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Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Invasive Species Lesson Plan Introduction This unit on invasive species is a supplement to the ecology unit of a 9-12 Biology class, but could be modified as a regular unit in an AP Biology class, or Environmental Science class. Prerequisite knowledge about food webs, local ecosystems and other basic ecology knowledge are required for the completion of this unit. The lesson focuses on the identification, characteristics, problems, economic and ecological impact of invasive species. Extensions and/or modifications are recommended at the end of the lesson plan for further study. National Science Standards U. Unifying Concepts and Processes - Unifying concepts and processes help students think about and integrate a range of basic ideas which builds an understanding of the natural world. • • • H.U.1 H.U.3 H.U.4

A. Science as Inquiry - Science as inquiry requires students to combine processes and scientific knowledge with scientific reasoning and critical thinking to develop their understanding of science. • H.A.1 • H.A.2 C. Life Science - Life science focuses on science facts, concepts, principles, theories, and models that are important for all students to know, understand, and use • H.C.4 E. Science and Technology - An understanding of science and technology establishes connections between the natural and designed world, linking science and technology. • H.E.1 • H.E.2

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

F. Science in Personal and Social Perspectives - A personal and social perception of science helps a student to understand and act on personal and social issues. This perspective builds a foundation for future decision making. • H.F.2 • H.F.3 • H.F.4 • H.F.6 G. History and Nature of Science - The history and nature of science illustrates different aspects of scientific inquiry, the human aspects of science, and the role that science has played in the development of various cultures • H.G.1

Objectives • • • • • • • • • Identify common invasive species Evaluate the characteristics of invasive species List modes of invasion of non-native species Discuss the threats provided by invasive species Analyze the ecological impact of invasive species Describe the economic impact of invasive species Compare and contrast different types of control and prevention of invasive organisms Discuss forms of prevention and containment of invasive species Creative a public service project related to invasive species

Procedure 1. “Oh Deer” Activity, 1-1 ½ hours (directions for the activity are attached) 2. Invasive Species Lesson, 1 ½ - 2 hours (PowerPoint lecture and discussion) • • Pre-lesson discussion focused around PowerPoint lecture Presentation begins and students are required to take notes

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

During the lecture, there are several discussion questions surrounding the presentation

3. Invasive species webquest, 1 hour • Students will spend at least one class period researching local laws, regulations, and local management issues surrounding invasive species 4. Service Learning Project, 2-3 hours in class, up to 2 weeks outside of class • Students are required to complete a service learning project that surround local issues concerning the threats of invasive species and present the information to a school or community audience Summary The purpose of this project is for students to gain a broader understanding of invasive species and their effect on the environment. Topics included are; a brief history about the routes of introduction, characteristics, threats, ecological impact, as well as management of these organisms. The students will participate in a broad variety of learning outcomes including an introductory activity, a PowerPoint lecture and discussion, Socratic seminar, a webquest, and a service learning project. Education about preventative measures as well as control and eradication of invasive species is beneficial to local and global ecosystems. Extensions/Modifications • Invite a member of the local watershed coordinator to the school to discuss community-wide invasive species, or meet out at a local river to learn how to identify invasives • Plan an activist day where members of the class organize a group to rid the community of invasive species by digging out blackberry bushes, purple loosestrife, etc. • Turn the service learning project into a semester long project and include a presentation to the school board

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Have the students research alternative parts of the PowerPoint lecture to share with their classmates

Resources • National Science Education Standards http://www.education.ne.gov/science/Documents/National_Science_Stand ardspdf.pdf • Center for Invasive Species and Ecosystem Health http://www.invasive.org/ • Defenders of Wildlife http://www.defenders.org/programs_and_policy/science_and_economics/i nvasives/invasives_by_state/index.php • Global Invasive Species Database http://www.issg.org/database/species/search.asp?st=100ss • National Invasive Species Information Center http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/ • National Invasive Species Resources for Educators http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/resources/educk12.shtml • Invasive Species games and Puzzles http://www.iisgcp.org/catalog/ed/esc.htm • Non-indigenous Species Activities http://msucares.com/pubs/publications/p2286.pdf

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Community Dynamics and the Consequences of Invasive Species
Oh Deer! Adapted from Project Wild Materials Necessary: Notebook and pencil Outdoor (or indoor if necessary) space ample to allow for some running Colored bandanas or armbands Grade Level: 6-12 (minimum of 12 students) Time Required: 1-1.5 hr (can be divided into two class periods) Essential Questions: o o Where do invasive species come from and how did they get here? What role do ecosystem? invasive species play in their nonnative

o What can we do to eradicate invasive species?
Rationale: Invasive Species are nonnative species that have become increasingly problematic throughout the globe. In the US alone, invasive species have cost taxpayers hundreds of billions of dollars each year through “environmental degradation, lost agricultural productivity, expensive prevention and eradication efforts and increased health problems” (Lodge 2006). In the last 135 years, there have been 161 documented invasive species introduced in the US. (Witmer 2007) The mode of invasion and characteristics vary widely as well as their potential consequences of invasion. (Witmer 2007) Invasive species can provide useful resources or economic gains but also can indelibly impact an ecosystem. Goals:

o Introduce students to the ever-growing problem of invasive species
o o Illustrate the complexity of interactions within an ecosystem Empower students to start engaging in the topic at a local level

Method: Oh Deer Game (revised) The Oh Deer Game, originally introduced by “Project Wild” workbook has been used for many years to highlight the natural population undulations in a species as related to the species most basic needs—food, water and shelter. In order to start this activity, a small amount of front loading is necessary.

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

To start this activity, the teacher will need to gather the group to discuss the fundamental needs of a species in order to survive. Water, food and shelter are integral to any species. The teacher can then introduce the game, which seeks to model the interactions between a species and its environment. The game will highlight the natural highs and lows of any species’ population as related to environmental variations. A second level of the game will focus on the introduction of a predator species. The final level will focus on the introduction of an invasive species. Each level should be played in succession with data analysis and a final discussion to follow. If there is a need to divide the activity into two different class times, the activity can be accomplished in a single class period and the data analysis and discussion can occur in a following class session. Let’s Begin! Each level consists of 10-15 rounds. Oh Deer Level 1 o Draw or cone off a 20m square square. These will be our first set of deer. All other numbers will start on the opposite side of the square and will be components of habitat— food, water and shelter. See Appendix 1 for a diagram of the initial setup. When a deer is looking for food, it should clamp its hands across its stomach. If a deer is looking for water, it should cup its hands in front of its mouth. And, if a deer is looking for shelter it holds its hands over its head. Each deer can choose any one of these needs for a single round. Once a round begins, however, the deer cannot change its needs. It may change its needs for the next round if it survives. to represent and do so with the same hand gestures as the deer.

o Count off students in fours. Have all the “ones” go to one side of the

o

o The students in the habitat must choose any of the three components
o To start the first round, the deer and the habitat will line up on their respective lines with their backs towards each other. Both groups will be instructed to choose their sign (Remember they cannot change once they have chosen for that round, it will skew the results). The teacher then counts out, “one, two, three” at which point all the students turn around to show each other their signs. and link arms with that student and walk back to their original side (this represents the deer surviving and being able to successfully reproduce). No two deer can match to a single habitat component and if two deer reach the same habitat, the deer who got there first survives. If a deer is unable to find a match, either because there are no resources left or the habitat left is not matching, the deer dies and joins the habitat.

o This is where the fun begins. The deer will move to their matching sign

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

o This marks the end of a single round. The teacher records (Appendix 2)

the population of deer at the beginning and end of each round. Continue play anywhere from 10 to 15 rounds, each round representing a generation. Make sure that the time in between each round is very short or else the entire activity will not be finished. Less than 10 rounds will not show the undulation in the population as well.

Oh Deer Level 2: Predators

o In this level, predators will be introduced. Count off the students once

more. All “ones” will start as deer again and all other numbers will start as habitat. Select one student from the habitat population to represent a mountain lion (Appendix 1) The predator will be given a bandana or armband to signify its identity. The predator will line up on one of the sides of the square and can stalk the deer/prey from here. The deer and habitat proceed in the same manner as the first level but now the predator can steal a deer on its way to its matching habitat. The boundaries of the box will become important. The round begins in the same manner, the deer and habitat with their backs to each other and choosing some sign. predator is released. If the predator is too successful, the teacher can always release the predator after the prey As the deer move to find their matching sign, the predator may find any deer to prey on. The predator tags with two hands the prey and can then return to its original side with that prey, again representing successful reproduction. The captured prey must sit the next generation out as it “matures” to be a fully functioning predator. The next round begins and if the predator is unsuccessful, it and its offspring die and become habitat. If the predator is successful again, the offspring will be upgraded to hunting status and the next offspring with begin to “mature” for a round. Run this iteration for 10-15 rounds. lion populations (and offspring populations if desired) at the beginning and end of each round (Appendix 2).

o

o On the teacher’s count, the habitat and deer all turn around and the

o The teacher in this round will need to record both deer and mountain

Oh Deer Level 3: Invasive Species

o In this level, predators will no longer be an issue but invasive species

will be. Have the students who originally started as deer, the “ones,” go back to being deer and the students who were originally habitat go back to being habitat. Take 1 student from the habitat group and create an invasive species (Appendix 1) Again, mark this group with bandanas or armbands. In setting up the square, the deer and habitat are once again on opposite sides on the respective lines. The invasive species however, are placed in the middle of the square, in a line parallel to the others.

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

o

Both the deer and the invasive species have their backs to the habitat and all students will choose their sign at the same time. The teacher counts to three and every body will turn around. The invasive species will have an advantage because of their proximity to the resources. The reproduction for invasive species is the same as the deer. Each habitat that is collected is turned into an offspring. The invasive species will always line up between the deer and the habitat. at the beginning and end of each round (Appendix 2).

o Again the teacher will record the deer and invasive species populations
o Run this iteration for about 10 rounds or until there are no more deer left.

Data Analysis Once each round has been completed, return to the classroom and have the teacher divide the class into groups of three. Each group will be given the data from one of the levels and must produce a graph of the populations against time. The group will also be in charge of analyzing the data and describing (Appendix 3) Discussion At this point in the activity, students will have given their presentations of the data and the inferences they made about the effects of resources, predators, or invasive species. In order to synthesize this material fully, discussion questions (essential questions are highlighted in blue) are included to prompt an in depth conversation. o What is the importance that the animals that die join the habitat? o o o o o o o Did this nutrient cycling occur at each level? What can we glean from this activity about the complexity of ecosystems? What role did the invasive species play? Are there other ways in which an invasive species is able to affect a native species? What different types of invasive species are there? How do invasive species become introduced into an ecosystem? What can we do to get rid of them?

Modifications There are many variations for this game. Invasive species can be introduced with predators still in the game. Rather than a spatial advantage over the native deer species, the invasive species could be a resource that is actually poisonous or could interfere with the ability of the deer to reproduce.

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Assignment: Differentiate between modes of infiltration used by invasive species. Choose a specific ecosystem and develop a good invasive species for that habitat. Focus on what kind of characteristics would make it successful and remember that it must be able to survive in that ecosystem. References:
Lodge, David M., et al. “Biological Invasions: Recommendations for US Policy and Management.” Ecological Adaptations. (2006) 16(6) Project Wild, “Oh Deer Activity.” www.projectwild.org Witmer, Gary W., et al. "Management of Invasive Vertebrate in the United States: An Overview." USDA National Wildlife Research Center Symposia. (2007): n. page. Web. 30 Jan. 2012.

Appendices Appendix 1 Diagrams below illustrate the initial setup for each level. The students designated as habitat are shown with their chosen habitat symbols.

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Appendix 2 Level 1 Blank Data Table
Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Deer Population

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Level 2 Blank Data Table

Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Deer Population

Predator Population

Predator Offspring Population

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Level 3 Blank Data Table
Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Deer Population Invasive Species

Appendix 3 An example the data collected and analyzed is included for each level below.

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Level 1 Data Analysis The table below represents potential experimental data collected from the first level of Oh Deer. As habitat resources are the only variable that could affect deer population, the population of the deer will undergo natural peaks and valleys. Several generations are needed in order to accurately illustrate the natural periodicity of a population. Confounding factors, such as specific resources being unavailable (drought to wipe out all water, fire to wipe out all shelter, etc) can occur which is important to have the students note when describing their data.
Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Deer Population 4 8 15 2 4 7 10 12 4 7 14 4 8 10 14

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Level 2 Data Analysis The following represents potential experimental data collected from the second level of Oh Deer when predators are introduced. As habitat resources and predators are now both variables, the deer population’s natural periodicity will alter slightly. However, it is important to note that both the predator and prey populations are subject to peaks and valleys and the predator curve will tend to follow the prey curve. Included in the table, but not in the graph is the population numbers for the predator’s offspring. This is included to show an example of how the offspring numbers are included and how best to keep track of which predator is “maturing” and which predator is hunting. Any successful predation will result in a new offspring. In round 6, the deer species were completely killed off by the predators, in order to keep the game going, deer repopulated the habitat after two generations, as could easily happen in nature. Once the prey species had died, the predator species also died and were only able to be reintroduced, in round 11, once a basal amount of deer were established, in this case 4.

Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Deer Population 4 6 10 6 6 2 0 0 1 2 4 6 8 10 2

Predator Population 1 1 2 3 5 6 4 0 0 0 1 1 2 3 5

Predator Offspring Population 0 1 1 2 3 4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 2 3

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Level 3 Data Analysis The following represents potential experimental data that would be collected from the third level of Oh Deer when invasive species are introduced. Over the last two levels, students have started to gain a certain expectation of how a population will be affected when the variable changes. However, an invasive species, in this case, that directly competes with the native species has not been fully elucidated. Once the game begins, there is the expected growth in the deer and the invasive species populations because there are ample habitat resources. However, as the population of invasive species grows, the competitive advantage of being closer to the habitat starts becoming more obvious. There is a large drop in deer population while the invasive species grow undeterred by the loss of competition. Unlike the second round, where the predators were impacted by the loss of their prey, the invasive species are indifferent to the loss of the deer and instead can grow unchallenged. Students should walk away with the understanding that invasive species can tax an ecosystem to the point where native species can no longer be successful.

Generation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Deer Population 4 8 10 2 4 4 0 0

Invasive Species 1 2 4 2 4 8 8 14

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Invasive Species Service Project – Teachers Notes Introduction – once the lesson on invasive species has been presented, explain to the students the importance of being involved in our communities. Explain the need for public education on topics like this and how they can take an important role in helping officials and experts in addressing and managing the problem. The more connected they feel to the project the better effort they will perform Brief intro to Invasive species – this is just a quick review of what has already been covered. The depth of coverage of the subject will determine how much information you share here. Highlight specifics you felt were important for your class level. What we are doing and why – Students feel engaged when they have a reason for what they are doing. Explain what a public education program does and how it can be as simple as making the information available through a webpage or brochure to a formal presentation to the school or community that brings attention to the local issue. With education comes solutions… encourage them to brain storm and if time permits, consider allowing them to take it a step further if they want to get really involved in the issue (ie: take action steps beyond education and get involved in a conservation group or project)This may be for extra credit or whatever you feel it deserves for enhancing their project grade. (maybe an “above and beyond” figured into the rubric) Brief explanation: webquest – If students haven’t done a webquest before, show a brief demonstration on doing efficient web searches and on the difference between a reputable scientific website and sensational media websites or activist websites that have a tendency to include a significant amount of bias.
National and state regulations – Briefly explain how governments get involved when a species issue affects local producers, tourism or quality of life for its citizens and environment

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel Local invasive species issues – help them to see this as a local issue rather than a national issue by having an idea ahead of time on some potential state wide invasives…give hints, but let them determine which species they will be addressing Possible community or individual action that can be taken – finding out information on local species invaders, what the authorities involved are doing and how people can get involved is what this project is all about. This reiterates why they are doing this project and its importance

Brief explanation: Project – This is important to guide them on HOW to go about making a presentation. Explain the difference between “sensationalizing” the issue and being succinct, expressive and accurate in details without making it difficult for those who have NOT been introduced to the invasive species content. Consider a list of invasives ahead of time as a way to spread out the possible subjects for the project. Three projects on the same species may cause some issues. However, if that can’t be avoided consider allowing only one form of media per group/individual. (ie: only one can do a ppt, one can do a webpage, etc)
Media for the project– Briefly outline your expectations for the project including how it will be published and disseminated. The students need to be aware that even a simple brochure takes time and effort to be produced. Depending on resources this may be a simple three fold they print on a local printer to hand out within the school or community or if funds are available for more professional printing (like at a Kinkos). If they plan a powerpoint they must also plan on where and when it will be presented. (this includes a school assembly or a community meeting). If a webpage is their choice, an emailing or flyer to announce its presence would be a good way to insure readership. Encourage the students to think of ways to enhance readership of their research. Components of the project – it is very important that the details for the rubric are clearly understood. Students need to be very clear on your expectations for grading on the project. If it will be a group project, it is suggested that no more than four members work on it. This allows for only one member working on each component. The following is a sample rubric for this project which can be modified for individual use. Resources for the teacher: The following websites are helpful in researching regulations:

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/index.shtml http://www.fws.gov/invasives/laws.html http://www.necis.net/
Consider looking up websites specific to your state – the above websites have links to state information and state websites will also have links to their Wildlife, Fish & Game websites as well.

(Suggested Rubric for Project): this can be modified to fit any level of project or more specific models INVASIVE SPECIES PROJECT RUBRIC

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Invasive Species – A Service Project-Student Sheet Part I: Webquest Answer the questions:
What are the national regulations regarding invasive species (look to sites like USDA for their information on invasive species) For federal laws and regulations: give an examples of each of the following regarding invasive species Executive orders Congressional Bills Public Laws and Acts For state laws and regulations: give an example of a statute, code and resource for both an animal species and plant species

Determine a problem invasive species for your own state (or local community) What challenges are being faced with this species?

What kinds of management initiatives are being performed to control or eradicate the invasive species?

What can an individual or community do to halt the spread, help authorities manage or eliminate the problem?

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel

Part II – The Project What a public service initiative can do – get involved!
The student will decide on a project (group or individual) to educate the public (in their school or community) The project will be over what they have learned in the webquest focusing on a local problem The project can be in the form of a webpage, brochure or by developing a powerpoint presentation they will give to the school or community – the project is only considered complete when the student(s) have presented their project The project will have the following components: An introduction to invasive species and what negative or potential negative (if any) effects they cause to the local/state area – clear and concise for the layman

A brief overview of national, state and local regulations regarding the species in order to explain management practices

What management steps are being taken to control/manage or eliminate the species

What an individual or community can do to aid authorities in management or elimination of the problem

The final grade will be determined by a rubric regarding the above mentioned four components. For group projects, a separate rubric for each member will be utilized for grading including feedback from each member as to the extent of participation of each individual.

Teaching Innovation Project Corrinn Bruce, Natallia Kulyba,Valerie Praggastis, Ravi Trivedi and Karla Vogel