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AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes

Chapter 14: Acids and Bases

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14.1 The Nature of Acids and Bases Arrhenius concept of acids and bases: acids produce H+ in aqueous solution; bases produce OH-. This was ground-breaking at the time but limited to aqueous systems and bases with hydroxide only. Brønsted-Lowry model: an acid is a proton donor (H+); a base is a proton acceptor HA (aq) + H2O (l) ↔ H3O+ (aq) + A- (aq) acid base conjugate acid conjugate base


conjugate base is everything left of the acid molecule after the proton is lost the conjugate acid is formed when a proton is transferred to the original base conjugate acid-base pair consists of two substances related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton there is a competition for the proton between the two bases: H2O and A-. The strength of the bases affects the equilibrium position!

• • •

[H + ][A − ] the equilibrium expression for the acid-base reaction is: Ka = [H ] A

o Ka is the acid dissociation constant o the proton can be written as either H+ or H3O+ o [H2O] is not included in the expression because it is a pure liquid, which is
dissociation of an acid: HA ↔ H+ + A- and Ka is used for both reactions  do Sample Exercise 14.1 (especially part e!!)

o this equilibrium expression is the same as for the straightforward

essentially constant

Brønsted-Lowry is not limited to aqueous phase reactions! Here is another B-L acidbase reaction: NH3 (g) + HCl (g) ↔ NH4Cl (s) In this case, HCl has donated a proton to NH3 to make NH4+ and Cl-.

14.2 Acid Strength The strength of an acid is defined by the equilibrium position of the dissociation (ionization) reaction: HA (aq) + H2O (l) ↔ H3O+ (aq) + A- (aq)

strong acid: equilibrium lies far to the right—almost all the acid is ionized and Ka is very large. A strong acid has a weak conjugate base: the base has a low affinity for the proton. We can say that a strong acid has a conjugate base that is much weaker than water (water molecules win the competition for H+ ions). weak acid: the equilibrium lies far to the left; most of the acid is still present as HA and Ka is very small. Weak acids have strong conjugate bases—much stronger than water. o strong acids: H2SO4 (*), HCl, HNO3, HClO4 o *note that for H2SO4, the first dissociation is very strong: H2SO4 → H+ + HSO4- but the second dissociation is very weak: HSO4- ↔ H+ + SO42o weak acids: H3PO4, HNO2, HOCl, CH3COOH (acetic acid, also written as HC2H3O2), C6H5COOH (benzoic acid)

Gano Fall 08

So it must be “using up” excess heat. NO2-.< H2O < F.7 14. Use LeChatelier’s Principle to determine if the reaction 2H2O ↔ H3O+ + OH.4 a) at 60°C. H2O is a stronger base than the conjugate base of a strong acid (like Cl-) but weaker than the conjugate base of a weak acid (like F-). [H3O+] = [OH-] = 1 x 10-7 M so Kw = 1 x 10-14 o this is true for ANY aqueous solution!  do Sample Exercise 14. We have added heat (from 25°C) and the Kw has gotten larger.< CNamphoteric: can behave as either an acid or a base. Kw = 1 x 10-13. So the correct order is: weakest= Cl.2 Arrange the following according to base strength: H2O.2 oxyacids: the acidic proton is attached to an oxygen atom (there are both weak and strong oxyacids) organic acids: these contain a carbon atom backbone.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes • • • p.5 Calculating the pH of Weak Acid Solutions Gano Fall 08 . 100x more than pH = 5!!  do Sample Exercises 14. CNHCl is a very strong acid. making a larger concentration of ions.4 Calculating the pH of Strong Acid Solutions A strong acid completely dissociates in aqueous solution.< NO2. so Cl.3 The pH Scale pH = -log[H+] sig figs: the number of decimal places in the log equals the number of sig figs in the original number!! ex: [H+] = 1.00 2 sig figs 2 decimal places!! pH = 3 is 10x more concentrated than pH = 4.is exothermic or endothermic. hydrohalic acids: the acidic proton is attached to a halide ion (HX). Sample Exercise 14. F-. and can actually autoionize: H2O + H2O ↔ H3O+ + OHOne water molecule is acting as a base. and the reaction is therefore endothermic. Water is the most common amphoteric material. b) [H3O+] = [OH-] = 1x10 − 13 • 14. Cl-. we can ignore the contribution of H+ from the autoionization of water. in order to calculate the pH.5 and 14. These are usually weak acids. and the other is acting as an acid! (Liquid ammonia can also autoionize: 2NH3 (l) ↔ NH4+ + NH2-) o we can write an equilibrium expression for water: Kw = [H3O+][OH-] where Kw is the ion-product constant or dissociation constant for water o at 25°C in neutral water.is the weakest base.0 x 10-9 pH = 9. so the reaction has shifted to the right.  do Sample Exercise 14.6 14. compare the Ka for the acid to determine base strength. For the others. The only acidic proton is the one in the carboxyl group.3 Sample Exercise 14. and commonly contain a carboxyl group: COOH.

100 -x .3 3.7 x 10-2 = [H+] 1 4. So we have mostly HF and H2O 2.9 pH of Weak Acid Mixtures Gano Fall 08 . p. which is much less 0.2 x 10-4) 1.2 x 10-4 We can safely assume.this is a larger effect than water’s autoionization.5 x 10-8 and x = 5.x ] = 7.7 x 10-2) = 1.59%. then it is reasonable to have ignored it. that 0. Find pH: pH = -log[H+] = -log(2. List the major species in solution: we know that HF is a weak acid.1 So Ka = x2 = 3.100-x ↔ H+ 0 +x x OCl0 +x x [x][x] [0. EXAMPLE: Calculate the pH of a 1.100M solution of hypochlorous acid.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes We must go very systematically through these types of problems.1 – x ≈ 0. since Ka is so small.00M -x 1.5 x 10-8 We can assume. Ka = 3.9 x 10-5 and pH = 4. Write the equilibrium expression: Ka = [H + ][F [H ] F − ] Use an ICE chart as we did before for equilibrium problems: HF 1.00M solution of HF (Ka = 7. If x is less than 5% of [HA]0.5 x 10-8 HOCl ↔ H+ + OCl. 5.7%.57 Sample Exercise 14. Since 2. that 1 – x ≈ 1. Initial Change Equilibrium Ka = HOCl 0.7x10 1 −2 x100% = 2.1 . List the species that can produce H+ ions: HF ↔ H+ + FKa = 7.9 x 10-5 = [H+] 0 .2 x 10-4 + H2O ↔ H + OH Kw = 1 x 10-14 But water’s contribution is much less (1010) than HF’s and can basically be ignored.8 Calculate the pH of a 0. HOCl. that was a valid assumption.23 Sample Exercise 14.2 x 10-4 and x = 2.x] = 3.00-x ↔ Initial Change Equilibrium Ka = H+ 0 +x x F0 +x x [x ] ][x [1 . Check the reasonableness of the answer: Ka values are typically known to + 5%. So Ka = x2 = 7. since Ka is so small.1 than 5%! So [H+] = 5.9x10 −5 Check that our assumption was valid: x100% = 0.1 5.

5 x 10-2 and pH = 1. the percent dissociation increases as the acid becomes more dilute!!! Sample Exercise 14.4 ↔ Initial Change Equilibrium Ka = H+ 0 +x x NO20 +x x [x ] ][x [5 .7 x 10 −2 x 100% = 2. having H+ ions in solution causes equilibrium to shift to the left AND the acid is very very weak). So Ka = 6.5x10 −2 Check that our assumption was valid: x100% = 0. since Ka is so small. that 5– x ≈ 5 x2 = 4.00 • percent dissociation: the amount of a weak acid that has dissociated in achieving equilibrium. which is affected by the H+ released by HNO2: ↔ HCN H+ CNInitial 1 4.7 x 10-2 M and the starting concentration was 1.35 Now we can find [CN-]. So % dissociation = 2. [H+] = 2.00 M HNO2 (Ka = 4.7% 1.00 M.00 • For a given weak acid.4 x 10-8 M.00 -x 5-x p.2 x 10-10 + 2HNO2 ↔ H + NO Ka = 4.2 x 10-10) and 5.2 x 10-10 = [CN-] = 1. Three things can produce H+: HCN ↔ H+ + CNKa = 6.5 x 10-2 (according to LeChatelier.5 x 10-2 0 Change -x +x +x Equilibrium 1-x 4. The dominant effect is from the HNO2. which itself is 104 stronger than H2O.90%.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes Calculate the pH of a solution with 1.0 x 10-4 We can assume.0 x 10-4). Also calculate [CN-] at equilibrium. HNO2 5.10 Calculate the % dissociation for acetic acid (Ka = 1.5 x 10-2 +x x But again we can assume that x is very small as compared to x and compared to 4.x ] = 4.0 x 10-4 and x = 4. % dissociation = amount dissociate d (M) x 100% initial concentrat ion (M) For our previous example with HF.8 x 10-5) for each: Gano Fall 08 . which is 106 times smaller than [H+] (4.5 x 10-2 = [H+] 5 4.00 M HCN (Ka = 6. which is much less 5 So Ka = than 5%! So [H+] = 4.0 x 10-4 H2O ↔ H+ + OHKw = 1 x 10-14 6 But HNO2 is 10 times stronger of an acid than HCN.5x10 −2 )[CN − ] and 1.

1-x x2 1 4.3 x 10 −3 x 100 = 1. % dissociation increases as [HA]0 decreases o this occurs because diluting an acid causes the equilibrium to shift to the right.00 M HC2H3O2 HC2H3O2 1 -x 1-x p.1 – x = 0.42% 1. % dissociation = [HC3H5O3] = 0. Understand hypochlorite equilibrium!!! Sample Exercise 14. so Ka = 1.6 Bases [H + ] x 100 = 3.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes a) 1. Hydroxides of Group II (alkali earth) elements are also strong but are not very soluble.1 Ka = so [H+] = (0. so are not used much in lab).0037 − [H + ][C 3 H 5 O 3 ] (.3% 0.1 [C3H5O3-] = [H+] = .00 and % dissociation = ↔ Initial Change Equilibrium H+ 0 +x x C2H3O20 +x x Assume that x << 0. [H+] decreases and [HA]0 decreases o for any weak acid HA.037) = . 0037 ) 2 = = 1.4 x 10-4 [HC 3 H 5 O 3 ] 0. Although the actual amount of ions produced is fewer. the percent of the original acid is greater!!  Read Household Chemistry. Gano Fall 08 . All hydroxides of Group I elements are strong bases (the ones besides NaOH and KOH are expensive.2 x 10 −3 x 100 = 0.1.1 -x 0.2 x 10-3 M b) 0.7% dissociated.8 x 10-5 = So x = [H+] = 1.1 1.5 ↔ Initial Change Equilibrium H+ 0 +x x C2H3O20 +x x Assume that x << 1.3 x 10-3 M • x2 0 .0037 14.1 • strong bases: completely dissociate in aqueous solution.11 In a 0.1 and % dissociation = We can get a general trend from this problem o for any weak acid HA. the acid is 3.1)(.1 M HC2H3O2 HC2H3O2 0.100 M solution of lactic acid (HC3H5O3).7% 0. so Ka = 1.8 x 10-5 = So x = [H+] = 4. towards more ions. p 679. Calculate Ka.

But there are plenty of OH.12 o antacids are often suspensions of metal hydroxides like Al(OH)3 or Mg(OH)2.(aq) base acid conj. the equilibrium for ammonia will dominate: Kb = [NH + ][OH − ] 4 [NH 3 ] = 1. base o these bases usually have one unshared pair of electrons that can bond with a proton. HCO3. So Kb is small and they are usually weak bases.8 x 10-5). for H+. a very strong base. o lime-soda process is used to soften water. but when in water. acid conj.0 M solution of NH3 (Kb = 1.8 x 10-5 + H2O ↔ H + OH Kw = 1 x 10-14 But since Kb >> Kw. they increase [OH-]: NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) ↔ NH4+ (aq) + OH. or stomach. esophagus.0 -x 15-x ↔ NH4+ 0 +x x OH0 +x x Gano Fall 08 .6 Low solubility prevents large OH.concentrations in the mouth.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes p. o Ca(OH)2 is called slaked lime and is used to neutralize SO2 from power plant exhausts (remember the section on acid rain?).(aq) → 2CaCO3 (s) + 2H2O (l) Ca2+ comes from hard water.8 x 10-5 Initial Change Equilibrium NH3 15. acid conj. Sample Exercise 14. Both ammonia and water produce [OH-]: NH3 (aq) + H2O (l) ↔ NH4+ (aq) + OH.ions available. • many proton acceptors don’t contain OH-. more of the salt dissolves. Bases like B must always compete with OH-.(aq) Kb = 1. and as the neutralization proceeds.comes from soda ash + water  do Sample Exercise 14. This often (but not always) happens with nitrogen:      methylamine CH3NH2 dimethylamine (CH3)2NH trimethylamine (CH3)3N ethylamine C2H5NH2 N pyridine all have the structure X N : X X  Read Chemical Impact—Amines : • The general equation for a base in water is (aq) Kb = B (aq) + H2O (l) base acid ↔ BH+ (aq) + OH- conj. base • [BH ][OH [B] + − ] Kb always refers to the reaction of a base with water to form a conjugate acid and hydroxide.13 Calculate the pH for a 15. Lime (CaO) and soda ash (Na2CO3) are added to water: CaO (s) + H2O → Ca(OH)2 (aq) 2+ Ca(OH)2 (aq) + Ca (aq) + 2HCO3.

14 (another base example) 14.3 x 10-13 So pH = 12.19 = 4.it gets harder to remove each successive proton. The main effect is the dissociation of H3PO4: H3PO4 (aq) ↔ H+ (aq) + H2PO4. and PO43-.72 so [H+] = [H2PO4-] = 0.6x10 −2 Kb =  we could have calculated pH from pOH = -log[OH-] and pH + pOH = 14  ammonia bottles are often labeled NH4OH. H2PO4-.19)[HPO (0. As the negative charge on the acid increases.15 Calculate the pH of a 5.0 – 0.(aq) Ka1 = 7.x ] x2 5 and x = 0. HPO42-.19 M and [H3PO4] = 5.6 x 10-2 = [OH-] [15 .AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes p.11%) do Sample Exercise 14.x] 15 Kw 1x10 −14 = [H+] = = 6.2 x 10-8 = (0. but you can see that very little of the  NH3 actually dissociates into NH4OH!! (1.19 = [H+] so pH = 0.7 [x][x] x2 = = 1.2 x 10-8 M Gano Fall 08 .6 x 10-11 [HCO 3 ] H (aq) + CO3 (aq) + 2- • the conjugate base of the first dissociation becomes the acid in the second step Ka1 > Ka2 -.] 4 -8 plug in values for [H+] and [H2PO4-] Ka2 = 6. the first dissociation is so much larger than the second or third that it’s the only one that has an effect on pH • • Sample Exercise 14.8 x 10-5 and x = 1. H3PO4.0 M H3PO4 solution and concentrations of H3PO4.5 x 10-3 = H+ 0 +x x [H + ][H 2 PO − ] 4 [H 3 PO 4 ] H2PO40 +x x Initial Change Equilibrium Ka1 = H3PO4 5.8 M [H + ][HPO 2− ] 4 Ka2 = 6.3 x 10-7 [H 2 CO 3 ] 2 [H + ][CO 3 − ] Ka2 = = 5.2 x 10 = [H 2 PO .5 x 10-3 = ↔ [x ] ][x [5 . it gets hard to remove a positive proton! for an acid like phosphoric. They dissociate in a stepwise way—one proton at a time! H2CO3 (aq) HCO3 (aq) - ↔ ↔ H (aq) + HCO3 (aq) + - − [H + ][HCO 3 ] Ka1 = = 4.0 -x 5-x = 7.20 [OH − ] 1.7 Polyprotic Acids polyprotic acids can furnish more than one proton.6 x 10-2 / 15 = 0.19) 2− 4 ] so [HPO42-] = 6.

So [H+] = 0.01 + x)(x) 4 = (0. The concentration of H+ is at least 1. and the problem needs to be solved with the quadratic equation.2 x 10-2 Since x is only 1.01 + 4. So the dissociation of HSO4does not contribute greatly to [H+]. So [H+] = 1. and we get x = 4.0 and pH = 0.2 x 10-2 = 1.01+x SO420 +x x Ka2 = 1.00!! But if the initial concentration of H2SO4 is less than 1.2 x 10-2 Sample Exercise 14.2 x 10 -8 ) we can see that the concentrations of all species are extremely LOW • sulfuric acid is unique because it is a strong acid in the first dissociation and a weak acid in the second dissociation! H2SO4 (aq) → H+ (aq) + HSO4. we made a good assumption to disregard x in comparison to 1. HSO4-.dissociate enough to also produce H+? HSO41.01-x ↔ Initial Change Equilibrium H+ 0.0 + 1.01 +x 0. Sample Exercise 14.0145 M and pH = 1.01.0 M.012.6 x 10-19 = [H + ][PO 3− ] 4 [HPO 2. then the second dissociation does have an effect.5 x 10-3 = 0. So [H+] = 1. HSO40.0.] 4 plug in values for [H+] and [HPO42-] so [PO43-] = 5.2 x 10 = (1 − x) 1 [HSO 4 ] -2 so x = 1.0 x 10-2 M solution of H2SO4. from the first dissociation. The major species in solution are H+.17 Calculate the pH of a 1.84 Gano Fall 08 .01! So we must solve using the quadratic.(aq) Ka1 is very large Ka2 = 1. we get the result of x = 0.01 − x) [HSO 4 ] If we make the approximation that x < 0.01 -x 0.2 x 10-2 = [H + ][SO 2 − ] (0.0 to the correct sig figs. which is greater than 0.0.8 Ka3 = 1.2 x 10-26 M (0.19)[HPO 2 − ] 4 (6.16 Calculate the pH of a 1.6 x 10-19 = Ka3 = 1.(aq) ↔ H+ (aq) + SO42.0 -x 1-x ↔ Initial Change Equilibrium H+ 1.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes p.5 x 10-3 M.(aq) HSO4.0 M solution of H2SO4. But does HSO4.2% of 1.0 M.0 +x 1+x SO420 +x x [H + ][SO 2− ] (1 + x)(x) 1(x ) 4 = ≈ Ka2 = 1. and H2O.

18 Calculate the pH of a 0.x] 0.4 x 10-11 Initial Change Equilibrium Kb = F0. But C2H3O2.+ H3O+ Ka = 6.0 x 10-6 = [OH-] [0.2 x 10-4 = 1. K+ and Na+ don’t combine with OH-. and NaNO3 are all neutral. so it acts as a conjugate base! C2H3O2.2 x 10-10 Gano Fall 08 . For dilute solutions. This is because Cl. which can be neglected. We can actually determine Kb: Ka x Kb = [H + ][C 2 H 3 O -2 ] [OH . we will have Na+. and H2O.30-x ↔ OH0 +x x HF 0 +x x [x][x] x2 = = 1. successive Ka’s are so much smaller than the first value that only the first one has an effect on [H+].4 x 10-11 Kb = [HF][OH [F .are anions of strong acids—they don’t combine with H+.30 M solution of NaF.9  KEY POINTS 1. KCl.6 x 10-10 Ka 1.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes p.is a strong conjugate base. so F.30 .8x10 −5 Sample Exercise 14.30 -x 0.][HC 2 H 3 O 2 ] x − [HC 2 H 3 O 2 ] [C 2 H 3 O 2 ] Kb = So Ka x Kb = Kw!! Kw 1x10 −14 = = 5. F. aqueous solutions of KNO3.is the anion of a weak acid. Usually.0 M or greater).31 So pOH = 5. For example. NaCl. sodium acetate. the large [H+] from the first step represses the second step.8 Acid-Base Properties of Salts salt is an ionic compound • salts that consist of cations of strong bases and anions of strong acids have NO effect on [H+] when dissolved in water! For example. 14. The calculation for pH for a weak polyprotic acid is identical to that for a weak monoprotic acid! 2. F-.8 x 10-5. Ka for HF = 7. HF is a weak acid. so it won’t recombine with OH-.+ H2O • ↔ HC2H3O2 + OH- Kb = [OH .69 • we must be very careful looking at base strength!! Think about HCN.+ H2O ↔ HF + OHKb = Kw/Ka = 1 x 10-14/7. Likewise.30 pH = 8.and NO3. for any salt whose anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid. the second step contributes and the quadratic equation must be used. the aqueous solution will be basic.] − ] = 1.4 x 10-11 and x = 2. NaC2H3O2: Na+ is the cation of a strong base.][HC 2 H 3 O 2 ] [C 2 H 3 O 2 ] = [H+][OH-] − • we know that for acetic acid Ka = 1.2 x 10-4 In solution. For concentrated solutions of H2SO4 (1. another weak acid: HCN + H2O ↔ CN.

for example.> CN. has a strong affinity for H+ but.8 x 10-5 NH4+ ↔ NH3 + H+ Ka = Kw/Kb = 1 x 10-14/1.x] 0 1 . in this case.10 highly charged metal ions polarize the O—H bonds in the water molecules that get attached to them. so in terms of base strength.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes o looking at this.01 .is competing with OH-.0 = 1.+ H2O ↔ HCN + OH. The higher the charge on the metal ion. CN.is only a weak base (Kb = Kw/Ka = 1 x 10-14/6.20 Calculate the pH of 0.8 x 10-5 = 5.01 -x 0. NH4Cl.6 x 10-10 [NH + ] 4 Initial Change Equilibrium Ka = • NH4+ 0. OH. when CN. and o p. for H+.4 x 10-5 and x = 3.7 x 10-4 = [H+] • what happens if you have something like NH4C2H3O2 where both the weak acid and weak base can form? Qualitatively: o if Ka for the acidic ion > Kb for the basic ion.will not recombine with H+. This is because.01-x ↔ Initial Change Equilibrium Ka = Al(OH)(H2O)52+ 0 +x x H+ 0 +x x so pH = 3. Cl.01 M AlCl3 solution.6 x 10-10 and x = 7.5 x 10-6 = [H+] [0.appears to be a relatively strong conjugate base.x] 0. CN. Ka for Al(H2O)63+ is 1. making those water molecules more acidic.> H2O salts with a cation which is the conjugate acid of a weak base produce acidic solutions. the stronger the acidity of the hydrated ion!! Sample Exercise 14.13 [x][x] x2 = = 5. you get the reaction CN.6 x 10-10 [NH 3 ][H + ] Ka = = 5.10 .2 x 10-10 = 1.43 [x][x] x2 = [0. for example).19 Calculate the pH of a 0. but NH4+ will donate a proton easily to make NH3 + H3O+ Sample Exercise 14. the solution will be neutral! Gano Fall 08 .10 M NH4Cl solution.10 o • compared to H2O.4 x 10-5 Al(H2O)63+ 0. the solution will be basic o if Ka = Kb.and CN.10-x ↔ NH3 0 +x x H+ 0 +x x so pH = 5.6 x 10-5).10 -x 0.is in water (from the dissolution of a salt like NaCN. produces NH4+ and Cl-. a very strong base. then the solution will be acidic o if Kb > Ka. Kb for NH3 = 1.

• oxyacids have the form H—O—X **Acid strength increases with an increase in the number of oxygen atoms attached!! This happens because oxygen is so electronegative. KOH when a covalent oxide like SO3 is dissolved in water.6 x 10-10 Ka = Kb so neutral + -10 b) NH4CN Ka for NH4 = 5. releasing OH-: NaOH.= 1. it could also be basic and produce OH-.4 x 10 Kb for SO42.9 The Effect of Structure on Acid-Base Properties What determines if a substance X—H will donate a hydrogen? .6 for a summary!! 14. the O—X bond is ionic and easily broken in water. Also.= ? HSO4.11 Ka for NH4+ = 5. So Kb = Kw/Ka = 1 x 10-14/1.polarity of the bond Even though the H—F bond is very polar. it can be acidic and release a hydrogen.  See Tables 14. The bond will be polar and the relatively weak H—O bond will break. or 1. you get an acidic solution: SO3 (g) + H2O (l) → H2SO4 (aq) O O—S bonds are strong and covalent H—O bonds are weaker. if the bonds break right! The key is the O—X bond: • if X is very electronegative. making the H easier to lose.8 and 14. releasing a proton. the stronger the acid!! Sulfuric acid is therefore stronger than sulfurous acid because the extra oxygen leads to a more polar S—O bond. the more electronegative X is.6 x 10-10 Kb for C2H3O2 = 5.6 x 10-5 Kb >> Ka so basic 3+ -5 c) Al2(SO4)3 Ka for Al(H2O)6 = 1.6 x 10 Kb for CN. break easily S H O O H O Gano Fall 08 . and its Ka is Ka2 for H2SO4. Highly charged metals (like Al3+) produce acidic solutions because electrons are attracted to the highly positive metal ion: Al 3+ O H H becomes weakly attached e- 14. This polarizes and weakens the O—H bond. But.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes Sample Exercise 14.9 for a summary!! • this is also true for hydrated metal ions.2 x 10-2 = 8.is a conjugate acid for SO42-.2 x 10-2. • • if X has low electronegativity.3 x 10-13 Ka >> Kb so acidic  See Table 14. and it draws electrons away from the central atom and the O—H bond.10 Acid-Base Properties of Oxides If a molecule contains H—O—X.strength of the bond . the O—X bond is covalent and strong. it is a weak acid because the H—F bonds are also very strong.21 a) NH4C2H3O2 p.

11 The Lewis Acid-Base Model Lewis acid: an electron-pair acceptor.12 • when a covalent oxide dissolves in water. a basic solution forms. has an empty atomic orbital that it can use to accept an electron pair Lewis base: an electron-pair donor.AP Chemistry: Zumdahl Notes p.22 14.:NH3 is the Lewis base Another example is aluminum metal: : Al 3+ + 6 O : ( H H ) [ ( Al : O )] H 6 H 3+  do Sample Exercise 14. These are acid oxides: SO2 (g) + H2O (l) → H2SO3 (aq) CO2 (g) + H2O (l) → H2CO3 (aq) 2NO2 (g) + H2O (l) → HNO3 (q) + HNO2 (aq) when an ionic oxide dissolves. an acidic solution forms.12 Strategy for Solving Acid-Base Problems: A Summary READ THIS!!! Gano Fall 08 .BF3 is the Lewis acid . has a lone pair of electrons that it can donate H+ + :NH3 → NH4+ H+ + :O-H : : : : : : H2O A key example is BF3 + :NH3 → BF3NH3 . These are basic oxides: CaO (s) + H2O (l) → Ca(OH)2 (aq) K2O (s) + H2O (l) → 2KOH (aq) • 14.