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Suggested answer: Paper 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 1 8 1 9 2 0 2 1 2 2 2 3 2 4 2 5 2 6 2 7 2 8 2 9 3 0 3 1 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 5 3 6 B C A D D A D D A D A B D B B B D A C C B B B A D D B D B A C C A C A C Treat by penicillin To treat

cardiac arrest (failure of the heart to contract effectively) (not in syllabus) It is a strong alkaline

Both ions will form scum with soap

Produced from petroleum fraction Stearate soap has 17 carbons L is hydrophilic part It has carboxylate ion as functional group (COO-)

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A D B D C a) b)

Paper 1 6 D 7 A 8 D 9 B Paper 2 hydrocarbon/ hydrophobic Soap Name of part Q Carboxylate Sources Oil Effectiveness in hard water Not effective Cannot decomposed by microorganism Saponification Soap/ sodium palmitate To reduce the solubilty of salt J : Soap K : Detergent Precipitate formed when soap anion react with Ca2+ or Mg2+ Cleaning agent J is biodegredable Hydrophobic dissolve in organic solvent // Hydrophilic dissolve in water Soap forms scum // detergent does not form scum Prevent food from being oxidized by oxygen in the oxygen in the air. sodium benzoate Antidepressant Tranquilizer / Barbiturate Aspirin, Paracetamol , Penicilin Garlic, kuinin, Pudina Penicilin To kill the bacteria To avoid bacteria from building resistance towards the antibiotic. Malaria Garlic Stimulant Antidepressant Steroid To stimulate positive emotion like self-confidence, more active and energetic. cause many side effects like addiction, fear, aggressiveness or death in a person Arthritis , Asthma Saponification / alkaline hydrolysis Sodium chloride Glyceryl tripalmitate Palmitic acid Potassium hydroxide C – OO Detergent Sulphonate petroleum Effective

c) 2 a) b) c) d)i ii) iii) a)i ii) b)i ii) c)i ii) a)i ii) b)i ii) iii) c) d) a)i ii) iii) b) c) d) a) b) c)i ii) d) e) f)i ii) 1 a)i

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Hydrophobic / hydrocarbon tail Essay Question 1. Soap anion consists of hydrophilic and hydrophobic. 2. Hydrophilic dissolves in water. 3. Hydrophobic dissolves in oils/grease. 4. Soap reduces surface tension of water. 5. Hydrophobic emulsify oil or grease. 6. During rinsing, soap will remove the grease 1. Hard water contains calcium ions/Ca2+ and magnesium ions/ Mg2+ 2. Soap anions react with calcium ions/Ca2+ or magnesium ions/ Mg2+ to form scum 3. Scum is insoluble in water 4. Waste soap 5. Detergent does not form scum Medicine used to relieve pain without causing numbness or affecting consciousness

ii)

b)i

ii) iii)

Paracetamol; Codeine 1. Relieves pain caused by headache, toothache 2. Reduces fever 3. Treat arthritis /reduce inflammation of the joints 4. Reduces blood clotting / prevents stroke / prevents heart attacks 5. Reduces inflammation caused by infection or injury (any four) Side effects: 1. Causes internal bleeding of the stomach / Ulceration 2. Causes brain / liver damage if given to children 3. Overdose causes death (any two) K: - consists of the ionic region - dissolves in water L: - consists of the hydrocarbon chain - dissolves in grease The hydrocarbon tail emulsifies the grease. The oil is broken up into small droplets 1. Hard water contains mineral salts such as calcium and magnesium salt 2. Calcium and magnesium ions act on the soap 3. Precipitate (scum) that is insoluble in water is formed 4. Soap will not produce bubbles 5. Detergent does form strong bonds with calcium and magnesium ions 6. Scum is not formed 7. Detergent forms bubbles in hard water 8. Detergent cleans more effectively in hard water as compared with soap Sodium alkyl sulphate detergent Is prepared through a neutralisation reaction between an alkyl sulphonic acid and a sodium hydroxide solution. O R – O – S – OH O

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a)i ii) b)

ii) iii)

iv)

O R – O – S – OH + NaOH → O

O R – O – S – O-Na+ O + H2O

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a)

b)

c) d)

e)

f)

Part X – hydrophobic/hydrocarbon – 1m Part Y – hydrophilic/ionic – 1m Parx X – dissolves in grease – 1m Part Y – dissolves in water – 1m 1.The cloth in experiment II is clean whereas the cloth in Experiment I is still dirty. 2.In hard water,soap react with magnesium ion 3.to form scum 4.Detergent are more effective in hard water 5.Detergent does not form scum 6.Detergent are better cleansing agen then soap to remove oily stain. Patient X : Analgesics/aspirin - 1m Patient Y: Antibiotic/penicillin/streptomycin – 1m Patient Z ; Psychotherapeutic / antidepressant – 1m Precaution: 1. Take after food. 2. Swallowed with plenty of water Explain: 1. Acidic and can cause irritation of the stomach. 2. To avoid internal bleeding/ulceration 1.To make sure all the bacteria are killed / becomes ill again – 1m 2. bacteria become more resistant. – 1m 3.Need stronger antibiotic to fight the same infection – 1m 1.Drowsiness – 1m 2. poor coordination/light-headedness – 1m Paper 3 To compare the effectiveness of the cleansing action of detergent and soap in hard water MV: Detergent and soap / Type of cleansing agent RV: Effectiveness of the cleansing action of detergent and soap FV: Quantity of detergent or soap / Amount of hard water / Type of oily cloth The detergent is more effective than soap in cleansing action in hard water Substances: Soap, detergent, hard water, greasy stocking

a) b) c) d)

e)

f)

Apparatus: Basins Procedure: Hard water is poured into two separate basins Soap and detergent are poured separately into the basins A greasy stocking is put into each basin The water in the basins are shaken The cleanliness of stocking is recorded in the table. Type of cleansing agent Effectiveness of the cleansing action Detergent Soap