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12/12/2009

BASIC WIREBONDING
Engr. Deorex David Navaja MSE101

Basics of Wirebonding
What is Wirebonding
 Wirebonding is a process of providing electrical connection between the chip and the external leads of the device using very fine bonding wires and a combination of heat, pressure and/or ultrasonic energy at specified time. Wirebonding is a solid phase welding process, where the two metallic materials (wire and pad surface) are brought into intimate contact. Once the surfaces are in intimate contact, electron sharing or inter-atomic diffusion takes place, resulting in the formation of wirebond.

Wirebonding Processes
Wirebonding Thermocompression Ultrasonic Thermosonic Pressure High Low Low Temperature 300 – 500ºC 25ºC 100 – 150ºC
Engr. Deorex David Navaja

Ultrasonic Energy No Yes Yes

Wire Au Au, Al Au

Pad Al, Au Al, Au Al, Au
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Basics of Wirebonding
Wirebond Forms

Ballbond

Wedge bond (Capillary)

Wedge bond

Wirebonding Ball bond Wedge bond

Bonding Technique T/C, T/S T/S, US

Bonding Tool Capillary Wedge

Wire Au Au, Al

Pad Al, Au Al, Au
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Engr. Deorex David Navaja

II. The Wirebonding Process
If the bond and bond pad are composed of different metals, such as in the case of gold ball/aluminum bond pad bonding, THERMAL ENERGY or a Workholder Temperature is required to 'soften' the harder metal (copper/gold/aluminum) to match their hardness. Au-Al ball bonding generally takes place at 200-240 deg C. In cases where the wire and bond pad have similar metallurgies, bonding may occur at ambient temperature, such as in the case of aluminum wedge/aluminum bond pad bonding. The parts of Wirebond are: 1) Ball bond – The bond formed after the FAB was squashed onto the bonding pad by the capillary. Ball Neck – The termination point between the Ball bond and the wire exit. Span – The gold wire from ball neck to stitch heel. Stitch Heel – The termination point between the Span and the Wedge. Stitch/ Wedge – Second Bond or Wire Tail.
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Ball Bonding Technique

STEP 1: PRS FOR FIRST BOND
WIRE CLAMP GOLD WIRE * Search for the bonding location using machine pattern recognition system (PRS) or using operator’s eyes

CAPILLARY FREE AIR BALL BONDING PAD CHIP
Engr. Deorex David Navaja

LEAD/POST

HEAT

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STEP 2: FIRST BOND FORMATION

** capillary goes down with the freeair-ball (FAB)

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STEP 2: FIRST BOND FORMATION

Ultrasonic Scrub

* The gold FAB is attached to the chip’s bonding pad using a vertical force and horizontal ultrasonic scrubbing

Force

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HEAT

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STEP 2: FIRST BOND FORMATION

* The ball is partially flattened and attached to the bonding pad

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STEP 3: VERTICAL HEIGHT EXIT FORMATION

* The capillary is lifted while the clamp is open allowing a free movement along the wire

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STEP 3: VERTICAL HEIGHT EXIT FORMATION

* The capillary is lifted while the clamp is open allowing a free movement along the wire

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STEP 3: VERTICAL HEIGHT EXIT FORMATION

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STEP 3: VERTICAL HEIGHT EXIT FORMATION

* After the desired exit height is reached, the capillary motion would change

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STEP 4: WIRE LOOP FORMATION
REVERSE DISTANCE * Forming the reverse height and reverse distance

REVERSE HEIGHT

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STEP 4: WIRE LOOP FORMATION

•The capillary is carried to the bonding post

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•The capillary compresses the wire and attaches it to the post using ultrasonic scrubbing
•It is important that the post be flat so that the scrubbing to form the wedge will be uniform

STEP 5: 2ND BOND FORMATION

Ultrasonic Scrub

Force

Engr. Deorex David Navaja

HEAT

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STEP 5: WIRETAIL FORMATION

* The wedge must completely stick to the surface, otherwise, it will be easily lifted.

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STEP 5: WIRETAIL FORMATION

* The capillary is lifted to form the wiretail

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STEP 5: WIRETAIL FORMATION

* The clamp is closed to pull the remaining wire while the wiretail remains exposed

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STEP 5: WIRETAIL FORMATION

* The wiretail remains exposed while the capillary is pulled up

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STEP 6: FREE AIR BALL FORMATION

* A new FAB is formed using an electronic flame/torch system

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STEP 1: PRS FOR FIRST BOND

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Integrated Circuits

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Wirebond Machine

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THE END……

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