The University of Queensland

School of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering

Multi-Band Antenna for
Handheld Transceivers

Bachelor of Engineering (Hons)
Electrical Engineering Thesis
2002


By

Choon Wee Khoo

Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers ii
1/242 Carmody Road,
St Lucia, Brisbane,
QLD 4067


15 October 2002


The Dean,
Faculty oI Engineering, Physical Science and Architecture,
The University oI Queensland,
St Lucia,
Brisbane QLD 4072


Dear Sir,

In accordance with the requirements Ior the Degree oI Bachelor oI Engineering
(Honours), I hereby submit Ior your consideration the thesis entitled 'Multi-Band
Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers¨.

This work was perIormed under the supervision oI Associate ProIessor Marek E.
Bialkowski. I declared that the work submitted in this thesis is my own, except as
acknowledged in the text and Iootnotes, and have not been previously submitted Ior a
degree at the university oI Queensland or any other institutions.




Yours Sincerely,




Choon Wee Khoo
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers iii
Acknowledgements


The completion oI this thesis would not have been possible without the help and support
oI the Iollowing people. First and Ioremost I would express my appreciation and
gratitude to my supervisor, Associate ProIessor Marek E. Bialkowski, Ior his guidance,
supervision and encouragement throughout the course oI this thesis. Also thanks to my
Iriend, Louis, whom helped me in learning the use oI FEKO.

HeartIelt thanks and appreciation must also go to my beloved girlIriend, Lau Ping Ping,
who has always been very supportive throughout the year.

Last but not least, I would like to thank my parents Ior both Iinancial and continuous
support through these years.


























Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers iv
(



In the last Iew years, there has been an increasing demand Ior multi-band antennas. In
particular, the Iocus has been on embedded antenna designs. With the third generation
(3G) wireless communications systems going to be introduced worldwide, the demand
Ior a handheld transceiver to support both old and new standards via a single antenna
becomes compulsory. ThereIore, the most immediate task Ior the new antennas is to
operate in both the new UMTS (3G standards) Irequency bands and the already
established Irequency bands. However, there is also a requirement on handheld
transceivers to serve cellular bands and new communication technologies (e.g. WLAN
and Bluetooth).

In this thesis, a new embedded antenna that operates in (Iour Irequency bands) three
major global mobile communications Irequency bands including GSM900, GSM1800,
UMTS and Bluetooth Irequency band has been designed. The antenna is a single Ieed
and low proIile Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA). It has three narrow slots etched on
the same side oI the patch. Using soItware, FEKO, simulations has been carried out to
investigate the antenna`s perIormance and characteristics. From the simulation results, it
has been Iound that the antenna is able to operate at the desired resonant Irequencies
with the speciIic bandwidth.

















Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers v
Table of Contents



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS......................................................................................... III
ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................. IV
TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................... V

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW.................................................. 7
1.1 Introduction......................................................................................................... 7
1.2 Motivation ........................................................................................................... 9
1.3 Aim of Thesis..................................................................................................... 10
1.4 Overview of the Thesis ...................................................................................... 11

CHAPTER 2 MULTI-BAND ANTENNA DESIGNS................................................ 12
2.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 12
2.2 Microstrip Antenna ........................................................................................... 13
2.3 Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA)................................................................... 15
2.4 Other Multi-Band Antenna Designs.................................................................. 16

CHAPTER 3 PLANAR INVERTED-F ANTENNA.................................................. 18
3.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 18
3.2 Introduction to PIFA......................................................................................... 19
3.3 PIFA Analvsis bv Spatial Network Method (SNM) ........................................... 21
3.3.1 The Analysis Model ................................................................................... 21
3.3.2 Electric Field Distribution.......................................................................... 22
3.3.3 Current Distribution ................................................................................... 24
3.3.4 Resonant Frequency................................................................................... 25
3.3.5 Bandwidth .................................................................................................. 28
3.4 Dual Polarisation.............................................................................................. 30
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers vi
CHAPTER 4 METHODOLOGY................................................................................ 32
4.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 32
4.2 Selection Criteria .............................................................................................. 33
4.3 Simulation Software FEKO .............................................................................. 35
4.4 Simple Single Band PIFA.................................................................................. 37
4.5 Tri-Band PIFA .................................................................................................. 46
4.6 Quad Band PIFA............................................................................................... 48

CHAPTER 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS.......................................................... 54
5.1 Introduction....................................................................................................... 54
5.2 Single Band PIFA.............................................................................................. 55
5.3 Tri-Band PIFA .................................................................................................. 61
5.4 Quad Band PIFA............................................................................................... 63
5.5 Extra Resonant Mode of the PIFA.................................................................... 67

CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK............................................. 68

REFERENCES.............................................................................................................. 70
APPENDIX.................................................................................................................... 72














Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 7
Chapter 1


Introduction and Overview



1.1 Introduction

The origination oI wireless communications started in 1886 when Heinrich Hertz did an
experiment to conIirm the presence oI electromagnetic waves based on James
Maxwell`s (1864) theoretical Ioundation Ior electromagnetic radiation. It was then in
1897, Guglielmo Marconi Iirst establish the capabilities oI wireless communications
through continuous contact with ships sailing the English Channel |1|. Since then,
antennas have always been evolving due to the development oI wireless technologies,
which has led to radio, television, mobile phone and satellite communications.

However, during the last decade, the mobile radio communication industry started to
grow at a very Iast rate, Iuelled by new digital and RF circuit Iabrication improvements,
new large-scale circuit integration, and other miniaturization technologies which make
portable radio equipment smaller, cheaper, and more reliable |1|. All these advancement
in wireless technologies, have seen a trend oI increasing mobile radio communications
users along with smaller handheld transceivers especially in the cellular telephone
industry. This has promoted more research into embedded antenna designs, which
became very popular Ior use with mobile phones.

As we begin the 21
st
century, the growth in cellular telephone industry continues to rise
throughout the world with an increase oI 40° or more per year in cellular telephone
subscription |1|. To date, more than 900 million people, about 15° oI the world`s
population, pay a monthly subscription Ior cellular telephone service, and this Iigure is
estimated to approach 30° oI the population in the next Iew years. Due to this
widespread growth in cellular telephone subscribers, mobile phone market has also
Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 8
increase tremendously and this means the demand Ior mobile antennas is also on the
rise. As shown in Figure 1.1, mobile handsets market has surpassed the 600 million
mark in Iirst quarter oI 2002.

Number oI Cellular Handsets Market
Phone Subscribers by Region
Source: Micrologic Research, Wireless 2000 Source: ARC Group,
Future Mobile Handset 2000

Figure 1.1: Graph showing cellular phone subscribers and
handset market in the world

In the next Iew years, a new generation oI cellular network (i.e. the third generation
wireless network, 3G) will be introduced worldwide to create a single standard Ior all
cellular phone users and provide Iast connection to the Internet. With very high-speed
data communications in addition to voice calls, this new 3G systems promise unparallel
wireless access in ways that have never been possible beIore. New standards and
technologies are also being introduced to allow new revolution wireless systems, which
will replace Iibre optic lines and copper wires. These new wireless systems such as
Bluetooth and wireless local area networks (WLANs), which oIIer invisible wireless
connections, are becoming more and more popular due to the use oI low power and
license Iree spectrums. As these new technologies start to roll out and become common
to the world, more new antenna designs have to be introduced to cope with the
anticipated demand.

Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 9
1.2 Motivation

As mentioned earlier, in the next Iew years, 3G cellular network will be introduced
worldwide to create a single standard Ior cellular phone users. Although the evolution
oI 3G will have a single standard implementation worldwide, the hope Ior that has not
materialized as the worldwide user community remains split between two camps: GSM
/ IS-136 / PDC and CDMA, as can be seen in Figure 1.2|1|. Moreover, implementations
oI new 3G communications systems require expensive new base station equipment thus
the installations will be slow and gradual |1|. ThereIore, to have an ideal 3G
implementation worldwide, multi-band antenna is required to switch between the
current 2G networks and 3G networks where it is available. Besides, multi-band
antenna development will also beneIit the many cellular phone users who will require
such Iunction to access diIIerent communications networks in diIIerent countries.


Figure 1.2: Diagram showing various paths that lead to 3G wireless
communication systems




Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 10
New technologies or new wireless systems such as Bluetooth and WLANs have another
impact on the new antenna designs. The introduction oI these new technologies has
called Ior integration with the cellular communications systems. Despite the Iact that
some new antennas available in the market have already introduced the world to such
integration, cellular phones with such antennas are still not commonly used. This is
mainly because the implementation oI such new technologies has not reach the majority
users. ThereIore, new antenna designs Ior mobile phones should include such
integration beIore these new technologies take the world by surprise.


1.3 Aim of Thesis

With the estimated large increase oI cellular telephone subscribers in years to come, the
upcoming introduction oI 3G wireless communications networks and new wireless
systems such as Bluetooth and WLANs, there is a growing trend towards the design oI
multi-band antenna Ior use on multi purpose mobile phone. However, at present, most
oI the current antenna designs Ior mobile phone are Iocus mainly on the second-
generation cellular network (2G), mostly oIIering only single band and dual band
operations with a Iew having tri band capabilities (e.g. GSM, DCS and PCS operations).
Thus the most important task now is to design new antennas that not only cover the
present and Iuture cellular Irequency bands but also non-cellular Irequency bands.

In this thesis, a new antenna is to be designed to operate at 4 main Irequency bands (i.e.
GSM900, GSM1800, UMTS and Bluetooth Irequency bands). In addition, this antenna
has to provide an embedded solution so as to harness the inherent advantages oI the
mobile phone. As a result, Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) is chosen to Iorm the basis
in this thesis due to its miniature in size, along with its abilities to have multi Irequency
operations shown in previous research. PIFA has also proved to be the most widely used
internal antenna in commercial applications oI cellular communication.



Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 11
1.4 Overview of the Thesis

The Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) is a very complicated antenna. Despite extensive
research and numerous reading, PIFA`s design theory still remains as a mystery.
However through Dr. Peter Song`s advice, much oI the PIFA`s characteristics begin to
reveal and work on the antenna design starts to Iall in place. And with the steps listed
below, the objectives oI this thesis are Iinally accomplished.

i) Research on various internal multi-band antenna designs. Study and
understand each antenna`s characteristics. ¦Chapter 2}

ii) Select a suitable antenna design to Iorm the basis Ior the thesis. Study
and understand the antenna`s theory and characteristics.
(Planar Inverted-F Antenna was the choice.) ¦Chapter 3}

iii) With a good understanding oI PIFA, design a new antenna to perIorm to
the requirements listed in the criteria. Simulations were being done to
obtain the results on the perIormance oI the antenna. ¦Chapter 4}

iv) Investigate on the characteristics oI the new antenna and compare the
results with the theory. ¦Chapter 5}

v) Assess the eIIects that a human has on the antenna and the health saIety
oI the users when operating with this antenna. ¦Chapter 6}

Last but not least, a conclusion oI the thesis is made in Chapter 7 and suggestions are
made Ior Iuture antenna development.




Chapter 2: Multi-Band Antenna Designs
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 12
Chapter 2


Multi-Band Antenna Designs



2.1 Introduction

In the last Iew years, the demand and popularity oI multi-band antenna has been rising.
As mentioned in the previous chapter, this demand and popularity is due to the rapid
advancement in wireless communications and the estimated large increase oI cellular
telephone subscribers in years to come. As a result, there is a surge in multi-band
antenna research and development. However, having become such an integral part oI
our daily lives, mobile phones need to be more compact, Iashionable and practical than
ever beIore. Internal antennas oIIer several advantages over traditional mobile phone
antennas, making them ideal Ior compact phones.

In this chapter, we will be looking at various multi-band antenna designs Ior use on
handheld devices, many oI which are potential candidates Ior use in the Iuture mobile
phone. These antennas include Microstrip antenna (MSA), Planar Inverted-F Antenna
(PIFA), and some other antenna designs including the helical antenna. Most oI these
antennas that were developed are used to meet the demand oI the increasing cellular
telephones` market. Thus, the operations oI these antennas are mainly Iocus on the
major global communication networks such as GSM, DCS and PCS operations. On the
other hand, there are also some internal antennas that were designed Ior use with the
non-cellular Irequency bands such as WLAN, Bluetooth and GPS, which could also be
considered Ior implementation into the Iuture mobile phone.



Chapter 2: Multi-Band Antenna Designs
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 13
2.2 Microstrip Antenna

Microstrip antenna (MSA) is a typically low-proIile antenna Iirst introduced in the mid-
1970s by R.E. Munson and J.Q. Howell |2|. However it is not until recently that MSA is
suitable Ior use in mobile phones due to its narrow bandwidth and large size. In the
paper by Y.J. Wang et al. |3|, a novel and broadband semi-disc MSA (shown in Figure
2.1) is designed. Using new bandwidth enhancement and size miniaturisation methods,
this small antenna is able to have a broad impedance bandwidth oI 32.4° Irom
1.86GHz to 2.58GHz (shown in Figure 2.1), which is used to provide the antenna with
multiple Irequency band operation. And with this bandwidth coverage, the MSA is able
to operate in the Iollowing Irequency bands: DECT, IMT2000 and Bluetooth wireless
system.

Figure 2.1: Configuration of the MSA by Wang et al. ¡3]


Figure 2.2: Return Loss of multi-band MSA in ¡3]
Chapter 2: Multi-Band Antenna Designs
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 14
In another MSA design by Guo et al. |4|, several other techniques including the use oI
high dielectric substrate, short circuit and shorting pin are used to miniaturise the
antenna. On top oI that, the thickness oI the substrate is used to determine a wider
bandwidth. However, in this case, (as shown in Figure 2.3) two antenna patches are
used to provide dual Irequency band operation, which in turn gave the antenna two
resonant Irequency bands. From the results obtained, the outer patch determines the
lower Irequency band while the inner patch determines the higher Irequency band. The
Irequency band that it is designed to operate is at 900MHz and 1800MHz, so as to be
implemented Ior mobile phone Iunction.






Figure 2.3: A Dual Band MSA by Guo et al. in ¡4]
Feed source
Short Wall
Chapter 2: Multi-Band Antenna Designs
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 15
2.3 Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA)

Planar inverted-F antenna is an antenna, which is not only small in size but also has a
broad bandwidth and high eIIiciency. Although it has a structure similar to that oI a
MSA, it is also well known to be a 'shunt-driven inverted-L antenna transmission line
with an open end¨ |2|. With the advantages oI the planar inverted-F antenna, it has now
become very popular with mobile phone manuIacturers as the demand Ior small mobile
handsets rises.

During the mid 1990s, with evolution oI the mobile phone system, demand Ior multi-
band antenna increased with several dual band mobile phones introduced. However
these mobile phones` antenna are based on wire antenna. Meanwhile with the
advancement oI technologies, mobile phones begin to shrink in size thus leading to an
increase in demand Ior internal multi-band antenna. It is because oI this; Liu et al.
produced a new dual band PIFA design in |5| (shown in Figure 2.4).


Figure 2.4: A Dual Band PIFA by Liu et al. ¡5]

Multi-band Planar Inverted-F Antenna has an important Ieature its size is almost the
same as that oI a single band PIFA (having the same resonant Irequency). The antenna
geometry oI this PIFA consists oI two separate radiating elements (Ior 1800MHz and
900MHz), which have a radiation patterns that are omnidirectional at the resonant
Chapter 2: Multi-Band Antenna Designs
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 16
Irequencies. The mutual coupling between the two radiating elements is Iound to be
good and isolation is less than 17 dB at both resonant Irequencies |5|. In addition, the
bandwidths oI the antenna are close to those required Ior the two systems, 63 MHz Ior
GSM900 and 110MHz Ior DCS1800. Having seen these results, PIFA is now deemed
capable oI multi-band operations with good perIormance. And that is why now the
popularity oI PIFA is increasing.


2.4 Other multi-band antenna design

Having seen the microstrip antenna (MSA) and Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA), let
us now look at two other designs, which are also used Ior mobile phone operations.
First, is a design by Fang et al. |6|, in this proposed design, a planar triple band antenna
is used Ior operations on the GSM900 and DCS1800 networks, and GPS system. As
shown in Figure 2.5, it consists oI two triangular antennas that are printed on a substrate
oI relative permittivity r1 and thickness 1. The third Irequency band is integrated by
adding an additional microstrip patched antenna on the back oI the ground plane oI the
triangular monopole antenna. It is printed on a substrate oI relative permittivity r2 and
thickness 2. To integrate the 3 Irequency band, a Ieeding network consisting oI the
lumped-element RLC-circuits is added to obtain broadband impedance matching Ior the
3 Irequency band. It is then observed that the impedance bandwidths, determined Irom
10dB return loss, are 21.7° reIerenced to 920MHz Ior GSM900 and more than 33°
reIerenced to 1795MHz Ior DCS 1800. On top oI that, right hand CP radiation and omni
directional patterns towards the hemisphere are also obtained Ior the GPS band.

Ground plane (high dielectric constant substrate is
GPS antenna used to reduce the total size)


GSM antenna DCS antenna
Feeding network
Figure 2.5: Side view of the triple band antenna
r2 2
r1 1
Chapter 2: Multi-Band Antenna Designs
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 17
The second antenna design is a Quad Band Stubby Antenna by Borisov et al. |7|. The
concept oI this proposed antenna is to be used Ior operation on the world`s major
mobile communication networks, namely AMPS, GSM, DCS and PCS. The design oI
this antenna uses a variable pitch helical radiator combined with a monopole strip
radiator. The helical radiator has three diIIerent pitch stages, which is generally used to
control the resonant Irequency. The assembly oI the antenna consists oI a helical
radiator wound round a nonconductive core plug, central radiator that serves as an
antenna contact and a cover. Figure 2.6 shows the core plug with a recessed pattern
which soIt wire is laid to Iorm a helical radiator and the arrangement oI the variable
pitch helical radiator. In the paper it is also shown that the antenna has a satisIactory
return loss and gain perIormance. Thus the antenna is deemed to be able to operate on
AMPS, GSM, DCS and PCS.

Figure 2.6: Structure of the stubby antenna

From the review oI these multi-band antennas, including PIFA and MSA, it can be seen
that almost all oI them are able to provide satisIactory operations Ior wireless
communications. However, among them, PIFA has more outstanding characteristics
such as miniature in size and have an omnidirectional radiation pattern. ThereIore in the
next chapter an analysis oI the PIFA will be presented.

Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 18
Chapter 3


Planar Inverted-F Antenna



3.1 Introduction

Having seen the various designs oI multi-band antenna, a Iurther study will be made on
the Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA). Once again, this is because PIFA has proved to
be the most widely used internal antenna in commercial applications oI cellular
communication. The main reason is that it is relatively miniature in size, which makes it
suitable Ior an unobtrusive assembly with handheld transceivers. On top oI that, PIFA
has a signal characteristic oI dual polarisation. This is an important requirement Ior all
mobile transceivers as this means that the mobile transceivers can receive signals in any
orientation. Another attractive Ieature is its multi Irequencies operation, which is
deemed to be an important Ieature Ior multi-band antenna designs.

This chapter presents the theory and operation oI the PIFA (based on Hirasawa et al),
which will be discussed using the three-dimensional electro-magnetic Iield time-domain
analysis method called Spatial Network Method |2|. Although this method was not used
Ior the designing oI the antenna, its theory and operation provides a good understanding
oI PIFA`s operations and principles.








Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 19
3.2 Introduction to PIFA

The development oI Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) started Irom an inverted-L
Antenna (ILA). ILA is an antenna that consists oI a short monopole as a vertical
element and a horizontal wire element attached to the end oI the monopole |8|.







Figure 3.1: Structure of an Inverted-L Antenna (ILA) ¡8]

The low proIile structure oI an ILA is due to the vertical element`s height constraint,
which is a Iraction oI the wavelength. Due to this low proIile structure, the ILA is
classiIied as a small antenna, which in turn developed many modiIications. One oI these
modiIications is an Inverted-F Antenna (IFA), which has an additional Inverted- L
element attached to the ILA. Having this modiIication done to the ILA, there is an
increase in radiation impedance. In addition, this modiIication is deemed to be
important because the input impedance oI the IFA can be arranged to have an
appropriate value to match the load impedance, without using any additional circuit
between the antenna and the load |8|.







Figure 3.2: Structure of an Inverted-F Antenna (IFA) ¡8]
Horizontal element
Ground Plane
Vertical
element
Feed Source
Horizontal element
Ground Plane
Vertical element
Feed Source
Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 20
Subsequently, a Iurther modiIication where the wire element in the IFA is replace by a
plate is made to obtain a wider bandwidth. Thus the IFA is now called a Planar
Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA).









Figure 3.3: A Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) modified from IFA ¡8]

However, the PIFA is also sometimes reIerred to a short-circuit microstrip antenna
(short-circuit MSA) due to the Iact that the structure oI the short-circuit MSA resembles
that oI a PIFA.









Figure 3.4: Microstrip Antenna with Shorting Pins

For these reasons, PIFA is said to have a structure between a Inverted-F Antenna and a
short-circuit Microstrip Antenna |2|.


Horizontal plate
Feed Source
Vertical plate
/ 4
Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 21
3.3 PIFA Analysis by Spatial Network Method (SNM)

(Based on Hirasawa et al. |2|)

In the Iollowing sections, the three-dimensional electromagnetic Iield time domain
analysis method called the Spatial Network Method (SNM) is presented. The techniques
used in this method however are oI not much use in designing the multi-band PIFA.
Nevertheless, some oI these theories do proved to be helpIul especially those
concerning the width oI the short circuit plate, the resonance and the PIFA bandwidth.
ThereIore, a brieI explanation oI these theories will be shown in the Iollowing sections.
For a more detailed description and in depth study into this method, it is preIerably to
reIer to the book by Hirasawa et al. |2|.

3.3.1 The Analysis Model

BeIore a Iurther study is made, let us look at the analysed model oI the PIFA. Figure 3.5
shows the structure oI the PIFA. It is Ied using a 50O transmission line Irom the back oI
the ground plane. This transmission line consists oI a centre conductor and an outer
conductor, the size oI which is 2Ad, where Ad is the distance between similar nodes oI
SNM |2|. The analysis area Ior the PIFA is set to 70Ad in the x direction, 75Ad in the y
direction and 50Ad in the z direction. The reason Ior setting this analysis area is so that
the input impedance is not aIIected.

Figure 3.5: Structure of the Planar Inverted-F Antenna ¡2]
Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 22
When a pulse wave is inserted into the TEM transmission line, the reIlection wave is
observed in the time domain. This reIlection coeIIicient at the observation point can be
obtained by transIorming the time-domain data into Irequency domain by using the
Fourier transIormation. Analysing the resonant Irequency and the bandwidth
characteristics oI the antenna can then be done by determining the position oI the Ieed
source, which the minimum reIlection coeIIicient is to be obtained. Then by inputting a
sinusoidal wave with the resonant Irequency into the TEM transmission line,


3.3.2 Electric Field Distribution

Having said that the electric Iield distribution at resonance is obtained Irom the
amplitude oI the electric node, we shall now look at the results. Figure 3.6 show the
distribution oI the electric Iield E
x
, E
y
and E
z
in the case when the sizes oI the PIFA are
L
1
÷ L
2
÷ 16Ad and H ÷ 4Ad, and the width oI the short-circuit plate varies between
2Ad, 4Ad, 8Ad, 12Ad and 16Ad.

From the results, it can be seen that the dominant component oI the electric Iield E
z
is
equal to zero at the short-circuit plate while the intensity oI the E
z
Iield at the opposite
edge oI the planar element is signiIicantly large. And in the E
x
and E
y
Iield, there is a
pointy part which corresponds to the Ieed source. Based on the results it means that the
electric line oI Iorce is directed Irom the Ieed source to the ground plane. Then when the
width oI the short-circuit plate is narrower than the planar element, the electric Iield E
x

and E
y
start generating at all open-circuit edges oI the planar element. These Iringing
Iields are the radiating sources in PIFA.


Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 23



Figure 3.6: Distribution of electric field E
x
, E
y
, E
z
at the x-y plane ¡2]







Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 24
3.3.3 Current Distribution

Knowing that the current distribution at resonance can be obtained Irom the magnetic
node component, a Iurther study on the results was conducted. The results oI surIace
current distributions at various widths oI the short-circuit plates are shown in Figure 3.7.
Based on this Iigure, the circles illustrate the Ieed source, the arrows shows the direction
oI the current and the current intensity is expressed by the width oI the arrow. Very
large current Ilows on the undersurIace oI the planar element and the ground plane
compare to that on the upper surIace oI the element; consequently, these current
distributions are considered to excite the inner electric and magnetic Iields between the
planar element and ground plane. From the Iigure it also can be seen that as the width oI
the short-circuit plate narrows, the current distribution varies and the eIIective length oI
the current Ilow on the short-circuit plate and planar element becomes longer.
ThereIore, the resonant Irequency will be lowered and PIFAs that are smaller that the
short-circuit MSAs can be operated.

Figure 3.7: Distribution of surface current ¡2]
Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 25
3.3.4 Resonant Frequency

The resonant Irequency oI the PIFA is usually determined by two major Iactors. One oI
the Iactors is the dimension oI the short-circuit plate and the other is the dimension oI
the planar element. These two Iactors not only greatly aIIect the radiating Irequency but
also the perIormance oI the PIFA. In addition to the two Iactors, there are many other
reasons that contribute to the operations oI this sensitive antenna. One oI the Iactors,
which cause a diIIerence in the results, is the position oI the Ieed source, which must be
located at the electrical nodes with the interval oI Ad. This diIIerence in results
according to Hirasawa et al. is approximately smaller than 3°, and it also reveals the
approximation by SNM analysis is very signiIicant in practice. In Figure 3.8, the
resonant Irequencies oI the PIFA with various short-circuit plate width is shown. It can
also be seen that the calculated results are very close to the measured values, and this
indicates that the SNM is useIul in analysing the Irequency characteristics oI the PIFA.
And the main concept here is that the resonant Irequency decreases with the decrease in
short-circuit plate width. From the results, it can be concluded that the size oI the PIFA
can be smaller than the short-circuit MSA.

Figure 3.8: Comparison of calculated resonant frequency
and experimental results ¡2]

Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 26
Next, a study will be made on the results oI the characteristics oI the resonant Irequency
with respect to the size ratio oI the planar element, L
1
/L
2
, shown in Figure 3.9. The
change oI this ratio is done only with the variation oI the width, L
1
.

Figure 3.9: Variation of resonant frequency due to changes in size ratio
of the planar element, L
1
/L
2
¡2]


The Iigure above proved that as the size ratio increases, the larger is the drop in resonant
Irequency with respect to the ratio, W/ L
1
. Another Iinding Irom this result is that Ior
the size ratio, L
1
/L
2
~ 1, there is an inIlection in the resonant Irequency characteristic
when L
1
W ÷ L
2
. This inIlection is due to the change in current Ilow on the
undersurIace oI the planar element. From Figure 3.10, it is shown that the current will
Ilow to the open circuited edge on the long side oI the planar element Ior L
1
W · L
2
.

As in the case when L
1
W ~ L
2
, the current will Ilow to the open circuited edge on the
short side oI the planar element.

Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 27


Figure 3.10: Variation of surface current flow due to the size ratio of the planar
element and width of the short-circuit plate ¡2]


The resonance oI PIFA can be expressed by

L
1
¹ L
2
÷ ì / 4 (3.1)

where ì is the wavelength oI the resonance Irequency

However, this Iormula does not include the variation oI short-circuit plate width, W.
ThereIore Irom the analysis results oI the surIace current, the quarter wavelength at
resonance is equal to the eIIective length oI the current Ilow on the short-circuit plate
and planar element.


Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 28
Thus in the case when W/L
1
÷ 1, the resonance can be expressed by

L
1
¹ H

÷ ì / 4 (3.2)

and when W ÷ 0,

L
1
¹ L
2
¹H ÷ ì / 4 (3.3)

Hirasawa et al. also reported that when the antenna height is suIIiciently shorter than the
wavelength, the Iringing eIIect in the open-circuited edge can be neglected, and the
resonant Irequency calculated by (3.2) and (3.3) agrees with the measured results, with
an error oI 3°. And also the resonant Irequency, I
r
, in the case oI 0 · W / L1 · 1, can be
expressed by:

I
r
÷ r I
1
¹ (1 r) I
2
Ior L
1
/ L
2
1 (3.4)

I
r
÷ r
k
I
1
¹ (1 r
k
) I
2
Ior L
1
/ L
2
_ 1 (3.5)

where r ÷ W/ L
1
, k ÷ L
1
/ L
2
, and resonant Irequency I
1
is expressed by (3.2)

For the resonant Irequency, I
2
, it is expressed by:

L
1
¹ L
2
¹H ¹ W ÷ ì / 4 (3.3)


3.3.5 Bandwidth

The bandwidth oI a PIFA is usually aIIected by the ratio oI L
1
/ L
2
and the dimension oI
the short-circuit plate`s width, W. This can be clearly seen Irom the results obtained
Irom the analysis by Hirasawa et al., which is shown in Figure 3.11 and 3.12. A
comparison oI a conventional MSA was made with a variation oI W and the ratio L
1
/
L
2
on the PIFA. This is to observe the eIIect they have on the bandwidth.
Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 29
In Figure 3.11, the characteristics oI the relative bandwidth Ior VSWR oI 1.5 are shown
when the width oI the short-circuit plate W is equal to the width oI the radiating planar
element L
1
, which corresponds to that oI a short-circuit MSA.

Figure 3.11: Bandwidth of the PIFA when the width of the short-circuit plate W
is equal to the width of the radiating planar element L
1
¡2]

In the Iollowing graph (Figure 3.12), the width oI the short-circuit plate W is made to be
less than the width oI the radiating planar element, W · L
1
, with the same VSWR Irom
the previous graph. The broken line shows the bandwidth oI a short-circuit MSA or a
PIFA with W/ L
1
÷ 1.

Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 30

Figure 3.12: Bandwidth of the PIFA when W < L
1
¡2]

Conclusion is derived Iorm these two graphs that a decrease in the width oI the short-
circuit plate oI the PIFA means a reduction in bandwidth. It can also be seen Irom the
graphs that a rise in height H can lead to an increase in the bandwidth.


3.4 Dual Polarisation

Dual polarisation means that an antenna can transmit and receive both horizontally and
vertically polarised waves. This is an excellent characteristic that made PIFA such a
good antenna Ior use in a handheld transceiver. Furthermore, PIFA has a dual
polarisation capability oI radiating two orthogonal Iield components with nearly the
same magnitude, where a microstrip antenna has only one Iield component that
dominates in magnitude. This unique property lies in the Iact that all Iour edges oI the
PIFA radiates almost equally, while in MSA radiation occurs only Irom its two
opposing edges with one dominant linearly polarised Iield |9|. For that reason, PIFA is
deemed to be a good antenna Ior use with mobile communications, because regardless
Chapter 3: Planar Inverted-F Antenna
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 31
how the handheld transceiver is orientated, it is able to receive signals. And so Ior this
thesis, PIFA was chosen to be the basic design as the Iinal antenna design will be Ior
use in a handheld transceiver.





























Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 32
Chapter 4


Methodology



4.1 Introduction

The design oI the multi-band Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) is very complex and
tedious. It can be seen in the later part oI this thesis that even a diIIerence oI 0.5mm in
the antenna can shiIt the resonant Irequency by 50MHz or halve the return losses. This
is due to the characteristics oI the PIFA, which are very sensitive to dimension changes
and the eIIects oI the ground plane. Although much oI its operations and characteristics
are already known, it is does not mean that everything is understood in the designing oI
the PIFA. In Iact, many current methods oI PIFA designing in practical applications are
still being done through a trial and error process. ThereIore, a lot oI time and patience is
required in designing the multi-band PIFA.

Having been introduced to the background, theory, design and development oI the
Planar Inverted-F Antennas, we will now look at the results Ior the antennas that have
undergone a great deal oI simulations. In this chapter, the simulation results will be
discussed and compared with the ideal solutions or theoretical results. Also included in
this chapter are the eIIects oI dimension changes, the ground plane and the shiIting oI
Ieed source on the PIFA. On top oI that, the steps in developing simple single band
Planar Inverted-F Antennas operating at 900MHz, 1.8GHz, 2.0GHz and 2.4 GHz
respectively will be discussed. Next, the design oI a triple band E-shaped PIFA based
on W. Dou`s et al. design will be analysed. Finally the development process oI the
newly designed quad band PIFA will be shown.


Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 33
4.2 Selection Criteria

The criteria oI this thesis is to design an eIIicient, small and low proIile antenna with
multi-band operations Ior use on a handheld transceiver. In addition, this antenna must
include the operation Ior use on GSM900, GSM1800 and UMTS networks. Thus, to
start with, a range oI miniaturised multi-band handheld transceiver antenna was being
studied (some oI which are presented in Chapter 2). The research uncovered several
possibilities including Microstrip Antenna, Planar Inverted-F Antenna (PIFA) and other
multi-band antenna designs. Among these antennas, PIFA is the most promising
candidate due to its various advantages mentioned in previous chapters. ThereIore,
extensive studies were made on PIFA to learn about the various designs and methods
employ to develop a multi-band PIFA.

At present, there are many methods oI designing multi-band PIFA. One oI those
methods has been achieved by using EM coupling between several separate elements;
usually one element is Ied by a coaxial line and the others are parasites |10|. Although
this method is eIIective Ior multi-band antenna design, but a large space is required Ior
the installation oI the antenna. Another design method using separate elements, which
also allows multi-band operation, has a Ieature oI having the size oI that oI a single
band PIFA (seen in the design by Liu et al.). Other method including a design by
Salonen et al. |11|, which achieved dual band operation by cutting a U-shaped slot in
the patch, and a tri-band PIFA by Dou et al. |12| were also being studied.

However, aIter learning about these multi-band PIFA`s characteristics and investigating
their perIormance (using simulation soItware), it was Iound that some oI the methods
used could not produce satisIactory results (probably due to the lack oI understanding oI
these methods). Nevertheless, in spite oI the Iailures, the search Ior a method to design
a new multi-band antenna continues.

Subsequently, aIter numerous attempts oI simulation, it was Iound that the control on
the design oI Dou`s et al. PIFA was considered to be the easiest among those mentioned
earlier. In addition, it has very good Ieature such as having the same size oI that oI a
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 34
single band PIFA. The reason Ior that is because it does not use separate elements to
achieve multiple Irequency bands operation. Instead, multiple Irequency bands
operation oI the PIFA is achieved by simply having two narrow linear slots etched on
the same side oI the antenna. However, the strongest inIluence was perhaps the antenna
is able to operate at a Irequency ratio oI 1.04, which was conIirmed by the results Irom
the simulation runs. Due to the close Irequency band operation oI the GSM1800 and
UMTS, which requires a Irequency ratio oI 1.11, the antenna was deemed to be a
Iavourable advantage Ior implementation oI the criteria. Thus knowing the outstanding
advantages oI this antenna, the preliminary design was based on it.

Then another decision was made on the design oI the antenna was to include a non-
cellular Irequency band operation. Based on the current situation, it was Iound that
having an additional Iunction oI the new Bluetooth wireless system to be included onto
the mobile phone is desirable. The reason is because Bluetooth wireless system, which
is used to provide links between computers and peripherals, Persona Digital Assistants
(PDAs) and mobile phones, can be very useIul Ior users to transIer oI data and to access
the Internet via the mobile phones. Moreover this implementation could see the new
antenna design being used Ior other handheld transceivers such as PDAs. Thus
Bluetooth operation was included as a non-cellular Irequency on to the antenna.

Finally with the basic design oI the antenna Iixed, trials on simulation will be perIormed
to check the viability to incorporate an additional Irequency band to the antenna. And iI
time permit, the Iinal design oI the quad band antenna would be constructed to veriIy
the results obtain Irom the simulations.







Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 35
4.3 Simulation Software

Taken significantlv from FEKOs user manual.

BeIore designing the PIFA, we will look at the Iunctions oI the simulation soItware,
FEKO. It is simulation soItware used Ior electromagnetic analysis to obtain parameters
such as return losses and radiation pattern. The name FEKO is an abbreviation derived
Irom the German phrase Feldberechnung bei Kòrpern mit beliebiger Oberflàche. (Field
computations involving bodies of arbitrarv shape.) As the name suggests, FEKO can be
used Ior various types oI electromagnetic Iield analysis involving objects oI arbitrary
shapes.

The program, FEKO, is based on the Method oI Moments (MoM) techniques.
Electromagnetic Iields are obtained by Iirst calculating the electric surIace currents on
conducting surIaces and equivalent electric and magnetic surIace currents on the surIace
oI a dielectric solid. The currents are calculated using a linear combination oI basis
Iunctions, where the coeIIicients are obtained by solving a system oI linear equations.
Once the current distribution is known, Iurther parameters can be obtained e.g. the near
Iield, the Iar Iield, radar cross sections, directivity or the input impedance oI antennas.

Electrically large problems are usually solved with either the Physical Optics (PO)
approximation and its extensions or the UniIorm Theory oI DiIIraction (UTD). In
FEKO these Iormulations are hybridised with the MoM at the level oI the interaction
matrix. This is a major step in addressing the problem oI solving electromagnetic
problems where the object under consideration is too large (in terms oI wavelengths) to
solve with the MoM but too small to apply only the asymptotic UTD approximation
with high accuracy. With the hybrid MoM/PO or hybrid MoM/UTD techniques, critical
regions oI the structure can be considered using the MoM and the remaining regions
(usually larger, Ilat or curved metallic surIaces) using the PO approximation or UTD.

FEKO has three many user interIace, namely WinFEKO, EditFEKO and GraphFEKO.
EditFEKO is a customised text editor Ior the input oI solution and the main control to
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 36
generate simulation results Ior use in WinFEKO and GraphFEKO. WinFEKOis a user
interIace module used to view the solution oI a problem. It is able to perIorm 3D
visualisation, which includes surIace currents, near Iield contour plots and 3D radiation
pattern plots. And Iinally, GraphFEKO is used to generate polar plots, linear plots and
graphs. With the capabilities oI FEKO, a lot simulation can perIorm to obtain output
parameters such as speciIic absorption rate (SAR), return losses and radiation patterns.

























Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 37
4.4 Simple Single Band PIFA

BeIore beginning with the development oI the quad band PIFA, we will look at the
designing process oI a simple single band PIFA and the characteristics oI each single
band PIFA at the diIIerent propose Irequency bands. This designing had helped the
author to understand the characteristics and various Iactors that determine the
perIormance oI the PIFA. Using the design parameters given in Chapter 3, the basic
dimensions oI the PIFA is being derived using the Iollowing equation.

L
1
¹ L
2
- c / 4I
r
(4.1)

where I
r
is the resonant Irequency.


The resulted dimensions Ior the PIFA based on equation (4.1) are:

900MHz PIFA:

L
1
÷ 27mm
L
2
÷ 56mm

1800MHz PIFA:

L1 ÷ 14mm
L2 ÷ 28mm

2GHz PIFA:

L1 ÷ 12.5mm
L2 ÷ 25mm


Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 38
2.4GHz PIFA:

L1 ÷ 10.5mm
L2 ÷ 21mm

Having derived the basic dimensions, a trial and error process commence to develop
new dimensions Ior the PIFA to perIorm to its requirements. And with the use oI
FEKO, several attempts were made to obtain the desired resonant Irequency and
bandwidth by changing L
1,
L
2,
W, H, Ieed source`s position and the ground plane`s
dimension.


Figure 4.1: Structure of a Single Band PIFA

First oI all, with the basic dimension Ior the 900MHz PIFA, additional dimensions such
the height (H), the width oI the short-circuit plate (W) and the position oI the Ieed
source was estimated based on knowledge Irom the researches. However the ground
plane was made be inIinite due to the lack oI knowledge and advice. With all these
necessary data, simulation was perIormed using FEKO.
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 39

Figure 4.2: 900MHz PIFA with an Infinite Ground displayed in FEKO

The results obtained were very encouraging, with a return loss oI approximately
21.7dB at 1028MHz. With this success, it prompted that work should proceed to
investigate the eIIects oI a Iinite ground. Thus research was again carried out to Iind a
solution Ior deIining a Iinite ground plane. Nonetheless, without much hassle a
discovery was made Irom a thesis done by a student in University oI Queensland |9|.
Facing the similar problem as that student did, the solution presented in that thesis
became an instant answer. ThereIore, without changing the dimension oI the patch, a
similar Iinite ground plane (shown in Figure 4.3) is being deIined.







Figure 4.3: 900MHz PIFA with a Finite Ground Plane

Ground
Plane
Shorting plate
Feed source
Antenna Patch
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 40
However, the results obtained aIter adding a Iinite ground plane was considered a total
Iailure with a return loss oI 0.29dB at 2135MHz. Alterations to the antenna patch did
not help to improve the situation, instead it got worse. Although Iurther research was
being done to Iind an answer to the problem, it was not IruitIul. Thus a trial and error
process was carried out to change the ground plane`s dimension and the antenna patch`s
parameters. Finally aIter numerous simulation runs, it was Iound that the position oI the
antenna patch could prove to be a problem. So, the design process in back on track
again and a new design with successIul results is shown in Figure 4.4.







Figure 4.4:Successful implementation of Finite Ground Plane with 900MHz PIFA

AIter numerous attempts, it came to light that when the antenna patch is shorted to the
edge oI the ground plane there was a remarkable improvement. With a return loss oI
22dB at 1000MHz, the antenna proved to be able to work on a Iinite ground plane
similar to that simulate on an inIinite ground plane. Hence without much hesitation, the
various dimensions oI the antenna patch were varied to achieve an optimum return loss
at the desired Irequency. And with the knowledge gain Irom the researches, the
resonance oI the antenna depends on size oI the antenna patch; patch size was changed
to conIorm to the desired Irequency. As a result, the optimum dimension oI the antenna
patch was achieved with a return loss oI 24dB at 900MHz. However, the eIIects oI the
other parameters oI the antenna had not been examined, so another process oI trial and
error was perIormed on the various parameters oI the antenna. First it was Iound that the
width oI the short-circuit plate could aIIect the resonant Irequency, which agreed to the
theory that is presented by Hirasawa et al. (Chapter 3), i.e. resonant Irequency decreases
with the decrease in short-circuit plate width, shown in Figure 4.5.
Ground
Plane
Shorting plate
Feed source
Antenna Patch
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 41
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
6.5mm 10.5mm 14.5mm
Frequency [MHz]
1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-20
-22
-24
















Figure 4.5: Simulated Return Loss for 900MHz PIFA with varying
Short-circuit Plate Width, W
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 42
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
5.5mm 8.5mm 12.5mm
Frequency [MHz]
1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-20
-22
-24
-26
Next the eIIects oI changing the height oI the antenna patch Irom the ground, H, were
being investigated (results are shown in Figure 4.6). It was Iound to be that resonant
Irequency decreases with the increase in height oI the antenna patch.














Figure 4.6: Simulated Return Loss for 900MHz PIFA with varying
Height of the Antenna Patch, H

So looking at an equation Irom chapter 3,


Equation (3.3): L
1
¹ L
2
¹H ÷ ì / 4


With L
1
& L
2
Iixed, H will increase with an increase oI wavelength. Thus iI wavelength
increase, the Irequency will decrease. With that, it was ascertained that the Iindings
were correct.

Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 43
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
*Figures shown are distance f rom the shorting plate
5mm 10mm 15mm
Frequency [MHz]
1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-20
-22
-24
-26
Following that, the eIIects oI varying position oI the Ieed source were being analysed.














Figure 4.7: Simulated Return Loss for 900MHz PIFA with varying
Position of the Feed source

From Figure 4.7, it was deduced that as the Ieed source get nearer to the short-circuit
plate, the resonant Irequency decreases.

Finally aIter all aspect oI the 900MHz PIFA were examined, the Iinal dimensions were
determined to be:









* Height oI the antenna patch Iorm the ground plane is 7.5mm

Figure 4.8: Final dimensions of the 900MHz PIFA
Ground
Plane
Antenna Patch
92mm
50mm
62mm
10mm
7.5mm
33mm
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 44
Subsequently, the dimensions oI the PIFA Ior other resonant Irequencies were being
determined the same way as it was in the 900MHz PIFA. However do note that the Ieed
source is shorted to the ground. Following are the dimensions,

For 1800MHz:










* Height oI the antenna patch Iorm the ground plane is 5.5mm

Figure 4.9: Final dimensions of the 1800MHz PIFA


For 2GHz:













* Height oI the antenna patch Iorm the ground plane is 5.5mm

Figure 4.10: Final dimensions of the 900MHz PIFA

Ground
Plane
Antenna Patch
47mm
28mm
32mm
4.5mm
3.5mm
16mm
Ground
Plane
Antenna Patch
47mm
28mm
31mm
5.5mm
3.5mm
14mm
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 45
For 2.4GHz:













* Height oI the antenna patch Iorm the ground plane is 5.5mm

Figure 4.11: Final dimensions of the 900MHz PIFA

Finally having understood the characteristics oI the PIFA work can now proceed to
design the quad band PIFA. Although all experiments perIormed on the single band
PIFA were the basics, it did proved to be very helpIul in the Iollowing design process oI
the quad band PIFA.















Ground
Plane
Antenna Patch
38mm
28mm
23mm
6mm
1.5mm
13mm
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 46
4.5 Tri-Band PIFA

Since the preliminary design oI the quad band PIFA is based on Dou`s et al. tri-band
PIFA, simulations were being perIormed to study the characteristic oI the antenna
beIore any work can begin on the quad band PIFA. Figure 4.2 shows the design oI
Dou`s et al. tri-band PIFA that was entered Ior simulations in the FEKO.



Figure 4.12: Design of Dou`s et al. tri-band PIFA

AIter the Iirst simulation run with the dimensions given in the paper by Dou et al., the
results obtained were Iound to be a Iailure as the return loss was only about 2.6 dB.
Then Iew alterations to the antenna patch were made to improve the situation. However,
that did not help and the return losses continue to stay above 3dB. Subsequently with
the knowledge gained Irom the single band antenna, it was noted that the position oI the
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 47
antenna patch on the ground plane could be the problem, same as what happen in the
single band PIFA. Thus a new placement oI the antenna patch on the ground plane was
entered Ior simulation, and the result obtained Iollowing that was good. However, this
result did not perIorm as what was shown in the paper. Thus more trial and error
processes being to search Ior an optimum result.

AIter numerous runs oI simulation, the optimum result with all parameters maximised
was obtained. With reIerence to the antenna design illustrated in Figure 4.9, the
geometry Ior the tri-band PIFA was establish. The antenna patch is determined to be
L
y
x W
x
÷ 52mm x 45mm so as to have a lowest resonant Irequency oI 920MHz. Foam
that has the same size as the patch is also mounted on the ground plane as what is
shown in the paper. Two linear slots S1 and S2 are also etched on the same side oI the
patch but at a diIIerent position, thus giving a new dimensions Ior the widths with W
A
÷
23.5mm, W
B
÷ 9.8mm, and W
C
÷ 7.7mm. In addition, the slot lengths are also changed
to a suitable length where L
1
÷ mm and L
2
÷ mm. Investigations are also conducted on
the antenna`s characteristics that are presented in the paper. It is Iound that the
simulation results agree to the results given in the paper. In the next chapter, the
optimised results will be shown along with some discussion.









Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 48
4.6 Quad Band PIFA

Although with the aid oI Dou`s et al. design, the designing process Ior the new quad
band PIFA was not simple, a lot oI time and eIIort have been spent in researches and
experiments to obtain a quad band operation on the antenna. Having read and studied
the operation oI several multi-band PIFA designs Irom diIIerent sources, it was Iound
that multi-band designs by Dou et al. and Salonen et al. are similar. In both cases, multi-
band Irequency operations were achieved thru etching slots onto the PIFA, with each
additional slot producing an extra Irequency band operation.

With the tri-band PIFA design Irom the previous section, a series oI experiments such
as etching a slot on the diIIerent sides oI the antenna patch and etching a U-shape slot in
the antenna patch. Finally by comparing all the results obtained, it was Iound that the
control over the Irequencies is better and easier, and better return losses can be achieved
by etching all slots on the same side oI the patch as compared to the other methods.

Figure 4.13 shows the structure and design oI the quad band PIFA. The design oI this
quad band PIFA is done thru etching an additional linear slot in the patch. Dimensions
Irom Dou`s et al. design are also changed to suit the Iunction oI the new design and
additionally the truncated Ioam is being removed.











Figure 4.13: Design of the Quad Band PIFA
L
y

Antenna Patch
Ground Plane
W
A
W
B
W
C
W
D

L
1

L
2


W
X

S
1


S
3

G
2

G
1

F
Feed
source
Short-circuit
plate
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 49
Nevertheless work did not stop there, instead more trial and error experiments were
carried out to optimise the design to perIorm at the desired resonant Irequencies. Then
aIter numerous trials, a result with resonant Irequencies close to that oI the desired ones
was achieved. However, the bandwidths did not meet the requirements, i.e. a Irequency
range oI 880 960MHz is required Ior GSM900 operation, 1710 1880MHz Ior
GSM1800, 1990 2170MHz Ior UMTS, and 2.4 2.5GHz Ior Bluetooth. ThereIore,
the antenna design is back to the trial and error process again. However, things did not
turn out as well as it used to be, as no satisIactory results were obtained Irom the
countless trials, instead the results usually got worse. Evidently, either the antenna
structure was not working or something had been overlooked. Thus more research was
conducted to Iind ways in increasing bandwidth. Then it was realised that the results
Irom the single band simulations did actually show signiIicant increase in the
bandwidths. Subsequently, the varying oI those dimensions such as width oI the short-
circuit plate, height, and the Ieed source position, was perIormed on the antenna.
Eventually, a set oI satisIactory results was achieved and the dimensions are as Iollow:

L
y
÷ 51.5 W
x
÷ 60.0
L
1
÷ 23.6 W
A
÷ 23.9
L
2
÷ 29.9 W
B
÷ 3.4
L
3
÷ 33.35 W
C
÷ 7.2
G
1
÷ 6.0 W
D
÷ 13.0
G
2
÷ 7.0
F ÷ 22.0
Height ÷ 4.0
Width oI the short-circuit plate ÷ 5.5

Having a structural orientation as shown in Figure 4.13. However, note that the Ieed
source is shorted to the ground.

Now we shall look at how the resonant Irequencies are being achieved thru the main
determining Iactors. First oI all investigation will be made on Iunction oI the three
linear slots on the antenna patch. Figure 4.14, 4.15 and 4.16 show the return losses oI
the antenna with variation oI L
1
, L
2
, and L
3
respectively.


Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 50
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
18.6mm 21.2mm 26.4mm
Frequency [MHz]
2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
Variation of slot length, L
1
















Figure 4.14: Return Loss Diagram for varying of slot S
1
`s length L
1


Figure 4.14 shows the return loss curve where the slot S
1
is Iixed 2mm. It is expected
that the Iirst resonance will always stay at 870MHz, which conIirms that this resonance
is determine by the antenna patch size. It can also be seen Irom the graph that the
second and third resonance do not shiIt when only L
1
is varied. However, the varying oI
L
1
does aIIect the Iourth resonance. Thus it can be concluded the length oI slot S
1
can be
use to determine the Iourth resonance.






Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 51
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
22.4mm 25.6mm 34.3mm
Frequency [MHz]
2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
Variation of slot length, L
2
























Figure 4.15: Return Loss Diagram for varying of slots length L
2


Figure 4.15 shows the return loss curve where the slot S
2
is Iixed at 2mm. Similarly, it is
expected that the Iirst resonance would always stay at 870MHz. However Irom the
graph, it can be seen that this time the second and Iourth resonance do not shiIt when
only L
2
is varied. Instead, the varying oI L
2
will mainly aIIect the third resonance. Thus
it can be concluded the length oI slot S
2
can be use to determine the third resonance.








Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 52
Variation of slot length, L
3
















Figure 4.16: Return Loss Diagram for varying of slots length L
3


Figure 4.16 shows the return loss curve where the slot S
3
is Iixed at 2mm. Similarly, it is
expected that the Iirst resonance would always stay at 870MHz. However Irom the
graph, it can be seen that this time only the Iourth resonance do not shiIt when L
3
is
varied. Instead, the varying oI L
3
will mainly aIIect the second resonance. Thus it can be
concluded the length oI slot S
3
can be use to determine the second resonance.





RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
36.8mm 30.4mm 32.7mm
Frequency [MHz]
2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
Chapter 4: Methodology
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 53
Now it is known that the main determining Iactor oI the second, third and Iourth
resonance is by the variation oI the three slots` length. However, we have yet to
investigate the eIIect when varying the short-circuit plate`s width, which is an important
characteristics seen in the single band PIFA. Thus an investigation on the variation oI
short circuit plate`s width is carried out and the results are shown in the Iigure below
(Figure 4.17).















Figure 4.17: Return Loss Diagram for varying of short circuit plate`s width

Figure 4.17 shows the return loss diagram with diIIerent short circuit plate`s width. It
can be seen that there is not much eIIect on the resonant Irequencies. However, a slight
shiIt on the Iourth resonance can be noticed. In addition it can also be seen that there is
an increase oI bandwidth at the Iourth resonance when the width increases. ThereIore,
aIter several experiments it was Iound that the best choice is when the width is 5.5mm.



RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
2.0mm 3.4mm 5.7mm
Frequency [MHz]
2600 2400 2200 2000 1800 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30
-35
Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 54
Chapter 5


Results and Discussions



5.1 Introduction

The simulation soItware, FEKO, produced all the simulation results presented. All
antenna designs were simulated and optimised over and over again till satisIactory
results are obtained. Based on these results, discussions will be made on the
perIormance oI each antenna. In this chapter, the accomplished results such as return
loss curves and radiation patterns will be discussed. In addition, analysis oI the results
oI the quad band PIFA will be made to Iind out iI it IulIils the basic criteria Ior
operation in the proposed wireless communication networks or systems. Last but not
least, a discussion will be made on the discovery oI an extra resonant mode that in
presence in the PIFA.












Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 55
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
Frequency [MHz]
1100 1050 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-20
-22
-24
5.2 Single Band PIFA

Designing and simulating the 900MHz Planar Inverted-F Antenna using FEKO was the
Iirst step made in this thesis. As seen in the previous chapter, aIter a long and tedious
process oI simulation, the Iinal structure and dimension oI the antenna is shown in
Figure 4.8. The Iollowing graph will show the return losses Ior the Iinal antenna design.



















Figure 5.1: Simulated Return Loss for 900MHz PIFA


From the graph, Figure 5.1, it can be seen that a resonant Irequency oI 900MHz has
been achieved. The return loss attain was approximated to be 24dB at 900MHz with
bandwidth Ior S11_ 10dB oI 225MHz (25.33°). It is located in the Irequency range
844 1072MHz. The Iar-Iield radiation pattern oI the antenna has also been measured.
Figure 5.2 shows the distributions oI the electric Iield, E
0
and E
4
in the azimuthal plane
(x-z plane).






Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 56
EIectric Far-FieId vs AngIe

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00 [Deg]
E_Theta E_Phi

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

10
0
-10
-20
-30






















Figure 5.2: Radiation Pattern of the 900MHz PIFA in the x-z plane



For the radiation patterns in Figure 5.2, the E-Phi and E-Theta polarisations are
examined. It can be seen that Ior the E-Phi Iield (vertical polarisation) more energy is
radiated as compared to the E-Theta Iield. Also Irom the radiation pattern, the E-Theta
Iield has a dip at 0 ÷ 0´ and 180´, which is probably due to the Ieed source that is
shorted to the ground plane. Nevertheless, the radiation patterns are almost
omnidirectional at all Irequencies. Next discussion will be made on the results oI the
other three single-band PIFAs.











Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 57
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
Frequency [MHz]
2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
0
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-20
EIectric Far-FieId vs AngIe

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00 [Deg]
E_Theta E_Phi

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

10
0
-10
-20
-30
For 1800MHz:






















Figure 5.3: Simulated Return Loss for 1800MHz PIFA






















Figure 5.4: Radiation Pattern of the 1800MHz PIFA in the x-z plane

Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 58
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
Frequency [MHz]
2400 2300 2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
-11
-12
-13
-14
-15
-16
-17
-18
EIectric Far-FieId vs AngIe

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00 [Deg]
E_Theta E_Phi

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

10
0
-10
-20
-30
For 2GHz:






















Figure 5.5: Simulated Return Loss for 2.0GHz PIFA






















Figure 5.6: Radiation Pattern of the 2.0GHz PIFA in the x-z plane

Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 59
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
Frequency [MHz]
2800 2700 2600 2500 2400 2300 2200 2100 2000
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
-11
-12
-13
-14
-15
-16
-17
-18

EIectric Far-FieId vs AngIe

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00
[Deg]
E_Thet
a
E_Ph
i

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

10
0
-10
-20
-30
For 2.4 GHz:






















Figure 5.7: Simulated Return Loss for 2.4GHz PIFA






















Figure 5.8: Radiation Pattern of the 2.4GHz PIFA in the x-z plane

Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 60
From the results obtain Ior the three antennas, 1800MHz PIFA, 2.0GHz PIFA and
2.4GHz PIFA, it can be seen that the return loss Ior all the antenna are at least 18dB
with bandwidths Ior S11_ 10dB oI 342MHz (19°), 362MHz (18.1°) and 497MHz
(20.7°) respectively. They are located in the Irequency ranges oI 1708 2050MHz Ior
1800MHz PIFA, 1833 2195MHz Ior 2.0GHz PIFA, and lastly 2193 2690MHz Ior
2.4GHz PIFA.

For the radiation patterns based on the graphs, Figure 5.3, 5.5, & 5.7, the E-Phi and E-
Theta polarisations are examined. It can be seen that Ior all antennas E-Phi Iield
(vertical polarisation) has more energy radiated as compared to the E-Theta Iield. Also
Irom the radiation patterns, a dip at 0 ÷ 0´ and 180´ can be seen in the E-Theta Iield.
This dip in energy power is probably due to the Ieed source that is shorted to the ground
plane. Nevertheless, these radiation patterns are almost omnidirectional at all
Irequencies.




Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 61
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
Frequency [MHz]
2200 2100 2000 1900 1800 1700 1600 1500 1400 1300 1200 1100 1000 900 800
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
-2
-4
-6
-8
-10
-12
-14
-16
-18
-20
-22
-24
5.3 Tri-Band PIFA

Based on the simulation perIormed using the design by Dou et al., a set oI similar result
is obtained. Figure 5.9 shows the return loss curve oI the antenna with three resonant
Irequencies.





















Figure 5.9: Simulated Return Loss for the tri-band PIFA by Dou et al.


















Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 62

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00 [Deg]
920MHz 1.82GHz 1.9GHz

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30





















Figure 5.10: Radiation Pattern of the tri-band PIFA in the x-z plane

Form the radiation pattern in Figure 5.10, it can be clearly seen that the tri-band PIFA
by Dou et al. is able to achieve an omnidirectional radiation pattern.

With the results Irom Figure 5.9 and 5.10, it can be concluded that this antenna is able
to operate with three Irequency bands, along with the good characteristics oI a PIFA i.e.
being small in size and able to have an omnidirectional radiation pattern.
Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 63
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
Frequency [MHz]

S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]

5.4 Quad Band PIFA

Last oI all, the main objective Ior this thesis is achieved thru the Iollowing results Ior
the quad band PIFA. This set oI optimised results is based on the design shown in
Figure 4.13, which was simulated. The Iollowing graph will show the return losses Ior
the Iinal antenna design that produce Iour-Irequency bands operation.














Figure 5.11: Simulated Return Loss for Quad Band PIFA


From this graph it can be observe that the Iour Irequency bands are centred at 870MHZ,
1.8GHz, 2.04GHz and 2.4GHz, with bandwidths Ior S11_ 10dB oI 329MHz
(37.82°), 172MHz (9.56°), 192MHz (9.41°), and 247MHz (10.29°) respectively.
They are located in the Irequency ranges oI 774 1103MHz Ior GSM900 operation,
1708 1880MHz Ior DCS1800 operation, 1983 2175 MHz Ior UMTS operation, and
lastly 2373 2620MHz Ior Bluetooth operation.





Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 64



Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00
[Deg]
870MHz 1.8GHz 2.04GHz 2.4GHz

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

0
-5
-10
-15
-20
The Iar-Iield radiation patterns Ior each Irequency band oI the quad band PIFA are
obtained, and shown in Figure 5.12 is superimposed oI Iour gain radiation patterns, in
the azimuthal plane (x-z plane).













Figure 5.12: Far Field Gain of the Quad Band PIFA in the x-z plane

From the analysis oI the graph, it can be seen Irom the Iour radiation patterns that
generally, there is a higher gain towards the direction between 0 ÷ 0´ to 180´. The lower
gain which is in the direction oI 0 ÷ 90´ is believed to be cause by the three slots that are
etched onto the antenna. It can also be observed that the gain on the leIt side oI the
graph Ior 1.8GHz, 2.04GHz and 2.4GHz gets lower as the Irequency increase, which is
probably due to the increase oI slot length. Nevertheless, these radiation patterns are
omnidirectional at all Irequencies, which demonstrates that the antenna oIIers broad
beamwidth Ior use on handheld transceivers.

The Iar-Iield radiation pattern Ior each Irequency band oI the quad band PIFA is also
obtained, and shown in Figure 5.13, 5.14, 5.15 and 5.16 is the distribution oI the electric
Iield, E
0
and E
4
in the azimuthal plane (x-z plane).
Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 65

EIectric Far-FieId vs AngIe

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00
[Deg]
E_Theta E_Phi

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30

EIectric Far-FieId vs AngIe

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00
[Deg]
E_Theta E_Phi

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30














Figure 5.13: Radiation Pattern of the Quad Band PIFA at 870MHz in the x-z plane
















Figure 5.14: Radiation Pattern of the Quad Band PIFA at 1.8GHz in the x-z plane
Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 66

EIectric Far-FieId vs AngIe

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00
[Deg]
E_Theta E_Phi

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

10
0
-10
-20
-30

EIectric Far-FieId vs AngIe

Theta [Deg] at Phi = 0.00
[Deg]
E_Theta E_Phi

345º
330º
315º
300º
285º
270º
255º
240º
225º
210º
195º
180º
165º
150º
135º
120º
105º
90º
75º
60º
45º
30º
15º

5
0
-5
-10
-15
-20
-25
-30














Figure 5.15: Radiation Pattern of the Quad Band PIFA at 2.04GHz in the x-z plane















Figure 5.16: Radiation Pattern of the Quad Band PIFA at 2.4GHz in the x-z plane

Chapter 5: Results and Discussions
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 67
RefIection Coefficient vs Frequency
Frequency [MHz]
4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500
S
_
1
1

[
d
B
]
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
-7
-8
-9
-10
-11
-12
-13
-14
-15
-16
-17
-18
-19
Based on the Iour graphs (Figure 5.13, 5.14, 5.15 & 5.16), the E-Phi and E-Theta
polarisations will be examined. It can be seen that Ior 870MHz, 1.8GHz and 2.04GHz
the gain oI the antenna is greatly inIluenced by the dominant E-Phi Iield (vertical
polarisation). However Ior 2.4GHz the gain oI the antenna is greatly inIluenced by the
dominant E-Theta Iield (horizontal polarisation). Next Irom the radiation patterns a dip
at around 0 ÷ 0´ and 180´ can be seen this is probably due to the Ieed source which is
shorted to the ground plane (same as what happened in the single band PIFA).
Nevertheless, these radiation patterns are omnidirectional at all Irequencies.


5.5 Extra Resonant Mode of the PIFA

It was seldom known to people that PIFA has an extra resonant mode. This extra
resonant mode was discovered during the initial process antenna design and much
conIusion was caused. It can be seen Irom Figure 5.17, Ior a 900MHz PIFA, there is an
extra resonant mode at around 3GHz. Nevertheless, this phenomenon was later Iound to
be a characteristic oI the Inverted-F Antenna (according to Reidy in |9|).













Figure 5.17: Return Loss Curve of the 900MHz PIFA with an extra resonant mode
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Future Work
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 68
Chapter 6


Conclusion and Future Work



During the last decade, the mobile radio communications industry has grew at an
incredible rate. This phenomenon has not only seen a large increase oI mobile phone
subscribers worldwide but also produced more new communication systems. It is due to
these reasons that the demand Ior multi-band antenna increases. With the advancement
in technology, designs oI portable communications devices such as mobile phones have
now become smaller and more compact, thus requiring antenna to be small and low
proIile. ThereIore, the purpose oI this thesis is to design a multi-band antenna, Ior use
on portable communications devices, which provides an embedded solution.

The main objective oI this thesis is achieved with a new antenna designed that operates
at 4 Irequency bands. And it can be integrated with any handheld devices given its low
proIile and small size characteristics. However, this is done through a very complex and
time-consuming process where problems were Iaced constantly. Nevertheless, many
interesting characteristics oI the antenna have been uncovered and Ilattering results are
achieved.

UnIortunately, due to time constraint and lack oI logistic support, Iurther study on the
quad band antenna needs to be carried out in order to prove that it is Ieasible, and can be
used on a handheld transceiver. This includes the development oI an antenna prototype
to veriIy the characteristics and perIormance oI the antenna, to study the perIormance oI
the antenna with human interaction and investigate the SpeciIic Absorption Rate (SAR)
distribution in a human model. Nevertheless, this thesis project is still deemed to be
successIul as most aspects oI the Quad Band Planar Inverted-F Antenna had been
examined and simulation results show that the antenna is suitable Ior use on a handheld
Chapter 6: Conclusion and Future Work
Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 69
transceiver. Besides, it also has been shown that the simulation results obtained adhere
to the theory.

There are a Iew conclusions that can be drawn Irom this thesis:
i) The designed multi-band antenna, built on PIFA design, is very sensitive to
any changes to the dimension oI the structure including the ground plane.
ii) The Spatial Network Method by Hirasawa et al. is very useIul in
understanding the main properties oI PIFA.
iii) PIFA in general have two very good characteristics, which is small in size
and having omnidirectional radiation pattern.

































Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 70
/

|1| T.S. Rappaport, 'Wireless Communications, Principles & Practice¨, Prentice
Hall, 2002

|2| K. Hirasawa & M. Haneishi, 'Analysis, Design, and Measurement oI Small and
Low-ProIile Antennas¨, Artech House, Inc, 1992

|3| Ya Jun Wang, Yeow Beng Gan, & Ching Kwang Lee, 'A Broadband and
Compact MSA IMT-2000, DECT, AND Bluetooth Integrated Handsets¨,
Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, Vol. 32, No. 3, 2002

|4| Yong-Xin Guo, Kwai-Mun Luk, Kai-Fong Lee, & Ricky Chair, ' A Quarter
Wave U-Shaped Patch Antenna with Two Unequal Arms Ior Wideband and
Dual Frequency Operation¨, 2001 IEEE Antennas & Propagation Society
International Symposium, Vol. 4, pp. 54 57, 2001

|5| Z.D Liu, P.S Hall, & D Wake, 'Dual Frequency Planar Inverted-F Antenna¨,
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Volume 45, No.10, pp. 1451
1457, October 1997

|6| Shyh-Tirng Fang, & Jyh-wen Sheen, 'A Planar Triple-Band Antenna Ior
GSM/DCS/GPS Operations¨, 2001 IEEE Antennas & Propagation Society
International Symposium, Volume 2, pp. 136 139, July 2001

|7| Eugene Borisov, & Thomas Moore, 'A Quad-Band Stubby Antenna Ior Portable
Wireless Devices¨, 2001 IEEE Antennas & Propagation Society International
Symposium, Volume 4, pp. 542 544, 2001

|8| K. Fujimoto, A. Henderson, K. Hirasawa & J.R. James, 'Small Antennas¨,
Research Study Press, 1987


Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 71
|9| Michael Reidy, 'The Planar Inverted-F Antenna¨, Thesis, University oI
Queensland, 1997

|10| Virga, K.L., & Rahmat Sammi, 'Low-proIile enhanced-bandwidth PIFA
antennas Ior wireless communications packaging¨, IEEE Transactions on
Microwave Theory Techniques, Volume 45, pp. 1879 1888, 1997

|11| Pekka Salonen, Lauri Sydänheimo, Mikko Keskilammi, & Markku Kivikoski,
'A Small Planar Inverted-F Antenna Ior Wearable Applications¨, Proceedings
oI the Third International Syposium on Wearable Computers, pp. 95 100, 1999

|12| Weiping Dou, & M.Y.W. Chia, ' E-shaped Planar Inverted-F Antenna with low-
absorption Ior triple-band operation in cellular phones¨, International Journal oI
Electronics, Volume 88, No. 5, pp. 575 585, 2001













Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 72

22),;



























Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 73
** Quad Band PIFA design program Ior use on FEKO

** Scaling Iactor (dimensions in mm)
SF 1 0.001

** Parameters
#Ireq1 ÷ 900.0e6
#lambda1 ÷ #c0/#Ireq1*1000 ** Calculation oI the wavelength
#Ireq2 ÷ 1800.0e6
#lambda2 ÷ #c0/#Ireq2*1000 ** Calculation oI the wavelength
#Ireq3 ÷ 2000.0e6
#lambda3 ÷ #c0/#Ireq3*1000 ** Calculation oI the wavelength
#diam ÷ 1.3 ** Diameter oI the Ieeding probe
#tri¸len ÷ #lambda3/13
#seglen ÷ #lambda3/13
#segrad ÷ #diam/2

** Dimensions oI PIFA
#Ly ÷ 51.5-#Wd ** Length oI the antenna (y-axis)
#Wx ÷ 60.0 ** Width oI the antenna (x-axis)
#L1 ÷ 23.6 ** Length oI slot 1
#L2 ÷ 29.9 ** Length oI slot 2
#Wa ÷ 23.9 ** Width a
#Wc ÷ 7.2 ** Width c
#Wd ÷ 13.0 **Width d
#L3 ÷ 33.35 **Length oI slot 3
#S3 ÷ 2.0 **Width oI slot 3
#Ld ÷ #Wd¹#S3
#S1 ÷ 2.0 ** Width oI Slot1
#S2 ÷ #S1 ** Width oI Slot2
#G1 ÷ 6.0 ** Position oI shorting strip 1
#G2 ÷ 7.0 ** Position oI shorting strip 2
#F ÷ -8.0 ** Position oI the Ieeding probe
#d ÷ 5.5 ** Width oI the shorting strip
#h ÷ 4.0 ** Height oI the PIFA
#Wb ÷ #Ly-#Wa-#Wc-#S1-#S2 ** Width b

#GG1 ÷ #G1¹#d
#GG2 ÷ #G2¹#d
#GG3 ÷ #G3¹#d
#t ÷ #Ly-#Wa
#m ÷ #Wx/2 ** midpoint position


** Dimensions oI ground
#a1 ÷ #m¹5 ** X-axis
#a2 ÷ 70 ** Y-axis


Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 74
** DeIine points Ior PIFA
IP #segrad #tri¸len #seglen 5.0
** DeIine points Ior the Ioam
DP F1 -#m -#Wa #h
DP F2 #m #t¹#Ld 0
QU F2 F1 1.02 0.0000001

** DeIine points Ior PIFA X Y Z
DP P1 -#m -#Wa #h
DP P2 #F -#Wa #h
DP P3 #m -#Wa #h
DP P4 #m 0 #h
DP P5 #L1-#m 0 #h
DP P6 -#m 0 #h
DP P7 -#m #S1 #h
DP P8 #L1-#m #S1 #h
DP P9 #m #S1 #h
DP P10 #m #Wb¹#S1 #h
DP P11 #L2-#m #Wb¹#S1 #h
DP P12 -#m #Wb¹#S1 #h
DP P13 -#m #Wb¹#S1*2 #h
DP P14 #L2-#m #Wb¹#S1*2 #h
DP P15 #m #Wb¹#S1*2 #h
DP P16 #m #Ly-#Wa #h
DP P17 #L2-#m #Ly-#Wa #h
DP P18 -#m #Ly-#Wa #h

**Add on
DP A1 -#m #t¹#S3 #h
DP A2 #L2-#m #t¹#S3 #h
DP A3 #m #t¹#S3 #h
DP A4 #m #t¹#Ld #h
DP A5 #L2-#m #t¹#Ld #h
DP A6 -#m #t¹#Ld #h
DP A7 #L3-#m #t¹#S3 #h
DP A8 #L3-#m #Ly-#Wa #h


** DeIine point Ior shorting strips
DP P21 #m -#Wa¹#G2 #h
DP P22 #m -#Wa¹#GG2 #h
DP P23 #m -#Wa¹#GG2 0
DP P24 #m -#Wa¹#G2 0
DP P31 #m-#G1 -#Wa #h
DP P32 #m-#GG1 -#Wa #h
DP P33 #m-#GG1 -#Wa 0
DP P34 #m-#G1 -#Wa 0


Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 75
DP P51 #m-#G3 #t¹#Ld #h
DP P52 #m-#GG3 #t¹#Ld #h
DP P53 #m-#GG3 #t¹#Ld 0
DP P54 #m-#G3 #t¹#Ld 0


** Generated the PIFA
LA 1
PM P31 P32 P3 P21 P22 P4 P5 P6 P1 P2
BP P9 P8 P5 P4
BQ P11 P12 P7 P8
BQ P10 P11 P8 P9
BP P15 P14 P11 P10
PM P13 P14 P15 P16 P17 A8 P18
PM A1 A7 A2 A3 A4 P51 P52 A5 A6
PM A8 A7 A2 A3 P16 P17


** Generated the Shorting strips
LA 2
BP P21 P24 P23 P22
BP P31 P32 P33 P34


** DeIine point Ior Gound plane
DP P41 #a1 #a2 0
DP P42 #a1 -#Wa 0
DP P43 -#a1 -#Wa 0
DP P44 -#a1 #a2 0


** DeIine segment Ior the Ieeding probe
** DeIine axis X Y Z
DP S1 #F -#Wa #h
DP S2 #F -#Wa 0

** DeIine label Ior the Ieeding probe
LA 3
BL S2 S1

** Generate the Ground Plane
LA 0
PM P41 P44 P43 S2 P33 P34 P42


** End oI the geometry input
EG 0 0 0 0 0
PS 0 0 1 0

Multi-Band Antenna Ior Handheld Transceivers 76


** Load the Ieed segment with 50ohm impedance
LZ 3 50

** Excitation
FR 200 2 600e6 2700e6
A1 0 3 1 0
PW 1 0 1.0

** Calculates the Iar Iield in 2 vertical planes
FF 1 72 72 1 0.0 0.0 5.0 5.0

** Calculates the electric & magnetic near Iields along the x axis
FE 7

EN
** End


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. 6 1 63 0 0 " D $+ " 0 / %% % 8 " E " 8 . !. 0" " " :66 F. 0 0 = 6I 0 " 0 . F#6 0 6 " . 6 .3 # = ( $ . 2 0 E 6/ *. 8 6= GH . 6& E B> 8 8 6 1 6B E2 0 (> " 8 0 .!=/ + ( >? 5 = . 1 !.8 D $ . >? 5 1 !.! 8 A% " ' " 8 8 63 6 +6 < 2 3 8 08 GH 0 6 0" " 0 " *.

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7 0 " 4 6 5G H . 2 E 3 6 B% % E . 6 0 0 ". G H2 0 ( *. ! . >? 9 " - / . " 8 8 * L 0 " .5 2 " " 0 0 0 " 8 * 1 21 0 E " . " * -* 2 / 0 8 .8 D $ .7 . 8 0 " -* / . !. 6 8 8 6 0 $ " . A% % E 0 3 -* / ( . 8 8 L 1 . " " 8 " " " 8 " 8 6 7 6/ " 63 6 E M! 0 6 0 . A% 0 A 0 " 8 C . 1 !. = 21 ( + .

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= ( AB B C A < >? ! = . .8 =D - / * 1 5: .

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8 =D - / * 1 5.3"= 0 ' ' < C >? ! < -/* " 9 8 " ! T ! QU 2 3 =6 0 U 0 . 1 0 1 1 8 6 .6 ' . 0 8 0 0 . 8 .

5. 0 %S .9 ' " 0 8 -/* C0 " 0 . .6 60 0 " " 0 0 ! ! " *. =6 . 0 8 " 2 3 =6 1 2 =3 . =6 =6 6 ! 6 8 ! -/* 6 " " 0 B . ! S " . ! 7 Q ! ! 1 9 8 " 2 3 =6 * 1 9 8 "D ! T ! T T. .8 =D - / * 0 . Q% ! T ! T QU 2 =3 =6 0 0 . 0 " =I6 9 8 "D Q 7 T2 L 3 T 2 L 73 ! ! 2 3 =6 Q ! ! V 2( =63 0 Q. ! Q " 9 8 " ! T QU 2 3 =6 0 . 1 6 8 . . QU 2 =3 =6 5.

8 2 .8 0 1 53 = . S! 0 0 " 0 . " 1 0 0 6 N . 8 6 . -/* 0 A . 6 ( .3 D ' ' 21 ' ' < +3 > ? ! 8 . ! Q 6 " 7 =6 3 .8 0 " N . < $ / 0 . * 0 8 .8 =D - / * / *. 0 =6 0 ! 0 8 8 ..

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E = = . 8 " 0 . 6 8 8 . . 08 0 8 " " 9 8 0 8 " -* / -* 6 / 8 " " " . " 0 3 -* C / 0 7 . 8 1 0 E . " . . 2 "" 8 8 6 . . 6 H0 G 6 0 8 8 3? 6 0 " 2 . " . " 8 8 0 2 .! # . . B% % 6/ . M . > A% > % " 8 / 3 6 * -* / 8 " 8 . . " 8 . . . . 0 76 0 " .+ 9 " 6 0 " -* 2 / 6G H 0 8 " -* " $ / " 8 . . 8 . 6/ $ C 6/ 0 -* . 8 66) 3 8 " " . " 1 ." 0 " .* 6) / 8 8 G%6 H . " ! " . .8 D . 7. . 6 2/ 3 -* 8 . 0 . .

" 8 8 2$ / . 8 . 0 3 " 8 " 8 " 6 7 " 0 " 6 8 " 8 6 0 . 7 0 . .8 D . 1 6 " 9 1 0 " " 0 " 8 6 = . 1 . . 8 " . 0 " . 6 0 % 1 1 8 8 . 6 0 1 . 0 0 0 " 0 8 8 $. 0 0 0 8 8 8 1 " 8 8 " 8 6$ 1 " > B% % " . 0 " 8 $ 1 6 6 0 * 0 7 8 " " " . 0 " 6 6 " 0 8 0 . " -* 6 / 8 1 -* / 6 0 " " 8 " 6/ 8 .

. " " 8 8 . 0 $ )8 2)3 2. .88 9 ) .6 " 6 6 + 88 9 * +<) 9 6 8 " 0 0 . 3 . 2 3 1 6 6 0 ) " 7 0 " 1 " " 8 6 . 2 8 " . . . " @ * +<) 2# ! " " ! )8 8 6 8 . * +<) " " 1 " . + .! -) *. " 3 " 88 ) 8 . * +<) + * +<) 8 > 8 * +<)6 = ( . 0 . . 6 ). $ 88 9 . . 0 . $ 1 . 2 .. $6 * +<) + * +<) 9 . . -* / 0 0 0 8 7 . . 8 " 9 " @ " @ " 6 . 7. $3 / 6 8 " .! 9 . . 0 . . . * +<)6 / . 3 * +<) " " " 8 0 > 8 1 !- . ' #23 7 ! .8 D .%8 .5 0 ) ! .

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8 . .* 0 / 9 0 > '( 6 2 ( % 5 5 % : ! A Y 1 . * 0 .8 0 " . * "D 8 A% % E.4= 2 / + 1 E"" C2 1 ' * 8 *.6 1 = E"" C2 1 = . 6 ' 0 1 6 .8 D . 8 '( 6 7. 6 1 7.

8 (( 6 7.E= 1 36"" C2 1 * > E D > =( 6 2 B 37 (( 6 5 3 ' Y 1 . * B% % E D > =( 6 2 B 3: 6 ( 5 ! ' Y 1 . " 1 0 .3"= 1 E"" C2 1 . 0 6* -* / A% % 0 . 8 .* 6 0 / 1 0 " . 8 (( 6 7. E.8 D . 8 .

" " -* 6 / -* 6 / 8 . -* 0 / 1 " 1 .8 D . 8 " ( . 8 . * 6> E D > 6 ( 2 B 35 & ! 5 = B Y 1 . 8 (( 6 7. 08 . " 9 8 8 -* 0 7 / 8 0 .33= 1 E"" C2 1 * . .

G . / 6 0 . . 8 8 0 8 " 0 " $ " 6 L 6 & 6 0 6 L= 6 " 1 8 0 & .9 8 -* / " $ C 21 .8 D . . ! . ( 21 0 " 0 8 7 0 . -* / 0 1 " .* 6* . 7. 1 " -* / " $ C 6 " * +<)6 1 7. 8 ".3 =. " 0 " 8 0 . 0 0 7 6 " " .

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