Age: 600 kyr Species: Homo heidelbergensis Features • massive, aprox • broad face • thick, prominent supraorbital torus • nasal bones, mandibular fossa, & frontal sim to H. sap • sagital keel Site: Bodo d'Ar, Ethiopia Associated w/ Acheulean lithics & faunal assemblage Cut-marks on cranium indicate post-mortem de-fleshing Found: Asfaw in 1976 Bibliography: Conroy, G. et al (1978) Newly discovered fossil hominid skull from the Afar depression, Ethiopia, Nature

Atapuerca 5 – Miguelón
Age: 500 – 300 kyr Species: H. heidelbergensis Features • projecting mid-face • double-arched supraorbital torus • inflated zygomatics • retromolar space • broad, bukly face • aprox 1125cc • nuchal torus welldeveloped • worn front teeth • lacks canine fossa • maximum cranial breadth at base • mastoid process is promeminent and projecting • lacks occipital bun or suprainiac fossa smallest cc of any Atap specimen; largest canine & nasal cavity Site: Sima de los Huesos, Atapuerca, Spain Found: J. Arsuaga in 1992-1993 Bibliography: Arsuaga, J. et al (1993) Three new human skulls from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site

Mauer 1
Age: 500 - 400 kyr Species: Homo heidelbergensis, holotype Features • no mental eminence • mental symphisis slopes down and back from the teeth • broad ramus • taurodontism • very large • large molars, small for H. erectus Site: Mauer sand pits, Germany Found: J. Rosch in 1907 Bibliography: Schoetensack, O. (1908) Der Unterkeifer des Homo heidelbergensis aus den Sanden von Mauer bei Heidelberg

Arago XX1 - “Tautavel Man”
Age: 400 kyr Species: Homo heidelbergensis Features • aprox 1166cc • prominent supraorbital torus • deep sulcus behind supraorbital torus • long, flattened frontal • postorbital constriction • angular torus of parietal bones resembles smaller version of Arago w/ more H. erectus affinities Site: Caune de l'Arago, Tautavel, France Found: de Lumley, 1971 Bibliography: de Lumley, H. et al (1971) Decouverte de restes humains antendeandertaliens dates du debut de Riss a la Caune de l'Arago

Petralona 1
Age: 400 – 300 kyr Species: Homo heidelbergensis Features • double-arched supraoribital torus • broad nasal opening • no mid-face projection • palate very wide • thick occiptal bone • prominent transverse torus • aprox 1220cc very “transitional” in form: Nean/primitive found hanging in a stalagmite 23cm above ground Site: Katsika Hill, Greece Found: Malktosis in 1960 Bibliography: Kokkoros, P. (1960) Decouverte d'un crane d'homme paleolithique dan penninsule Chalcidique, Anthropologique

Age: 250 kyr Species: Homo heidelbergensis Features • aprox 1100cc • suprainiac fossa • marked supraorbital torus • canine fossa • large frontal sinus • straight, expanded parietal bones • small 3rd molars • mastoid process lacks crests
• likely female as less robust than other specimens • facial traits and basicranial flexion sim to H. sap • diff pattern of Nean affinities (back of skull dissimilar from Petralona 1)

Site: Steinheim, Germany Found: Sigrist in1933 Bibliography: Berckhemer, F. (1933) Ein Menschen-Schadel aus den diluvialen Schottern von Steinheim

Broken Hill 1
Age: 300 kyr Species: Homo heidelbergensis Features • aprox 1300 cc • low, sloping forehead • long cranium • evidence of disease and wounding: cavities in teeth, abscesses in jaw, partially healed ¼in wound above ear (sharp instrument or carnivore) Site: Kabwe, Zambia Found: Zwigelaar Bibliography: Woodward, A. (1921) A new cave man from Rhodesia, South Africa, Nature

Krapina C
Age: 130 kyr Species: Homo heidelbergensis Features • teeth show enlarged pulp chamber & fused roots • projecting midface • retromolar space • occipital bur • broad but lightly built facial architecture Site: Krapina, Croatia Found: Gorjanovic-Kramberger in 1905 Bibliography: Gorjanovic-Kramberger, K. (1906) Der diluviale Mensch von Krapina in Kroatien

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