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COAL-WATER SLURRY FUEL COMBUSTION TESTING IN AN OIL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILER
Semiannual Technical Progress Report for the Period 02/15/1994 to 08/15/1994

Bruce G. Miller, Co-Principal Investigator Alan W. Scaroni, Project Manager

November 30,1994

Work Performed Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC22-89PC88697

For US. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania B Y Energy and Fuels Research Center The Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania
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.................... 4........................ 2............ Construction of a CWSF Preparation Facility ...................0 PHASEIV: ADVANCEDSYSTEMTESTS .. ............................. 2. Procurement and Installation of a Burner and Superheater ..... ....0 NEXT SEMIANNUAL PERIOD A(3TIvITIES . 3................................ .......................1 Task 1. ~ C u T I v SUMMARY ......................0 INTRODUCTION ........* TABLE OF CONTENTS ..................................0 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS......3 Task 3......2 Task 2.........0 REFERENCES ............. F2 w iv 3 1 ..................... 2.......................... E 1........ 5.............. Installation of an Advanced Flue Gas Treatment System................ 2........

Penn State and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs prepared from cleaned coal (containing approximately 3.iv EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program and for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the viability of frring CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy fuel oil. i and the use of steam as the atomizing medium.maintainability. The project consists of four phases: (1) design. and availability. and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (installing a CWSF preparation circuit. storage. O O conducted using the burner/atomizer system provided with the boiler. and installing an advanced flue . The CWSF demonstration program is being conducted on the 15.9 wt.% ash and 0. such as installing a quarl and testing alternative atomizers. (3) demonstration and evaluation (1. If the combustion performance was not acceptable based on the combustion efficiency obtained and the level of gas support necessary to maintain flame stabilization. In addition. 2. The approach used in the program was as follows: 1 . (2) construction and start up. If acceptable combustion performance was not obtained with the low-cost modifications. the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. reliability. heat release rate. a range of atomizing a r pressures (up to 200 psig). permitting.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oildesigned industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating. corrosion and erosion tendencies. The boiler testing and evaluation wiII determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics. The system was then shaken down with CWSF and 1 O hours of testing was . then the first demonstration was to be terminated and the burner system replaced with one of proven CWSF design.000-hour demonstration). and fuel transport. The 1. 3.. .5 wt.000 lb steam/h demonstration boiler located at Penn State. A natural gas/fuel oildesigned package boiler was installed and baseline data firing natural gas generated. The project will also provide information to help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. conducting an additional 1O O hours of testing. fouling and slagging behavior. and test planning. then low-cost modifications were to be implemented. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. and handling characteristics can be accommodatedin a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. 4.O gas treatment system).OOO-hour demonstration consisted of boiler optimization testing and combustion performance evaluation using CWSF preheat.

The t il second demonstration (phase IV)wl be conducted after a proven CWSFdesignedburner is installed on the boiler. a superheater tube and advanced fluegas cleanup system were to be installed for the second 1. the first demonstration has been concluded a 500 hours.OoO-hourdemonstration. During this reporting period. and working with DOE in selecting pollution control systems to i s a l on the boiler. Consequently. Additional activities included receiving a coal-designed burner and installing it on the ntl demonstration boiler. The CWSF preparation circuit will be completed by November 1. a CWSF preparation circuit is being constructed. micronized coal circuit) continued. the first demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. the construction of the CWSFpreparation circuit (as well as a dry..V 5 . . The first three steps (Le.1994. Prior to the second demonstration. In addition to the advanced burner system.

0oO hours of testing). Following is an outline of the project tasks that comprise the four phases: Phase I: Design. (2) construction and start up. In addition. refiability. Slagging/fouling propensity. permitting.INTRODUCTION The Pennsylvania S a e University is conducting a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) program tt for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with and the objective of determining the viability of firing CWSF in an industrial boiler designed for heavy tt fuel oil. ie The project consists of four phases: (1) design. the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of a CWSF and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Erosion characteristics Subtask 1.c. fouling and slagging behavior. and (4) expanded demonstration and evaluation (additional 1. (3) demonstration and evaluation (1.% sulfur) can be burned effectively in a heavy fuel oildesigned industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating. Design Task2 Permitting Task 3. corrosion characteristics Subtask 1. CWSF combustion performance Subtask 1. and availability. Boiler Performance Prediction Task 4. and Test Planning Task 1. Host Site ReadinesdBoiler Retrofit Task 2. . CWSF Preparation Task 3. Evaluation of Retrofit Economics 10 . maintainability. The boiler testing and evaluation will determine if the CWSF combustion characteristics. and handling characteristics Task 2. The project consists of four phases as previously mentioned. Test Planning Phase II: Construction and Start Up Task 1. heat release rate. and fuel transport.000-hour demonstration).b.% ash and 0. storage. Penn S a e and DOE have entered into a cooperative agreement to determine if CWSFs rm prepared f o cleaned coal (containing approximately 3. Fuel transport.9 wt. and handling characteristics can be accommodated in a boiler system designed to fire heavy fuel oil. storage. Test Burn Subtask 1. Shakedown Testing Phase III: Demonstration and Evaluation Task 1.5 wt. Permitting. and test planning.d. The project will also provide infoxmationto help in the design of new systems specifically configured to fr these clean coal-based fuels. The economic factors associated with retrofitting boilers will also be evaluated. corrosion and erosion tendencies.a.

Construction of a CWSF Preparation Facility Task 3. The project goal was to conduct a demonstration of the use of CWSF derived from Pennsylvania coal. The Pennsylvania legislature appropriated funds in 1984 for the construction of a demonstration CWSF boiler with a capacity of approximately 15. a range of atomizing a r pressures (up to 200 psig as compared to i the 100 psig boiler manufacturer design pressure). The CWSF demonstration program is being conducted on the 15. 1988). automation of the firing of CWSF. If the combustion performance was not acceptable based on the combustion efficiency obtained and the level of gas support necessary to maintain flame stabilization.000 lb steam/h (nominally rated) Cleaver-Brooks A-frame watertube boiler (Kinneman et al.000-How Test Task 5. 3. State funding was also provided for the installation of a 1.000 lb steam/h at 300 psig on the University Park campus of Penn State.OOO hours of testing using the burner/atomizer system provided with the boiler. Installation of an Advanced Flue G s Treatment System a Task 4. then 2 .OOO-hourdemonstration was to consist of boiler optimization testing and combustion performance evaluation using CWSF preheat. testing candidate CWSFs (Miller et al. Final Report Penn State began a coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) research and developmentprogram in 1984 with the ultimate goal of facilitathg the replacement of petroleum-based fuels with coal-based fuels in fuel oil-fired (designed) boilers. 1988) to investigate: the effect of boiler operating parameters on combustion performance (Miller et al. it was considered necessary to demonstrate at the industrial scale the technical feasibility of retrofitting existing fuel oil-fired units to bum CWSF.particularly in the commercial and light-industrial sectors. The boiler performance was required to be environmentally acceptable and the testing was to evaluate the effects of long-term firing with CWSF on boiler performance. The approach used in the program was as follows: 1. and providing the necessary research support and operator training prior to start up of the demonstration unit.000 lb steam/h demonstration boiler. Install a natural gadfuel oildesigned package boiler and generate baseline data fuing natural gas. Procure and Install Burner and Superheater Task 2. From a commercialization viewpoint. 1989). Shake down the system with CWSF and begin the first 1. and using steam as the atomizing medium. Project Report Phase IV: Advanced System Tests Task 1.e Task 3. The first 1. 1. 1991). 2.particularly with respect to start up and shutdown procedures but also for optimizing boiler performance (Wincek et al.

2 Task 2. The milestone schedule for Phase I is shown in V Figure 1. et al 1993). It is a low-NO. The atomizer will be installed prior to the Phase IV test (first and second quarter of 1995). the fmt demonstration) have been completed and the combustion performance of the burner that was provided with the boiler has been determined to be unacceptable. a superheater tube and advanced flue gas cleanup system were to be installed for the second 1. The second demonstration (Phase IV)will be conducted after a proven CWSFdesigned burner is installed on the boiler.micronized coal.. The fmt three steps (Le. Items that have been. A summary of Phase I is presented in Section 2. Activities planned for the next V n semiannual period are given i Section 3. 1994). DEFC22-92PC92162) that has the capability of firing natural gas and CWSF or dry. the fmt demonstration (Phases I-m) has been concluded at 500 hours and the results have been presented elsewhere (Miller.0.0 and acknowledgments are given in Section 5. No work was conducted on the procurement and installation of the superheater this reporting period.0. Consequently. then the fmt demonstration was to be texminated and the burner system replaced with one of proven CWSF design. 0 ADVANCED SYSTEM TESTS 2 . 5 . Currently the burner is being operated in its dry. a burner was procured from Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (in conjunction with another program (Cooperative Agreement No. The superheater will be installed prior to the Phase N test. In addition to the advanced burner system. such as installing a qual and testing alternative atomizers. 4. Details of the burner were given in the previous semiannual report (Miller et al. If acceptable combustion performance was not obtained with the lowcost modifications. 2 .micronized coal mode for another program (Cooperative Agreement No. burner and a sectional view is shown in Figure 2. DE-FC2292PC92162). Construction of CWSF Preparation Facility Construction of the CWSF preparation circuit continued during this reporting period. The installation of the CWSF circuit is being conducted in conjunction with another program (Cooperative Agreement No. Procurement and Installation of a Burner and Superheater During this reporting period. 1 Task 1.. Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the CWSF preparation circuit. and Table 1 contains the milestone description for the entire project.0.e lowcost modifications were to be implemented. References are contained in Section 4. or are in the process of being. installed or constructed are listed below: 3 . DEFC22-92PC92162).OOo-hourdemonstration. 2 .

Tanks T1 and T4 were mounted on the stands. Mixer mounts were constructed for Tanks T1 and T4 and a mixer was mounted on Tank T1. mixers). and SO2 systems on the boiler. and construction began on the sump for the bdl mill. installing a sink. which was donated by OXCE Fuel Company.moyno pumps. technically and economically viable for installation on industrial boilers.sand mill. Moyno pumps that were received from OXCE Fuel Company were identified for Tanks T1 and T4 and put into place. Pneumatic valves for tanks T1. Orders for a new lubrication system and 50 hp motor have been placed. Electrical conduit was installed and the mixers were wired. and T4 have been ordered. T3. tanks. T2. Piping for the sand mill was started. Pennsylvaniais currently fabricatinga new main bearing for the ball mill. and setting up a computer. However. it became apparent that there were not any advanced systems that were both . Piping for compressed air and water lines was installed to the areas in the Fuel Preparation Facility (FPF)where each major piece of equipment (pumps. and A ladder was constructed and installed for access to a storage area above the QA room. CWSF tank stands were constructed for Tanks T1 and T4. could not be repaired and a new hydraulic system was ordered. after receiving proposals from potential suppliers and reviewing them with DOE.) will be sited. Consequently. Orders have been placed for the remaining major pieces of equipment (tanks.3 Task 3.4 Water lines and nozzles (to clean the pipe trench) have been installed in the pipe trench. it was 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . e The Quality Assurance (QA) mom was set up which included mounting cabinets. Work started in identifying the appropriate emissions control technologies. . A flush water (water/coal mixture produced h m purging lines in the boiler room) return line was installed from the boiler room to Tank T4. Material was received for. The hydraulic system for the Morehouse Mill. CWSF lines were installed in the FPF and from the FPF to the boiler room. 0 0 0 0 0 0 decided to install commercialNO. Refurbishing of the 4 x 8' Centrix ball mill has begun. Installation of an Advanced Flue Gas Treatment System It was the original intention of this task was to integrate an advanced flue gas treatment system with the boiler. These equipment will be installed upon receipt. 2. Allis Mineral Systems of York. etc. Installation of these components and controls for the ball mill will be subcontracted to the Beitzel Corporation.

K l "Combustion Control System for a Coal-Water Slurry Fuel-Fired Boiler. Morrison. J. R. Morrison. J. Miller.Research Technician Joel L. and R. Con$ on Coal culcl Slurry Tech. Britton.Research Technologist David Bartley .W.L. P. 1988). 1991. Shefet. J. "Combustion of CWSF in a lo00 lb Steam/h Watertube Boiler. Walsh.G. "Coal-Water Sluny Fuel CombustionTesting in an Oil-Fired Industrial Boiler. Scaroni. Kinneman.W. and A. Technical Report for Phases I-III". B.. 1993. Wincek. DE-FC22-89PC88697. Scaroni. Glunt . "Conversion of a lo00 lb/h Steam Boiler to Fire Coal Water Slurry Fuel.Research Assistant Scott Lyons . Miller. Xie. Pennsylvania.W. Wincek.A.. 4. and Installation of the superheater.L. June 2 1. Wincek. W.Research Assistant Roger L.G. A. May 15. Houston. Poe.A.T.L. D. Walsh. Pennsylvania. Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Denver.H.NEXT SEMIANNUAL PERIOD ACTIVITIES During the next reporting period. Poe. Texas (April 2-6. B.G.. and R. H. Pittsburgh..G. S.W. a. B. Morrision . R. Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Denver. and J.Research Technician Bradley Maben . S. Pennsylvania.M.. Wincek. p. 6.G.L.P. Miller. Pittsburgh.Research Technologis Howaqd R. and A. Miller. Schobert. B. "Superclean Coal-Water Slurry CombustionTesting in an Oil-Fired Boiler. the following will be completed Installation and shakedown of the CWSF preparation circuit. March 28. B. Kinneman.Research Technician 3.Research Technician Ruth Krebs . DE-FC22-89PC88697. Scaroni...V.Research Assistant Christopher Snyder ." Semiannual Technical Progress Report for the Period 08/15/1990 to 02/15/1991.0 REFERENCES Kinneman. Jenkins. Pisupati.T. Scaroni. Con$ on Coal Md Slurry Tech.G.. A.G." AIChE Spring National Meeting.M.P. Jenkins. DE-FC22-89PC88697. D." ThirteenthZnt. W.W.0 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The authors acknowledgethe following personnel for their contributions to the project during this reporting period: Michael Anna . Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Pittsburgh. Colorado. Scaroni. R. and F. p. Poe . Elston.725 (April 12-15. Miller. A.G." Semiannual Technical Progress Report for the Period 08/15/1993 to 02/15/1994. 1989). "Coal-Water Slurry Fuel Combustion Testing in an Oil-Fired Industrial Boiler. R. R.W.0 . W. Clark.L. Colorado. A. 1988). J. Morrison. B. 1994.P. Scaroni. Miller." Thirteenth Inr. R.T.T.T. 119 (April 12-15. P.

3 Task 2. No. 7 Subtask IC. 1 Subtask lb. 3 Subtask lb. Jvlilestone Phase I Task 1.No. 4 ComDletioq Planned w ComDIetioq Actual Q& Identify equipment and diagnostic instrumentation Review present permit Develop CWSF specifications. No.No. 4 Subtask IC. No. 2 Phase III Task 1. No. 3 Task 2. No. No. 1 Task 3. 6 Subtask Id. No.Table 1 Milestone Description . 3 Subtask lb. 1 Task 4. 1 Task 2. No. 1 Subtask IC. No. No. 2 Task2. 2 Task 3. 3 Subtask IC. No. 1 Task 4. No. No. 1 Subtask Id. No. acquisition of baseline data for corrosion of tubes by ash components Coupon testing in boiler Complete deposition and corrosion testing Develop erosion test plan Complete research boiler erosion evaluation Full-scale erosion technique decision Design probe for full-scale erosion study Construct erosion probe Complete erosion modeling Identify viscometer Complete preliminary viscosity and stability tests Complete viscosity and stability tests Complete economic evaluation Complete project report Procure and install burner Procure and install superheater Complete construction of Fuel Preparation Facility Install and shake down CWSF preparation circuit Install flue gas treatment system Complete 1. No. No. No. 1 . No. 1 Subtask la. No. No. No. No. 5 Subtask Ib. No. No. No. 2 Task 3. No. 2 Task I .OOO-hr test Complete final report 09/15/89 09115/89 10/15/89 09115/89 09/15/89 02/15/93 10118/89 1331/89 04/01/91 09/30/90 04/01/91 06/15/9 1 04131191 0513 1191 10118/89 03/23/90 01/31/92 09/30/90 10113/92 OD0 1/92 06/30/92 09/30/91 07131/92 10131/92 01/15/93 1O/15/89 06/01/90 10/01/90 0 1101191 08131191 10/31/92 01/15/93 10115/89 0810 1I90 1010 1I90 01101191 0510 1191 01/15/93 10115/89 08115/90 11/30/92 01/15/93 0310 1I93 04115/94 12/31/94 0813 1/93 11/01/94 12/31/94 06/30/95 0910 1/95 0713 1/92 11/13/92 01/15/93 10115/89 08/0 1/90 1010 1/90 02/15/91 08115/92 11/13/92 01/15/93 10115/89 08/01/90 10/01/90 OU15/91 10/15/91 06115/93 10115/89 09/15/90 11/30/92 01115/93 06l2 1/93 05/09/94 08131/93 Subtask lb. No. 1 Subtask la. 1 Task 4. 2 Subtask Id. No. 1 Task 2. 2 Subtask IC. No. No. install boiler and auxiliary equipment Identify coal for CWSF preparation Prepare CWSF for demonstration Predict boiler performance Shakedown boiler and auxiliary equipment Generate baseline data on gas Perform demonstration 300-hour demonstration milestone 500-hour demonstrationmilestone Redefine CWSF specifications Develop deposition and corrosion test plan Design suction pyrometer Construct suction pyrometer Deposition characterization equipmentdesign and specification Acquisition of baseline data for spectroscopic analysis of deposits. 1 Task3. 5 Subtask IC. identify operating procedures.No. 1 Task 1. 1 Task 1. 2 Subtask lb. No. 6 Subtask lb. I Task 2. 2 Subtask la. No. 1 Phase I1 Task 1. No. No. 1 Task 5. No. 1 Phase IV Task 1. prepare detailed test plan Buildinghiler construction and installation let for bids Buildinglboiler construction and installation awarded Prepare site. No. No.

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