## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

**Jarmo Hietarinta University of Turku, Turku, Finland
**

¨ ¨ in collaboration with Petri Salo and Juha Jaykka

Jarmo.Hietarinta@utu.fi

LMS Durham Symposium: Topological Solitons and their Applications August 2004

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.1/30

The setting

Carrier ﬁeld: 3D unit vector ﬁeld n in R3

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.2/30

The setting

Carrier ﬁeld: 3D unit vector ﬁeld n in R3 Locally smooth

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.2/30

The setting

Carrier ﬁeld: 3D unit vector ﬁeld n in R3 Locally smooth Asymptotically trivial: n(r) → n∞ , when |r| → ∞

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.2/30

The setting

Carrier ﬁeld: 3D unit vector ﬁeld n in R3 Locally smooth Asymptotically trivial: n(r) → n∞ , when |r| → ∞

⇒ can compactify R3 → S 3 .

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.2/30

The setting

Carrier ﬁeld: 3D unit vector ﬁeld n in R3 Locally smooth Asymptotically trivial: n(r) → n∞ , when |r| → ∞

⇒ can compactify R3 → S 3 . ⇒ n : S3 → S2.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.2/30

The setting

Carrier ﬁeld: 3D unit vector ﬁeld n in R3 Locally smooth Asymptotically trivial: n(r) → n∞ , when |r| → ∞

⇒ can compactify R3 → S 3 . ⇒ n : S3 → S2.

Such mappings are characterized by the Hopf charge, i.e., by the homotopy class π3 (S 2 ) = Z.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.2/30

**Example of vortex ring with Hopf charge 1:
**

n= 8(r2 − z 2 ) 4(2xz − y(r2 − 1)) 4(2yz + x(r2 − 1)) , ,1 − 2 )2 2 )2 (1 + r (1 + r (1 + r2 )2 .

where r2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 .

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.3/30

**Example of vortex ring with Hopf charge 1:
**

n= 8(r2 − z 2 ) 4(2xz − y(r2 − 1)) 4(2yz + x(r2 − 1)) , ,1 − 2 )2 2 )2 (1 + r (1 + r (1 + r2 )2 .

where r2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . Note that • n = (0, 0, 1) at inﬁnity (any direction). • n = (0, 0, −1) on the ring x2 + y 2 = 1, z = 0 (vortex core).

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.3/30

**Example of vortex ring with Hopf charge 1:
**

n= 8(r2 − z 2 ) 4(2xz − y(r2 − 1)) 4(2yz + x(r2 − 1)) , ,1 − 2 )2 2 )2 (1 + r (1 + r (1 + r2 )2 .

where r2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . Note that • n = (0, 0, 1) at inﬁnity (any direction). • n = (0, 0, −1) on the ring x2 + y 2 = 1, z = 0 (vortex core). Computing the Hopf charge: Given n : R3 → S 2 deﬁne Fij =

abc n a∂ in b∂ jn c.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.3/30

**Example of vortex ring with Hopf charge 1:
**

n= 8(r2 − z 2 ) 4(2xz − y(r2 − 1)) 4(2yz + x(r2 − 1)) , ,1 − 2 )2 2 )2 (1 + r (1 + r (1 + r2 )2 .

where r2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . Note that • n = (0, 0, 1) at inﬁnity (any direction). • n = (0, 0, −1) on the ring x2 + y 2 = 1, z = 0 (vortex core). Computing the Hopf charge: Given n : R3 → S 2 deﬁne Fij = abc na ∂i nb ∂j nc . Given Fij construct Aj so that Fij = ∂i Aj − ∂j Ai ,

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.3/30

**Example of vortex ring with Hopf charge 1:
**

n= 8(r2 − z 2 ) 4(2xz − y(r2 − 1)) 4(2yz + x(r2 − 1)) , ,1 − 2 )2 2 )2 (1 + r (1 + r (1 + r2 )2 .

where r2 = x2 + y 2 + z 2 . Note that • n = (0, 0, 1) at inﬁnity (any direction). • n = (0, 0, −1) on the ring x2 + y 2 = 1, z = 0 (vortex core). Computing the Hopf charge: Given n : R3 → S 2 deﬁne Fij = abc na ∂i nb ∂j nc . Given Fij construct Aj so that Fij = ∂i Aj − ∂j Ai , then 1 ijk Q= Ai Fjk d3 x. 16π 2

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.3/30

Possible physical realization

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.4/30

Faddeev’s model

In 1975 Faddeev proposed the Lagrangian (energy)

E=

2 (∂i n)2 + g Fij d3 x,

Fij := n · ∂i n × ∂j n.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.5/30

Faddeev’s model

In 1975 Faddeev proposed the Lagrangian (energy)

E=

2 (∂i n)2 + g Fij d3 x,

Fij := n · ∂i n × ∂j n.

Under the scaling r → λr the integrated kinetic term scales as λ and the integrated F 2 term as λ−1 .

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.5/30

Faddeev’s model

In 1975 Faddeev proposed the Lagrangian (energy)

E=

2 (∂i n)2 + g Fij d3 x,

Fij := n · ∂i n × ∂j n.

Under the scaling r → λr the integrated kinetic term scales as λ and the integrated F 2 term as λ−1 . Therefore nontrivial conﬁgurations will attain some ﬁxed size determined by the dimensional coupling constant g . (Virial theorem)

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.5/30

Faddeev’s model

In 1975 Faddeev proposed the Lagrangian (energy)

E=

2 (∂i n)2 + g Fij d3 x,

Fij := n · ∂i n × ∂j n.

Under the scaling r → λr the integrated kinetic term scales as λ and the integrated F 2 term as λ−1 . Therefore nontrivial conﬁgurations will attain some ﬁxed size determined by the dimensional coupling constant g . (Virial theorem) Vakulenko and Kapitanskii (1979): a lower limit for the energy,

E ≥ c |Q| ,

3 4

where c is some constant, and Q the Hopf charge.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.5/30

Other models

Other ﬁeld theoretical models having conﬁgurations with nonzero Hopf charge include: de Vega (1978), Higgs-models (Abelian and SU(2)). Nicole (1978), L = − − 1 (∂µ na )2 4

3/2

**Kundu and Rubakov (1982), S 2 nonlinear σ -model.
**

2 Aratyn, Ferreira, Zimerman (1999) L = − Fµν 3/4

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.6/30

**Numerical studies of Faddeev’s model
**

Question: What are the minimun energy states for various Hopf charges?

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.7/30

**Numerical studies of Faddeev’s model
**

Question: What are the minimun energy states for various Hopf charges? Gladikowski and Hellmund (1997): Charges 1 and 2, also various other models, cylindrical ansatz.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.7/30

**Numerical studies of Faddeev’s model
**

Question: What are the minimun energy states for various Hopf charges? Gladikowski and Hellmund (1997): Charges 1 and 2, also various other models, cylindrical ansatz. Faddeev and Niemi (1997): Charges 1 and 2, cylindrical ansatz, speculations on trefoil knots.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.7/30

**Numerical studies of Faddeev’s model
**

Question: What are the minimun energy states for various Hopf charges? Gladikowski and Hellmund (1997): Charges 1 and 2, also various other models, cylindrical ansatz. Faddeev and Niemi (1997): Charges 1 and 2, cylindrical ansatz, speculations on trefoil knots. Battye and Sutcliffe (1998): Charges 1-8, ring initial states, deformation to trefoil seen.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.7/30

**Numerical studies of Faddeev’s model
**

Question: What are the minimun energy states for various Hopf charges? Gladikowski and Hellmund (1997): Charges 1 and 2, also various other models, cylindrical ansatz. Faddeev and Niemi (1997): Charges 1 and 2, cylindrical ansatz, speculations on trefoil knots. Battye and Sutcliffe (1998): Charges 1-8, ring initial states, deformation to trefoil seen. Hietarinta and Salo (1999): Linked initial conﬁgurations, deformation to trefoil seen. (2000): More on the lowest energy states, agreement with VK bound. (2004): Knotting of twisted vortices (w/Jäykkä).

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.7/30

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.8/30

Our work

Full three dimensional minimization.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.9/30

Our work

Full three dimensional minimization.

1 +in Use n rather than w := n1+n3 2 , because singularities in w are hard to handle numerically. (w = ∞ at the vortex core or at spatial inﬁnity) However, with n have to renormalize to n2 = 1 after each iteration step.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.9/30

Our work

Full three dimensional minimization.

1 +in Use n rather than w := n1+n3 2 , because singularities in w are hard to handle numerically. (w = ∞ at the vortex core or at spatial inﬁnity) However, with n have to renormalize to n2 = 1 after each iteration step.

Discretize so that code parallelization simple.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.9/30

Our work

Full three dimensional minimization.

1 +in Use n rather than w := n1+n3 2 , because singularities in w are hard to handle numerically. (w = ∞ at the vortex core or at spatial inﬁnity) However, with n have to renormalize to n2 = 1 after each iteration step.

Discretize so that code parallelization simple. More complicated initial states generated, in particular linked unknots.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.9/30

Full three dimensional minimization.

1 +in Use n rather than w := n1+n3 2 , because singularities in w are hard to handle numerically. (w = ∞ at the vortex core or at spatial inﬁnity) However, with n have to renormalize to n2 = 1 after each iteration step.

Discretize so that code parallelization simple. More complicated initial states generated, in particular linked unknots. Special emphasis on visualization.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.9/30

Computational

Discretized on a cubic lattice, size typically 2403 .

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.10/30

Computational

Discretized on a cubic lattice, size typically 2403 . Discretized the Lagrangian (energy): ∂i n on links, Fij on plaquettes.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.10/30

Computational

Discretized on a cubic lattice, size typically 2403 . Discretized the Lagrangian (energy): ∂i n on links, Fij on plaquettes. Computed the gradient

n(r) L

symbolically.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.10/30

Computational

Discretized on a cubic lattice, size typically 2403 . Discretized the Lagrangian (energy): ∂i n on links, Fij on plaquettes. Computed the gradient

n(r) L

symbolically.

n(r) L.

Used dissipative dynamics: nnew = nold − δ

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.10/30

Computational

Discretized on a cubic lattice, size typically 2403 . Discretized the Lagrangian (energy): ∂i n on links, Fij on plaquettes. Computed the gradient

n(r) L

symbolically.

n(r) L.

Used dissipative dynamics: nnew = nold − δ

Program parallelizes well, have used Cray T3E, SGI Origin 2000, IBM SP

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.10/30

**How to visualize vector ﬁelds?
**

Cannot draw vectors at every point. Flow lines do not make sense, because of global gauge invariance. (In fact our vectors could live in another space, e.g., spin.)

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.11/30

**How to visualize vector ﬁelds?
**

Cannot draw vectors at every point. Flow lines do not make sense, because of global gauge invariance. (In fact our vectors could live in another space, e.g., spin.)

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.11/30

**How to visualize vector ﬁelds?
**

Cannot draw vectors at every point. Flow lines do not make sense, because of global gauge invariance. (In fact our vectors could live in another space, e.g., spin.) Vector are represented by points on the sphere. We have one ﬁxed direction, n at inﬁnity, deﬁne it as the north pole, i.e, n∞ = (0, 0, 1). All other directions are deﬁned by latitude and longitude.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.11/30

**How to visualize vector ﬁelds?
**

Cannot draw vectors at every point. Flow lines do not make sense, because of global gauge invariance. (In fact our vectors could live in another space, e.g., spin.) Vector are represented by points on the sphere. We have one ﬁxed direction, n at inﬁnity, deﬁne it as the north pole, i.e, n∞ = (0, 0, 1). All other directions are deﬁned by latitude and longitude. Latitude is invariant under global gauge rotations that keep the north pole ﬁxed, therefore plot equilatitude surfaces (i.e., points at which n3 has a ﬁxed value).

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.11/30

**How to visualize vector ﬁelds?
**

Cannot draw vectors at every point. Flow lines do not make sense, because of global gauge invariance. (In fact our vectors could live in another space, e.g., spin.) Vector are represented by points on the sphere. We have one ﬁxed direction, n at inﬁnity, deﬁne it as the north pole, i.e, n∞ = (0, 0, 1). All other directions are deﬁned by latitude and longitude. Latitude is invariant under global gauge rotations that keep the north pole ﬁxed, therefore plot equilatitude surfaces (i.e., points at which n3 has a ﬁxed value). Longitudes are represented by colors on the equilatitude surface. (Under a global gauge rotation only colors change).

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.11/30

Isosurface n3 = 0 (equator) for |Q| = 1, 2

Color order and handedness of twist determine Hopf charge. Inside the torus is the core, where n3 = −1.

These ﬁgures were made using the program funcs developed by J. Ruokolainen at CSC, Espoo, Finland

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.12/30

Results for linked unknots of charge 1+1

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.13/30

Deformation 5 + 4 − 2 → trefoil

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.14/30

Energy evolution in minimization

700.0 600.0 500.0 Total energy 1+1+2 400.0 1−1+2 300.0 2+2−2 200.0 100.0 1+1−2 0.0 0 20000 40000 Number of iterations 60000 80000 2−2+2 2−2−2 1−1−2

2+2+2

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.15/30

Vakulenko bound

1.10 1.08 1.06

EQ / (E1Q )

3/4

1.04 1.02 1.00 0.98 0.96 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Q

Filled circles give the best result (global minima) we have for given Hopf charge; open squares are the results of Battye and Sutcliffe.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.16/30

Different and improved ﬁnal states

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.17/30

Knot theory

The proper knot theoretical setting is to use framed links. Framing attached to a curve adds local information near the curve, like twisting around it.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.18/30

Knot theory

The proper knot theoretical setting is to use framed links. Framing attached to a curve adds local information near the curve, like twisting around it. One way to describe framed liks is to use directed ribbons, which are preimages of line segments.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.18/30

Knot theory

The proper knot theoretical setting is to use framed links. Framing attached to a curve adds local information near the curve, like twisting around it. One way to describe framed liks is to use directed ribbons, which are preimages of line segments. We could use equilatitude line segments, then increasing latitude and longitude give two directions, their cross product the ribbon direction.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.18/30

Knot theory

The proper knot theoretical setting is to use framed links. Framing attached to a curve adds local information near the curve, like twisting around it. One way to describe framed liks is to use directed ribbons, which are preimages of line segments. We could use equilatitude line segments, then increasing latitude and longitude give two directions, their cross product the ribbon direction. In practice we often choose 4 points on equilongitude line near the south pole (=core)

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.18/30

Example: ribbon view of Q = −1 unknot

**Four nearby points on the equator.
**

These ﬁgures were made using OpenDX

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.19/30

**Computing the charge
**

For a ribbon deﬁne:

twist

= linking number of the ribbon core with a ribbon boundary. = signed crossover number of the ribbon core with itself.

writhe

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.20/30

**Computing the charge
**

For a ribbon deﬁne:

twist

= linking number of the ribbon core with a ribbon boundary. = signed crossover number of the ribbon core with itself. = 1 (sum of signed crossings) 2

writhe

linking number

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.20/30

**Computing the charge
**

For a ribbon deﬁne:

twist

= linking number of the ribbon core with a ribbon boundary. = signed crossover number of the ribbon core with itself. = 1 (sum of signed crossings) 2

writhe

linking number

The Hopf charge can be determined either by twist + writhe or linking number of the two ribbon boundaries.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.20/30

Charge from the ribbon view, Q = −1

Sign convention for crossings allows computing the charge. In this case linking number of ribbon boundaries = −1.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.21/30

Charge from the ribbon view, Q = −1

Sign convention for crossings allows computing the charge. In this case linking number of ribbon boundaries = −1. On the right the ribbon has been turned vertical and is viewed from above: a twist in the ribbon becomes a crossing.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.21/30

Charge from the ribbon view, Q = −1

Sign convention for crossings allows computing the charge. In this case linking number of ribbon boundaries = −1. On the right the ribbon has been turned vertical and is viewed from above: a twist in the ribbon becomes a crossing. Note that when considering equivalence of ribbon diagrams type I Reidemeister move is not valid:

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.21/30

Ribbon view, Q = −2

Two ways to get charge −2: twice around small vs. large circle. The ﬁrst one has twist = −1, writhe = −1, the second twist = −2, writhe = 0. Both have boundary linking number = −2.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.22/30

Example of ribbon deformation

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.23/30

Close-up of the deformation process

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.24/30

Diagrammatic rule

Knot deformations correspond to ribbon deformations, e.g., crossing and breaking, but the Hopf charge will be conserved.

Ribbon deformation can be seen if we look the same conﬁguration at different latitudes (the ﬁrst example before), or at same latitude at different times (animations).

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.25/30

Deformation rule for physical ribbons

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.26/30

Deformation rule for physical ribbons

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.26/30

Deformation rule for physical ribbons

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.26/30

Deformation rule for physical ribbons

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.26/30

Deformation rule for physical ribbons

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.26/30

Deformation rule for physical ribbons

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.26/30

**Ribbon connection rules
**

Total Hopf charge = charges of individual unknots + linking number.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.27/30

**Ribbon connection rules
**

Total Hopf charge = charges of individual unknots + linking number. Unknots: Twisting the end on the right hand clockwise a full twist yields charge +1.

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.27/30

**Ribbon connection rules
**

Total Hopf charge = charges of individual unknots + linking number. Unknots: Twisting the end on the right hand clockwise a full twist yields charge +1. Linking number depends on the relative direction associated with the unknots:

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.27/30

**Physically relevant extensions
**

Faddeev’s model is hidden in more physical models: Faddeev and Niemi (2000), electrically conducting plasmas Cho et al (2001), QCD Cho (2001), Weinberg-Salam model. Babaev, Faddeev, Niemi (2002) =⇒ Cho (2002), Bose-Einstein condensates Babaev (2002), triplet superconductors

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.28/30

Example: Charged two-boson condensate

Change of variables: Ψα = 2mα ρ χα , χ = (χ1 , χ∗ ), |χ|2 = 1, 2 ¯ na = (χ, σa χ). Eliminate all χ dependence in favor of n. [Translate A → cC + q(χ, ∂χ)]

√

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.29/30

References

J. Hietarinta and P. Salo: Faddeev-Hopf knots: dynamics of linked unknots, Phys. Lett. B 451, 60-67 (1999). J. Hietarinta and P. Salo: Ground state in the Faddeev-Skyrme model, Phys. Rev. D 62, 081701(R) (2000). J. Hietarinta, J. Jäykkä and P. Salo: Dynamics of vortices and knots in Faddeev’s model, JHEP Proceedings: PrHEP unesp2002/17

http://jhep.sissa.it/archive/prhep/preproceeding/ 008/017/sp-proc.pdf

J. Hietarinta, J. Jäykkä and P.Salo: Relaxation of twisted vortices in the Faddeev-Skyrme model, Phys. Lett. A 321, 324-329 (2004) Relevant video animations can be seen at

http://users.utu.fi/hietarin/knots/index.html

Ribbon knots in the Faddeev-Skyrme model – p.30/30

- ZM0605281286.pdfuploaded byAJER JOURNAL
- MAT1801 - Maths for Engineers 1 - Kenneth Zerafauploaded bykennethz3
- Basicuploaded byMihai-Alin Stamate
- OldTQFTLecturesuploaded bylunarcausticac
- Curso de Geometría Diferencial_Parte I_Curvas y Superficiesuploaded byidmejia25
- De From Knot Revised 1uploaded byJohn Starrett
- Albert Einsteinuploaded byNikHanisahZuraidiAfandi
- syllabusuploaded byakiscribd1
- Multimedia Course on Continuum Mechanics MCCM v10uploaded byYuvaraj Dhandapani
- Lautman,A.: Mathematics, Ideas and the Physical Real_[2011]uploaded bypeterpan1
- Garduploaded bygerbatshov
- Gauss Jordan Methoduploaded byDaus Firdaus Bahari
- Simmons, George - Introduction to Topology and Modern Analysis - 1st Ed (1963), McGraw-Hilluploaded bymegatunnage
- Lecture 29uploaded bysambit
- Assignment 1uploaded byritik12041998
- ToStudy Practise : IB mathsuploaded bysanand11
- Pedunculated Fandangouploaded byjjemp
- Lectures on the Differential Geometry of Curves and Surfaces (2005) - Blagauploaded bycesarantoine
- BoltzTraP User Guideuploaded bydaedalus101
- Lecture 15uploaded bykannanmech87
- lab NMRuploaded byharun_lee
- MIT5_72S12_PS1uploaded byJuan Diego Garcia Esquen
- 1501.03775uploaded byMarco Picos Sol
- Circlesuploaded byAditya Nanda
- Lecture on Theoretical Mechanics - 3uploaded byAbhijit Kar Gupta
- chap3uploaded byPradeepLokhande
- FWLec4uploaded bybstrong1218
- appBuploaded byhsvfisica
- Vectors Markschemeuploaded byMarshall Thompson
- 1st year test PHY (2)uploaded byRashid Jalal

- M. Gleiser and J. Thorarinson- Phase transition in U(1) configuration space: Oscillons as remnants of vortex-antivortex annihilationuploaded byPomac232
- Emad A-B. Abdel-Salam- Quasi-Periodic Structures Based on Symmetrical Lucas Function of (2+1)-Dimensional Modified Dispersive Water-Wave Systemuploaded byPomac232
- Chun-Long Zheng- Variable Separation Solutions of Generalized Broer Kaup System via a Projective Methoduploaded byPomac232
- Chun-Long Zheng and Gui-Ping Cai- Localized Excitations with Novel Evolutional Behavior in a Generalized Sasa-Satsuma Systemuploaded byPomac232
- Petja Salmi- Oscillonsuploaded byPomac232
- Ming Y. Yu and Lennart Stenflo- Exact Solutions for Waves in Cold Bounded Plasmasuploaded byPomac232
- Jiangbo Zhou and Lixin Tian- Solitons, Peakons, and Periodic Cuspons of a Generalized Degasperis-Procesi Equationuploaded byPomac232
- Xiao-Yan Tang- What will happen when a dromion meets with a ghoston?uploaded byPomac232
- M. Bertola, M. Gekhtman and J. Szmigielski- Peakons and Cauchy Biorthogonal Polynomialsuploaded byPomac232
- Cheng-lin Bai et al- Interactions among Peakons, Dromions, and Compactons in (2+1)-Dimensional Systemuploaded byPomac232
- Ji Lin and Hua-mei Li- Painleve Integrability and Abundant Localized Structures of (2+1)-dimensional Higher Order Broer-Kaup Systemuploaded byPomac232
- Vladimir K. Vanag and Irving R. Epstein- Stationary and Oscillatory Localized Patterns, and Subcritical Bifurcationsuploaded byPomac232
- Lixin Tian, Jinling Fan and Ruihua Tian- The Attractor on Viscosity Peakon b-Family of Equationsuploaded byPomac232
- R. Beals, D.H. Sattinger and J. Szmigielski- Peakon-Antipeakon Interactionuploaded byPomac232
- Jie-Fang Zhang- A class of coherent structures and interaction behavior in Multidimensionsuploaded byPomac232
- Noah Graham- An Introduction to Solitons and Oscillonsuploaded byPomac232
- Ethan P. Honda and Matthew W. Choptuik- Fine structure of oscillons in the spherically symmetric phi^4 Klein-Gordon modeluploaded byPomac232
- Igor S. Aranson and Lev S. Tsimring- Formation of periodic and localized patterns in an oscillating granular layeruploaded byPomac232
- Vladimir K. Vanag and Irving R. Epstein- Resonance-induced oscillons in a reaction-diffusion systemuploaded byPomac232
- Noah Graham- Breathers, Q-balls, and Oscillons in Quantum Field Theoryuploaded byPomac232
- Tomasz Romanczukiewicz- Long Lived Oscillonsuploaded byPomac232
- Arik Yochelis, Barak Galanti and Zeev Olami- Oscillon formation as an initial pattern stateuploaded byPomac232
- Matthias W. Gempel- Oscillons formed by granular matteruploaded byPomac232
- Paul M. Saffin and Anders Tranberg- Oscillons and quasi-breathers in D+1 dimensionsuploaded byPomac232
- M Salimullah et al- Excitation of dipole oscillons in a dusty plasma containing elongated dust rodsuploaded byPomac232
- Joel Thorarinson and Marcelo Gleiser- Dynamical Emergence of Complex Structures in Field Theoriesuploaded byPomac232
- Paul B. Umbanhowar, Francisco Melo and Harry L. Swinney- Periodic, aperiodic, and transient patterns in vibrated granular layersuploaded byPomac232
- H. Arbell and J. Fineberg- Temporally Harmonic Oscillons in Newtonian Fluidsuploaded byPomac232
- Alison Drain- Laposky’s Lights Make Visual Musicuploaded byPomac232
- Lingfa Yang, Anatol M. Zhabotinsky and Irving R. Epstein- Jumping solitary waves in an autonomous reaction–diffusion system with subcritical wave instabilityuploaded byPomac232

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading