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Fermi National Accelerator
HUTP-92/A005; UICHEP-TH/92-03;


Knots and Links of Nonabelian
Lee Brekke Department University of Physics at Chicago 60680


of Illinois IL


Hans Dykstra Theory Fermi National Group Laboratory

Accelerator IL

P. 0. Box 500 Batavia, 60510

Shane J. Hughes and Tom D. Imbo* Lyman Laboratory of Physics

Harvard Cambridge,

University MA 02138

* Junior s



Society of Fellows
Association Inc. under contract with the United States Department ot Energy

by Universities


Abstract We consider a class of closed stringlike occur group in certain (3+1)-dimensional nonabelian configurations, called essentially theories where knotted, which gauge by more

Yang-Mills+Higgs subgroup

a compact

G breaks to a finite,


Such objects into the vacuum fluxes.

are labelled without Analogous within

than one flux element in H, and cannot the cores of two segments of string multicomponent topological broken links of string

be deformed

overlapping results for a general


noncommuting Our analysis and linking

are also given.

is performed of strings


for discussing

the knotting

in spontaneously

gauge theories.

It is well known fects [I].

that spontaneously if a connected

broken group

gauge theories G breaks

can have topological

deis not in

For example,

to a subgroup

H which

path-connected, (3+1)-dimensions. These topological ken subgroup configurations First, broken,

then such a model possesses vortices (For most of our discussion objects have generated below,

in (2+1)-dimensions, we will assume that especially

or strings

H is finite.)

much recent interest,

when the unbroYang-Mills-Higgs space.

H is nonabelian

[2%7]. In this paper, we study stringlike knots and links in three-dimensional gauge theory with

which form nontrivial a (2+1)-dimensional


gauge group G spontaneously

via the Higgs mechanism,

to a nontrivial

finite subgroup connected

H. We work in temporal
connected, infinity, the

gauge (A0 = 0), and assume that the compact. that is, the fundamental group al(G) is trivial.

Lie group G is simply

On the circle 5” at spatial manifold”)

Higgs field must lie in the coset space (“vacuum the theory h represents S’ to G/H possesses topologically the homotopy defined stable vortices


Since ~1 (G/H)

= H1

of finite energy, labelled

by h E H. Here

class, relative

to a fixed basepoint Equivalently,

yo E S’, of the map from h is the Wilson loop of

by the Higgs field at infinity. representation

the gauge field, in a faithful around the vortex.

of G, along a contour are labelled into

(based at yo) going once group elements h gauge

If two vortex


by conjugate the other

ILL and hz = h-‘hlh, transformation.

then one can be transformed

by a global

In a (3+1)-dimensional topologically

gauge theory


G broken

to H as above, there will exist energy configurations which

stable strings of infinite

extent and energy.


are closed loops of string he unstable, additional preferring interactions

can also be formed in these theories-such to collapse to a point.

objects will generally however, allowing adding stable

We can always imagine, repel itself at short distances, More precisely, gauge-Higgs

which make the string

loops [6]. Our purpose is to classify such loops of string. curve K in R3, we will determine energy density transformation unknotted, is localized’ which this number on K. the number of distinct

given a fixed closed configurations by a static whose gauge If K is

(Two configurations infinity will

that are related he considered group

is trivial

at spatial


is equal to the order of the finite see that

H, which

we denote by knot in IR3, More


By contrast,

we will

if the closed loop K forms a nontrivial to label the distinct

then the elements 1 We are working

of H may not be sufficient with idealized strings


of zero thickness 1

(K is one-dimensional).


we will consider

configurations 1~ 2 1. the gauge-Higgs


are arbitrary





links of n closed st,rings), In order to construct


whose energy density group xi(lR3

is localized

on a link L, it will be necessary to consider element of rl(lR3 - L) is a (homotopy infinity)

the fundamental

- L). A generic yo (which L

class of a) loop starting and winding around

at a fired point portions

we choose to he at spatial before returning t2 E al(lR3 to yo.


of the link


any L-configuration

as above,

we assign to each element gauge field. The result-

- L) the Wilson

loop w(e)

E H of the corresponding Conversely,

ing map from ai(lR3 W : r1(lR3 as Wilson

- L) to H is a homomorphism.

every homomorphism the elements IV(e)

- L) -+ H gives rise to an L-configuration loops’. Therefore. strings there is a l-l correspondence

hy considering between

these homomorphisms knot Ko which we take to the integers Z.

and gauge-Higgs

of type L. As an example, Clearly, ai(lR3

let L he a trivial

as the unit circle iu the x-y plane. The integer p corresponds One constructs the flux element

- K o ) IS isomorphic

to a loop which circles through

Ko p times (in the same sense).
the integer 1 to any h E H; is turns of Kc-configurations

a l~omon~orpl~ism of the associated

W : B + H by sending string is h. Thus,

the number

equal to [HI. (Note that a 180’ rotation a string nontrivial, with flux h into one with

of the circle Ko about To show that

any of its diameters

flux h-l.)

more can happen of ?ri (lR3 -L),

when L is

we must better to use certain


the general structure

for which it will

he necessary

aspects of the mathematical


of knots and links which

we now review. A convenient xl(lR3 presentation (a set of generators and defining relations) for the group First, choose an a regular

- L), the Wirtinger


[8], can he obtained
L in question, indicated of L with

as follows.

orientation planar

for each component of this oriented

of the link

and then consider


over- and under-crossings projections, related by

(see fig. 1). the so-called

Any given link Reidemeister

possesses numerous



moves [S]. Each projection

will yield,

by the procedure


below, a presentation follows

of rr(lR3

- L). Any one of these will do for our purposes,

and in what

we fix a specific


PL. III Pr. there will be a number,
of components

say m, of disjoint

line segments or arcs. If n is the number 2 Two conjugate to vortices. homomorphisms,

of L, then m 2 n. There will he a fields reapproach

IV1 and IV, = h-’ Wrh, yield gauge-Higgs See [3] for a similar homotopy-theoretic

lated by a global 11gauge transformation.



of ?rr (lR3 -L)


with each such arc. Call these generators

zi, 1 5 i 5 tn. the

and label each arc in the diagram homotopy class of a loop (with

PL by an zi as in fig. 1. The generator
V/O)which encircles of the loop relative

zi represents


arc i once, and passes in front to that of the arc i to those generators

of every other arc. We choose the orientatiou obey a right which hand rule. Each crossing

A of Pr, yields a relation
on A. This relation


are associated


the arcs incident

can always be put in the on

form zli = z;‘zjsi, the global nature

where several of the indices of the diagram. The number

i,j, k may he the same depending oriented crossing

In fig. 2 we show a generic

and its



of crossings in a link diagram a presentation

is always less than or m

equal to the number generators

of arcs, so we end up with

of ?ri(lR3 - L) having

zi and Q 5 m relations relation

Ri. We write this as nr(lR3 - L) = ( Xi 1 Rj ). One can
iu the above set is a consequence of all the others taken

show that any particular together,

so that we may delete any one of the Rj’s from our presentation. we reconsider the unknot

As an example,

Ko which projects
A second, less trivial

to a simple circle.

Here We

we have a single generator thus recover ri(lR3

z, and since there are no crossings,

there are no relations. example

- Ko) = ( 2 1 0 ) = Z.

is the trefoil ~1, zs and z3 As alluded to

knot T shown in fig. 1. Using the procedure subject earlier, write to the relations the last relation our presentation

above we find three generators and zs = ~;~zcizs.

-1 zr = z3 2223, 2s = z;~z~z~

(for example) as

is a consequence

of the first two, so that

we may



( z1,z*,z3

] 371 =








can he simplified relation. After


by eliminating

~3 in favor of zr and 5s using the above


some algebra, we obtain
a1(IR3 -T) = ( Zl,Z2 I 21qq = ZZ~lZ2 ).




nonahelian (2) to find


is known

as the braid from x1(R3

group - T)

B3 [8]. into




presentation resulting


H and to discuss the
zs in



one must remember

that the flux in the arc lahelled

fig. 1 is determined We now turn with a projection

by 573= ~;~zz~zrs. to some two component links. First, consider a trivial link Lc along

PFo’ given by two disjoint 3

circles as in fig. 3. In this case we have two


one for each component,

and no relations. zi and ~2; -Lo) = ( a,xz Li

The resulting


group is

the free group FZ on two generators, Tl(lR3 The simplest generators. nontrivial link

I 0 ). shown in fig. 4. Again

(3) we have two Both So we

is the Hopf link

but now two relations

as well coming from the crossings in the diagram. namely, that the two generators commute.

of these relations have

say the same thing,

*1(lR3 - Ll) This abelian group is isomorphic examples. the link

= ( Xl,XZ 1 Xl = x;lx122


(4) to treat

to the direct product

Z x Z. It is straightforward - L) is infinite

more complicated Calculating classifying string

In all cases, the group ai(lR3

and torsion-free. of


?ri(IR3 - L) is only half the story. in the above gauge theories, finite we still

For the purpose must study


the ho-

momorphisms by sending in ri(IR3 construct h E H.

of these groups into the appropri~ate the generators Zi to specific For any knot by sending elements

group H. These are constructed the defining relations

of H such that

- L) are satisfied. a homomorphism The relations

(i.e., one-component


K, one can always
element Such homomormaps there with

all of the generators

to a single arbitrary satisfied.

in ai(R3

- K) are then automatically

phisms are in 1-l correspondence whose existence we have already

with the elements of H. These are the “expected” seen at the level of the trivial knot Ko. However. field associated

may be other homomorphisms

of ~1 (lR3 - K) into H. A gauge-Higgs in the unknotted knotted

one of these new maps has no analogue rations essentially

case. We will call these configuthe H-flux a diagram in the string PK for the by

knotted. In an essentially

configuration, as one traverses

changes discontinuously relevaut

(at three or more crossings)

knot K. The Wirtinger to a singular

between the fluxes in PK can be understood the gauge potential is only nonzero


gauge in which is K.

on a com-

pact surface whose boundary in a direction viewer. perpendicular

Also, choose this surface to emanate of the diagram,

from the string

to the plane of projection the string

and away from the of the surof the the

At each crossing,

which crosses under punctures

the portion

face coming from the string under-crossing H-representatives string will

which crosses over. As it pierces the surface, the H-flux be conjugated Wirtinger by that generators of the over-crossing of *i(lR3 string. Though

of distinct

- K) are, in general, different


from each other for an essentially conjugacy class of H. links.



we see that they must all be in the same

For multicomponent ai(lR3 picture through fluxes. will

it is still

true that sending

all the Wirtinger



- L) to a single element the H-flux is constant

h E H yields

a homomorphism. of the link,

In the resulting and the same flux components In general,

string h runs distinct there two-

in any component

each component. while still keeping

One can also attempt the flux constant

to give the different component.

in any fixed

be strong


on the choice of these flux elements. PFO’ (fig. 3), then ~i(lR3-Lo) and obtain

If we take a trivial is presented


link Ls with projection

as in (3) and If Lo

we may assign any two fluxes to the two components also possesses the overlapping Wirtinger presentation planar projection

a homomorphism.

Pp,’ shown in fig. 3, then the appropriate

of nl (El3 - Lo) for this choice is
7rl(R3 Lo) = ( Zl,Z2,23 1 23 = +wz ).

assign any


is, of course,



to the free group


One can again However


hl and hs to the generators

zi and zs respectively.

the flux through from hr unless we provided by Pg’

arc 3, which belongs have hi 1~s = hshi. and Pg’

to the same component Note that

as arc 1, will be different of Lo-configurations

the two descriptions even though

are indeed equivalent,

they look somewhat Lo-configurations.


In particular, example,

using either projection consider generators

we find that there are IHI

As another

the Hopf link Li of fig. 4 whose group ~i(lR~ satisfy zizs = zszi, the only allowed

- Lr) is presented of type Li

in (4). Since the


are those where the that there are

fluxes in the two components less Lr-configurations A precise definition ficult flux than the analogous


[7]. If H is nonabelian,

this implies

than Lo-configurations. of essentially linked string configurations is somewhat is that more difchanges in above. The

one for knots.

The source of the difficulty of a ttivial link,

can occur

even in some projections statement

as demonstrated a configuration

corresponding essentially

for knots does not hold.


of type L is of

linked if, for an arbitrary singular

gauge choice, the flux in some component from some other component. moves from

L changes as it pierces the gauge surface coming words, in all diagrams

In other a planar with can

via a sequence of Reidemeister the flux in some component component. This


of this configuration, to a different

changes at a crossing Lo-configurations

an arc belonging

assures us that


never be essentially to self-crossings


can configurations components. strings of,type (With Li.)

where all the changes in flux are due this definition there are also no theories which illustrate

of individual linked

possessing essentially the existence

We now turn to examples linked gauge-Higgs

of essentially


and essentially

fields. These are the

main results of this paper. Let us first consider example is abelian G = SU(n) the case where the unbroken discrete subgroup

H is abelian-for
When H element of the


to its center, the cyclic group of order n, H = B,. to each component of a link L an arbitrary relations. That

we can assign separately automatically implies

H; any such assignment
form of these relations given component these theories. with nonabelian nest Things strings

satisfies all the Wirtinger all possibilities.


that this exhausts

is, the flux in any or linking in

be constant.

and hence there is no essential


may change when H is nonabelian. is that of G = SU(2)

A commonly

discussed quaternion fiuj,

theory group

b reaking

to the 8-element

H = Qs [4]. The elements of Qs
It is interesting to note that be seen by recognizing


are fl knotting

and the Pauli matrices

j = 1,2,3. This can

no essential

occurs in this model either. string configuration,

that in any essentially generators

knotted of ni(IR3

the images in Further, class of H. j = l-2,3.

H of at least two of the Wirtinger
as mentioned earlier. Now> there are five conjugacy

- K) must not commute.

the full set of these images must lie in a given conjugacy classes of Qs, namely, {l}, { -1) and {ioj, -i~i},

Since the members in any one of these classes clearly essential Consider knotting in the Qs mode13. By contrast,


with each other, there is no linking in this theory.

there is essential

the link Ls of fig. 4. whose group ?rr(lR3 - Lz) has the presentation

a,(lR3 - Lz) = (
where tinct

1 tq =










we have deleted essentially linked

the string



z~q = from


Six dis-


can be obtained

the homomorphisms

W.jk:x~(lFt3-L~)-+Q~, WAz*)
3 More generally,


= iUj = -W,,(xz),

Wjk(X3) = -kQ

= -Wjk(x4).


it can be shown that essential

never occurs in a model where the group Qs

H is a nilpotent
and all abelian

group. groups.

This class of groups includes,

among many others,


The configurations about its vertical



Wj, and Wkj are related

by a 180° rotation to show that is conjugate

of Lz any

axis of symmetry leading

in fig. 4. It is also straightforward Ls-configuration ~j~

other homomorphism of these. For instance,

to an essentially

to one


the homomorphism

given by l%‘jk(zi)

= -Wj~(~i).

We have tijk

= h-‘W,&,

where h = ioe, ! # j, k. in which essential knotting occurs. In this model, 12. This

We are now ready for an example the group subgroup SU(2) is broken down

to the binary

dihedral g~onp Di,

of order

is the double triangle

cover of Ds



consists of the rotational to the full permutation by two elements = -l/2.

symmetries group on

of an equilateral 3 objects.

in 3-space; De is isomorphic

The group


SU(2) can be generated
these generators {-l},

a E ic?. ni and From the algebra The

b = ia.&,
of the Pauli

where the fixed unit vectors $ and n> satisfy Ci .rii matrices, we see that

obey a2 = (ab)3 = b2 = -1.

conjugacyclasses and {-ab.

of Di2 are given by (l}, Now consider the trefoil

{a, bl -aba},


-b, aba}, {ab, ba}
in (2). = a, W(Q) # W(Q). = b. The So, the


knot T in fig. 1, whose group is presented

There is a homomorphism string configuration

W : zi(lR3

- T) -+ D’ 12 given by W(zi) knotted


with W is essentially trefoils.

since W(zi) knotted

D;, model has essentially
in this theory continuous Essentially is related motion linked


Any other essentially

T-configuration followed by a T).

to this one by a global in lR3 (beginning

H gauge transformation,
and ending

of the string strings

in the same position

of type L2 also occur here. For example, = a, W(Q)

using the presentation = b> W(Q) = ab and

in (6) we can define W : al(lR3 - L2) --t D’ 12 by W(zi)


= ba.
it is worth remarking that there is a finite (Therefore, action path interpolating between the

At this point, between

any two closed string quantum string

configurations. states.)

there is tunneling


In particular,

one can deform a string of any type L or essentially linked configuration,

into one of trivial such a deformation flux elements.

link type.

For an essentially


will always require overlapping

the cores of two arcs with noncommuting a “bridge” of string forming this bridge

In describing

this process, it is useful to imagine

between these two arcs as they pass through is the commutator Here, the initial IV2

each other [5][9]. The flux through arcs. An example with appear

of the two fluxes in the original configuration

is shown in fig. 5. the homomorphism which carry a flux

is of type Ls and is associated are pulled apart, bridges

in (7).

As the two components


(01cJ2)2 = -1.

Some cautionary group result of type G is not simply



be made as well about

the situation

when the Lie


Here, rl(G/H)

1s no longer just given by H, and as a strings

the homomorphisms L. In particular,

of PT~(IR~ - L) into H no longer label the gauge-Higgs knowing the H-flux assignments projection (Wilson

loops in a faithful does not suffice be obtained from

representation to determine Wilson

of G) for the arcs in a given planar the configuration.

of a string cannot

The missing information,


loops. is provided

by the abelian extension)

group ~1 (G). More precisely,

we have the following

short exact sequence (group

{e} ---* n,(G)
This can be obtained map p : G -+ G/H. it is infinite. Further,

5 rl(G/H)

2 H + {e}.
sequence of the canonical then nl(G/H) is still finite. homomorphism

projection Otherwise, p, lies in for a link from

from the long exact homotopy (Note that if G is semisimple,

it can be shown that the image of the l-l that is, (8) 1s a central extension.)

the center of nl(G/H),

The arcs in a diagram

L now get assigned elements of this larger group ~1 (G/H), rl(lR3 - L) into rl(G/H) 4 : al(lR3 Wictingec label the type L strings. - L) -+ rl(G/H), generator

and the homomorphisms with

Given such a string, the H-flux


homomorphism coccespouding

we can recover First,

of an arc with the

zi as follows.


the map 4 with

boundary homomorphism

6 in (8); this gives rise to a homomorphism

W+ : al(Ilt3-L)

-+ H,

that is, W+ = 6 o q5. The H-flux is true that any homomorphism one of the above maps 4 with link L. As a consequence, from the point

of the above arc is then given by W+(z;). from a,(IR3 6. However - K) into H can be obtained

For a knot K it by composing

this is not true in general for a multicomponent for a string of type L which seem perfectly due to the

flux assignments


of view of the subgroup

H, may not be allowed

presence of ?rl (G). Wheu knotted G is not simply connected, the only change in the definitions of essentially the if arcs

and linked

configurations with

is to replace - K)

H by ?rl (G/H).

More specifically, is essentially labelling knotted distinct

configuration #(zi) # 4(zj)


q5 : rl(lR3 of Wictingec


for some pair for the knot K.


z; and zj

in a diagram obtainable nent string,

An L-configuration

is essentially


if, in all diagrams of this multicompowith an

via a sequence of Reidemeistec the rl(G/H) assignment

moves from a projection

in some component

changes at a crossing extension,

arc from a different


Using the fact that

(8) is a central

one can


prove for knots some (possibly you traverse is essentially



# d(zj) for K still

f or some i and j if and only if W+(zk) checking

# FV+,(ze) for changes as with C$ in

distinct) the diagram knotted*.

pair k and e. Hence, simply

if the H-flux

suffices to determine statement

if the string


The corresponding unchanged

for links is not true-the with another


each component yet the string

can remain may still

at every undercrossing linked. To illustrate

be essentially

this, let us consider consisting of all diagonal

a model matri-

which breaks SO(3) ces. Since 7r,(SO(3)) knotting and linking

down to the subgroup

H = Zz


= Bz, the above analysis in this theory ace identical

is relevant.

All of the results


to those in the Qs model discussed earlier

since the coset spaces SU(2)/Q 7rl(SO(3)/& rl(SU(2)/Qs) theory x Z,), which

s and SO(3)/Z2 extension

Zz are homeomorphic. of Z,

(In particular to x ZZz

is a central

by Zz x Bz, is isomorphic

= Qs.) Thus. we know by our treatment linked configurations. by watching

of the Qs model that the & theory, since here H = iT, in considering

possesses essentially

However in this latter the H-fluxes

the essenx

tial linking abelian. neglecting preceding theory

can never be detected This example n,(G) demonstrates

Zz is

only part of the danger linking.

only H and

in a discussion imply that

of essential

The comments

at the end of the a


from the structure linked configuration

of H alone, it may seem as though with certain

possesses an essentially constraints rule it out. analysis



while the

additional actually Our

imposed on the possible H-flux


by the presence of nl(G)

can also be extended (We will

to include

causes where that

the unbroken

subgroup G is simply

H is not discrete.
connected, though = a”(H),

again assume below the results

the full gauge group case.)

it is easy to extend

to the general

Here we have of H. It is most homomorphisms for


where TO(H) is the group of disconnected knotting and linking

components5 using

to define essential

in these theories

4 : ~1 (lR3 - L) + TO(H).

Such a homomorphism

q5 assigns to each arc in a diagram through it belongs.

the link L the path component not care where the flux actually 4 This implies if ~~ (G/H) essential knotting

of H to which the flux running lies within this component.

4 does the even

Because of this property, where H is abelian,

that essential knotting occurs.

never occurs in theories if H is nilpotent

is nonabelian.

More generally,

then so is ~1 (G/H),

and no

xc,(H) is the quotient group H/H,, where H, is the connected component of the identity in H. When H is discrete, H, consists of the identity element alone and we recover ~1 (G/H) = H.
5 More precisely,


reader may wonder complete undesirable subgroup


it would

be better

to use maps from


- L) into


H for our definitions.
For example,

This approach consider

would have. however,

some rather In the of, say, the


an ~unbroken SU(2)

gauge theory.

above notation the trefoil

this means G = H = SU(2). - 2’) into SU(2)

Tl iece are plenty

of homomorphisms

group ai(IR3

which have nonabelian Thus.

images (for instance,

map into the D,‘, subgroup whose energy density knotted by this alternative strings

discussed earlier).

there ace SU(2)

field configurations are essentially contains not

is localized

on an embedded


in IR3, and which


But, of coucsel this unbroken = 7co(SU(2)) is trivial.

gauge theory

no topological

at all; TI(G/H) to the trefoil

Hence the flux will

want to stay confined It seems a minimal retain its flux.

in this configuration, an essentially

and will eventually configuration

decay away. should tend to





we favor the original


using TO(H) which

avoids the


scenario. a few brief comments. of this paper. First, we can also consider infinite length “open

We close with knots”

in the framework

These can be thought

of as ordinary

knots which off to spatial these

have been cut open at some point, infinity in different directions. (Similar

and the two resulting

ends then stretched

No modification statements

of our techniques

is needed to study There

new configurations. tions which

hold for open links.)

are also configuravertex

possess vertices

of three or more strings; fluxes pass through techniques

for example, each other.

the three-string

created when two noncommuting cation ai(IR3

as in fig. 5. Our classifithe group

applies here as well, but additional - r) for such an embedded

must be used to calculate a relation

graph I’. More specifically,
fluxes. We can further

must be added for

each vertex ordered

V which states that any single flux incident
of the remaining space manifold - L) replaces a presentation A4 is different ai(lH3

on V must equal an appropriately consider theories in which the


three-dimensional the group ac(M

than lR3. For an embedded Again,

link L in M, given

- L) in our analysis.

the procedure for ai(M ungauged matter - L).

earlier for finding Finally, strings,

of ~1 (EL3 - L) must be generalized have analogues in models containing

all of our results

or “global” physics, In-

such as those used to describe work, although with

ordeccd media in condensed different emphasis,

deed some related As an example. describe sibility biaxial

has been done in this area [9]. here has been used to posabove

the global nematic

counterpart liquid crystals. knotted

of the Qs model discussed Such correspondences and linked string

raise the interesting presented

that some of the exotic


may be detected

in the laboratory. 10

It is a pleasure to thank Willy Fischler for interesting

Chandni discussions

Shah Imbo, John Preskill. and useful comments. (L.B.),

John March-Russell

and in

This work was supported PHY-87-14654

part by DOE contract and T.I.).


and NSF grant



References [l] [2] J. Preskill, in Architecture

of the



at Short Distances, edited
1987). Phys. Rev. 62 (1989) (1990) 695;

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Figure Fig. 1. A projection been labelled Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. An isolated of the (right-handed) by the Wirtinger

Captions trefoil generators knot T. The arcs in the diagram 51, z2 and ~3, Wirtinger relation. have

crossing in a link diagram Pt’ (left) and Pg’,

and its corresponding link L,J.

Two diagrams,

for the trivial

The Hopf link L1 (left) A deformation

and the link Lz. linked string of type Ls into a trivial link.

of an essentially


y” -2 Lz a 2 2 2 c .i cc; 4

2 0 0i

-zJ 2 % z 2: ci


i 2 “1 .>, 2 * 0 2 .y”

b” .-

x* 0 -65 x” i) x-


y” * g ?1 2 z % c


0 ._ 1-1

xN @ 0 *-

r -i 7 .+8 .b-