) 6 4.00 146 97.3% 22.3% 6.
48 (Table – 3.0) 4. the reliability of this job satisfaction level is highly significant. they think they have abilities to contribute in the department. However. Calculated job satisfaction = 47.0 Therefore. 3.7 Unsatisfied (weight = .0 Total 100.50) 24.7 Not unsatisfied (weight = .3 24. In most cases (about 44. Perceived Job satisfaction of the respondents.2).Faruk et al.1) Use of skill and expertise in service: In police job.0 0.5 12. officers hardly can use their skills and expertise in their service.25) 32.3 8.75) 32.1.47 (in 1 scale) Perceived job satisfaction = 48 (in 100 scale) = 0. Contributory influence on job satisfaction by individual variable. Interpretations of variables relating to job satisfaction (table – 3. The perceived level of job satisfaction through direct questions was 0.2.02 (in 100 scale) = 0. it is appeared that job satisfaction of Bangladesh police remains in medium level. Fig.7%). Table 3.0) 3. Perceived opinion Number of respondents 05 49 37 48 6 150 Percentage Value (percent × weight) 3. At the same time.0 48.0 Very unsatisfied (weight = 0. 8 Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh . Thus.1 Very satisfied (weight = 1. they were not allowed or expected to use their capabilities and skills.48 (in 1 scale) As both results approximately resemble together.3 Satisfied (weight = .
this high frequency of respect from people make police officers satisfied much with their duties. Though it is not clear whether people respect police in fear or real. Since most of the respondents (from cumulative percent. Bangladesh Police does not benefit from the experience of skilled police officers who have academic qualifications and experience in operational duties. police personnel become corrupted or seek political patronage in terms of getting promotion which undermines professionalism in police service. though competitive attitude develops. dissatisfaction may arise.7% hardly) have little autonomy for decision making. self-esteem would be decreased. a total of 72% of police (27.3% respondents always and 36. this phenomenon inspires them to be unaccountable to themselves as well as the department 9 .3 percent respondents think that fair and unbiased promotion never or hardly happens. Public respect to police shape self-image of police and also their behavior in consequence. and consequently. This variable affects heavily on the job satisfaction of police.3% never. deserving. Desire for recognition is a usual desire of every people. Unfortunately. they deprive from developing confidence. On the contrary. Since this desire fulfills. It affects on satisfaction of police job among police personnel. service and also for job satisfaction. This phenomenon of not using skills and expertness make negative impact on the self-esteem of the police officers. Self-esteem is very much vital for higher level of productivity. Consequently. Fair and unbiased promotion About 30 percent respondents believe that sometimes there may happen fair and unbiased promotion schemes. about 37.7 percent respondents agreed with the fact that there is always fair promotional scheme within the department. Existence of unfair or biased means in case of promotion discourages police personnel to work at maximum level. Decision-making is the process by which police officers respond to the opportunities and threats that confront them by analyzing the options and making decisions about specific organizational goals and courses of actions.Faruk et al. Unfair and biased evaluation deprives qualified officers from promotion. and capable of handling most situations (Brockner 1988). Freedom in decision-making in service In Bangladesh Police. about 60%) cannot use their capabilities. if police are not appraised for their activities in both media and public. This psychological deprivation of self-esteem has reverse impact on their satisfaction with their jobs. It is common that an individual’s decision make him accountable for the best course of action in his own job.7 percent respondents sometimes get respect from general people. police become satisfied. In promotion on performance. Officers with high self-esteem believe that they are competent. Having respect from others About 31. Street level officers hardly decide on matters to do their job and attain organizational goals in their own ways because of over controlled centralization. With a lower level of satisfaction with decision making and with the job. 44. Only 16. satisfaction appears among police officers.
it is enough to make officers dissatisfied and unhappy. This finding of inadequacy of logistical support is also supported by other research findings conducted on police life (TIB 2004). Even from cumulative percentage we found that about 63.Faruk et al.7 percent respondents felt proud for their work of public safety.3 percent respondents who reportedly never get logistical support at work. i. Awareness of senior officers for betterment of staffs Awareness of senior officers for betterment of their subordinates has influence on the job satisfaction of subordinate staffs.3 percent respondents often get helps from the colleagues for performing operations. friendship group rather than interest group. furniture. It is quite impossible to perform in a job to serve people and to achieve organizational goals.. it influences them to be satisfied in their job. prison vans. conference room for meeting. Negative impact of job on family life creates panic and stress which decreases efficiency and performance too. toilet facilities.3% respondents satisfied with the matter that their supervisory officers keep a kind eye on them for their betterment and to reduce their sufferings. This proudfeeling bring confidence among police officers and internally meet up their instinctual desire of satisfaction. Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh Proud feeling by the respondents About 76.0 percent respondents hardly find necessary logistical support for operation.4 percent respondents always and often suffered in family life in greater extent. It is also significant that a total of about 53. It is found that about 71. etc. though in most cases supervisors have very limited power to make better for subordinate police staffs.3 percent respondents always or often get helps from others in their jobs. for a better and decent life. It can help police to solve work- 10 . Logistical support for completing job About 58. The insufficiency of logistical support makes police officers very dissatisfied with the department. especially lower rank police personnel confront many operational problems of working room. Service affecting family life The nature of police job in Bangladesh always affected 42.7 percent police personnel in their family life. Police personnel constitute special kind of group. People got themselves in service or job to serve their family. As most of the respondents satisfy to their supervisory officers. If the ongoing job affects on family or personal life. Getting help from colleagues About 29. ensuring security and public safety within the community. In Bangladesh.e. arms and ammunition. patrol cars. There are also 7. Police work with high level of stress and tension that require such type of behaviors to their subordinates. malkhanas (stores). for attaining organizational goals of keeping peace.
This kind of poor environment creates monotony not only for police personnel but also general people going to police and seeking help from police. But there are little efforts to reduce officer’s pain. there psychological state will not allow them to behave with smile and friendliness.3 percent respondents have environment surrounding them in their job were neither good nor poor. it is found that about 54. inspiration. it may be said that police officers. If they face unfavorable situation. From cumulative frequency (always and often). It is well established issue that police job is one of the most stressful jobs among all others. This topic or variable includes recognition. Friendship groups help satisfy police officers’ need for interpersonal interaction. These endeavors result shaping negative and brutal images of police. Though appraisal from others (peers. Inspiration from others Most of the respondents (about 32%) get inspiration from others. With keeping them with such a job environment it is truly difficult to provide better service to people. it contributes to the individual’s psychological state of happiness and satisfaction. In such a situation. Moreover. suffering and stress. Stress and suffering does not make psychological state of police to be remained stable and serve with good manner. related problems because members of these groups typically discuss work-related matters and offer advice. Job environment The present study reveals that about 45. according to McClellend’s need theory.6 percent respondents experienced heavy stressful conditions in police work. are deprived 11 . and having other people around them get along with each other (McClelland 1985). and the like. can provide needed social support in times of stress. This inspiration makes them feel better and satisfied with their jobs. the need for affiliation may be achieved through the inspirations from others. feedback. and can contribute to people feeling good at work and satisfied with their jobs. However. clients) is subjective to nature. It is also very significant that about 56. It may be thought that cooperation among officers helps the department to its duties to be done though having very inadequate resources and heavy confrontation with obstacles.3 percent police officers respond that their working environment was very poor. who are responsible to uphold the human rights of public. A serviceoriented job like policing needs improved working environment. Government tries to implement various strategies to improve police image and service. there is no specialized unit or mechanism to reduce stress for police officers in Bangladesh.3 percent respondents always suffered from various stress and pain in their job. Mutual cooperation also helps police officers innovative. Experiencing suffering due to service About 29.Faruk et al.0% respondents receive always or often appraisal or inspiration from their surrounding environment. appraisal. About 17. help and cooperation. colleagues. It drains into other unfavorable and unexpected mental condition (internal) and service (external). The need for affiliation is the extent to which an individual is concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations. being liked.
rank to a superior one in Bangladesh about 36.prp.e. Because of historical processes of lateral entry at ASP level is blocking promotion of all but 33% from SI/Inspector level.71 hours per day in their jobs.3 percent respondents. this process usually politicized. Opportunity for promotion About 41. police officers are fired or suspended. About 97. There are three tire recruitment schemes in police services where it is difficult for lower rack officers to catch a superior one due to initial difference during commencement of job.3 percent respondents responded affirmatively to the security of their jobs.AnnexB.0 percent respondents thought that the promotional prospects for them are poor. At the same time. i.3 percent respondents reported that they failed to maintain their family expenses with their concerning salary structure. like corruption. commitment and operations.htm 2007). about 41. As the present study encompasses the officers belonging below inspector ranks. Their job environment. Thus job security brings satisfaction to the officers ultimately. Satisfaction about job security makes them active to their performances. they are not anxious about their jobs. neither good nor bad.3 percent respondents felt as to their job security moderately. They also serve an average of 16. Though there exists an acute allegation of misconduct and deviance against police. Their activities desire or expect a decent salary by which they can bear their family responsibilities.Faruk et al. in many cases. it is usual to be very much dissatisfied with their job in terms of salary. 04. Job security in police service About 45. Distribution of job satisfaction 4. There is no clear promotion policy in police department for constables specifically.org. As salary provided to police personnel is very insufficient to about 97. Police perform tasks which are large in scope. they have limited opportunity for promotion than an officer entering through the rank of ASP. does not meet up the minimum standards of living. in some cases. and the like. Salary for maintaining family Salary as well as remuneration given in police service is very much insufficient to officers to maintaining their family expenses. Spatial distribution of job satisfaction of police: 12 . However. Because of this limited or little opportunity for promotion. These reveal that the job security in police job is not bad. dissatisfaction arises among the police officers.3 percent respondents perceived that the opportunity for promotion from one Job Satisfaction of Police is neither good nor bad in the police service.. People satisfy themselves with resources which are obtained from salary. At the same time. Theories of job satisfaction suggest that pay should be based on duties and performance. Lengthy stays (regularly 18 . deviance. rather it is relatively good. from cumulative percentage (very good and good).20 years) at one rank in lower levels breeds inefficiency and corruption and drives down performance and morale (http://www. Insufficient salary has some sort of external effects.1. from their basic rights and fundamental needs.bd/NeedAssessment/Problem Summary.
So we can reveal that officers who got promotion are more satisfied than others.68 .1.2.. Job satisfaction level increased as we forward to more urbanized area.44 .49 . Table 4.55 . 4. 5 4 Delduar .92 .40 Constable Assistant Sub-inspector (ASI) Sub-inspector (SI) . There are no direct recruiting posts for ASIs and Inspectors. i. police personnel of urban areas are more satisfied than a rural one. Rank structure and job satisfaction: Inspectors and Assistant Sub-inspectors were most satisfied officers respectively among the respondents (Table – 4.e.46 . Distribution of job satisfaction level of police among study area. 3 6 Fig.67 . (Figure – 4. In Bangladesh. For this.53 4. there are two recruiting entry. Among the officers having main consideration. unemployment rate is much higher. In such a circumstance.Faruk et al.36 . Urban Tangail Sadar . 3 8 Kalihati .53 .18 13 .18 .1).23 .68 . Urban areas provide more life-supporting materials to develop life style and to enhance life chances. constable and sub-inspector. Rank of the respondents Level of job satisfaction of police Maximum Average Minimum .18 Inspector . Education of the respondents Junior secondary Secondary Level of job satisfaction of police Maximum Average Minimum .3. Education and job satisfaction: Officers with Higher Secondary Certificate are most satisfied with their jobs than others.63 . Rank structure and job satisfaction. ASIs and Inspectors are only appeared when some officers get promotion from their former lower ranks. it makes police with lower education to hire or manage a powerful job like police. Junior secondary educated personnel were also much satisfied in comparison (Table – 4. 5 7 7 Rural Modhupur . Fundamental needs of human being are become available in urban areas with well-equipped manner. Table 4.2.1).2).3. Educational qualification and job satisfaction. 4.92 .
decisionmaking ability (r = .Faruk et al.92 .5.4.4). (Figure – 5.46 .4..78). salaries. Gender and job satisfaction: In respect of gender. Hindus become more satisfied.38 . and the related issues – e.71).70 Honors Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh. Higher secondary . Table 4.5). Table 4.54 .67 . supervisor’s willingness of welfare for subordinates (r = . 14 .18 . Religious values and job satisfaction.g.60 .45 .92 .36).68 Masters .27 4.39).37 05.18 . job environment (r = .73).65 .55 4. respondent’s satisfaction level is correlated in least condition with logistical support (r = .46 . (Table – 4. Gender of the respondents Male Female Level of job satisfaction of police Maximum Average Minimum .40).18 .1). inspiration and appraisal from others (r = .38).67 .e.38). Since having police jobs. Their satisfaction of jobs is mostly correlated with cooperation from colleagues (parsons r =. On the other hand.50 . Religion and job satisfaction in police services: Hindus were more satisfied than Muslims.5.48 . Religion of the respondents Muslim Hindu Level of job satisfaction of police Maximum Average Minimum . Minority groups are usually become deprived in many respects. salary (r = . whether the police 'looked after' its employees). females were more satisfied than their male counterparts. Gender differences and job satisfaction. opportunity for using skills (r = . Influential factors behind job satisfaction Ratings on the job satisfaction variables were correlated with individual level of satisfaction. These results indicated that overall job satisfaction was most strongly related to the perceived characteristics of the organization as a whole (i. (Table – 4.
1) is made from regression of variables. The width of the arrows indicates the strength of the relation between the variables and also that whether as it positive or negative.1.13 15 . Fig. Correlation coefficient for different variable with calculated individual job satisfaction level (in 1 scale). 06. Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh Rank . Though education and rank has a direct positive impact on rank and job satisfaction successively. education has a slightly negative impact on job satisfaction.72 . 5. The arrow sign indicates the direction of causality to dependent variable.21 Individual Job satisfaction – .Faruk et al. Multivariate analysis Path diagram (Figure – 6.
salaries.. The majority (146) were male.. Path diagram. Only 16.g. The present study is worked with the calculated value of job satisfaction.48 (in a range from 0 to 1). All participants were currently working in the jurisdiction of Tangail district area from the police station bases (e. The normal curve indicates that age of respondents is normally distributed. The rating among variables is the highest in the fact that most of the respondents feel proud about their job in police service (score: 88. Their satisfaction of jobs is mostly correlated with cooperation from colleagues (parsons r =. Distribution of ranks in this study is taken on the basis of variation and proportion of ranks and manpower within the organization (www.gov.Faruk et al. and Inspector. Modhupur. whether the police 'looked after' its employees). For the improvement of police service and of police performance.81 years. as well as other field level officers. range 22 to 57). i. Tangail Sadar. Delduar. 16 . These results indicated that overall job satisfaction was most strongly related to the perceived characteristics of the organisation as a whole (i. Education Fig. inspiration and appraisal from others (r = .. Participation was voluntary. This shows strong reliability among the results. The calculated level of job satisfaction of police is .g. their mental states related to satisfaction are needed to study first.0% respondents were unmarried. they usually shape the overall police image. This results in performance of police only by the acts of constables. 6. Summary The majority of police officers enter the police department at the rank of Constable.0%). Most of the respondent had only a secondary education (46. The perceived job satisfaction level found from the voluntary responses of the respondents is . and the related issues – e. One hundred and fifty (150) Bangladeshi police officers (PRB 1943) participated in the study (mean age 38. As the lower rank officers are called the street level bureaucrats (Lipsky 1968).1. Subsequent analyses were undertaken using statistical procedures to examine different variables in association to job satisfaction. with only 04 female participants.e.2). SI. constable. This calculation is obtained by given weight (Thurstone scaling) distributed within the Likert’s scale. Among the respondents difference in the distribution of ranks is existed. Respondents from all probable age were counted in this study.e. ASI.47 (in a range from 0 to 1). Ratings on the job satisfaction variables were correlated with individual level of satisfaction. Only non-cadre officers are included in this study who actually works in the root level of the community.bd ).police.78). Kalihati) and from field level under an umbrella command of Police Department of Bangladesh.
longer working hours and hazardous working conditions of police are very different to other public servants and goes unacknowledged by Government. 17 . 73).org. expectation for better service is unwise. This phenomenon is a breeding ground for corruption by police officers exists. It is recognized that “a good working environment and working condition improve job satisfaction and productivity” as well. Though unwilling.Annex B. One is to use methods of employee selection to match the right person with the right job. emphases need to be done on the issue of job satisfaction of police. the latter way is recommended to apply for improving job satisfaction for Bangladesh Police. gender. Keeping them in a state of dissatisfaction. work quality is reduced. Conclusion In any incident of crime or issue related to the question of security. decision-making ability (r = . The following issues are suggested to improvement for enhancing job satisfaction of Bangladesh Police personnel: • Logistical support for performing jobs.bd/NeedAssessment/Problem Summary. Other consequences of job dissatisfaction are: morale is adversely impacted. people must to confront of police in a welfare state to ensure public safety. Recommendations Job satisfaction has an affirmative effect on the performance of the organization as a whole (Ostroff 1992).htm 2007). allowances. The goal of improving job satisfaction and productivity in service can be met in two principal ways (Lahey 2004). honor them as the guardian of safe and secured society. conditions. livelihood security of individual police officers is adversely affected (www.prp. education. 40). The picture of Bangladesh regarding to job satisfaction of police is not good enough. at the same time.39). Existing police pay. respondent’s satisfaction level is correlated in least condition with logistical support (r = . The complex tasks. 38). and resources should be properly allocated to the police officers. In order to get better performance from police and. people have no alternative but to seek the help of police. religion. The present study reveals with these core issues of job satisfaction of police. job environment (r = . and other factors. Police are not alien but a noble member of society.38). salary (r = . opportunity for using skills (r = .36). however job satisfaction of police in Bangladesh is not satisfactory enough to serve the community at their heartiest concern as a whole. foster corruption and damage attempts to improve efficiency. accommodation and hours of duty undermine professionalism. On the other hand. supervisor’s willingness of welfare for subordinates (r = . Though it is evident that job satisfaction of police varies in terms of place. Here.Faruk et al. if they feel well.71). The other way is to improve Job Satisfaction of Police in Bangladesh working conditions and facilities including the ways in which employees are managed and supervised. It is usual that police will serve well.
(1997). (1998). Open University Press. Bangladesh Asiatic Society. New York.. Natasha (2006). Media should not represent only the negative image of police officers. Third Edition. Critical Issues in Policing: Contemporary Readings. p. New York. More research activities should be undertaken relating to the issue of police life and activites and so on. Promotion should be offered only on the basis of performance. Taylor and Francis Group. (1970). Greene. and Alpert. MA: Lexington Books. 2007. (2007). P. In The Daily Star (Star City). NY10016. MacMillan. In Banglapedia. Self-Esteem at Work. Ahmed Amin. Dunham. Police Administration. McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. S. CA: Sage. M. Inc. Police Management Handbook. J. • • • • • References Anastasi. Geoffrey P. February 22. Vol. In the New Age (Front Page). 06. Evans. USA. Abul Kalam (2007). 18 . Cops Undergo Reform with Revamp of Crime Scene Investigation. Illinois 60070. 2007. • • • Workload of police officers needs to be reduced to a tolerable level. Roger G. Lexington. Brief. Brockner. The Effects of Supervisory Behavior on the Path-Goal Relationship. (1988).. New York. The Encyclopedia of Police Science. Iain and Semmens. August 21. Working or job environment should be improved.277-98. Routledge. Decent Salaries and Working Conditions Can Make the Police Efficient. Attitudes in and around Organization. . Opportunity for recreation and leisure should be managed. McGraw-Hill Book Company (UK) Limited. 270 Madison Avenue. Sixth Edition. Laws and regulations regarding police life should be updated. Psychological Testing. Bunyard. Azad. Researching Criminology. Ghias. Waveland Press. Durdana (2007). (1987). Their good and positive activities in controlling crime need to be highlighted. (1979). Salary and pay should be increased for a decent and humane living for the police officers. Chowdhury. A. Thousand Oaks. In Organizational Behavior and Human Performance 5. A. Crow. G. Jack R. R.Faruk et al.
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