CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT & EVALUATION Dr. Azadeh Asgari 1 Foundations of Curriculum

What is Curriculum? :
What is Curriculum? Any document or plan that exists in a school or school system that defines the work of teachers, at least to the extent of identifying the content to be taught student and the methods to be used in the process (English, 2000). The educative experiences learners have in an educational program. The purpose of which is to achieve broad goals and related specific objectives that have been developed within a framework of theory and research, past and present professional practice, and the changing needs of society (Parkay, 2006). 2

Slide 3:
Concept of Curriculum A systematic group of courses or sequence of subjects required for graduation or certification in a major field of study; A general overall plan of the content or specific materials of instruction that the college should offer the student by way of qualifying him for graduation or certification or for entrance into a professional or vocational field; A body of prescribed educative experiences under the supervision of an educational institute, designed to provide an individual with the best possible training and experience to fit him for the society of which he is a part or to qualify him for a trade or a profession. 3

7 Common Concepts of Curriculum :
7 Common Concepts of Curriculum Scope and Sequence Syllabus Content Outline Standards Textbooks Course of Study Planned Experiences (Posner, 2004) 4

Components of Curriculum :
Components of Curriculum Curriculum Design -Creating the curriculum in schools Curriculum Delivery -Implementation, supervising, monitoring or using feedback to improve the curriculum Curriculum Coordination -Lateral focus and connectivity Curriculum Articulation -Vertical focus and connectivity 5

Types of Curriculum :
Types of Curriculum Formal Informal -Values -Personality of teacher -Assessment Hidden Written Taught Tested 6

Quality Curriculum :
Quality Curriculum Greater depth and less superficial coverage Focus on problem solving Facilitates the mastery of essential skill and knowledge Coordinated Articulation -multi-level sequence study Emphasize academic and practical Effective integrated curricula Mastery of a limited number of objectives 7

Curriculum Goals :
Curriculum Goals Provide general guidelines for determining the learning experiences to be included in the curriculum. -Citizenship -Equal Educational Opportunity -Vocation -Selfrealization -Critical Thinking 8

Bloom¶s Taxonomy :
Bloom¶s Taxonomy 9 Remembering: Student can recall or remember information (define, duplicate, list, memorize, recall, repeat, reproduce, state) Understanding: Student can explain ideas or concepts (classify, describe, discuss, explain, identify, locate, recognize, report, select, translate, paraphrase) Applying: Student can use the information in a new way (choose, demonstrate, dramatize, employ, illustrate, interpret, operate, schedule, sketch, solve, use, write) Analyzing: Student can distinguish between the different parts (appraise, compare, contrast, criticize, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, examine, experiment, question, test) Evaluating: Student can justify a stand or decision (appraise, argue, defend, judge, select, support, value, evaluate) Creating: Student can create new product or point of view (assemble, construct, create, design, develop, formulate, write)

Slide 10:
Syllabus List of Subjects Content outline for each subject Broad time Allocations 10

Slide 11:
Difference Between Syllabus & Curriculum Functionally a µSyllabus¶ is generally unidimensional in the sense it merely presents the content or the subject matter to be studied. Curriculum is three dimensional, because it takes into account: the needs of the students, the content (in terms of specific performances) instructional methodology 11

Curriculum Approaches :
Curriculum Approaches 12 CURRICULUM as: Content emphasis on the content to be transmitted syllabus (document listing the topics, the content and suggestions on how topics

curriculum goals etc.Content .Goals of curriculum . curriculum developers who termed as curriculum specialist well-informed in areas relating to curriculum Foundations of Curriculum : Foundations of Curriculum Foundations of Curriculum 15 philosophy psychology sociology history These foundations have been used by curriculum design and development teams to decide on: . skills and values Process emphasis on interaction of teachers. sequence and balance in organization of content (curriculum design) B apply ideas from other disciplines & generated own ideas through research e. students and knowledge.Teaching process Slide 16: Four Phases of Curriculum Process Design Phase Development Phase Implementation Phase Evaluation Phase Figure 1: Four Phases of Curriculum Process FEEDBACK LOOPS 16 Slide 17: CURRICULUM DESIGN PHASE 17 Slide 18: Curriculum Design Phase What abilities the students possess on entry into the course? What abilities they will acquire on leaving the course? (as indicated by the job analysis) THE . product = student equipped with knowledge. teaching and learning process in classroom Curriculum as a Discipline : Curriculum as a Discipline IS CURRICULUM A DISCIPLINE? Reflect on the characteristics of a discipline: have organized set of theoretical principles encompasses a body of knowledge and skills pertinent to that discipline has theoreticians and practitioners 13 Curriculum as a Discipline : Curriculum as a Discipline 14 A in curriculum planning there are principles such as educational philosophy. principles of content.g: knowledge management and organizational theory used in organization content C there are curriculum planners.g: selection of content relied on knowledge and skills from psychology e.Organization of content . professors.should be taught) Product what is it that is desired of students having been taught using a curriculum (behavioral objectives).

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN (a) and (b) IS THE GAP THAT MUST BE BRIDGED WHEN DESIGNING THE CURRICULUM 18 Slide 19: Formulation of the OBJECTIVES of the curriculum Job analysis Identification of knowledge and skill requirements Formulation of programme objectives Specification of entering behavior Curriculum Design Phase 19 Slide 20: Figure 2: Learning as a change in behavior Educational Process Student Input Entering Behavior Student Output Terminal Behavior 20 Slide 21: Educational Objectives Course Description (content) PREREQUISITES OBJECTIVE What the learner has to know before he starts the course What the learner measurably knows after successful completion of the course CHANGE IN THE BEHAVIOUR OF THE LEARNER Figure 3: Educational Objectives 21 Slide 22: Knowledge (intellectual) Cognitive Domain Affective Domain Attitudes (values) Skills (Manual) Psychomotor Domain Main Categories of Human Behavior Figure 4: Main Categories of Human Behavior 22 Slide 23: Instructional Objectives Instructional Objectives are statements that communicate in behavioral terms the expected performance of the students at the END of instruction. 23 Slide 24: CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PHASE 24 Curriculum Development : .

Conferences/Workshops & Training Sessions 3. CRITERION of VARIETY Interesting Variety of learning experiences 29 Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making Slide 30: 3. TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN: Curriculum Development Phase 26 Slide 27: Criteria of Utility.Curriculum Development Involves the following phases: 25 Curriculum planning The decision about philosophy and aim of education Curriculum design The way curriculum is conceptualized Selection and organization of content & learning activities Curriculum implementation Actualizing the curriculum entities Curriculum evaluation Determines the extent to which the curriculum has been successful Slide 26: Sequencing the various subjects / courses Selecting the content in each subject Sequencing the units and topics Selecting instructional methods. College and University Coursework 2. instructional materials and media Preparation of plans for instruction Development of tests and other materials needed for evaluation of students performance Orienting the teachers to the new curriculum. Variety & Flexibility While making various decisions during the process of curriculum development three criteria. described below. CRITERION OF VARIETY 3. Collaborative and Partnership . are usually employed: 1. CRITERION of FLEXIBILITY Horizontal and Vertical mobility Modular approach Bridge Courses Core and Elective Subjects 30 Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making What are the Qualifying Professional Development Categories? : What are the Qualifying Professional Development Categories? 1. CRITERION of UTILITY CONTENT Must know Should know Nice to know 28 Slide 29: 2. CRITERION OF UTILITY 2. CRITERION OF FLEXIBILITY 27 Slide 28: Criteria To Be Used For Decision Making 1.

Involvement in Development/Improvement Processes. role clarification. Collection of feedback information. Assigning about 15% of the time allotted for each course for revision and conduct of tests. 7. provision of support services and streamlining procedures and communication channels. Effecting organizational changes like work distribution. Professional Leadership Experiences 31 Slide 32: Suggestions for Improving CDP Specification of instructional objectives for each course (subject) of the programme. topics and sub-topics. to ensure validity of the question paper. Preparation and inclusion of a Table of Specifications (Blueprint) for construction of Question paper as an integral part of the curriculum. Actual implementation of the curriculum in the identified institutions. Indicating the time allotted for teaching each unit of the course. Using the model curriculum as a base for curriculum revision (in various subjects). Conferring Academic autonomy to the colleges Utilization of the services of Academic council members Establishment of a Curriculum cell in each college Board of Studies Size and Composition 33 Suggestions for Improving CDP Slide 34: CURRICULUM IMPLEMENTATION PHASE 34 Slide 35: Preparation of implementation plans. 5. Monitoring the implementation processes and evaluation of students performance. Organizing the syllabus in terms of units. Organizing in-service staff development programmes. 32 Slide 33: Greater involvement of teachers in the various tasks of curriculum process. TASKS TO BE UNDERTAKEN: Curriculum Implementation Phase 35 Curriculum and Instruction : Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum => what is taught Instruction => how it¶s taught 36 Curriculum Instruction . Individually-Guided Professional Development 6.Activities 4.Curriculum and instruction as 2 entities Dualistic Model Curriculum and Instruction : .

Instructional decisions are made after curriculum decisions are made and later the curriculum decisions are modified after being evaluated in classroom 38 Curriculum Instruction Cyclical Model Slide 39: Two Approaches to Curriculum Academic Approach Competency based Approach 39 Slide 40: COMPETENCY BASED Subject Approach Knowledge Based Analysis of Subject Matter & Disciplines Systems Approach Job / Occupation Based Analysis of Policies. The intended curriculum is an inert document containing the objectives of the curriculum. 40 Two Approaches to Curriculum Slide 41: Determining Level and Prerequisites Organise Curriculum According to Logic of the Discipline Develop Instruction Analysis of Job and Tasks Contd. Operational Curriculum INTENDED CURRICULUM: Refers to the PRESCRIPTIONS in the curriculum document. Labour Market and Occupations Contd.Curriculum and Instruction 37 Curriculum Instruction Curriculum and instruction mutually interdependent Instruction is a subsystem of curriculum with curriculum dominating instruction Concentric Model Curriculum and Instruction : Curriculum and Instruction Curriculum makes a continuous impact on instruction and vice versa. time schedules and the performance standards expected. content matter. 43 . Develop Instruction Organise Curriculum According to way the job is done COMPETENCY BASED 41 Two Approaches to Curriculum Slide 42: Who are the Learners? What Learning Objectives? What Learning Strategies? What Resources Needed? How Evaluate? What is to be learned? How will it be learned? What Texts / Materials? What Tests / Exams? COMPETENCY BASED 42 Two Approaches to Curriculum Slide 43: Intended Curriculum vs.

FACTORS RELATED TO THE STUDENT: Aptitude for the subject Proficiency in the language which is used as the medium of instruction Entering behavior Motivation 45 Slide 46: 2. 44 Slide 45: Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation 1. organisation of the class and the milieu in which instruction takes place. FACTORS RELATED TO THE INSTRUCTIONAL ENVIRONMENT : Appropriateness of curricular objectives Adequacy of instructional time Instructional resources Instructional methods and procedures Task orientation of the class Evaluation procedures used Feedback provided to students 47 Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation Slide 48: CURRICULUM EVALUATION PHASE 48 Slide 49: Curriculum Evaluation Phase Curriculum evaluation can be defined as the collection and provision of evidence.Slide 44: Intended Curriculum vs. 49 Slide 50: Why Should We Evaluate a Curriculum? To bring the curricular content abreast of modern advances To remove the µDead Wood¶ from the curriculum To improve the EFFECTIVENESS . on the basis of which decisions can be taken about the feasibility. It deals with the processes of teaching and learning. effectiveness and educational value of curricula. Operational Curriculum OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM When an ³intended curriculum´ is enacted in a classroom or given life through teaching it becomes an ³OPERATIONAL CURRICULUM´. FACTORS RELATED TO THE TEACHER: Teacher preparedness Teacher¶s resourcefulness 46 Factors Influencing the Curriculum Implementation Slide 47: 3.

How an ³Intended Curriculum¶ is enacted . teachers¶ guide. Outcomes: 56 Slide 57: . THE ENTITY TO BE EVALUATED: 54 Slide 55: Outcomes Processes Fit to Standards CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION: 55 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 56: Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation Outcomes should cover both short range and long-range ones. 53 EFFICIENCY Slide 54: Curriculum Evaluation Phase Whole curriculum of the program Curriculum of a single course Specific components like the objectives. textbook. course content. teaching methods and evaluation procedures.The factors which may affect it and result in unintended effect EFFECTIVENESS = Actual Output Planned Output EFFICIENCY = Output Input 50 Slide 51: EFFECTIVENESS Doing Right Things EFFICIENCY Doing Things In The Right Way 51 Slide 52: ACTUAL OUTPUT PLANNED OUTPUT Determination of the extent to which the objectives of the curriculum have been achieved. audio-visual aids.) associated with the educational program.of the curriculum To improve the Efficiency of curriculum Implementation process To review the entry behavior requirements for admission into the course To identify: .How it becomes operational . 1. 52 EFFECTIVENESS Slide 53: OUTPUT INPUT Efficiency is related to the various kinds of COSTS (Money/Time/Space/Instructional Resources etc. It should also take cognizance of the unintended outcomes.

or under what conditions (Availability of equipment. sufficient amount of repetition etc. multisensory cues. vocabulary control. Fit to Standards: Standards may have their roots in: Pedagogical principles: Appropriate provision of feedback. The evaluation results provide information to curriculum developers and enable them to correct flaws detected in the curriculum. Such an evaluation will summarize the merits (as well as the weaknesses) of the program. Such results may serve the clients / customers in deciding whether they should use the program at all. To prevent this from occurring permanent follow-up and quality control of the program should be maintained. Processes: The Processes include: Student participation in certain activities Interest in the program and The desired pattern of communication between students and teachers 57 Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation Slide 58: 3. time. etc. professional prerequisites etc. Curricular principles: Correspondence between objectives and planned activities. hence the notion of summative evaluation. Quality control may reveal when some or all portions of the program should be altered or replaced. 2. In this way quality control may lead . The evaluation results may contribute to the formation of the curriculum and hence the notion of formative evaluation. Summative evaluation: TASKS 61 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 62: A curriculum that operates satisfactorily over a certain period of time may gradually become obsolete or deteriorate over time.) they should use it. reinforcement. Communication principles: Clarity of presentation.2. space. Formative evaluation: TASKS 60 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 61: This is carried out after offering the curriculum once or twice. 1. proper significance. 58 Criteria for Curriculum Evaluation Slide 59: Formative evaluation Summative evaluation Curriculum Improvement Tasks to be undertaken: 59 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 60: This is carried out during the process of curriculum development. Summative evaluation of curriculum may aid in the specification of the optimal or minimal conditions for usage.

Robinson. Great Britain Cambridge University Press. A. American Association of School Administrators. England: The British Council. Dubin. D. W. (1978) Communicative Syllabus Design. Richards. Cambridge University Press. J. UK: Cambridge University Press. J. Graves. Australian Curriculum Studies Association. Toepfer Jr. (1978) Syllabuses: Structural. F. (1989) ³The role of needs analysis in adult ESL programme design´ In R. S. J. J. USA: Cambridge University Press. (1997) Course Design: Developing Programs and Materials for Language Learning.) Evaluating Second Language Education. W. notional. Lee. W. Great Britain: Prentice Hall.. Jordan. M.12(5). S. G. London: Longman.html Spady. K. (1994) Outcome-based Education: critical issues and answers. Moreno. situational.Virginia. Hutchinson.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (1980) National Syllabuses Construction for Foreign-Language Teaching: Reconciling the Approaches ELT documents 108. S. (2000) The Implications of Curriculum Design for a Graduate of the English Language Program at Universidad Veracruzana. (2005) Interchange Third Edition. USA: Heinle & Heinle. TESOL Newsletter. from www. R. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Graves. & Waters. 3. J. G. Sydney Queensland Studies Authority (QSA) (2002a) ³The Arts Modules´. R. D. C. In Alderson. 63 References . C. Proctor.. ACT Spady. Brindley. Boston (1986) Curriculum Planning and Development Allyn and Bacon. C. P. PrenticeHall. (1995) The Elements of Language Curriculum. (2001) Teachers as Course Developers. J. R. & Shields. F. Richards. Finocchario. USA Beretta. K. & Kennedy. & Alessi Jr.toward the updating of an old program and production of ³Second Generation Program´.qsa. Platt and Platt (1993) Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics. USA: Oxford University Press. & Brumfit (1983) The Functional-Notional Approach. K. Canada: Heinle & Heinle.Johnson (ed) Brown.81-85.qld. Richards. J. Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. E. Belconnen. & Olshtain. Unpublished dissertation. A (eds. A (1996) ESP A learning centred approach. Curriculum Improvement: TASKS 62 Curriculum Evaluation Phase Slide 63: Beane. (1994) Understanding ESL/EFL programme review for accountability and improvement. J & J Beretta...Pgs. (2000 ) Syllabus Design. K. ELT Journal Volume 48/2 McKay. Hull.11. Mexico Munby. Cambridge University Press. A (1992) Evaluation of Language Education an overview. T. P. (1993) Outcome-based Education: Workshop Report No 5. (1999) Curriculum Construction. Nunan. (1997) English for Academic Purposes. G. (2001) Curriculum Development in Language Teaching. Mackay. L. (1990) ESP Today. (2000) Designing Language Courses.R. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

how it should be taught. deciding upon goals and emphases. abilities and interests of the learners and the nature of the society or community. and evaluating learning experiences on the basis of the needs. and looking toward next steps. Curriculum Planning : Curriculum Planning A Curriculum Planning is the process whereby the arrangement of curriculum plans or learning opportunities are created. Definition(s) of Curriculum : Definition(s) of Curriculum Curriculum ± is a structured set of learning outcomes or task that educators usually call goals and objectives. Resource Unit is a collection or suggested learning activities and materials organized around a given topic or area which a teacher might utilize in planning. ( Howell and Evans 1995) Curriculum ± is the ³what´ of teaching. developing. RONNIE ESPERGAL PASIGUI Definitions of Curriculum : Definitions of Curriculum Some authors define curriculum as the total effort of the school to bring about desired outcomes in school and out-of-school situations. and the plan for implementing/assessing the learning Curriculum Planning : Curriculum Planning A curriculum Plan is the advance arrangement of learning opportunities for a particular population of learners. Curriculum Development : Curriculum Development It is defined as the process of selecting. executing. Curriculum Laboratory : Curriculum Laboratory Curriculum laboratory is a place or workshop where curriculum materials are gathered or used by teachers or learners of curriculum. Curriculum Planning : Curriculum Planning It is the process of preparing for the duties of teaching. A Curriculum guide is a written curriculum. determining curriculum content. organizing. and evaluating a learning unit. Slide 10 : TWO SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT ON CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Two Schools of Thought Predominated Throughout History of Curriculum Development: : Two Schools of Thought Predominated Throughout History of Curriculum Development: The Essentialist School The Progressive School The Essentialist School : The Essentialist School It considers the curriculum as something rigid consisting of discipline subjects. It considers all learners as much as the same and it aims to fit . It is also defined as a sequence of potential experiences set up in school for the purpose of disciplining children and youth in group ways of thinking and acting. Curriculum ± listings of subjects to be taught in school. evaluating progress. Slide 4 : CURRICULUM A document which describes a structured series of learning objectives and outcomes for a given subject matter area Includes a specification of what should be learned. selecting learning resources and classroom procedures.THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT(PHILIPPINE CONTEXT) : THE NATURE AND SCOPE OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT(PHILIPPINE CONTEXT) BY: PROF.

all learners should be treated alike. The Progressive School : The Progressive School Constant revision of aims and experimental techniques of teaching and learning are imperatives in curriculum development in order to create independent thinking. rhetoric. . reading. self-expression and activity in the elarner. The Progressive School : The Progressive School Its measurement of outcomes are now devices taking into consideration subject matter and personality values. The Progressive School : The Progressive School The Role of the teacher is to stimulate direct learning process. having in mind that no two persons are alike. The Progressive School : The Progressive School It conceives of the curriculum as something flexible based on areas of interest. children or learners don¶t. Its factor of motivation is individual achievement believing that persons are naturally good. Synonymous to ³course study´. The Essentialist School : The Essentialist School It has no interest in social action and life activities. initiative. It is learner-centered. such as teachers know. The Essentialist School : The Essentialist School Its approach is authoritative and the teacher¶s role is to assign lessons and to recite recitations. It is book-centered and the methods recommended are memory work .(Hutchins) Most of the traditional ideas view curriculum as written documents or plan of action in accomplishing goals. Its measurement of outcomes are standard tests based on subject matter mastery. ± Caswell & Campbell Experiences in the classroom which are planned and enacted by the teacher. course of study and list of courses or specific discipline can only be called curriculum if these written materials are actualized by the learner. and also learned by the students. Traditional Points of View of Curriculum : Traditional Points of View of Curriculum Body of subjects or subject matter prepared by the teachers for the students to learn. ³Permanent studies´ where the rule of grammar. and development of abstract intelligence. mastery of facts and skills. individuality. logic and mathematics for basic education emphasized. syllabi. ± Marsh and Willis Different Theories : Different Theories Conflicting philosophies of education have influenced curriculum principles and practices. All experiences children have under the guidance of teachers. Total learning experiences of the individual. self-reliance. A NUMBER OF ³self-evident educational truths´ in the past are now seen to be rather educational myths. Progressive Points of View of Curriculum : Progressive Points of View of Curriculum Listing of subjects. It uses a life experience approach to fit the student for future social life.the learner into the existing social order and thereby maintain the status quo Its major motivation is discipline and considers freedom as an outcome and not a means of education.

philosophy. studies. Diagnosis of learners needs and expectations of the larger society. and Evaluation of the extent to which the objectives have been achieved. This model that assumes that curriculum decision making follows a straight line is called linear model Curriculum Development : Curriculum Development Other scholars argue that curriculum decision making is not a simple linear process that necessarily starts with aims.. The learner must learn skills. Selection of the learning experiences. Another curriculum stresses the importance of experience ± process.. Different Emphases : Different Emphases There is the curricular emphasis on the subject matter for the mind. : Steps. Determination of what to evaluate and the means of doing it. Organization of learning content. 2. and make decisions. 5. One of them is Wheeler (1978) who believes that curriculum decision making can start from any point and can come back to any of the points e. because they can be more than 4 Curriculum Development : Curriculum Development Some curriculum experts like Tyler say that the steps are followed in a sequence or a straight line. acquire knowledge.. the world of things. There is the curricular emphasis on the observable facts. 3. 4. Steps in Curriculum Development : Steps in Curriculum Development Tyler¶s Questions of Curriculum Development will provide 4 steps: What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? How can these educational experiences be effectively organised? How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? Steps. Large and Small Group Instruction. Formulation of learning objectives. In answering Tyler¶s questions. Different Emphasis : Different Emphasis A recent curricular emphasis is that of existing choice. like a cycle . Selection of the learning content. goals and objectives. Different Emphases : Different Emphases Another curricular emphasis is the school¶s dependence on Scholasticism. In many areas.Different Theories : Different Theories The fundamental concepts of some curricula have changed. intellectual history. Selection of learning experiences and content. we arrive the following basic steps of curriculum development: Selection of aims. new methodologies: programmed instruction.g.. The 4 steps above are basic. Organisation of learning experiences. 7. with priority in value to literature. Computer Assisted Instruction. 6. Tutorials. and a variety of individualized instruction procedures have been developed. Organization of learning activities. Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principle : Ralph Tyler Model: Four Basic Principle Purposes of the school Educational experiences related to the purpose Organization of the experiences Evaluation of the experiences Hilda Taba : Grassroots Approach : Hilda Taba : Grassroots Approach 1. ideas of religion.

subsequent experiences should build on earlier ones. . the National Policy on Education anticipates that the Nigerian child is active.Curriculum Development : Curriculum Development Kerr (1968) also believes that curriculum process is a very comlex set of activities and decisions and they interact a lot. Such learning experiences are important because of their multiple benefits. Relevance to life: learning experience must be related to the learner¶s real life situations in and out of school. In fact. our understanding what learning is and how it takes place. Variety: learning experiences must cater to the needs of different types of learners by providing different types of experiences. goals are tied to specific subjects or group of contents within the curriculum. goals and objectives to refer to them. Suitability: learning experiences must be suitable to the learners present state of learning and characteristics: Selection of learning experiences« : Selection of learning experiences« Cumulation: even though experiences provided may be different. Nigeria¶s philosophy of education is contained in its National Policy on Education. Multiple Learning: a single learning experience may bring about multiple outcomes. Changes made in content may necessitate changes in experiences. while objectives describe the more specific outcomes that can be attained as a result of lessons or instruction delivered at the classroom. Consistency with our theory of learning: at any time in any society. exploratory and imaginative. There are some factors to consider in selecting both learning experiences and content. norms and expectations when selecting aims. Relevance to school¶s philosophy of education: each nation has its own philosophy of education which its schools try to implement. For instance. Selection of Content & Learning Experiences : Selection of Content & Learning Experiences Content is what we teach. The present status of the learner: what has the learner already known? What are his/her characteristics? What is he/she ready for? The state of our knowledge of the subject matter or content: We should examine new developments in knowledge to see if they contain things that are of real value to the learner and society. which may again bring about changes in evaluation etc. Aims are broad statements which cover all of the experiences provided in the curriculum. We shall first examine those criteria for selecting learning experiences Factors in Selecting Learning Experiences : Factors in Selecting Learning Experiences Validity: this refers to the relevance of the stated learning experience to the stated goals of the curriculum. learning experience is an activity which the learner engages in which results in changes in his behaviour. The curriculum process must therefore clearly identify the aims that the curriculum is intended to achieve. that is why we use the terms aims. Curriculum aims range from the very broad to the more specific. there is a dominant conception of learning i. We should select those contents and learning experiences that will in attaining the goals of the curriculum. Selection of Aims and Objectives : Selection of Aims and Objectives Every curriculum is aimed at developing in the learners certain competencies or abilities. they should all lead to the attainment of the same goal. Factors in Selecting Aims : Factors in Selecting Aims Analysis of our culture: we should take into account our cultural values.e. We should ask whether the objectives we select are relevant to this philosophy.

political. Colonial rules in the Philippines tailored the curriculum to serve colonial goals and objectives.e. Factors: Use of electricity Parental education Parents¶ perception of academic abilities and interests of the children Parents¶ attitude Geography (Region) School Type Socio economic status of the Family .Factors in Selecting Content : Factors in Selecting Content Validity: means two things. the nature of knowledge. economic. or rather on the needs of the society? Will the selection depend on tradition. is the content related to the objectives. and social influences and events that took place in the country. and is the content true or authentic. will lead to the acquisition of skills and knowledge that are considered useful by society? Interest: is the content interesting to the learner? Or can the content be made interesting to learners? Learnability: is the content selected such that learners can learn and understand given their present level/ CURRICULUM IN THE PHILIPPINES : CURRICULUM IN THE PHILIPPINES Curriculum Development in the Philippines : Curriculum Development in the Philippines Touched on the religion. Utility: here the question is whether the content selected is useful i. or the learners¶ characteristics? What philosophical and psychological theories regarding the nature of learners as well as the learning process will underpin the organization of the content? Will the choice of methodology be in line with accepted teaching-learning principles? Will the evaluation procedure be able to measure the learning that is taking place? The result of lack of Framework : The result of lack of Framework Sari-sari (hodgepodge) Pira-piraso (piemal) Tagpi-tagpi (patchwork) Sabog (lack of focus) Malabo (vague) Lakas ng kutob (gutfeel) Hula-hula (hunches) Gaya-gaya (patterned from an existing model) Bahala na (by chance) Patama-tama (non-deliberate) The Areas of Concern : The Areas of Concern Cultural Values Knowledge of Learner Knowledge Of Teaching-Learning Theories and Principles Body of Knowledge Cultural Values : Cultural Values Visible Rules Food Dress Language Music Dance Means of Livelihood Political Behavior Family Community Norms Non-Visible Philosophy Beliefs Value System Knowledge of the Learner : Knowledge of the Learner Program for Decentralized Educational Development (PRODED) . The Need for Curriculum Framework : The Need for Curriculum Framework What learning objectives should be included? What will be the bases for the choice of objectives? Will the choice be based on the learners¶ needs and interests. Significance: is the content significant or will lead it to the more mastery or more understanding of the course or subject.Content Based (not on the learner and learning process) The Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) and Secondary Education Development Program (SEDP) ± addresses the learner and learning process Determinants of Learning in Philippines : Determinants of Learning in Philippines Educational Development Project Implementing Task Force(EDPITAF) ± revealed that community and home variables have greater impact on learning than school factors.

domestic science. and homeworks reinforces learning. both body and soul. : American Devised Cur. Commonwealth Curriculum : Commonwealth Curriculum Commonwealth Act 586. and Arithmetic. The schools were parochial or convent schools. : AMERICAN Devised Cur. . AMERICAN Devised Cur. American Devised Cur. and the solidarity of the family were obedience and respect had been practiced. IndoChina. etc. The inhabitants were civilized people. The Spanish Devised Cur. writing and religion) to attain goals were the acceptance of Catholicism and the acceptance of Spanish rule.Knowledge of Teaching-Learning Principles : Knowledge of Teaching-Learning Principles Behaviorism Cognitive Development Psychology Cognitive Field Psychology The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) and New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) demonstrate ample evidence of the inclusion of behaviorist psychological principles through the use of behavioral objectives. practices. The main readings were the catecismo. their code of laws ±the code of Kalantiao and Maragtas. recognized the elementary school system. : The Spanish Devised Cur. The Pre-Spanish Curriculum : The Pre-Spanish Curriculum As shown in the rule of Barangays. India. The method of instruction was mainly individual memorization. Commonwealth Curriculum : Commonwealth Curriculum (1935-1946) considered as the period of expansion and reform in the Philippine curriculum. possessing their systems of writing. Pre-Spanish Devised-Cur : Pre-Spanish Devised-Cur The Spanish Missionaries aim to control of the Filipinos. drills. The curriculum was based on the ideals and traditions of America and her hierarchy of values. The primary curriculum prescribed for the Filipinos consisted of three grades which provides training in two aspects: Body Training ± physical education Mental Training ± English. English was the medium of instruction. laws and moral standards in a well organized government. Nature Study. HISTORICAL CONTEXT : HISTORICAL CONTEXT Before 1521 ± Education before the coming of the Spaniards 1521-1896 ±Education during the Spanish Regime 1896 -1898 ± Education during Philippine Revolution 1899 ± 1935 ± Education during the American Occupation 1935 ± 1941 ± Education during the Philippine Commonwealth 1941 ± 1944 ± Education during the Japanese Occupation 1945 ± 1946 ± Education after WWII 1946 ± present ± Education under the Philippine Republic The Pre-Spanish Curriculum : The Pre-Spanish Curriculum The Filipino possessed a culture of their own. They had contacts with other foreign peoples from Arabia. and Borneo. The curriculum then consisted of 3 R¶s (reading. The educational leaders expanded the curriculum by introducing course in farming. also known as educational Act of 1940. China. their belief in Bathala. The motive of the Americans was to conquer the Filipinos not only physically but also mentally.

An experiment worth mentioning that led to a change in the Philippine Educational Philosophy was that of school and community collaboration pioneered by Jose V. 1966 sets the order of priority in the purchase of books for use in the schools were as follows: Books which are contributions to Phil. Behavioral-rational Approach 3. Philippine Republic Cur. The curriculum will improve as the professional competence of teachers improves. The competence of teachers will improve when they participate in curriculum development 3. and quality control measures to increase the probability of success in its implementation Bases of Technical Scientific Approach : Bases of Technical Scientific Approach 1. Japanese Devised Curriculum : Japanese Devised Curriculum All textbooks were censored and revised. Great experiments in the community school and the use of vernacular in the first two grades of the primary schools as the medium of instruction were some of them. System-managerial Approach 4. Memorandum No. Reconstructionism 9. Non-Technician / Non-Scientific Approach 6. Philippine Republic Cur. Re-conceptualist Approach 8. to abolish the double-single session. and abolishing English as the medium of instruction and as a subject. Liberation Period Curriculum : Liberation Period Curriculum (1945) Steps were taken to improve the curriculum existing before the war. and most especially to adopt the modern trends in education taken from the U. 2. Schools are increasingly using instructional materials that are Philippine-oriented. 30.S. Aguilar. Literature Books on character education and other library materials Library equipment and permanent features Slide 64 : CURRICULUM APPROACHES Curriculum Approaches : Curriculum Approaches 1.Japanese Devised Curriculum : Japanese Devised Curriculum They devised a curriculum for the Filipinos to suit their vested interest. superintendents. Technical ± Scientific Approaches 2. Eclectic Models Technical ± Scientific Approach : Technical ± Scientific Approach The curriculum developers which may include specialists. Humanistic ± aesthetic Approach 7. : Philippine Republic Cur. Liberation Period Curriculum : Liberation Period Curriculum The curriculum remained basically the same as before and was still subject-centered. some steps taken were to restore grade VII. It caused a ³black out´ in Philippine education and impeded the educational progress of the Filipinos. : Philippine Republic Cur. Intellectual ±Academic Approach 5. They introduced many changes in the curriculum by including Nippongo. : Philippine Republic Cur. When . principals and coordinators are likened to engineers and architects who use instruments and empirical methods in preparing a blueprint with well defined elements orderly-sequenced procedures. Philippine Republic Cur.

they will better understand one another. Synthesize divergent viewpoints 4. rather than commit themselves to one particular approach only. Reconstructionism : Reconstructionism The school is an institution of social reform. Filipino educators. their involvement is assured. Monitor curriculum implementation 5. The aim of education is not to control instruction in order to preserve existing order. 4. Reflects on existentialist orientation. Humanistic-Aesthetic Approach : Humanistic-Aesthetic Approach Argues that those who favor the rational approach miss the artistic and personal aspects of curriculum and instruction. Curriculum Design : Curriculum Design The Subject-Area Design The Integrated Design The Core-Curriculum Design The Child-Centered Design The Social Reconstruction Design The Deschooling Design . When people interact during face-to-face sessions.Academic Approach : Intellectual. Systems-Managerial Approach : Systems-Managerial Approach 1.teachers share in shaping the goals and selecting the content and method of instruction as well as evaluating results. It is rooted in progressive philosophy which promotes the liberation of learners from authoritarian teachers. Motivate interest of all stakeholders 2. Reconceptualist Approach : Reconceptualist Approach Criticizes the technocratic ± scientific models as not sensitive to the inner feelings and experience of individuals. Criticizes the progressivists for putting too much emphasis on the individual learner to the neglect of the needs of society.Academic Approach Emphasizes the importance of theories and principles in curriculum planning. Eclectic Models : Eclectic Models Oftentimes. Behavioral-Rational Approach : Behavioral-Rational Approach It is a means-end approach. (pagbuo o paghahabi) where desired features from several models are selected and integrated into a new whole. Curricula developed through this approach become the actual blueprints which prescribe the roles of key figures in the educative process. This model is influenced by the philosophy of John Dewey Non-Technical / Non-Scientific Approaches : Non-Technical / Non-Scientific Approaches Flexible and less structured without predetermined objectives to guide the learning-teaching process Contends that not all ends of education can be known nor indeed to be known in all cases. Create a climate of innovation and change Intellectual. Viewing the curriculum as the means and instruction as the end is a behavioral orientation. prefer eclectic models (halo-halo) which are a combination of several approaches. in particular. Encourage participation and involvement of all stakeholders 3. Eclectic models are not mere patchwork (pagtagpitagpi) but a synthesis.

the integration of two or more subjects.Freire . Hutchins Integrated Design : Integrated Design FOCUS . . designed to develop the child¶s sense of freedom from the domination of the political. primarily in the social sciences. retrieval. out of school experiences of equal value. Eisner Social Reconstructionist : Social Reconstructionist FOCUS ± critical analysis of the political.A group of subjects or subject matter that represent the essential knowledge and values of society that have survived the test of time. into an integrated course. PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION ± Essentialism PROPOENT / S ± Adler. social. dissemination and evaluation. Goodman Slide 83 : IMPLEMENTATION IMPLEMENTATION MODELS : IMPLEMENTATION MODELS Overcoming Resistance to Change (ORC) Leadership Obstacle Course (LOC) Linkage Model Organizational Development (OD) Rand Change Agent Model ORC : ORC * Focuses on overcoming staff resistance to change that is present immediately before. Bramald Deschooling : Deschooling FOCUS ± in-school experiences. PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION ± Social Reconstructionism PROPONENT /S . formulation of solution. PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION ± Social Reconstruction PROPONENT / S ± Shane . social action projects designed to bring about social change. PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION ± Experimentalism PROPONENT / S ± Broudy. Silberman Core Curriculum Design : Core Curriculum Design FOCUS ± a common body of curriculum content and learning experience that should be encountered by all students ± The great books PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION ± Perennialism PROPONENT /S ± Goodlad / Boyer Child-Centered Design : Child-Centered Design FOCUS ± Learning activities centered around the interests and needs of the child. future trends. or at the time of the introduction of the innovation. search. LOC : LOC Extends the ORC model and puts emphasis on the gathering of data to determine the extent and nature of the resistance in order to deal with it appropriately. and economic problems facing society. social. designed to motivate and interest the child in the learning process. and economic systems.Subject ± Centered Design : Subject ± Centered Design FOCUS . OD : OD This model is an information-processing change strategy that enables the system to improve its operations and the quality of interactions among its members to facilitate the introduction of change. PHILOSOPHICAL ORIENTATION ± Progressivism PROPONENT / S ± Dewey . The Linkage Model : The Linkage Model The linkage process involves a cycle of diagnosis. both within and across disciplines.

The report included findings on : . The characteristics of the proposed change B. and inadequate supervision Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) : Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) Analyze performance of the educational system and its relevance to national developmental goals Ascertain the efficiency of the system Identify areas which need more detailed investigation. It is the means of determining whether the program is meeting its goals. summative. national) Personnel involved ± (individual teachers. qualitative) Level ± (classroom. The support of the local community D. consultants) Role of Evaluation in Cur. (Tuckman. large class sizes. language and arithmetic due to poor instructional methods. Dev Evaluation Studies in the Philippines : Evaluation Studies in the Philippines 1925 Monroe Survey 1959 Swanson Survey 1969 Presidential Commission to Survey Philippine Education (PCSPE) 1976 Survey of Outcomes of Elementary Education (SOUTELE) 1982 Household and School Matching Survey 1991 Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM) 1991 National Evaluation and Impact Study of PRODED MONROE SURVEY : MONROE SURVEY Administrative organization and supervision Elementary education Secondary Education Higher Education Teacher education and training Language of instruction Private education Finance Education of the non-Christians SWANSON SURVEY : SWANSON SURVEY Elementary education Secondary education Vocational education Teacher training Organization and administration Financing the public schools The report included a deterioration of performance in reading. school. impact) Method ± ( quantitative. committees. 1979) Types of Evaluation : Types of Evaluation Humanistic approach ± goal free Scientific approach ± purpose driven Objectives of Evaluation : Objectives of Evaluation Scope ± (teaching ±program-cost effectiveness) Timing ± (formative. that is whether the measures / outcomes for a given set of instructional inputs match the intended or pre-specified outcomes.Rand Model : Rand Model The Rand Model is based on the assumption that the success of the implementation of new program depends on: A. The School organizational structure Factors Affecting the Choice of Implementation Model : Factors Affecting the Choice of Implementation Model Level of Resistance Type of desired change Available expertise Available resources Urgency of the situation Slide 91 : EVALUATION DEFINITION OF EVALUATION : DEFINITION OF EVALUATION Curriculum evaluation is a systematic process of determining whether the curriculum as designed and implemented has produced or is producing the intended and desired results. Competencies of the teaching and administrative staff C. Dev : Role of Evaluation in Cur.

teachers. processes (curriculum and instruction). The National Evaluation and Impact Study of PRODED : The National Evaluation and Impact Study of PRODED Teacher factor is crucial in the success of the teaching-learning process There is a need to improve the pre-service and in-service training of teachers that should include the development of skills in classroom management. teacher-pupil interaction. The study revealed deficiencies of elementary education in terms of inputs (resources). physiological variables. etc. in 1988 to define a budget feasible program of reform. including technical and skills development . Setting of minimum national standards for capabilities. school types. etc. structures. Comprised of multi sectoral group Proposed the establishment of National Education Evaluation and Testing System (NEETS) that assumes responsibility for educational assessment of all levels. The findings of the investigation showed that home-related and community related variables have greater influences on learning than school related factors such as cost per pupil and numbers of textbooks per students. school heads. Monitoring and Evaluation of RBEC : Monitoring and Evaluation of RBEC Defines what levels of learning students of schools and divisions meet at various stages of the basic education cycle based on the national curriculum. processes and output based on a template for school improvement processes from planning to implementation to monitoring and evaluation Nationally standardized student assessment. outcomes measurement and reporting of basic school statistics Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER) : Presidential Commission on Educational Reform (PCER) Created through E. quality of teaching. and identify executive priority policy recommendations and items for a legislative agenda on education. 2. The Household and School Matching Survey (HSMS) : The Household and School Matching Survey (HSMS) The survey hypothesized that learning is predicated on the antecedent academic. The Congressional Commission on Education Study (EDCOM) : The Congressional Commission on Education Study (EDCOM) Enhancing the internal capability of the system to satisfactorily implement the constitutional provisions on education Providing the system with necessary financial and other infrastructure support Strengthening the system¶s linkages with all sectors concerned in human resource development Assisting the system to achieve its sectoral goals and targets through strategies that are consistent with the nation¶s development goals.O. social. and the use of instructional aids. These are affected by socio economic.Mismatch between educational services and manpower requirements Mismatch between education priorities and the national development priorities Inequitable distribution of educational facilities and resources across the regions Lack of systematic planning and evaluation SURVEY OF OUTCOMES OF ELEM EDUCATION (SOUTELE) : SURVEY OF OUTCOMES OF ELEM EDUCATION (SOUTELE) Battery of achievement tests designed to measure the outcomes of elementary education General mental ability test of non-verbal type designed to measure association Student¶s attitude inventory aimed to measure affective objectives Questionnaires in order to establish the profiles of pupils. and outputs (students¶ achievement).

exploitation and other conditions prejudicial to their development. including proper care and nutrition.Slide 106 : CURRENT TRENDS AND ISSUES BILINGUAL EDUCATION : BILINGUAL EDUCATION Article 14. abuse. 1987 Phil. ± recognizes the ³right of children to assistance. 1987 ± the policy of bilingual education aims to make every Filipino competent in both Filipino and English at the national level DECS defines bilingual as ³separate use of Filipino and English as media of instruction in specific subjects. 1990 envisioned 90% in 2000 of early childhood care and development either home-based services or kindergarten / nursery classes Other issues : Other issues Access to pre-school education Private Pre-school education Global education Environmental education . Cons. s. cruelty.´ Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) : Early Childhood Care and Development (ECCD) Art 15.´ DECS Order 52. English. Sec 2. the official languages of the Philippines are Filipino and until otherwise provided by law. sect 7 of 1987 constitution ± ³for the purposes of communication and instruction.´ UN Convention on the Rights of Child Education for All (EFA) agenda of DECS. and special protection from all forms of neglect.