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You are on page 1of 13

**Solitons and Integrable Field Theories
**

Luiz A. Ferreira

Instituto de F´ısica de S˜ ao Carlos, USP, Brazil

laf@ifsc.usp.br

Cambridge, 11th December 2007

2

Searching for (hidden) symmetries

• Exact results require high level of symmetries

• Local ﬁeld theories are subjected to Coleman-Mandula

• Supersymmetry is an improvement

• Flat connections on loop spaces may be a possibility

Look for operators that evolve as ( isospectral evolution )

W (t) = U W (0) U

−1

Eigenvalues are conserved charges

W (t) | λ = λ | λ →

d λ

d t

= 0

3

A standard result

A

µ

: Flat connection on space-time ( F

µν

= 0 )

d W

d s

+A

µ

d x

µ

d s

W = 0 → W = P e

−

_

ds A

µ

d x

µ

d s

W

C

L

W

C

0

= W

C

t

W

C

−L

→ W

C

t

= W

C

L

W

C

0

W

−1

C

−L

4

2D Integrable Theories

The sine-Gordon case

A

+

= e

iβφ

T

+

+e

−iβφ

λT

−

A

−

= −iβ∂

−

φT

3

+

µ

2

16

_

T

−

+

1

λ

T

+

_

with

[ T

3

, T

±

] = ±T

±

[ T

+

, T

−

] = 2 T

3

The ﬂat connection condition implies the sine-Gordon eq.

F

+−

= [∂

+

+A

+

, ∂

−

+A

−

] =

iβ

4

_

∂

2

φ +

µ

2

β

sin(βφ)

_

T

3

5

The role of loop spaces

Introduce ﬂat 1-form connection A in loop space

F = δA+A∧ A = 0

and get isospectral evolution

W(t) = U W(0) U

−1

↔ W = P e

_

A

6

Implementing it

For a space-time M of d + 1 dimensions introduce the loop space

a

Ω

d−1

(M, x

0

) = {γ : S

d−1

→M | γ(0) = x

0

}

Build the loop space connection A out of a tensor B

µ

1

...µ

d

, and a

connection A

µ

deﬁned on M, as

A ≡

_

Σ

W

−1

B

µ

1

...µ

d

W dΣ

µ

1

...µ

d−1

δx

µ

d

with Σ being a d −1 dimensional surface and δx

µ

d

variations

perpendicular to it. With W same as before.

a

Orlando Alvarez, L.A.F. e J. S´ anchez Guill´en,

hep-th/9710147, Nucl. Phys. B529 (1998) 689-736

7

Locality in space-time requires

δA = 0 and A∧ A = 0

which in space-time becomes

F

µν

= 0 D ∧ B = 0

with A

µ

∈ T and B

µ

1

...µ

d

∈ P

[ T , T ] ⊂ T

[ T , P ] ⊂ P

[ P , P ] = 0

Conserved currents are

J

µ

= ε

µµ

1

...µ

d

W

−1

B

µ

1

...µ

d

W → ∂

µ

J

µ

= 0

8

Where it works

• Self-dual Yang-Mills

• Bogomolny equations

• σ-models in any d

• CP

1

and submodel (baby skyrmions)

• Skyrme-like models (hopﬁons)

• etc

In general “integrability” is accompanied by conformal symmetry.

However, we are far from the structures of 2d integrable theories.

9

An integrable theory in 4d

Consider the following theory in 3 + 1 Minkowski space-time

S = −

_

d

4

xH

2

µν

where

H

µν

= −2i

(∂

µ

u∂

ν

u

∗

−∂

ν

u∂

µ

u

∗

)

(1+ | u |

2

)

2

= n · (∂

µ

n ∧ ∂

ν

n)

with n ∈ S

2

and u is its stereographic projection

n =

_

u +u

∗

, −i (u −u

∗

) , | u |

2

−1

_

/

_

1+ | u |

2

_

It is invariant under

• Area preserving diﬀeomorphisms on S

2

• Conformal symmetry - SO(4, 2)

10

Its eq. of motion admit the zero curvature representation

A

µ

=

1

(1+ | u |

2

)

(−i∂

µ

uT

+

−i∂

µ

u

∗

T

−

+ (u∂

µ

u

∗

−u

∗

∂

µ

u) T

3

)

˜

B

(j)

µ

=

1

(1+ | u |

2

)

_

K

µ

P

(j)

1

−K

∗

µ

P

(j)

−1

_

; K

µ

≡ H

µν

∂

ν

u

based on the sl(2) algebra

[T

3

, T

±

] = ±T

±

, [T

+

, T

−

] = 2 T

3

and where P

(j)

m

transforms under integer spin j representations of

sl(2) (m = −j, −j + 1, . . . , j −1, j)

[T

3

, P

(j)

m

] = mP

(j)

m

[T

±

, P

(j)

m

] =

_

j(j + 1) −m(m±1) P

(j)

m±1

[P

(j)

m

, P

(j

)

m

] = 0

11

Connection with Yang-Mills Theory

Cho-Faddeev-Niemi decomposition

A

µ

= C

µ

n +∂

µ

n ∧n +ρ ∂

µ

n +σ ∂

µ

n ∧n

Conjecture: At low energies all degrees of freedom are frozen except

n. The eﬀective Lagrangean of SU(2) YM theory whithout matter

is then an extension of the Skyrme-Faddeev model

a

S = m

2

_

d

4

x (∂

µ

n)

2

+

1

e

2

_

d

4

xH

2

µν

+ four derivatives terms

a

L.D. Faddeev, A. Niemi, hep-th/9610193, Nature 387:58,1997

12

The hidden structures

Locality has to be replaced by a weaker condition

We need

δA+A∧ A = 0

and not

δA = 0 and A∧ A = 0

Fundamental objects:

not Particles → but Fluxes

From Maxwell back to Faraday

13

References

• Orlando Alvarez, LAF, J. S´ anchez Guill´en; hep-th/9710147, Nucl.

Phys. B529 (1998) 689-736.

• H. Aratyn, LAF, A.H. Zimerman; hep-th/9905079, Physical Re-

view Letters 83 (1999) 1723-1726.

• LAF, J. Sanchez-Guillen; hep-th/0010168, Phys. Lett. B. B504

(2001) 195-200.

• LAF, A.V. Razumov; hep-th/0012176, Letters in Mathematical

Physics 55 (2001) 143-148.

• O. Babelon, LAF; hep-th/0210154, JHEP11(2002)020

• LAF; hep-th/0406227, Physics Letters B606 (2005) 417-422.

• LAF; hep-th/0601235, JHEP03(2006)075

• A. C. R. do Bonﬁm, LAF; hep-th/0602234, JHEP03(2006)097

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