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SET: - 1 QUESTION: -1 • What is modern management approaches?

ANSWER: -1 • There are so many different types of modern management approaches. Behavioral Approaches: • This approache is an improved and a more mature version of the human relations approach to management. Douglas McGregor, Abraham Maslow, Kurt Lewin, Chester Barnard, Mary Parket Follett, are some of the foremost behavioral scientists who made signal contribution to development of the behavioral approache to management. These scientist were more rigorously trained in the various social science and use more sophisticated research methods. Thus, these people came to be regarded as behavioral scientists rather then members of the ‘human relations’ school. The finding of these people has enormously helped us in understanding organizational behavior. An approach that recognizes the practical and situational constraints on human rationality for making decisions. Behavioral scientists attach great importance to participative and group decision making. They are highly critical of the classical organization structures built on traditional concepts and prefer more flexible organization structures. Two major theorists, Abraham Maslow and Douglas Mcgregor, came forward with ideas that managers found helpful.

Abraham Maslow:

He developed the theory of motivation that was based on three assumptions. First, human beings have needs that are never completely satisfied. Second, human action is aimed at fulfilling the needs that are satisfied at a given point in time. Third, needs fit into a hierarchy, ranging from basic and lower level needs at the bottom to higher level needs at the top.

proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise'. This approach helped managers develop a broader perspective on the nature of workers and new alternatives for interacting with them. need to be coerced. managing an X Theory boss. Theory Y managers assume that workers do not inherently dislike work. Theory X managers tend to assume that workers are lazy. and William Ouchi's Theory Z Douglas McGregor. Theory x and theory y are still referred to .• Douglas McGregor: • He developed a concept of Theory X versus Theory Y dealing with possible assumptions that managers make about workers. are capable of self control. have capacity to be creative and innovative and generally have higher level needs. Douglas McGregor's XY Theory. have little ambition and are focused mainly on security needs. an American social psychologist.

In industry the intellectual potential of the average person is only partly utilised. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people. unity of command. which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. and wants security above all else. The average person prefers to be directed. is relatively unambitious. Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. theory x ('authoritarian management' style) • • • The average person dislikes work and will avoid it he/she can. which provides many ways to appreciate the unhelpful nature of X-Theory leadership. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organizational development. and allows people to grow and develop. Therefore most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards organisational objectives. McGregor's ideas significantly relate to modern understanding of the Psychological Contract. and the useful constructive beneficial nature of Y-Theory leadership. line and staff relationships and narrow spans of control. Many managers tend towards theory x. Enlightened managers use theory y.commonly in the field of management and motivation. which tends to degrade the human • • . theory y ('participative management' style) • • • • • Effort in work is as natural as work and play. People will apply self-control and self-direction in the pursuit of organisational objectives. which produces better performance and results. The capacity to use a high degree of imagination. and generally get poor results. They regard the classical approach as highly mechanistic. ingenuity and creativity in solving organisational problems is widely. without external control or the threat of punishment. and to improving organizational culture. to avoid responsibility. Behavioral scientists are highly critical of these classical organization structures which are build around the traditional concepts hierarchical authority. and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model. People usually accept and often seek responsibility. Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement. McGregor's ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. distributed in the population. not narrowly.

The behavioral approach tp organizational conflict and change is quite pragmatic. Behaviorists underline the desirability of humanizing the administration of the control process and encouraging the process of self-direction and control instead of imposed control. made wide ranging studies of human groups. therefore. Three main branches have evolved: operations research. Behaviorists prefer more flexible organization structure and jobs build around the capabilities and aptitudes of average employees. To behavioral scientists. statistics and information aids to supports managerial decision making and organizational effectiveness. • • • • • •  • Operations Research: o Operations Research is an approach aimed at increasing decision effectiveness through the use of sophisticated mathematical models and possibilities as they can accomplish extensive calculation. It recognizes that conflict is invisible and sometime is even desirable and should technological and social aspects and that it is generally the social aspect of change which people resist. The quantitative management viewpoint focuses on the use of mathematics.spirit. • Behavioral scientists attach great weight-age to participative and group decisionmaking because it is felt that business problems are so complex that it is neither fair nor feasible to make individuals responsible for solving them. Big nad small. structure and process. Some . operations management and management information systems. They have studied such issues as why individual join groups. group cohesiveness and so on. This model suggests that differently to the same situation or react the tailor his attempts to influence people according to their individual needs. They have. Behavioral scientists consider organizations as groups of individual with certain goals. the realistic model of human motivation is complex man. Quantitative Approach:  An approach that focuses on the use of quantitative tools for managerial decision making. group size.

rather than seeking universal principles that apply to every situation. Managerial action depends on the particular situation. o Every system has four major components: . • Systems Approach to management: o Systems theory is an approach based on the notion that organizations can be visualized as systems. statistical quality control. routing and distribution models. • Contingency Approach: o A view point which believes that appropriate managerial action depends on the peculiar nature of every situation. this theory attempts to identify contingency principles that prescribe actions to take depending on the situation. Hence. o This approach is a viewpoint which argues that there is no best way to handle problems. • Operations management: o Operation management is a field that is responsible for managing the production and delivery function of an organization’s products and services. waiting line. Operations management is generally applied to manufacturing industries and uses tools such as inventory analysis. networking etc. A system is a set of interrelated parts that operate as a whole in pursuit of common goals.operations research tools are linear programming. Such systems turn raw data into information that is required and useful to various levels of management. • Management Information System: o Management Information System refers to the designing and implementing computer based information systems for use by the management. querying.

4. Feedback is information about results and organizational status relative to the environment. Good managers discover how to master five basic functions: planning. services and other outcomes produced by the organization. 2. Outputs are the products. staffing. Transformation processes are the organization managerial and technological abilities that are applied to convert inputs into outputs.o Inputs are the various resources required to produce goods and services. Resources: (1) Human (2) Materials (3) Equipment (4) Financial (5) Informational Managerial and Technological Abilities: (1) Planning (2) Organizing (3) Leading (4) Controlling (5) Technology Outcomes: (1) product and services (2) Profits and losses (3) Employee growth and satisfaction. organizing. Answer:• Managers just don't go out and haphazardly perform their responsibilities.1 Explain the role of Manager. . • • • Short answers Question: . leading. and controlling. 3.

training. She must also lead. a manager's job is not finished. and sales staff. inventory. coach. Controlling: After the other elements are in place. and problem solve with employees. He needs to continuously check results against goals and take any corrective actions necessary to make sure that his area's plans remain on track. or strategy sessions. These necessary steps are developed into a plan. managers' schedules are usually jam-packed. but he or she is also a planner. organize. Staffing: After a manager discerns his area's needs. guiding. It requires the manager to coach. the manager can follow it to accomplish the goal of improving company sales. communicating. but the amount of time a manager spends on each one depends on both the level of management and the specific organization. cheerleader. All managers at all levels of every organization perform these functions. • Organizing: After a plan is in place. problem solver. and decision maker — all rolled into one. he may decide to beef up his staffing by recruiting. for example. and staff her team to achieve a goal. that the organization's goal is to improve company sales. and developing employees. Assigning work and granting authority are two important elements of organizing. A manager in a large organization often works with the company's human resources department to accomplish this goal. selecting. These roles fall into three categories: • • • • • • • • . The Nature of Managerial Work. And these are just a few of a manager's roles. Whether they're busy with employee meetings. Leading: A manager needs to do more than just plan. Henry Mintzberg describes a set of ten roles that a manager fills. The manager first needs to decide which steps are necessary to accomplish that goal. and encouraging. In addition. Roles performed by managers A manager wears many hats. assist. Leading involves motivating. unexpected problems. a manager needs to organize her team and materials according to her plan. Not only is a manager a team leader. When the plan is in place. Say. managers often find little spare time on their calendars. organizer. (And that doesn't even include responding to e-mail!) In his classic book. o These steps may include increasing advertising.• Planning: o This step involves mapping out exactly how to achieve a particular goal.

scan periodicals and reports. identify new ideas and delegate idea responsibility to others. and phone calls. Initiate improvement projects. Informational: This role involves the sharing and analyzing of information. counsel and communicate with subordinates. Take corrective action during disputes or Category Informational Disseminator Spokesperson Interpersonal Figurehead Leader Liaison Decisional Entrepreneur Disturbance .• • Interpersonal: This role involves human interaction. Forward information to organization members via memos. Perform ceremonial and symbolic duties. and meetings. maintain personal contact with stakeholders. Maintain information links both inside and outside organization via mail. TABLE 1 Role Monitor Mintzberg's Set of Ten Roles Activity Seek and receive information. Transmit information to outsiders via reports. such as greeting visitors and signing legal documents. phone calls. and speeches. Direct and motivate subordinates. • Decisional: This role involves decision making. Table 1 contains a more in-depth look at each category of roles that help managers carry out all five functions described in the preceding “Functions of Managers” section. reports. memos.

Be the steward of the organizational culture. Discover what strengths each of the people you manage possess. and excuses. Represent department during negotiations of union contracts. as examples. Place people where they are called on to employ those strengths and capitalize on them. not for. purchases. possess technical skills. Do with. Never settle for mediocrity. Certain skills. Encourage people to work on the enterprise with you. resolve conflicts among subordinates. mentor and coach. Lead. Give people authority to completely own their responsibilities. set schedules and determine priorities. adapt to environments. Mission: Managers get the work to make perfect sense. are required to help other employees become more productive. engineers. and budgets. Connect the work to be done with the meaning why. These skills fall under the following categories: Technical: This skill requires the ability to use a special proficiency or expertise to perform particular tasks. Continually work to remove obstacles. Plan to succeed with a viable business model. Q. Foster sequential and consequential learning so people continue to grow. Vision: Managers expect and promote the exceptional. so people always see realistic possibility. market researchers.Category Role handler Activity crises. barriers. Focus on creating an environment where rewarding work happens.3Skills needed by managers • Not everyone can be a manager. Managers acquire these • . Resource allocator Negotiator • • • • People: Managers concentrate on strengths and make weaknesses irrelevant. champion excellence so people rise to the occasion. not just within it. Place: Managers create great workplaces where people thrive. Decide who gets resources. sales. and computer scientists. prepare budgets. or abilities to translate knowledge into action that results in desired performance. Harness energy and drive action. Accountants.

Leadership — ability to influence others to perform tasks Self-objectivity — ability to evaluate yourself realistically Analytic thinking — ability to interpret and explain patterns in information Behavioral flexibility — ability to modify personal behavior to react objectively rather than subjectively to accomplish organizational goals Oral communication — ability to express ideas clearly in words Written communication — ability to express ideas clearly in writing • • • • • • • • • • . that contribute to high performance in a management job. Although all three categories contain skills essential for managers. No matter how human skills are acquired. Conceptual: This skill calls for the ability to think analytically. Technical skills are most important at lower levels of management. to see the relations among the parts. Some managers are naturally born with great human skills. Human skills emerge in the workplace as a spirit of trust. they must deal with more ambiguous problems that have long-term consequences. they're critical for all managers because of the highly interpersonal nature of managerial work. while others improve their skills through classes or experience. or specialized skills.skills initially through formal education and then further develop them through training and job experience. Analytical skills enable managers to break down problems into smaller parts. and conceptual skills. the more important conceptual skills become. As managers assume ever-higher responsibilities in organizations. Again. managers may acquire these skills initially through formal education and then further develop them by training and job experience. enthusiasm. and develop specific competencies. • Human: This skill demonstrates the ability to work well in cooperation with others. Business and management educators are increasingly interested in helping people acquire technical. Following are some of the skills and personal characteristics that the American Assembly of Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) is urging business schools to help their students develop. A manager with good human skills has a high degree of self-awareness and a capacity to understand or empathize with the feelings of others. The higher the management level. their relative importance tends to vary by level of managerial responsibility. and to recognize the implications of any one problem for others. and genuine involvement in interpersonal relationships. human.

• • Conceptual Skills • Conceptual skill is the ability to visualize (see) the organization as a whole. It helps the manager to identify the causes of the problems and not the symptoms. It requires certain skills to accomplish such a challenge. the community. successful management seems to rest on three basic developable skills: technical. Creative and Initiative skills. human and conceptual. and it extends to visualising the relationship of the individual business to the industry. The relative importance of these three skills varies with the level of managerial responsibility. What makes a good manager? Innate traits or acquired skills? Assuming that a manager is one who directs the activities of other persons and undertakes the responsibility for achievement of objectives through such efforts. viz. social and economic forces of the nation as a whole. Thus. According to Professor Katz. It includes Analytical. It helps him to solve the problems for the benefit of the entire organization. and the political.. essential skills which every manager needs for doing a better management are called as Managerial Skills. there are three managerial skills.• • • Personal impact — ability to create a good impression and instill confidence Resistance to stress — ability to perform under stressful conditions Tolerance for uncertainty — ability to perform in ambiguous situations Question 2: Explain the skills of manager Answer:• Management is a challenging job. This skill involves the ability to see the enterprise as a whole. it includes recognising how the various functions of the organisation depend on one another. • . and how changes in any one part affect all the others.

One way a superior can help "coach" his subordinate is by assigning a particular responsibility. the way the individual perceives (and recognises the perceptions of) his superiors. Human skills could be usefully devided into • • • (a) leadership ability within the manager's own unit and . and then responding with searching questions or opinions. the various courses of action he may undertake. This is so. In developing the conceptual skill. and subordinates. understand and motivate other people. Human relations skills are required by all managers at all levels of management. Special assignments. conceptual skills are mostly required by the top-level management because they spend more time in planning. he is able to see the usefulness and limitations of these feelings. motivate and develop team spirit. since all managers have to interact and work with people. particularly the kind which involve inter-departmental problems. The person with highly developed human skills is aware of his own attitudes. • • • Human Relations Skills • Human relations skills are also called Interpersonal skills. organizing and problem solving. According to Prof. and beliefs about other individuals and groups. relative tendencies and probabilities (rather than certainties). can also help develop this skill. This refers to the ability to work with. Katz. rather than giving answers. and the way he behaves subsequently. assumptions. It helps the manager to fix goals for the whole organization and to plan for every situation. It helps the managers to understand. He is sufficiently sensitive to the needs and motivations of others in his organisation so that he can judge the possible reactions to. Training can enhance previously developed conceptual abilities. and outcomes of. It is an ability to work with people. communicate and work with others. rough correlations and patterns among elements (rather than clear-cut cause-and-effect relationships). some of the best results have been achieved through "coaching" of subordinates by superiors. equals. It also helps the managers to lead. Another excellent way to develop this skill is through trading jobs: by moving promising young men and women through different functions of the business but at the same level of responsibility.• The conceptual skill involves thinking in terms of the following: relative emphasis and priorities among conflicting objectives and criteria.

the executive must develop his own personal point of view toward human activity so that he will (a) recognise the feelings and sentiments which he brings to a situation. procedures. Intragroup skills are essential in lower and middle management roles and intergroup skills become increasingly important in successively higher levels of management. particularly one involving methods. analytical ability within that specialty. Experience shows that outstanding capability in one of these roles is frequently accompanied by mediocre performance in the other. he must listen and solve the problems of the workers. Apart from Prof. Katz's three managerial skills. or techniques.(b) skill in intergroup relationships. It also helps them to use various procedures and techniques. a manager also needs (requires) following additional managerial skills. it involves specialised knowledge. and facility in the use of the tools and techniques of the specific discipline. The low-level managers require more technical skills. Administrative Skills . Vocational and on-the-job training programmes largely do a good job in developing this skill. • • Communication Skills • Communication skills are required equally at all three levels of management. This is because they are in charge of the actual operations. • To acquire the Human Skill. Similarly. A manager must be able to communicate the plans and policies to the workers. (b) have an attitude about his own experience which will enable him to re-evaluate and learn from them. The technical skill implies an understanding of and proficiency in a specific kind of activity. which may enable him to develop more useful attitudes about himself and about others. He must encourage a free-flow of communication in the organisation. Technical Skills • A technical skill is the ability to perform the given job. • The process of acquiring this ability can be effectively aided by a skilled instructor through use of case problems coupled with impromptu role playing. processes. (c) develop ability in understanding what others by their actions and words are trying to communicate to him and (d) develop ability in successfully communicating his ideas and attitudes to others. It is important that the trainee self-examines his own concepts and values. Technical skills help the managers to use different machines and tools.

They should also know how to get the work done. Leadership Skills • Leadership skill is the ability to influence human behaviour. They should be able to co-ordinate different activities of the organisation. He must also be able to implement his decision wisely. They should also be able to control the full organisation.• Administrative skills are required at the top-level management. However. Decision Making Skills • Decision-making skills are required at all levels of management. Problem Solving Skills • Problem solving skills are also called as Design skills. it is required more at the top-level of management. The success or failure of a manager depends upon the correctness of his decisions. Relative Significance of Managerial Skills Conceptual Human Technical Conceptual Human Technical Conceptual Human Technical * mgmt Supervisory level • Middle mgmt Top level level Technical skills are not so important for the chief executives in large organisations where such executives have extensive staff assistance and highly competent. experienced technical operators are available. A manager should know how to identify a problem. He should also possess an ability to find a best solution for solving any specific problem. These skills help the Manager to get the work done through the workers. In smaller . The top-level managers should know how to make plans and policies. This requires intelligence. experience and up-to-date knowledge of the latest developments. A manager must be able to take quick and correct decisions. A manager requires leadership skills to motivate the workers.

if you want to be one-day be a manager or you are a seasoned manager. where technical expertise is not as pervasive and seasoned staff assistance is not available. you need to be aware of the tasks that everyone is doing so that you can have an overview of the whole project and see it to completion. but this section will help you to manage yourself as a manager and leader. Using resource management at Netsuite. however. Leadership & Motivation This section helps you to see your role as more than just a manager. books and other material recommended in our resources page that can help you take your managerial skills to the next level. the chief executive has a much greater need for personal experience in the industry.com or similar products can enable you to overview your staff in an efficient manner. When you are managing a team. but as also the leader of your team. Communication Skills . By working on your personal development you will become a better manager from the inside out and it will show in how you carry out your projects within your organization. Resources You never stop learning. there is always room for improvement. Managing Yourself Not only is managing and leading your team important.organisations. Especially if you are a new manager. Management & Delegation Articles in this section will provide you with details about management and how you should delegate tasks. Leading differs from managing in that you are setting an example first for your team to follow which brings about great motivation to get the tasks done together so that you can all achieve a common goal as a team. We offer some suggestions on where to further improve your managerial skills with management courses.

A manager requires leadership skills to motivate the workers. Similarly. it is required more at the top-level of management. 8. 6. The top-level managers should know how to make plans and policies. experience and up-to-date knowledge of the latest developments. However. They should also know how to get the work done.Communication skills are required equally at all three levels of management. A manager must be able to communicate the plans and policies to the workers. Decision Making Skills Decision-making skills are required at all levels of management. They should be able to coordinate different activities of the organisation. These skills help the Manager to get the work done through the workers. He should also possess an ability to find a best solution for solving any specific problem. A manager must be able to take quick and correct decisions. The success or failure of a manager depends upon the correctness of his decisions. he must listen and solve the problems of the workers. He must also be able to implement his decision wisely. Leadership Skills Leadership skill is the ability to influence human behaviour. 5. He must encourage a free-flow of communication in the organisation. This requires intelligence. A manager should know how to identify a problem. 7. Administrative Skills Administrative skills are required at the top-level management. . Problem Solving Skills Problem solving skills are also called as Design skills. They should also be able to control the full organisation.

Question: . The levels of management can be classified in three broad categories: Top level / Administrative level Middle level / Executory Low level / Supervisory / Operative / First-line managers Managers at all these levels perform different functions.4 Define the levels of Management in an Organization. Answer: • The term “Levels of Management’ refers to a line of demarcation between various managerial positions in an organization. The role of managers at all the three levels is discussed below: • • • • . the amount of authority & status enjoyed by any managerial position. The level of management determines a chain of command. The number of levels in management increases when the size of the business and work force increases and vice versa.

In small organization. It devotes more time on planning and coordinating functions. schedules etc. The top management is also responsible towards the shareholders for the performance of the enterprise. It controls & coordinates the activities of all the departments. The role of the top management can be summarized as follows Top management lays down the objectives and broad policies of the enterprise. departmental managers. It prepares strategic plans & policies for the enterprise. They are responsible to the top management for the functioning of their department. It provides guidance and direction. They devote more time to organizational and directional functions. It issues necessary instructions for preparation of department budgets. It appoints the executive for middle level i.• LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT Top Level of Management • It consists of board of directors. It is also responsible for maintaining a contact with the outside world.e. chief executive or managing director. The top management is the ultimate source of authority and it manages goals and policies for an enterprise. there is only one layer of middle level of management but in big . procedures. • • • • • • • • • Middle Level of Management • The branch managers and departmental managers constitute middle level.

They guide and instruct workers for day to day activities. e. e. there may be senior and junior middle level management. Lower Level of Management • Lower level is also known as supervisory / operative level of management. “Supervisory management refers to those executives whose work has to be largely with personal oversight and direction of operative employees”. c. They are responsible for the quality as well as quantity of production. They are responsible for coordinating the activities within the division or department. a. It also sends important reports and other important data to top level management. They evaluate performance of junior managers. They are also entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining good relation in the organization. they are concerned with direction and controlling function of management. f. They help to solve the grievances of the workers. Their role can be emphasized as – • They execute the plans of the organization in accordance with the policies and directives of the top management. They are responsible for providing training to the workers. a. In other words. tools etc for getting the things done. They arrange necessary materials. They communicate workers problems. and recommendatory appeals etc to the higher level and higher level goals and objectives to the workers. According to R. Their activities include – Assigning of jobs and tasks to various workers. i. b. It consists of supervisors. Davis. • .C. They make plans for the sub-units of the organization. k. They supervise & guide the sub-ordinates.enterprises. f. They participate in employment & training of lower level management. d. They interpret and explain policies from top level management to lower level. suggestions. g. They ensure discipline in the enterprise. superintendent etc. They prepare periodical reports about the performance of the workers. b. machines. They are also responsible for inspiring lower level managers towards better performance. h. l. g. section officers. foreman. c. They are the image builders of the enterprise because they are in direct contact with the workers. j. They motivate workers. d.

e. Organizing.Question: . to organize. S for Staffing. & to control”.2 Explain the Function of Management. According to Henry Fayol. Co for Co-ordination. purchase etc. to command. they are highly inseparable. Staffing. it may be convenient to separate the function of management but practically these functions are overlapping in nature i. Rather these activities are common to each and every manger irrespective of his level or status. Directing and Controlling. Different experts have classified functions of management. “To manage is to forecast and plan. Planning. “There are four fundamental functions of management i. finance. D for Directing. organizing. planning. But the most widely accepted are functions of management given by KOONTZ and O’DONNEL i. • • . According to George & Jerry. These activities are different from operative functions like marketing. R for reporting & B for Budgeting. actuating and controlling”.e. Whereas Luther Gullick has given a keyword ’POSDCORB’ where P stands for Planning.e. Each function blends into the other & each affects the performance of others. Answer: • Management has been described as a social process involving responsibility for economical and effective planning & regulation of operation of an enterprise in the fulfillment of given purposes. It is a dynamic process consisting of various elements and activities. O for Organizing. For theoretical purposes.

complexity of human behavior etc. Thus. A plan is a future course of actions. Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships. To organize a business involves determining & providing human and non-human resources to the organizational structure. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology. Assignment of duties. when to do & how to do. choose the person and giving the right place). Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals.e. . Identification of activities. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job i. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. financial and human resources and developing productive relationship amongst them for achievement of organizational goals. “Managerial function of staffing involves manning the organization structure through proper and effective selection. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”.what to do. tools. Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility. appraisal & development of personnel to fill the roles designed un the structure”. Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. selection & placement. According to Kootz & O’Donell. planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of predetermined goals. “Planning is deciding in advance . • Organizing • It is the process of bringing together physical. it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion. raw material. wastages etc. uncertainties. It is all pervasive. “To organize a business is to provide it with everything useful or its functioning i. capital and personnel’s”. c) Training & development.Planning • It is the basic function of management.e. b) Recruitment. square pegs in square holes and round pegs in round holes. Staffing involves: a) Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching. risks. According to Henry Fayol. Classification of grouping of activities. Organizing as a process involves: a) b) c) d) e) Staffing • It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. increase in size of business.

e) Performance appraisal.may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction. non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose. motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. It is a bridge of understanding. organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work.d) Remuneration. opinion etc from one person to another. supervising. Directing • It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing. An efficient system of control helps to predict deviations before they actually occur. • • • • • • • • Controlling • It implies measurement of accomplishment against the standards and correction of deviation if any to ensure achievement of organizational goals. to correct any deviation”. According to Koontz & O’Donell “Controlling is the measurement & correction of performance activities of subordinates in order to make sure that the enterprise objectives and plans desired to obtain them as being accomplished”. guiding. negative.means inspiring. stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work.is the process of passing information. The purpose of controlling is to ensure that everything occurs in conformities with the standards. According to Theo Haimann.implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. Leadership. experience. It is considered lifespark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers. Communications. Positive. Therefore controlling has following steps: • . monetary. f) Promotions & transfer. Motivation. Direction has following elements: Supervision Motivation Leadership Communication Supervision. “Controlling is the process of checking whether or not proper progress is being made towards the objectives and goals and acting if necessary.

• • • • Establishment of standard performance. Comparison of actual performance with the standards and finding out deviation if any. Bibliography: - . Measurement of actual performance. Corrective action.