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Karl Pearson

"not one subject in the universe is unworthy of study."

-Pearson was born in London, England, on March 27, 1857, to William Pearson, a lawyer, and Fanny Smith, and was brought up in an upper-middle class family with his brother and sister [2] -Karl was educated at home up to the age of nine years, after which he was sent to University College School, London. He studied there until he was sixteen, but was forced to leave due to illness. A private tutor was hired to teach him at home and he took the Cambridge Scholarship Examinations in 1875. Karl placed second in the examinations, and won a scholarship to King's College, Cambridge where he studied mathematics, philosophy, religion, and literature [2] -He then spent part of 1879-1880 studying medieval and 16th century German literature at the Universities of Berlin and Heidelberg. Here Pearson also began to study physics [4, p. 326] -His next career move was to Lincoln's Inn, where he read law until 1881 (although he never practiced). After this, he returned to mathematics, deputizing for the mathematics professor at King's College, London in 1881 and for the professor at University College, London in 1883. In 1884, he was appointed to the Goldshmid Chair of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics at University College, London. In 1891 he was appointed to the professorship of Geometry at Gresham College [2] -He married Maria Sharpe in 1890, and they had three children. Maria died in 1928, and Pearson married Margaret V. Child, a colleague at University College, the following year. [2] -In 1892, Pearson published The Grammar of Science, a book discussing many topics such as physics, motion, matter, probability, and correlation. Themes from this book later became part of scientist s theories, including Einstein. This book even discussed antimatter and the fourth dimension [4, p. 326] -As you can see, Pearson now in his thirties, still had not begun work in the field of statistics

& Robertson. Weldon. when Karl met W. Retrieved from: <http://www-history.standrews. used to predict the research results. J. Pearson believed that mathematicians could discover new knowledge in biology and heredity [3] -Pearson introduced the concept of the standard as a measure of the variance within a population or sample. a statistic that refers to the average distance from the mean score for any score within the data set. is a measure of the strength of the relationship between variables and is his best-known contribution to the field of statistics [3] -In 1900. known as the chi-square. S. epidemiology. Cambridge. The second event was when Weldon introduced Pearson to Francis Galton.uk/Biographies/Pearson. 10.mcs. and used this method to determine the significance of the statistical difference between groups [3] -He also developed the theory of correlation and the concept of regression. (1974).html> Porter. and therefore suggests the average amount of variance to be found within the group for that variable [3] -Pearson also formulated a method. Pearson became the cofounder (with Galton and Weldon) of Biometrika.com/biography/karl-pearsonsoc/#bro_copy> Stigler.bookrags. The first was in 1891. (2005). (2003). Dictionary of Scientific Biography. New York: Scribner s O Connor. T.ac. By making use of the broader concept of correlation. of measuring the likelihood that an observed relation is in fact due to chance.R. cousin of Charles Darwin. p. he laid the groundwork for the development of the field of statistics in the twentieth century [3] References: [1] [2] Eisenhart. also known as the Pearson r. (1986). He called this standard deviation. a zoologist who had some interesting problems requiring quantitative solutions. a journal devoted to the statistical study of biological problems. anthropometry. vol. The History of Statistics. Mass. between two events or situations..F. p. 447-473] -In 1911 he founded the world's first university statistics department at University College. and encompassed the fields of biology. USA: Belknap Press [3] [4] . Karl Pearson. who was interested in aspects of evolution such as heredity and eugenics [3] -Pearson saw that there might be a connection. Karl Pearson. His correlation. Pearson edited the journal until his death and made it into the world's leading medium for the discussion of statistical theory and practice [1.Contributions to Statistics -Two events changed the course of Pearson s career. Retrieved from: <http://www. In developing ways to analyze and represent scientific observations. medicine and social history [3] -Karl Pearson is considered the founder of the science of statistics. C. London [1. E. or correlation. 447-473] -Pearson's work was all-embracing in the wide application and development of mathematical statistics.

in England        Pearson received recognition across a range of disciplines including 1896: elected FRS: Fellow of the Royal Society[2] 1898: awarded the Darwin Medal 1911: awarded the honorary degree of LLD from the University of St Andrews 1911: awarded a DSc from University of London 1920: offered (and refused) the OBE 1935: offered (and refused) a knighthood .He retired in 1933 at age 77. Pearson died on April 27. 1936.