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Chapter 26: Earl y Earth and the Origi n of Life

Introductory to the History of Life

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Stromatolites ± banded domes of sedimentary rock that are strikingly similar to layered mats formed today in salt marshes and some warm ocean lagoons by colonies of bacteria and cyanobacteria o Layers are sediments that stick to the jellylike coats of the motile microbes, which continually migrate out of one layer of sediment and form a new one above, producing the banded pattern 2.5 billion years ago, production of oxygen by early photosynthetic prokaryotes created an aerobic atmosphere Plants, fungi, animals arose from distinct groups of unicellular eukaryotes during the Precambrian Prebiotic Chemical Evolution and the Origin of Life First organisms were products of a chemical evolution in four stages: y The abiotic (nonliving) synthesis and accumulation of small organic molecules, or monomers, such as amino acids and nucleotides y The joining of these monomers into polymers including proteins and nucleic acids y The aggregation of abiotically produced molecules into droplets (protobionts) that had chemical characteristics different from their surroundings y Origin of heredity 1953, Miller and Urey tested Oparin-Haldane hypothesis apparatus produced a variety of amino acids and other organic compounds found in living organisms today y Atmosphere was made up of H2O, H 2, CH4, and NH3 y Laboratory analogs of primeval Earth have produced all 20 amino acids, sugars, lipids, purines and pyrimidine bases, and ATP Sidney Fox ± vaporize water and concentrate the monomer on substratum made proteinoids, which are polypeptides produced by abiotic means Protobionts ± aggregates of abiotically produced molecules that precedes living cells self-assemble into tiny droplets called microspheres Laboratory experiments demonstrate that protobionts could have formed spontaneously from abiotically produced organic compounds First genes were not DNA molecules but short strands of RNA that began self-replicating in the prebiotic world Ribozymes ± RNA catalysts that remove introns from RNA, catalyze the synthesis of new RNA

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Chapter 25: Tracing Phylogeny

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Phylogeny ± the evolutionary history of a species or group of related species o Systematics ± the study of biological diversity in an evolutionary context The Fossil Record and Geological Time Fossil Record ± ordered array in which fossils appear within layers, or strata, of sedimentary rock that mark the passing of geological time Geological Time Scale ± consistent sequence of historical periods: Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic boundaries marked by explosive radiations of many new forms of life, mass extinction mark boundaries between periods and eras divided into epochs Radiometric dating ± method most often used to determine age of rocks and fossils on a scale of absolute time; each radioactive isotope has fixed rate of decay o Half-life ± number of years it takes 50% of original sample to decay o Organisms make L-amino acids dies, L is converted to L- and D-amino acids  Racematization ± measures rate of chemical conversion (how long organisms dead) Pangaea ± ³all land´, 250 million years ago, near the end of Paleozoic era broken up about 180 million years ago during Mesozoic era Adaptive zone ± a set of new living conditions and resources that presents many previously unexploited opportunities A species may become extinct because its habitat has been destroyed or because the environment has change in a direction unfavorable to the species Permian extinctions ± 250 million years ago claiming 90% of the species of marine animals Siberian volcanoes Cretaceous extinction ± 65 million years ago, doomed more than half the marine species and exterminated many families of terrestrial plants and animals, including nearly all dinosaurs comet with iridium element Phylogeny and Systematics

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Phylogenetic trees ± diagrams that trace evolutionary relationships Binomial ± two-party Latin name used in taxonomy o Genus ± first word to which species it belongs o Specific epithet ± second part refers to one species within genus Taxon ± the named taxonomic unit at any level Monophyletic ± a single ancestor gave rise to all species in that taxon and to no species in any other taxon (a single tribe) Polyphyletic - members are derived from two or more ancestral forms not common to all members Paraphyletic ± excludes species that share a common ancestor that gave rise to the species included in the taxon Homology ± likeness attributed to shared ancestry Convergent evolution - species from different evolutionary branches may come to resemble one another if they have similar ecological roles and natural selection has shaped analogous adaptations o The greater the number of homologous parts between two species, the more closely the species are related and should be reflected in classification

Molecular biology provides powerful tools for systematics DNA-DNA hybridization ± measures the extent of hydrogen bonding between single-stranded DNA obtained from two sources to compare whole genomes Restriction maps - uses restriction enzymes in recombinant DNA technology to recognize a specific sequence of a few nucelotides and cleaves DNA wherever such sequences are found in the genome DNA sequence analysis ± comparing the actual nucleotide sequences of DNA segments Because mutations tend to accumulate as species diverge, the number of differences in nucleotide bases between homologous sequences is a measure of evolutionary distance The Science of Phylogenetic Systematics

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Phenetics ±compares as many anatomical characters as possible and makes no attempt to sort homology from analogy Cladistic analysis - classifies organisms according to the order in time that branches arose along a dichotomous phylogenetic tree Outgroup ± a species or group of species that is relatively closely related to the group of species actually being studied, but clearly not as closely related as any study-group members are to each other Synapomorphies ± shared derived characters looked for by cladistics analysis to construct a phylogenetic tree Parsimoney ± quest for the simplest explanation for observed phenomena Phylogenetic biology ± application of cladistics analysis in the study of evolutionary history and its relations to all aspects of life o

Chapter 24: The Ori gin of Speci es

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Macroevolution ± evolutionary theory that explains the origin of new taxonomic groups (new species/genera/families/kingdoms«) Speciation ± origin of new species Anagenesis (phyletic evolution) ± accumulation of changes associated with the transformation of one species into another Cladogenesis (branching evolution) ± budding of one or more new species from a parent species that continue to exist biological diversity

fertile adult If sperm from one species fertilize an ovum from another species 1) 2) 3) Reduced Hybrid Viability ± Genetic incompatibility btw/ 2 species may abort development of hybrid at embryonic stage if developed. founder effect o Genetic drift. wolves. alter gene flow genetically isolated even though ranges overlap o Polyploidy ± accident during cell division that results in extra set of chromosomes o Allopolyploid ± contribution of two different species interbreeding to a polyploidy hybrid usually vigorous. accounts for 2 Reproductive barriers can arise without being favored directly by natural selection Hybrid zone ± region where two related populations that diverged after becoming geographically isolated make secondary contact and interbreed where their geographical ranges interlap Punctuated equilibrium ± species diverge in spurts of relatively rapid change. usually frail Reduced Hybrid Fertility ± Offspring are sterile and cannot back breed with parental species chromosomes of two parents differ in number or structure (donkey + horse = sterile mule) Hybrid Breakdown ± 1st generation is viable/fertile but when hybrids mate with one another or parent. coyotes) Morphological Species Concept ± emphasizes measurable anatomical differences between species Recognition Species Concept ± emphasizes mating adaptations that are fixed in a population as individuals recognize certain characteristics of suitable mates Cohesion Species Concept ± emphasizes cohesion of phenotype as the basis of species integrity. each of which has some function in the organism¶s current context Allometric Growth ± a difference in the relative rates of growth of various parts of the body (arms/legs grow faster than head/trunk of a human) Paedomorphosis ± the sequence in which different body parts start and stop developing o Heterochrony ± a general term for evolutionary changes in the timing or rate of development Homeosis ± alteration of an organism. represents extremes of genotypic clines. they rarely form zygote no fertilization Postzygotic Barriers ± prevents hybrid zygote from developing into viable. united by being reproductively compatible reproductive isolation y Prezygotic Barriers ± impede mating btw/ species or hinders fertilization if 2 different species attempt to mate 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Habitat Isolation ± Two species that live in different habitats within same area may encounter rarely. their positions and functions in the environment Evolutionary Species Concept ± emphasizes evolutionary lineages and ecological roles Modes of Speciation Allopatric Speciation ± a geographical barrier that physically isolates populations initially blocks gene flow o Best with small populations occurring at fringe of parent population splinter population/peripheral isolate o Gene pool differs.[Type text] What is a species? Biological species concept (Ernst Mayr) ± largest unit in a population in which genetic exchange is possible and that is genetically isolated from other such populations. such as chromosomal changes (in plants) and nonrandom mating (in animals). or spatial arrangement of body parts Species selection ± the species that endure the longest and generate the greatest number of new species determine the direction of major evolutionary trends y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y . but fail to consummate because anatomically incompatible Gametic Isolation ± Even if gametes of different species meet. asexually producing organisms. its basic body design. too rigid for some cases (dogs. new mutations or combinations of existing alleles o Natural selection is different and more severe in new environment o Adaptive Radiation ± evolution of many diversely adapted species from a common ancestor Sympatric Speciation ± intrinsic factors. with each species defined by its integrated complex of genes and set of adaptations (asexual breeders/interbreeders) Ecological Species Concept ± emphasizes species¶ roles (niches). offspring of next generation are feeble or sterile Cons of Biological Species Concept Inadequate in grouping extinct life (fossils classified with morphology). one lives on land Behavioral Isolation ± Special signals/behaviors that attract mates unique to species Temporal Isolation ± Two species that breed during different times of the day/seasons/years Mechanical Isolation ± Closely related species may attempt to mate. instead of slowly and gradually long periods of equilibrium punctuated by episodes of speciations The Origin of Evolutionary Novelty ³How could flying vertebrates evolve from flightless ancestors?´ Exaptation ± structure that evolved in one context and became co-opted for another function how novel features can arise gradually through a series of intermediate stages. if at all one lives in water vs.