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**nonlocal hydrodynamic-type models
**

Vsevolod Vladimirov

AGH University of Science and technology, Faculty of Applied

Mathematics

Protaras, October 26, 2008

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 1 / 37

Plan of the talk:

Historical background

Solitons and compactons from the geometric point of view

Non-local hydrodynamic-type models

Compacton-like solutions in relaxing hydrodynamics

Attractive features of compactons-like solutions

Discussion, comments.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 2 / 37

Plan of the talk:

Historical background

Solitons and compactons from the geometric point of view

Non-local hydrodynamic-type models

Compacton-like solutions in relaxing hydrodynamics

Attractive features of compactons-like solutions

Discussion, comments.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 2 / 37

Plan of the talk:

Historical background

Solitons and compactons from the geometric point of view

Non-local hydrodynamic-type models

Compacton-like solutions in relaxing hydrodynamics

Attractive features of compactons-like solutions

Discussion, comments.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 2 / 37

Plan of the talk:

Historical background

Solitons and compactons from the geometric point of view

Non-local hydrodynamic-type models

Compacton-like solutions in relaxing hydrodynamics

Attractive features of compactons-like solutions

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 2 / 37

Plan of the talk:

Historical background

Solitons and compactons from the geometric point of view

Non-local hydrodynamic-type models

Compacton-like solutions in relaxing hydrodynamics

Attractive features of compactons-like solutions

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 2 / 37

Plan of the talk:

Historical background

Solitons and compactons from the geometric point of view

Non-local hydrodynamic-type models

Compacton-like solutions in relaxing hydrodynamics

Attractive features of compactons-like solutions

Discussion, comments.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 2 / 37

Rosenau-Hyman generaization of KdV hierarchy

K(m, n) hierarchy(Rosenau, Hyman, 1993):

K(m, n) = u

t

+α (u

m

)

x

+β (u

n

)

xxx

= 0, m ≥ 2, n ≥ 2.

(1)

Solitary wave solution, corresponding to α = β = 1 and m = n = 2:

u =

_

4 V

3

cos

2

ξ

4

when |ξ| ≤ 2 π,

0 when |ξ| > 2 π,

ξ = x −V t. (2)

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 3 / 37

Rosenau-Hyman generaization of KdV hierarchy

K(m, n) hierarchy(Rosenau, Hyman, 1993):

K(m, n) = u

t

+α (u

m

)

x

+β (u

n

)

xxx

= 0, m ≥ 2, n ≥ 2.

(1)

Solitary wave solution, corresponding to α = β = 1 and m = n = 2:

u =

_

4 V

3

cos

2

ξ

4

when |ξ| ≤ 2 π,

0 when |ξ| > 2 π,

ξ = x −V t. (2)

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 3 / 37

Main properties of KdV and K(m, n) equations’

solutions

Solitons (compactons) forms a one-parameter family w.r.t.

parameter V , see below;

u =

12 V

2

β

sech

2

_

V (x −4 V

2

t)

¸

KdV soliton

u =

_

4 V

3

cos

2 x−V t

4

when |x −V t| ≤ 2 π,

0 when |ξ| > 2 π,

K(2, 2) compacton.

Maximal amplitude of the solitary wave is proportional to

its velocity V .

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 4 / 37

Main properties of KdV and K(m, n) equations’

solutions

Solitons (compactons) forms a one-parameter family w.r.t.

parameter V , see below;

u =

12 V

2

β

sech

2

_

V (x −4 V

2

t)

¸

KdV soliton

u =

_

4 V

3

cos

2 x−V t

4

when |x −V t| ≤ 2 π,

0 when |ξ| > 2 π,

K(2, 2) compacton.

Maximal amplitude of the solitary wave is proportional to

its velocity V .

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 4 / 37

Smooth compact initial data create a ﬁnite number of

solitons (compactons)

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 5 / 37

Evolution of an initial localized disturbance

An initial pulse with a compact support, evolves in a series of sharply

localized pulses – compactons (length ≈5 mesh points)

20

40

60

80

100

120

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

0

PSfrag replacements

time

space

π/5

uu

9

Solitons (compactons) restore their shapes after the

mutual collisions

Collision of compactons is accompanied by the

creation of the low-amplitude

compacton-anticompacton pair

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 6 / 37

Collisions

Collision of compactons (here with velocities 0.2 and 0.9) is nearly elastic

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

0

0.5

1

1.5

PSfrag replacements

site n

time

ﬁeld u

n

(t) ﬁeld u

n

(t)

27

Solitons and compactons from geometric point of view.

Reduction of KdV equation

In order to describe solitons, we use the TW reduction

u(t, x) = U(ξ), with ξ = x −V t.

Inserting U(ξ) into the KdV equation

u

t

+β uu

x

+u

xxx

= 0

we get, after one integration, Hamiltonian system:

˙

U(ξ) = −W(ξ) = −H

W

, (3)

˙

W(ξ) =

β

2

U(ξ)

_

U(ξ) −

2 v

β

_

= H

U

.

H =

1

2

_

W

2

+

β

3

U

3

−v U

2

_

. (4)

Every solutions of (3) can be identiﬁed with some level curve H = K.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 7 / 37

Solitons and compactons from geometric point of view.

Reduction of KdV equation

In order to describe solitons, we use the TW reduction

u(t, x) = U(ξ), with ξ = x −V t.

Inserting U(ξ) into the KdV equation

u

t

+β uu

x

+u

xxx

= 0

we get, after one integration, Hamiltonian system:

˙

U(ξ) = −W(ξ) = −H

W

, (3)

˙

W(ξ) =

β

2

U(ξ)

_

U(ξ) −

2 v

β

_

= H

U

.

H =

1

2

_

W

2

+

β

3

U

3

−v U

2

_

. (4)

Every solutions of (3) can be identiﬁed with some level curve H = K.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 7 / 37

Solitons and compactons from geometric point of view.

Reduction of KdV equation

In order to describe solitons, we use the TW reduction

u(t, x) = U(ξ), with ξ = x −V t.

Inserting U(ξ) into the KdV equation

u

t

+β uu

x

+u

xxx

= 0

we get, after one integration, Hamiltonian system:

˙

U(ξ) = −W(ξ) = −H

W

, (3)

˙

W(ξ) =

β

2

U(ξ)

_

U(ξ) −

2 v

β

_

= H

U

.

H =

1

2

_

W

2

+

β

3

U

3

−v U

2

_

. (4)

Every solutions of (3) can be identiﬁed with some level curve H = K.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 7 / 37

Solitons and compactons from geometric point of view.

Reduction of KdV equation

In order to describe solitons, we use the TW reduction

u(t, x) = U(ξ), with ξ = x −V t.

Inserting U(ξ) into the KdV equation

u

t

+β uu

x

+u

xxx

= 0

we get, after one integration, Hamiltonian system:

˙

U(ξ) = −W(ξ) = −H

W

, (3)

˙

W(ξ) =

β

2

U(ξ)

_

U(ξ) −

2 v

β

_

= H

U

.

H =

1

2

_

W

2

+

β

3

U

3

−v U

2

_

. (4)

Every solutions of (3) can be identiﬁed with some level curve H = K.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 7 / 37

Solitons and compactons from geometric point of view.

Reduction of KdV equation

In order to describe solitons, we use the TW reduction

u(t, x) = U(ξ), with ξ = x −V t.

Inserting U(ξ) into the KdV equation

u

t

+β uu

x

+u

xxx

= 0

we get, after one integration, Hamiltonian system:

˙

U(ξ) = −W(ξ) = −H

W

, (3)

˙

W(ξ) =

β

2

U(ξ)

_

U(ξ) −

2 v

β

_

= H

U

.

H =

1

2

_

W

2

+

β

3

U

3

−v U

2

_

. (4)

Every solutions of (3) can be identiﬁed with some level curve H = K.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 7 / 37

Level curves of the Hamiltonian

H =

1

2

_

W

2

+

β

3

U

3

−v U

2

_

= K = const

Solution to KdV, corresponding to the homoclinic

trajectory

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 8 / 37

Reduction of K(m, n) equation

Inserting ansatz u(t, x) = U(ξ) ≡ U(x −v t) into

K(m, n) ≡ u

t

+α (u

m

)

x

+β (u

n

)

xxx

= 0,

we obtain, after one integration and employing the integrating

multiplier ϕ[U] = U

n−1

, the Hamiltonian system:

_

nβ U

2(n−1) d U

d ξ

= −nβ U

2(n−1)

W = −H

W

,

nβ U

2(n−1) d W

d ξ

= U

n−1

_

−v U +αU

m

+n(n −1) β U

n−2

W

2

¸

= H

U

.

Every trajectory of the above system can be identiﬁed with

some level curve H = const of the Hamiltonian

H =

α

m+n

U

m+n

−

v

n + 1

U

n+1

+

β n

2

U

2(n−1)

W

2

.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 9 / 37

Reduction of K(m, n) equation

Inserting ansatz u(t, x) = U(ξ) ≡ U(x −v t) into

K(m, n) ≡ u

t

+α (u

m

)

x

+β (u

n

)

xxx

= 0,

we obtain, after one integration and employing the integrating

multiplier ϕ[U] = U

n−1

, the Hamiltonian system:

_

nβ U

2(n−1) d U

d ξ

= −nβ U

2(n−1)

W = −H

W

,

nβ U

2(n−1) d W

d ξ

= U

n−1

_

−v U +αU

m

+n(n −1) β U

n−2

W

2

¸

= H

U

.

Every trajectory of the above system can be identiﬁed with

some level curve H = const of the Hamiltonian

H =

α

m+n

U

m+n

−

v

n + 1

U

n+1

+

β n

2

U

2(n−1)

W

2

.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 9 / 37

Reduction of K(m, n) equation

Inserting ansatz u(t, x) = U(ξ) ≡ U(x −v t) into

K(m, n) ≡ u

t

+α (u

m

)

x

+β (u

n

)

xxx

= 0,

we obtain, after one integration and employing the integrating

multiplier ϕ[U] = U

n−1

, the Hamiltonian system:

_

nβ U

2(n−1) d U

d ξ

= −nβ U

2(n−1)

W = −H

W

,

nβ U

2(n−1) d W

d ξ

= U

n−1

_

−v U +αU

m

+n(n −1) β U

n−2

W

2

¸

= H

U

.

Every trajectory of the above system can be identiﬁed with

some level curve H = const of the Hamiltonian

H =

α

m+n

U

m+n

−

v

n + 1

U

n+1

+

β n

2

U

2(n−1)

W

2

.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 9 / 37

Reduction of K(m, n) equation

Inserting ansatz u(t, x) = U(ξ) ≡ U(x −v t) into

K(m, n) ≡ u

t

+α (u

m

)

x

+β (u

n

)

xxx

= 0,

we obtain, after one integration and employing the integrating

multiplier ϕ[U] = U

n−1

, the Hamiltonian system:

_

nβ U

2(n−1) d U

d ξ

= −nβ U

2(n−1)

W = −H

W

,

nβ U

2(n−1) d W

d ξ

= U

n−1

_

−v U +αU

m

+n(n −1) β U

n−2

W

2

¸

= H

U

.

Every trajectory of the above system can be identiﬁed with

some level curve H = const of the Hamiltonian

H =

α

m+n

U

m+n

−

v

n + 1

U

n+1

+

β n

2

U

2(n−1)

W

2

.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 9 / 37

Level curves of the Hamiltonian

H =

α

m+2

U

m+2

−

v

3

U

3

+β U

2

W

2

= L = const,

corresponding to the reduced K(m, 2) equation

Generalized solution to K(m, 2) equation (nonzero part

corresponds to the homoclinic trajectory):

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 10 / 37

Conclusion:

Compacton-like TW solution is represented in the phase

space of the factorized system by the trajectory

bi-asymptotic to a (topological) saddle.lying on a

singular manifold of dynamical system

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 11 / 37

Modeling system

Let’s consider balance equations for mass and momentum in

lagrangean coordinates:

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(5)

Using the closing equation

p =

β

m+ 1

ρ

m+1

characteristic for local processes,we get the Euler-type system

_

u

t

+β ρ

m

ρ

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(6)

No solitary waves, no compactons for physically

justiﬁed case ∂ p/∂ ρ > 0

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 12 / 37

Modeling system

Let’s consider balance equations for mass and momentum in

lagrangean coordinates:

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(5)

Using the closing equation

p =

β

m+ 1

ρ

m+1

characteristic for local processes,we get the Euler-type system

_

u

t

+β ρ

m

ρ

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(6)

No solitary waves, no compactons for physically

justiﬁed case ∂ p/∂ ρ > 0

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 12 / 37

Modeling system

Let’s consider balance equations for mass and momentum in

lagrangean coordinates:

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(5)

Using the closing equation

p =

β

m+ 1

ρ

m+1

characteristic for local processes,we get the Euler-type system

_

u

t

+β ρ

m

ρ

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(6)

No solitary waves, no compactons for physically

justiﬁed case ∂ p/∂ ρ > 0

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 12 / 37

Modeling system

Let’s consider balance equations for mass and momentum in

lagrangean coordinates:

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(5)

Using the closing equation

p =

β

m+ 1

ρ

m+1

characteristic for local processes,we get the Euler-type system

_

u

t

+β ρ

m

ρ

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(6)

No solitary waves, no compactons for physically

justiﬁed case ∂ p/∂ ρ > 0

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 12 / 37

Closing equation taking into account non-local eﬀects:

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

. (7)

Using the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(x −x

) e

−

t−t

τ

describing the eﬀects of temporal non-localities and the

polynomial functions

f(ρ) =

χ

τ

ρ

n

, g(ρ) = σ ρ

n

we can get the relaxing hydrodynamics system

1

_

_

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

τ

_

p

t

−

χ

τ

(ρ

n

)

t

¸

= κρ

n

−p

(8)

1

Cf. Lyakhov, 1983; Danylenko et al., 1995

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 13 / 37

Closing equation taking into account non-local eﬀects:

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

. (7)

Using the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(x −x

) e

−

t−t

τ

describing the eﬀects of temporal non-localities and the

polynomial functions

f(ρ) =

χ

τ

ρ

n

, g(ρ) = σ ρ

n

we can get the relaxing hydrodynamics system

1

_

_

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

τ

_

p

t

−

χ

τ

(ρ

n

)

t

¸

= κρ

n

−p

(8)

1

Cf. Lyakhov, 1983; Danylenko et al., 1995

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 13 / 37

Closing equation taking into account non-local eﬀects:

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

. (7)

Using the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(x −x

) e

−

t−t

τ

describing the eﬀects of temporal non-localities and the

polynomial functions

f(ρ) =

χ

τ

ρ

n

, g(ρ) = σ ρ

n

we can get the relaxing hydrodynamics system

1

_

_

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

τ

_

p

t

−

χ

τ

(ρ

n

)

t

¸

= κρ

n

−p

(8)

1

Cf. Lyakhov, 1983; Danylenko et al., 1995

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 13 / 37

Closing equation taking into account non-local eﬀects:

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

. (7)

Using the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(x −x

) e

−

t−t

describing the eﬀects of temporal non-localities and the

polynomial functions

f(ρ) =

χ

τ

ρ

n

, g(ρ) = σ ρ

n

we can get the relaxing hydrodynamics system

1

_

_

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

τ

_

p

t

−

χ

τ

(ρ

n

)

t

¸

= κρ

n

−p

(8)

1

Cf. Lyakhov, 1983; Danylenko et al., 1995

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 13 / 37

Closing equation taking into account non-local eﬀects:

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

. (7)

Using the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(x −x

) e

−

t−t

τ

describing the eﬀects of temporal non-localities and the

polynomial functions

f(ρ) =

χ

τ

ρ

n

, g(ρ) = σ ρ

n

we can get the relaxing hydrodynamics system

1

_

_

_

u

t

+p

x

= F,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

τ

_

p

t

−

χ

τ

(ρ

n

)

t

¸

= κρ

n

−p

(8)

1

Cf. Lyakhov, 1983; Danylenko et al., 1995

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 13 / 37

Let us consider closing equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

with the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

)

2

L

.

describing eﬀects of spatial non-locality. When

f(ρ) = Bρ

n+1

, and g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

then we get the system describing e.g. solids with microcracks

2

:

_

u

t

+β ρ

n

ρ

x

+σ (ρ

n

ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(9)

System (9) possesses a one-parameter family of

soliton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2003), and does

not possess compacton-like solutions (Vladimirov,

2008).

2

cf. Peerlings, de Borst, Geers et al., 2001

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 14 / 37

Let us consider closing equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

with the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

)

2

L

.

describing eﬀects of spatial non-locality. When

f(ρ) = Bρ

n+1

, and g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

then we get the system describing e.g. solids with microcracks

2

:

_

u

t

+β ρ

n

ρ

x

+σ (ρ

n

ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(9)

System (9) possesses a one-parameter family of

soliton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2003), and does

not possess compacton-like solutions (Vladimirov,

2008).

2

cf. Peerlings, de Borst, Geers et al., 2001

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 14 / 37

Let us consider closing equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

with the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

)

2

L

.

describing eﬀects of spatial non-locality. When

f(ρ) = Bρ

n+1

, and g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

then we get the system describing e.g. solids with microcracks

2

:

_

u

t

+β ρ

n

ρ

x

+σ (ρ

n

ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(9)

System (9) possesses a one-parameter family of

soliton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2003), and does

not possess compacton-like solutions (Vladimirov,

2008).

2

cf. Peerlings, de Borst, Geers et al., 2001

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 14 / 37

Let us consider closing equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

with the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

2

L

.

describing eﬀects of spatial non-locality. When

f(ρ) = Bρ

n+1

, and g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

then we get the system describing e.g. solids with microcracks

2

:

_

u

t

+β ρ

n

ρ

x

+σ (ρ

n

ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(9)

System (9) possesses a one-parameter family of

soliton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2003), and does

not possess compacton-like solutions (Vladimirov,

2008).

2

cf. Peerlings, de Borst, Geers et al., 2001

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 14 / 37

Let us consider closing equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

with the kernel

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

)

2

L

.

describing eﬀects of spatial non-locality. When

f(ρ) = Bρ

n+1

, and g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

then we get the system describing e.g. solids with microcracks

2

:

_

u

t

+β ρ

n

ρ

x

+σ (ρ

n

ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

(9)

System (9) possesses a one-parameter family of

soliton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2003), and does

not possess compacton-like solutions (Vladimirov,

2008).

2

cf. Peerlings, de Borst, Geers et al., 2001

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 14 / 37

Compactons appears in case when we slightly modify the state

equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

Now we use the same function

g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

and the same kernel of non-locality

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

)

2

L

.

and some unspeciﬁed function f(¯ ρ) ≡ f(ρ −ρ

0

). This way we

obtain system

_

u

t

+

˙

f(¯ ρ) ρ

x

+σ (¯ ρ

n

¯ ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0.

(10)

Under certain conditions system (10) possesses

compacton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2008).

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 15 / 37

Compactons appears in case when we slightly modify the state

equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

Now we use the same function

g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

and the same kernel of non-locality

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

)

2

L

.

and some unspeciﬁed function f(¯ ρ) ≡ f(ρ −ρ

0

). This way we

obtain system

_

u

t

+

˙

f(¯ ρ) ρ

x

+σ (¯ ρ

n

¯ ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0.

(10)

Under certain conditions system (10) possesses

compacton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2008).

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 15 / 37

Compactons appears in case when we slightly modify the state

equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

Now we use the same function

g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

and the same kernel of non-locality

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

)

2

L

.

and some unspeciﬁed function f(¯ ρ) ≡ f(ρ −ρ

0

). This way we

obtain system

_

u

t

+

˙

f(¯ ρ) ρ

x

+σ (¯ ρ

n

¯ ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0.

(10)

Under certain conditions system (10) possesses

compacton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2008).

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 15 / 37

Compactons appears in case when we slightly modify the state

equation

p = f(ρ) +

_

t

−∞

__

+∞

−∞

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

g(ρ) d x

_

d t

.

Now we use the same function

g(ρ) = ˆ σ ρ

n+1

and the same kernel of non-locality

K

_

t, t

; x, x

¸

= δ(t −t

) e

−

(x−x

)

2

L

.

and some unspeciﬁed function f(¯ ρ) ≡ f(ρ −ρ

0

). This way we

obtain system

_

u

t

+

˙

f(¯ ρ) ρ

x

+σ (¯ ρ

n

¯ ρ

x

)

xx

= 0,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0.

(10)

Under certain conditions system (10) possesses

compacton-like TW solutions (Vladimirov, 2008).

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 15 / 37

Compactons in relaxing hydrodynamic-type model

We consider relaxing hydrodynamic-type system

_

_

_

u

t

+p

x

= F = γ = const,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

τ

_

p

t

−

χ

τ

(ρ

n

)

t

¸

= κρ

n

−p

(11)

In the following we assume that n = 1. Introducing the

variable V =

1

ρ

(describing the speciﬁc volume) we get

u

t

+p

x

= γ, V

t

−u

x

= 0 (12)

τ

_

p

t

+

χ

τ V

2

u

x

_

=

κ

V

−p.

We are going to state that the set of self-similar solutions

of system (12) contains a compacton

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 16 / 37

Compactons in relaxing hydrodynamic-type model

We consider relaxing hydrodynamic-type system

_

_

_

u

t

+p

x

= F = γ = const,

ρ

t

+ρ

2

u

x

= 0,

τ

_

p

t

−

χ

τ

(ρ

n

)

t

¸

= κρ

n

−p

(11)

In the following we assume that n = 1. Introducing the

variable V =

1

ρ

(describing the speciﬁc volume) we get

u

t

+p

x

= γ, V

t

−u

x

= 0 (12)

τ

_

p

t

+

χ

τ V

2

u

x

_

=

κ

V

−p.

We are going to state that the set of self-similar solutions

of system (12) contains a compacton

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 16 / 37

Lemma.System (12) admits the local group, generated by the

following operators:

ˆ

X

1

=

∂

∂ t

,

ˆ

X

2

=

∂

∂ x

,

ˆ

X

3

= x

∂

∂ x

+p

∂

∂ p

−V

∂

∂ V

.

Based on these symmetry generators one can build up the

following ansatz

u = U(ω), V =

R(ω)

x

0

−x

, p = (x

0

−x) P(ω), (13)

ω = tξ + ln

x

0

x

0

−x

,

leading to the reduction of the system of PDEs.

Note that the parameter ξ plays the role of velocity!

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 17 / 37

Lemma.System (12) admits the local group, generated by the

following operators:

ˆ

X

1

=

∂

∂ t

,

ˆ

X

2

=

∂

∂ x

,

ˆ

X

3

= x

∂

∂ x

+p

∂

∂ p

−V

∂

∂ V

.

Based on these symmetry generators one can build up the

following ansatz

u = U(ω), V =

R(ω)

x

0

−x

, p = (x

0

−x) P(ω), (13)

ω = tξ + ln

x

0

x

0

−x

,

leading to the reduction of the system of PDEs.

Note that the parameter ξ plays the role of velocity!

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 17 / 37

Lemma.System (12) admits the local group, generated by the

following operators:

ˆ

X

1

=

∂

∂ t

,

ˆ

X

2

=

∂

∂ x

,

ˆ

X

3

= x

∂

∂ x

+p

∂

∂ p

−V

∂

∂ V

.

Based on these symmetry generators one can build up the

following ansatz

u = U(ω), V =

R(ω)

x

0

−x

, p = (x

0

−x) P(ω), (13)

ω = tξ + ln

x

0

x

0

−x

,

leading to the reduction of the system of PDEs.

Note that the parameter ξ plays the role of velocity!

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 17 / 37

Lemma.System (12) admits the local group, generated by the

following operators:

ˆ

X

1

=

∂

∂ t

,

ˆ

X

2

=

∂

∂ x

,

ˆ

X

3

= x

∂

∂ x

+p

∂

∂ p

−V

∂

∂ V

.

Based on these symmetry generators one can build up the

following ansatz

u = U(ω), V =

R(ω)

x

0

−x

, p = (x

0

−x) P(ω), (13)

ω = tξ + ln

x

0

x

0

−x

,

leading to the reduction of the system of PDEs.

Note that the parameter ξ plays the role of velocity!

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 17 / 37

Inserting ansatz (13) into the system (12), we get the ﬁrst

integral U = ξR +const and the dynamical system DS:

ξ∆(R)R

= −R [σRP −κ +τξRγ] , (14)

ξ∆(R) P

= ξ {ξR(RP −κ) +χ( P +γ)} ,

where (·)

= d (·) /dω, ∆(R) = τ(ξR)

2

−χ, σ = 1 +τξ.

Figure: Stationary points of system (14):

A(R

1

, P

1

), R

1

= −κ/γ, P

1

= −γ; B(R

2

, P

2

) ,

R

2

=

_

χ

τξ

2

, P

2

=

κ−τξγ R

2

(1+τ ξ) R

2

; C(0, −γ)

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 18 / 37

Inserting ansatz (13) into the system (12), we get the ﬁrst

integral U = ξR +const and the dynamical system DS:

ξ∆(R)R

= −R [σRP −κ +τξRγ] , (14)

ξ∆(R) P

= ξ {ξR(RP −κ) +χ( P +γ)} ,

where (·)

= d (·) /dω, ∆(R) = τ(ξR)

2

−χ, σ = 1 +τξ.

Figure: Stationary points of system (14):

A(R

1

, P

1

), R

1

= −κ/γ, P

1

= −γ; B(R

2

, P

2

) ,

R

2

=

_

χ

τξ

2

, P

2

=

κ−τξγ R

2

(1+τ ξ) R

2

; C(0, −γ)

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 18 / 37

Inserting ansatz (13) into the system (12), we get the ﬁrst

integral U = ξR +const and the dynamical system DS:

ξ∆(R)R

= −R [σRP −κ +τξRγ] , (14)

ξ∆(R) P

= ξ {ξR(RP −κ) +χ( P +γ)} ,

where (·)

= d (·) /dω, ∆(R) = τ(ξR)

2

−χ, σ = 1 +τξ.

Figure: Stationary points of system (14):

A(R

1

, P

1

), R

1

= −κ/γ, P

1

= −γ; B(R

2

, P

2

) ,

R

2

=

_

χ

τξ

2

, P

2

=

κ−τξγ R

2

(1+τ ξ) R

2

; C(0, −γ)

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 18 / 37

Our further steps are the following:

We are looking for the conditions assuring that the point

A(R

1

, P

1

) is a center while simultaneously the point

B(R

2

, P

2

) is a saddle.

Next we apply the Andronov-Hopf-Floquet theory in order

to state the conditions assuring the appearance of limit

cycle in proximity of the critical point A;

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 19 / 37

Figure: Birth of the limit cycle in proximity of the critical point A

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 20 / 37

Finally we investigate (numerically) the interaction of the

limit cycle with the saddle point B, hoping that the growth

of the limit cycle will ﬁnally lead to the homoclinic

trajectory appearance.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 21 / 37

Figure: Interaction of limit cycle with unmovable saddle B would lead

to the homoclinic loop creation

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 22 / 37

Lemma If R

1

< R

2

then in vicinity of the critical value

ξ

cr

= −

χ +

_

χ

2

+ 4κR

2

1

2R

2

1

. (15)

a stable limit cycle appears in system (14).

Lemma Stationary point B(R

2

, P

2

) is a saddle lying in the

ﬁrst quadrant for any ξ > ξ

cr

if the following inequalities hold:

−τ ξ

cr

R

2

< R

1

< R

2

. (16)

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 23 / 37

Figure: Changes of phase portrait of system (14): (a) A(R

1

, P

1

) is the

stable focus; (b) A(R

1

, P

1

) is surrounded by the stable limit cycle; (c)

A(R

1

, P

1

) is surrounded by the homoclinic loop; (d) A(R

1

, P

1

) is the

unstable focus;

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 24 / 37

Main features of the compacton solution of system (12)

1. The family of TW solutions to relaxing hydrodynamic

system (12) includes a compacton in case when an

external force is present (more precisely, when

γ < 0 ).

2. To our best knowledge, no one of the classical (local)

hydrodynamic-type models does not possesses this type of

solution.

3. In contrast to the equations belonging to the K(m, n)

hierarchy , compacton solution to system (12) occurs

merely at selected values of the parameters: for ﬁxed

κ, γ and χ: there is the unique compacton-like

solution, corresponding to the value ξ = ξ

cr

2

.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 25 / 37

Main features of the compacton solution of system (12)

1. The family of TW solutions to relaxing hydrodynamic

system (12) includes a compacton in case when an

external force is present (more precisely, when

γ < 0 ).

2. To our best knowledge, no one of the classical (local)

hydrodynamic-type models does not possesses this type of

solution.

3. In contrast to the equations belonging to the K(m, n)

hierarchy , compacton solution to system (12) occurs

merely at selected values of the parameters: for ﬁxed

κ, γ and χ: there is the unique compacton-like

solution, corresponding to the value ξ = ξ

cr

2

.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 25 / 37

Main features of the compacton solution of system (12)

1. The family of TW solutions to relaxing hydrodynamic

system (12) includes a compacton in case when an

external force is present (more precisely, when

γ < 0 ).

2. To our best knowledge, no one of the classical (local)

hydrodynamic-type models does not possesses this type of

solution.

3. In contrast to the equations belonging to the K(m, n)

hierarchy , compacton solution to system (12) occurs

merely at selected values of the parameters: for ﬁxed

κ, γ and χ: there is the unique compacton-like

solution, corresponding to the value ξ = ξ

cr

2

.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 25 / 37

Stability and attracting features of the compacton-like

solution to system (12)

RESULTS OF NUMERICAL

SIMULATION

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 26 / 37

Figure: Temporal evolution of the compacton-like solution: t = 0

corresponds to initial TW solution; graphs t = 20, 40, 60 are obtained

by means of the numerical simulation

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 27 / 37

Non-invariant initial (Cauch´y) data

Following family of the initial perturbations have been

considered in the numerical experiments

p =

_

_

_

p

0

(x

0

−x) when x ∈ (0, a) ∪ (a +l, x

0

)

(p

0

+p

1

)(x

0

−x) +w(x −a) +h when x ∈ (a, a +l),

u = 0, V = κ/p.

(17)

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 28 / 37

Hyperbolicity of system (12) causes that any compact

initial perturbation splits into two pulses moving into

opposite directions.

Numerical experiments show that under certain conditions one

of the wave packs created by the perturbation (namely that one

which runs ”downwards” towards the direction of diminishing

pressure) in the long run approaches compacton solution.

It does occur when the total energy of initial perturbation E

tot

is close to some number E(κ, χ, γ...) depending on the

parameters of the system.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 29 / 37

Hyperbolicity of system (12) causes that any compact

initial perturbation splits into two pulses moving into

opposite directions.

Numerical experiments show that under certain conditions one

of the wave packs created by the perturbation (namely that one

which runs ”downwards” towards the direction of diminishing

pressure) in the long run approaches compacton solution.

It does occur when the total energy of initial perturbation E

tot

is close to some number E(κ, χ, γ...) depending on the

parameters of the system.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 29 / 37

Hyperbolicity of system (12) causes that any compact

initial perturbation splits into two pulses moving into

opposite directions.

Numerical experiments show that under certain conditions one

of the wave packs created by the perturbation (namely that one

which runs ”downwards” towards the direction of diminishing

pressure) in the long run approaches compacton solution.

It does occur when the total energy of initial perturbation E

tot

is close to some number E(κ, χ, γ...) depending on the

parameters of the system.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 29 / 37

For κ = 10, χ = 1.5, γ = −0.04, τ = 0.07 and x

0

= 120

E(κ, χ, γ...) is close to 45.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 30 / 37

Figure: Left: initial perturbation on the background of the

compacton-like solution (dashed). Right: evolution of the wave pack

caused by the initial perturbation on the background of the

compacton-like solution (dashed).

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 31 / 37

Figure: Left: initial perturbation on the background of the

compacton-like solution (dashed). Right: evolution of the wave pack

caused by the initial perturbation on the background of the

compacton-like solution (dashed).

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 32 / 37

Figure: Left: initial perturbation on the background of the

compacton-like solution (dashed). Right: evolution of the wave pack

caused by the initial perturbation on the background of the

compacton-like solution (dashed).

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 33 / 37

Figure: Evolution of the wave pack caused by the initial perturbation

which does not satisfy the energy criterion.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 34 / 37

Figure: Evolution of the wave pack caused by the initial perturbation

which does not satisfy the energy criterion.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 35 / 37

Colclusions and discussion

Numerical investigations of relaxing hydrodynamics system (12)

reveal that:

1. Compacton encountering in this particular model evolves in

a stable self-similar mode.

2. A wide class of initial perturbations creates wave packs

tending to the compacton.

3. Convergency only weakly depend on the shape of initial

perturbation and is mainly caused by fulﬁllment of the

energy criterion.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 36 / 37

Colclusions and discussion

Numerical investigations of relaxing hydrodynamics system (12)

reveal that:

1. Compacton encountering in this particular model evolves in

a stable self-similar mode.

2. A wide class of initial perturbations creates wave packs

tending to the compacton.

3. Convergency only weakly depend on the shape of initial

perturbation and is mainly caused by fulﬁllment of the

energy criterion.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 36 / 37

Colclusions and discussion

Numerical investigations of relaxing hydrodynamics system (12)

reveal that:

1. Compacton encountering in this particular model evolves in

a stable self-similar mode.

2. A wide class of initial perturbations creates wave packs

tending to the compacton.

3. Convergency only weakly depend on the shape of initial

perturbation and is mainly caused by fulﬁllment of the

energy criterion.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 36 / 37

Colclusions and discussion

Numerical investigations of relaxing hydrodynamics system (12)

reveal that:

1. Compacton encountering in this particular model evolves in

a stable self-similar mode.

2. A wide class of initial perturbations creates wave packs

tending to the compacton.

3. Convergency only weakly depend on the shape of initial

perturbation and is mainly caused by fulﬁllment of the

energy criterion.

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 36 / 37

THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

WMS AGH Compactons in Relaxing hydrodynamic-type model 37 / 37

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