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Solitons and Integrable Field Theories
Luiz A. Ferreira
Instituto de F´ısica de S˜ ao Carlos, USP, Brazil
laf@ifsc.usp.br
Cambridge, 11th December 2007
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Searching for (hidden) symmetries
• Exact results require high level of symmetries
• Local ﬁeld theories are subjected to Coleman-Mandula
• Supersymmetry is an improvement
• Flat connections on loop spaces may be a possibility
Look for operators that evolve as ( isospectral evolution )
W (t) = U W (0) U
−1
Eigenvalues are conserved charges
W (t) | λ = λ | λ →
d λ
d t
= 0
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A standard result
A
µ
: Flat connection on space-time ( F
µν
= 0 )
d W
d s
+A
µ
d x
µ
d s
W = 0 → W = P e

_
ds A
µ
d x
µ
d s
W
C
L
W
C
0
= W
C
t
W
C
−L
→ W
C
t
= W
C
L
W
C
0
W
−1
C
−L
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2D Integrable Theories
The sine-Gordon case
A
+
= e
iβφ
T
+
+e
−iβφ
λT

A

= −iβ∂

φT
3
+
µ
2
16
_
T

+
1
λ
T
+
_
with
[ T
3
, T
±
] = ±T
±
[ T
+
, T

] = 2 T
3
The ﬂat connection condition implies the sine-Gordon eq.
F
+−
= [∂
+
+A
+
, ∂

+A

] =

4
_

2
φ +
µ
2
β
sin(βφ)
_
T
3
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The role of loop spaces
Introduce ﬂat 1-form connection A in loop space
F = δA+A∧ A = 0
and get isospectral evolution
W(t) = U W(0) U
−1
↔ W = P e
_
A
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Implementing it
For a space-time M of d + 1 dimensions introduce the loop space
a

d−1
(M, x
0
) = {γ : S
d−1
→M | γ(0) = x
0
}
Build the loop space connection A out of a tensor B
µ
1
...µ
d
, and a
connection A
µ
deﬁned on M, as
A ≡
_
Σ
W
−1
B
µ
1
...µ
d
W dΣ
µ
1
...µ
d−1
δx
µ
d
with Σ being a d −1 dimensional surface and δx
µ
d
variations
perpendicular to it. With W same as before.
a
Orlando Alvarez, L.A.F. e J. S´ anchez Guill´en,
hep-th/9710147, Nucl. Phys. B529 (1998) 689-736
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Locality in space-time requires
δA = 0 and A∧ A = 0
which in space-time becomes
F
µν
= 0 D ∧ B = 0
with A
µ
∈ T and B
µ
1
...µ
d
∈ P
[ T , T ] ⊂ T
[ T , P ] ⊂ P
[ P , P ] = 0
Conserved currents are
J
µ
= ε
µµ
1
...µ
d
W
−1
B
µ
1
...µ
d
W → ∂
µ
J
µ
= 0
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Where it works
• Self-dual Yang-Mills
• Bogomolny equations
• σ-models in any d
• CP
1
and submodel (baby skyrmions)
• Skyrme-like models (hopﬁons)
• etc
In general “integrability” is accompanied by conformal symmetry.
However, we are far from the structures of 2d integrable theories.
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An integrable theory in 4d
Consider the following theory in 3 + 1 Minkowski space-time
S = −
_
d
4
xH
2
µν
where
H
µν
= −2i
(∂
µ
u∂
ν
u

−∂
ν
u∂
µ
u

)
(1+ | u |
2
)
2
= n · (∂
µ
n ∧ ∂
ν
n)
with n ∈ S
2
and u is its stereographic projection
n =
_
u +u

, −i (u −u

) , | u |
2
−1
_
/
_
1+ | u |
2
_
It is invariant under
• Area preserving diﬀeomorphisms on S
2
• Conformal symmetry - SO(4, 2)
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Its eq. of motion admit the zero curvature representation
A
µ
=
1
(1+ | u |
2
)
(−i∂
µ
uT
+
−i∂
µ
u

T

+ (u∂
µ
u

−u

µ
u) T
3
)
˜
B
(j)
µ
=
1
(1+ | u |
2
)
_
K
µ
P
(j)
1
−K

µ
P
(j)
−1
_
; K
µ
≡ H
µν

ν
u
based on the sl(2) algebra
[T
3
, T
±
] = ±T
±
, [T
+
, T

] = 2 T
3
and where P
(j)
m
transforms under integer spin j representations of
sl(2) (m = −j, −j + 1, . . . , j −1, j)
[T
3
, P
(j)
m
] = mP
(j)
m
[T
±
, P
(j)
m
] =
_
j(j + 1) −m(m±1) P
(j)
m±1
[P
(j)
m
, P
(j

)
m

] = 0
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Connection with Yang-Mills Theory

A
µ
= C
µ
n +∂
µ
n ∧n +ρ ∂
µ
n +σ ∂
µ
n ∧n
Conjecture: At low energies all degrees of freedom are frozen except
n. The eﬀective Lagrangean of SU(2) YM theory whithout matter
is then an extension of the Skyrme-Faddeev model
a
S = m
2
_
d
4
x (∂
µ
n)
2
+
1
e
2
_
d
4
xH
2
µν
+ four derivatives terms
a
L.D. Faddeev, A. Niemi, hep-th/9610193, Nature 387:58,1997
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The hidden structures
Locality has to be replaced by a weaker condition
We need
δA+A∧ A = 0
and not
δA = 0 and A∧ A = 0
Fundamental objects:
not Particles → but Fluxes
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References
• Orlando Alvarez, LAF, J. S´ anchez Guill´en; hep-th/9710147, Nucl.
Phys. B529 (1998) 689-736.
• H. Aratyn, LAF, A.H. Zimerman; hep-th/9905079, Physical Re-
view Letters 83 (1999) 1723-1726.
• LAF, J. Sanchez-Guillen; hep-th/0010168, Phys. Lett. B. B504
(2001) 195-200.
• LAF, A.V. Razumov; hep-th/0012176, Letters in Mathematical
Physics 55 (2001) 143-148.
• O. Babelon, LAF; hep-th/0210154, JHEP11(2002)020
• LAF; hep-th/0406227, Physics Letters B606 (2005) 417-422.
• LAF; hep-th/0601235, JHEP03(2006)075
• A. C. R. do Bonﬁm, LAF; hep-th/0602234, JHEP03(2006)097