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What were the two major points of Darwin’s publication “The Origin of Species”? The two major points of Darwin’s “The Origin of Species” was that he presented evidence that many species of organisms presently inhabiting the earth are dependents of ancestral species that were different from modern species. And secondly is that Darwin proposed the mechanism of natural selection as the bases of evolution. 2. Define the following terms: a. Natural selection It’s differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interactions of organisms with their environment. Evolution occurs when this causes changes in relative frequencies of alleles in the gene pool. b. Evolutionary adaptation An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance organism’s ability to survive and reproduce in specific environments. c. Evolution All the changes that have transformed life on earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity that characterizes it today. d. Taxonomy It is the branch of biology that is concerned with the naming and classification of organisms. 3. Detail the impact/position/contribution to evolutionary theory and include a perspective of time in the following: a. Aristotle He believed that life-forms are arranged on a ladder of increasing complexity, each perfect and permanent. He also classified organisms not by physical and molecular similarity, but rather by order of increasing complexity. (scala naturae: “scale of nature”.) b. Linnaeus founder of taxonomy. He developed the binary system of classification. He grouped similar species into general category. c. Cuvier (1769-1832) A developer of paleontology, noted that the deeper the strata, the more dissimilar the fossils are from current life. He also observed that some species would be present on one level but not in the next, therefore concluding that extinctions were a common occurrence. He was an advocator of catastrophism, which correlates to how each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe. Also, he noticed that from one stratum to the next some new species appear while others disappeared showing that extinctions and new branches were created. d. Lyell created the theory of uniformitarianism. He proposed that the same geologic
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Darwin realized that he would not get credit for his theory if he didn’t publish his work soon.” Talked about humans must contend with suffering from disease. and that was passed down to the children. then animals from surrounding areas populated it. after experiencing an earthquake in Chile he saw the earth raise a couple of feet finding fossils high in the Andes Mountains. that species would adapt to acquire that trait. Lamarck explained evolution that animals acquired their evolution by the theory of use and disuse. Also. The idea was that body parts that the body used more extensively became stronger while the others did not. Hutton proposed that earth’s geologic features could be explained by gradual mechanisms currently operating such as the rivers wearing through rocks 4. What part did adaptation play in Darwin’s thinking? He believed that whatever trait was most efficient in the success and reproduction of life for a species. As long as species keep reproducing they will constantly modify and change to adapt to their environment. and at the same rate. What did Darwin mean by descent with modification? Evolution only occurs when there is a change in gene frequency within a population over time. These genetic differences are heritable and can be passed on to the next generation--which is what Darwin meant by descent with modification. How did the Voyage of the Beagle impact Darwin’s research? Darwin was able to go on to the shore of South America. 6. Catastrophism explains that the areas between strata show a devastating event which caused the extinction of animals in that area.processes are operating today as in the past. Adaptation is key to natural selection because due to their environment some organisms must adapt to fit that habitat 8. How did Alfred Wallace impact Darwin in his work? Wallace had the same theory as Darwin and had contacted Darwin to take a look at it. Malthus wrote the “Essay on the principle of population. e. 7. famine and war because of the inevitable fact that the human population’s potential to increase faster than food and other resources is very high g. Gradualism attributes profound change to the cumulative product of slow but continuous change 5. His stop at the Galapagos Islands he could see the effects of geographic isolation on finches. How does catastrophism relate to the ideas of gradualism? They are opposites of each other. f. Wallace realized that Darwin was the originator of the theory and let Darwin have credit for it. (Except that Page 2 of 4 . He was able to observe the various adaptations of plants and animals that inhabited diverse environments.
some for herding. The forelimbs of many mammals are. What three word phrase summarizes Darwin’s mechanism of evolution? 12. 13. However. very similar even though their purposes are very different. anatomically. Unfortunately. What did Mayr take from Darwin’s work – summarize the observations and inferences. Page 3 of 4 . 10. the treatments are only effective for a limited time. Also many animals have organs (appendix in humans) that have minimal to no effect on the animal because it is simply reminisce of the animals ancestors. the wild dog. but whatever the purpose of the dog. some bacteria that are invulnerable to the treatment survive. breeders could choose the dogs which are best for the job that they wanted. Explain the evolution of Drug Resistance in bacteria in terms of natural selection. Homologous structures Homologies are the similarities in characteristics resulting from common ancestry. fungi and synthetic compounds to destroy harmful. Homologous structures are the anatomical signs of evolution such as vestigial organs and anatomical similarities between species. some for hunting. bacterial infections. Natural selection is occurring with the help of the human. then natural selection should be capable of considerable modification of species over hundreds to thousands of generations. 11. and some even for just companionship. This entire new generation is now resistant to the antibiotic. Scientists have manipulated harmless bacteria. How did the concept of artificial selection impact Darwin’s ideas? The concept allowed Darwin to reason that if artificial selection can achieve so much change in a short period of time. Artificial selection put Darwin’s natural selection into a shorter time frame. Each would have its own purpose. Humans had the ability to use artificial selection to create different species of dogs from the original. and eventually reproduce. For the most part. The offspring of the surviving bacteria all have the same trait as their parents that helped them survive. not genes) 9. the infectious bacteria are eliminated.Darwin spoke of traits. Define the following terms: a.
This shows that over time species have adapted and evolved. What is biogeography and why is it important to the study of evolution? Biogeography is the geographic distribution of species. But they evolved separately to perform a similar function. For example. wings on insects and wings on bats have different ancestral origins but both of their wings are made to fly. The different species remains and fossils can be found in the different strata of rocks and show that as some species appeared. 14. Analogous structures Analogous Structures are structures that are look and act very similar to one another. 15. Most species studied on islands prove to be unique whcih proves that animals could have been separated and then developed to suit their environment. How do the fossil record and sedimentary rock provide evidence to evolution? The fossil record and sedimentary rock provide evidence to evolution because the under levels of fossils are very dissimilar to the upper levels of fossils. c. It is important to the study of evolution because it shows that closely related species are found in the same area but species with similar ecological niches are found with extremely different (sometimes a little similar) species. This proved that there was enough time for the evolution to take place. Vestigial structures Vestigial structures are structures that have lost all or most of their original function through evolution. Page 4 of 4 .b. For an example. the human appendix is a vestigial organ because the appendix has lost all of its original function through evolution. others disappeared.
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