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Korosi

Johny Wahyuadi Soedarsono y y Departemen Metalurgi dan Material FTUI

What is Corrosion?
Reaction of a metal with its environment Aqueous corrosion
reaction with water (usually containing dissolved ions)

High temperature oxidation
reaction with oxygen at high temperature

High temperature corrosion
reaction with other gases

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Examples of Corrosion
Rusting of steel
corrosion product (rust) is solid but not protective

Reaction of aluminium with water
corrosion product is insoluble in water, so may be protective

Burning of magnesium in air
high temperature oxidation

“Rust Ne e “R st Never Sleep”

Kerugian Akibat Korosi
Sekitar 1 – 5 % dari Pendapatan Domestik Nasional / Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Amerika Serikat pada tahun 1998 kerugian akibat korosi adalah sebesar US $ 276 Milyar yang merupakan 3,15 % dari GDP

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Penyebab Besarnya Biaya Korosi
Disain yang berlebihan (Corrosion allowance yang terlalu besar) Kehilangan produksi (shutdowns) Kerusakan komponen Biaya pemeliharaan Kontaminasi terhadap produk Kerusakan lingkungan

Data Kerugian Beberapa Negara Akibat Korosi
No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sektor Industri / Negara Industri pesawat terbang (USA) Pesawat militer (USA) Pesawat (tidak bisa terbang) Angkatan Udara dan Laut (Australia) Otomotif (Finlandia) Otomotif (USA) Menara Eiffel (Perancis) Minyak dan gas (AGIP) Minyak dan Gas (Laut Utara) Swiss Kerugian (US $) 13 M / tahun 3 M/ tahun 100.000 / hari 50 juta / tahun 300 Juta / tahun 0,25 % GNP tahun 1998 40 juta / 7 tahun 0,40 / barrel produksi tahun 1999 60% biaya pemeliharaan tahun 1999 3 – 5 % GNP

80 % kerusakan material pada industri minyak dan gas diakibatkan oleh korosi (US $ Milyar)
1.4 7 3.7 Eksplorasi Refining Pipa transmisi Distribusi gas 0.9 7 5 Transport Penyimpanan

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uap panasnya mengakibatkan 8 orang meninggal dunia. Strategi Untuk Penghematan Biaya Korosi (Save 25 – 30 %) Kepedulian semua pihak terhadap korosi Merubah salah persepsi bahwa korosi tidak bisa diatasi Perubahan kebijakan perusahaan dengan menerapkan management korosi Peningkatan pendidikan baik pendidikan terstruktur maupun training untuk para staf 4 .Problem Keselamatan dan Lingkungan Akibat Korosi Pengangkutan maupun penanganan bahan beracun dan berbahaya yang menggunakan material / logam Kontaminasi pada pipa saluran air minum atau industri makanan. Contoh Kerugian Akibat Terjadinya Korosi Kejadian tahun 1987 di Minnesota dimana korosi selektif pada lasan pipa bahan bakar mengakibatkan terjadinya kebakaran dengan korban tewas 2 orang Korosi pada pipa uap Pembangkit Listrik Nuklir di Virginia dimana terjadi korosi dan erosi.

pengembangan dan implementasi Examples of Corrosion Rusting of steel corrosion product (rust) is solid but not protective Reaction of aluminium with water corrosion product is insoluble in water.Peningkatan keahlian disain yang tepat Peningkatan metode pengkajian dan prediksi umur pakai bahan / material Pengembangan teknologi pencegahan korosi melalui penelitian. so may be protective Burning of magnesium in air high temperature oxidation 5 .

Prinsip Korosi : Kec Korosi : mpy = W: D: A : T : 534 W DAT berat ang be at yang hilang (mg) berat jenis logam ( g/cm3) luas permukaan (inch2) waktu (jam) Aspek Elektrokimia Reaksi elektrokimia Polarisasi Pasivasi Aspek Lingkungan : Pengaruh oksigen dan hidrogen P h k i d hid Pengaruh kecepatan Pengaruh Temperatur Pengaruh Konsentrasi Korosi Pengaruh Galvanik Aspek Metalurgi Sifat logam Masalah ekonomi Inspeksi Peralatan inspeksi 6 .

kotor dll) Protective film (pasivasi. Co dll) Pembentuk karbida (Fe. mudah terbentuk) Pengaruh unsur paduan terhadap korosi Stabilitas alpha (Cr. adhesi. kuat. over loaded) 7 . Mo. tropis. Ta. lembab. scale. Mo. Nb. W dll) Tahan korosi (Cr Ni Mo Ti Nb Mn Cu Si) (Cr. V. Nb. Mn. Ti. Ti dll) Menurunkan titik eutectoid ( Mn. pitting) Laku mekanik tegangan dalam / tegangan sisa (SCC) Faktor yang mempengaruhi sifat korosi : Tegangan Konsentrasi Hidrogen / Oksigen Homogenitas kimia (impurities. Cu.Material : Logam / paduan Polimer / plastik Keramik /non logam Sifat logam Korosi Batas butir. lapisan oksida) impermeable. Mn.) Stabilitas gamma (Cu. pedesaan. industri) Korosi lingkungan laut : pH Oksigen Kecepatan gerak air laut Temperatur Biota laut (biofouling / pelekatan material. W dll. Ni. mudah terkorosi (intergranular. segregasi dll) dan fisik (roughness. Si. laut. Mn. Produk korosi tidak mudah larut Pasivasi stabilitas karbida Korosi di atmosfer dan air laut Korosi atmosferik disebabkan : Gas oksigen Uap air Pengotor Pengaruh atmosfer (kering. Ni. tidak mudah retak. energi . kota.

pengotor. korosi agak rendah / oksigen terbatas) 8 . chlor dll) Daerah lumpur (komplex. fouling. gerakan arus) Laut dalam (korosi karena pengaruh oksigen. no kuat fouling) Daerah Pasang (fouling mulai ada. air laut jenuh udara) Daerah laut dangkal (air laut jenuh oksigen.Biota laut : Bernacles (menimbulkan celah akan mempercepat korosi) Sebagai penghalang / turbulensi lokal Mampu menembus lapisan pelindung Bakteri pereduksi sulfat (menghasilkan asam sulfat) Lingkungan laut : Daerah percikan (serangan korosi sangat kuat.

Corrosion of Zinc in Acid Zinc dissolves with hydrogen evolution Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2 Zinc known as a base or active metal One atom of zinc metal toof hydrogen plus two molecules form reacts one molecule of molecule of hydrogen gas zinc chloride plus chloride (hydrochloric acid) goes to one Corrosion of Platinum in Acid Platinum does not react with acids Platinum is known as a noble metal 9 .

→ H2 Zn → Zn → ZnCl metal + metal ions + hydrogen hydrogen metal → acid → salt+ electrons ions + electrons → hydrogen gas Connection of Platinum to Zinc Zn + 2HCl → ZnCl2 + H2 But we can separate metal dissolution and hydrogen evolution h d ogen e ol tion Zn → Zn2+ + 2e2H+ + 2e.→ H2 These are known as electrochemical One zinc of in two electrons in the metal metal one reactions atom ionzincsolution Reactions that involve both chemical change and the transfer of charge Electrodes Electrodes are pieces of metal on which an electrochemical reaction is occurring An anode is a e ect ode o which a a ode s an electrode on c an anodic or oxidation reaction is occurring A cathode is an electrode on which a cathodic or reduction reaction is occurring 10 . no reaction and hydrogen is evolved on platinum on platinum Zn Z Pt HCl Zn + 2HCl2+ + 2e.Connection of Platinum to Zinc electrons Zinc and platinum Zinc and platinum not current flows connected.2 + H2 2H+ + 2e.

hydrogen evolution Cu2+ + 2e.→ Fe2+ Fe ferric ion reduction Reduction reactions Corrosion of zinc in acid When zinc is placed in acid the metal will start to dissolve and hydrogen will start to be liberated according to the potential of the metal Consider the anodic zinc dissolution reaction Zn → Zn2+ + 2e- 11 .Anodic Reactions Examples Zn → Zn2+ + 2ezinc corrosion 2+ + 2eFe → Fe iron corrosion Al → Al3+ + 3ealuminium corrosion 2+ → Fe3+ + eFe ferrous ion oxidation H2 → 2H+ + 2ehydrogen oxidation + + 4e2H2O → O2 + 4H oxygen evolution Cathodic Reactions Examples O2 + 2H2O + 4e→ 4OHoxygen reduction 2H2O + 2e.→ H2 + 2OH.→ Cu copper plating 3+ + e.

How Fast will Corrosion Occur? Corrosion kinetics Concerned with the rates of corrosion reactions Mixed potential theory: The corrosion potential will be that potential at which the sum of all anodic (positive) and cathodic (negative) currents on the electrode is zero Polarization The change in potential that is caused by 12 .

log (-i1) log |current| Concentration Polarization Additional polarization caused by drop in concentration of a reactant at the electrode surface As concentration falls. then activation Eo and io |i the cathodic a straight line polarization gives reaction Anodic reaction. reaction occursexpressed of positive corrosion Tafel zero is mV reaction per decade all currents is slope negative Eo and io for the of current anodic reaction mV log (-i2) . and a limiting current is reached 13 . Electrode Potential Tafel slope Mixed equilibrium p is icorr for the Tafel slope Ecorr andwhen sum as Cathodic reaction. more polarization is needed to make the current flow Eventually. no more current can flow because no more reactant can reach the metal.Types of Polarization Activation Polarization The polarization necessary for the electrochemical reaction to go at the given rate Given by Tafel’s Law: E = potential at current i Eo = potential at current io b = Tafel slope E-log i and Evans Diagrams Plot E against log for|.

then the current flowing through that resistance will cause a potential drop given by Ohm’s Law: V = IR This is important for paint films and for high resistance solutions Resistance Polarization Electrode Pote ential Resistance Polarization causes potential of anode and cathode to differ due to potential drop across solution. hence corrosion current is reduced log |current density| 14 .Concentration Polarization Oxygen reduction is often affected by concentration polarization Electrode Potential Rate of cathodic oxygen Rate of cathodic oxygen reduction without reduction with concentration polarization Limiting current density concentration polarization rate of reaction limited by availability of oxygen at the metal surface log |current density| Resistance Polarization If there is a resistance between the anode and the cathode in a cell.

and reaction slow density reaction passive current alsothe passive Very fallscathodic rate of form Active corrosion gives normal startsofrate of . reactionthe current has leads cathodic curve Lower value the a steady. this causes a marked drop in current density due to the resistance of the film and its effect as a barrier to diffusion This effect is seen on the anodic curve Passivation Electrode Pote ential The passive film When aRapidrate of corrosion will be stablerate of cathodic affected by the has formed.Passivation When a passive film is formed.the i high lowcorrosion? leads to l l film trate tocorrosion d t f corrosion active-passive transition activation polarization log |current density| Polarization Curves Iron in hydrochloric acid Electrode Poten ntial Anodic iron dissolution Cathodic hydrogen evolution log |current density| 15 .criticallyto passivation. low rate of-cathodic and low rate of corrosion But it may to lead to low Currentleads as activity.

Polarization Curves Iron in sulphuric acid Electrode Poten ntial Anodic iron dissolution ( (with active-passive transition) Oxygen evolution on passive film (or transpassive corrosion Cathodic hydrogen evolution as metal is oxidised to a higher oxidation state) log |current density| Effect of pH on reaction rate Consider hydrogen evolution reaction 2H+ + 2e. so the rate of the reaction increases Similarly the potential will influence the ti th ti th Effect of pH and potential on rate of hydrogen evolution Slower Potential Faster pH 16 .e.→ H2 The concentration of hydrogen ions will influence the rate of the reaction As the hydrogen ion concentration is increased (i. the solution made more acid).

but to balance the charge a reaction which creates electrons must occur If the solution contains dissolved hydrogen. the reverse of the hydrogen evolution reaction can occur: H2 → 2H+ + 2e- Effect of pH on reaction rate H2 → 2H+ + 2eThis reaction will go faster in alkaline solution (since H+ will be removed by H+ + OH.Effect of pH on reaction rate On platinum no metal dissolution will occur.→ H2O) This reaction will go faster at more positive potentials (because electrons will be removed from metal) Effect of pH and potential on rate of hydrogen oxidation Oxidation Faster Reduction Slower Potential Oxidation Slower Reduction Rates equal Faster Electrochemical Equilibrium pH 17 .

8 0.The Nernst equation 2H+ + 2e.= H2 The Nernst equation gives For 1 atm.4 -0.8 -1. hydrogen gas The Pourbaix (E-pH) Diagram 2.8 -1.0 1.6 2H2O = O2 + 4H+ + 4eEquilibrium potential as pH Ofallsstable increases 2 is 2H+ + 2e.6 1.= H2 Equilibrium potential falls as t ti l f ll H2O is stable pH increases Potentia al H2 is stable pH = .4 0.2 -1.4 0.0 -0.6 1.2 -1.0 -0. but likely possible with to y gZn(OH)) hydrogen be stifled by solid ( Corrosion C i i d t stable evolutioncorrosion product ZnO 2Corrosion requires 2is solid Corrosion Zn2+ stable oxidising in stable strong thermodynamically solution agent in solution impossible Passivity 2 Potentia al Immunity Zn metal stable 0 7 14 Corr rosion 18 .4 -0.2 0.0 1.8 0.log [H+] 0 7 14 Pourbaix Diagram Corrosion for Zinc 2.6 possible with oxygen reduction Corrosion Corrosion is possible.2 0.

4 3+ Fe oxides where hydrogen Yes .2 corrode inFe in alkaline 0.4 Potentia al Potentia al Will iron Yes .4 0.6 C 1.4 0.2 -1.6 passivate will 7 14 not protective.4 -0.8forms a solid form directly ironthe No .2 -1. as oxide -1. the potential at all is too low.0 form an oxide in neutral 2+ iron dissolved -0.although iron can stable can be evolved and 0.0 -0.8 neutral waters? solution? 0.6 -2.4 Fe stable solution.Pourbaix Diagram for Gold 2. 0 Pourbaix diagram for Aluminium 1.8 -1.2 potentials. it tends not to -0.6 1.6 0 Passivity C Potentia al Gold Gold can’t corrode metal stable with oxygen reduction Immunity or hydrogen evolution 7 14 Pourbaix Diagram for Iron 2.8 0.0 -0.on Fe metal stable metal.there is corrode in a reasonably wide acid? range of p g potentials Al3+ Al2O3 AlO2- Al 0 7 14 19 .8 -1.0 -2.0 1.4 -0.0 Will iron Will iron corrode 1.2 0. therefore it is and-1.2 0.8 0.

not necessarily what will happen No information on rate of reaction Can only be plotted for pure metals and simple solutions. not for alloys Sources of Localized Corrosion Environment oxygen concentration chloride ion concentration pH flow rate Sources of Localized Corrosion Material segregation inclusions different phases grain boundaries 20 .Limitations of Pourbaix Diagrams Tell us what can happen.

662 Active or Commercially pure aluminium (1100) Mg-Mg2+ -2.000 or h th they active ti H2-H+ Copper products •Assumes activity of solution passive Nickel (active) •Can be defined for alloys species Moone steel (active) Ni-Ni2+ -0.744 2024 aluminium (4. 18-8 Mo stainless steel (passive) •Ordered by standard Nickel (passive) q Cupronickels ( potential Ni) •Allows for corrosion equilibrium p p (60-90 Cu.714 After de Bethune and Loud anodic ↓ Zinc Magnesium and magnesium alloys from INCO test results 21 . Noble or Pt-Pt2+ +1. or electrochemical Gold Silver series.763 Cadmium 3+ •Cannot be defined for alloys Al-Al -1. (V vs NHE) Au-Au +1.5 Mg.799 cathodic •Ordered by observed •Note alloys can Hg-Hg22+ that some+0. 0. whether th are 0.788 behaviour in service Cu-Cu2+ +0.250 18-8 is stainless Fe-Fe2+ -0.5 Cu.440 Steel or iron •Different for every •Does not allow for protective Cr-Cr3+ -0. 40-10 ) .498 ↑ •The galvanic series.363 Na-Na+ -2.337 appear twice according to Reaction 3+ •The emf.Sources of Localized Corrosion Mechanical static stress fluctuating stress g Galvanic Corrosion Electrons Conventional current 2+ FeFe2+ Fe O2 O2 Cu Table 1 Galvanic Corrosion Series in Seawater Standard emf series Table 2 Galvanic Platinum Eo at 25oC. environment corrosion products 1.2 Ag-Ag+ +0.6 Mn) Zn-Zn2+ -0.

Galvanic Corrosion Important factors in galvanic corrosion relative areas of anode and cathode difference in potential between anode and p cathode effect of anodic polarization on anode (some may passivate) Galvanic Corrosion . 22 . a steel bolt in a brass structure. Bolt will be protected from corrosion by coupling to steel Small steel anode will suffer large increase in corrosion due to coupling with brass structure. A brass bolt will be protected by the steel structur Which is better? Brass bolt in a steel structure Steel bolt in a brass structure Small brass cathode will cause small increase in corrosion of steel structure. so a small steel bolt in a large brass structure will suffer severe galvanic corrosion.Questions Which is better. or a brass bolt in a steel structure? The steel will be the anode.

8 by H+ O2 + 2H2O + 4e.0 1. This would be a very bad idea as any pin-holes in the paint Corrosion of the mild wouldis occurring steel act as the anode. e.2 pH goes 3+ pH goes acid by Fe alkaline Fe2+ + H2O → FeOH+ + 0.g.: th d Cu-containing precipitates in aluminium alloys – initiate pitting corrosion Fe and Cu impurities in commercial zinc – cause a large increase in corrosion rate compared to pure zinc Differential Aeration Conventional current Fe2+ Fe2+ O2 Fe O2 Fe2+ 2. and an outer casing of mild steel.→ 0.6 Aerated Deaerated Electrons 1.4 Fe oxides 4OH+ Steel passivates p Steel corrodes stable 0. the mild steel casing? Galvanic Corrosion in Alloys Galvanic corrosion can occur between different phases in an alloy This is especially important when one of the phases is much more active as a cathode. with the full areaitof thegood idea steel as would be a stainless thepaint the inside of to cathode. Chilled brine is used between the steel and stainless steel to cool the milk.What should we paint? A milk cooler has an inner liner of stainless steel.6 0 7 14 pH Pote ential 23 .2 -1.4 Fe2+ stable Fe -0.8 Fe metal stable -1.0 00 actively -0.

and pH falls by Cr3+ hydroly Passive film breaks down in acid and rapid active corrosi starts The active corrosion causes even stronger acidification a stabilises the crevice corrosion Cr3+ O2 3+ Cr Hydrolysis is a reaction with Crevice Corrosion Pitting corrosion on free surface Crevice corrosion under washers Pitting ClO2 ClO2 e Cr3+ Cr3+ e The presence of chloride hydrolysis of Inside the growing pit . OHthe is SO42-) can as it allows the pH by breaks down the inhibit pitting.Crevice Corrosion O2 Metal Metal 1 2 3 4 water. and does not associate) and the metal the reduction reaction continues outside of a salt film chlorides are very soluble pit 24 . pH of and buffering the pH Cr3+ lowers a either about 1 to be achieved or by causing the oxygen passive (HCl is cathodic precipitation in the pitfilm. in this case 2Cr3+ + 6H2O → Cr2O3 + Active corrosion is 6H+ Oxygen is consumed incorrosion occurring in thecorrosion crevice by slow passive absence of an oxide film Passive corrosion continues. Other anions (e.g. The a strong acid.and important.

still not fully understood Cause of major industrial costs and safety hazards 25 .Mechanical Corrosion Static stress Aspects of stress-corrosion cracking hydrogen embrittlement y g liquid metal embrittlement Dynamic stress corrosion fatigue fretting corrosion The Effect of Stress and Strain on Corrosion Stress per se does not affect corrosion processes much Plastic strain can have a large effect: increased dislocation density rupture of passive films Stress-Corrosion Cracking Cracking of a metal under the combined effects of a static stress and a specific chemical environment Several possible mechanisms.

and active corrosion occurs 3 The crack tip repassivates 4 Go back to 1 Film-Induced Cleavage 1 film 2 strain 3 4 The walls and tip of the crack are covered by a brittle (either an oxide film or ais ruptured by the plastic The film at the crack tip de-alloyed layer) The brittle crack continues into the metal The crack is blunted by plastic strain 26 .Stress-Corrosion Cracking Mechanisms Anodic dissolution y g Hydrogen embrittlement Film-induced cleavage Anodic Dissolution 1 The walls and tip of the crack are passive 2 The passive film at the crack tip is ruptured by the plastic strain.

g.Hydrogen Embrittlement H H H H H H HH 1 2 3 4 Hydrogen produced by the cathodic reaction Hydrogen diffuses to region of tri-axial tensile stress ahead of the crackbrittle fracture Hydrogen causes Crack blunts by plastic deformation as it runs out of hydrogen Hydrogen Embrittlement sources of hydrogen welding electroplating p g contact with gaseous hydrogen corrosion. 27 . pipeline steels) due to high pressure hydrogen collecting at inclusions. especially in the presence of sulphides higher strength materials are more susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement Hydrogen Induced Cracking Internal cracking of lower strength steels (e.

carbonate/ bicarbonate.Hydrogen Cracking Internal cracking of steels at higher temperatures due to reaction of dissolved hydrogen with carbon to form methane Stress Corrosion Systems Cracking Brass and ammonia (often in local atmospheres). Control of Stress-Corrosion Remove stress (often difficult. especially for residual stresses) Avoid the necessary environment Apply electrochemical protection where possible Use a different material Live with it 28 . Austenitic stainless steels and chloride solutions (70oC). nitrate and phosphate. High strength aluminium alloys in water or water vapour. Carbon steels in caustic.

Liquid Metal Embrittlement Liquid metals can permeate down grain boundaries and cause intergranular cracking: mercury on brass and aluminium alloys liquid zinc on stainless steel Corrosion Fatigue Metal fatigue results in crack propagation due to a cyclic stress Corrosion makes both crack initiation and propagation easier Fretting Corrosion Rubbing of two metals removes oxide film and allows oxidation The o de may a so act as a ab as e e oxide ay also an abrasive Prevention of relative motion and allowing larger relative movement may prevent the problem 29 .

Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion the alloy is passive pitting requires a passive external surface that can provide a high potential to cause the current to flow into the pit.g. but it involves a very small pit nucleus that grows over periods of the order of seconds Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion pits become more stable as they become larger for very small p the acidity will be y pits y neutralised by diffusion into the bulk solution very easily as the pits get larger the diffusion distances increase. neutral salt solutions) Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion passivity broken down locally. and it gets harder for the acidity to diffuse away 30 . alkaline solutions). if the external surface is active. this driving force is not available thus carbon steel will only pit if the solution tends to passivate it (e. it won’t pit if it is corroding generally (e.g. usually by chloride the cause of the initiation of pitting p g corrosion is still not entirely clear.

lower pitting potential implies greater susceptibility Critical itti t C iti l pitting temperature (CPT t (CPT.Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion small pits are often stabilised by a film of oxide or metal that partially covers the entrance this allows pits that would not otherwise be stable to continue growing (these are known as metastable pits) Characteristics of Pitting Corrosion pitting becomes more likely as the potential becomes more positive this provides a greater driving force for the p g g corrosion process. Cr + 3Mo + 30 N) gives ranking of alloys 31 .g. temperature at which pitting is observed in aggressive conditions). and helps to stabilise the metastable pits Management of Pitting Stainless steels Pitting breakdown potential (that potential above which the anodic current starts to increase). lower CPT implies greater susceptibility Pitting Resistance Equivalent (formula based on composition e.

3 and 0.g. brass. and can be modelled by extreme value statistics Dealloying Alloy containing one noble element and one base element (e.5 Pitting is a statistical process. Cu + Zn) Base element can dissolve leaving a matrix of the noble element dezincification of brass graphitization of grey cast iron Causes loss of mechanical strength without obvious change in shape Dealloying ‘Plug-type’ dealloying of a brass tube 32 .Management of Pitting Pit growth tends to follow a law of the form depth = constant x timen where n is between 0.

Weld Decay of Stainless Steel 33 .Intergranular When stainless steel is heated to Corrosion about 650oC. Sensitisation frequently occurs in the heat-affected zone during welding. Intergranular Corrosion . Cr carbides form at the grain boundaries C C CrCr Cr Cr C C Because of its high diffusion rate. chromium can only diffuse form the precipitateenough (below about 9%). and this passive. the stainless steel is said to be sensitised. and the resultant corrosion is called weld decay. and grain boundary corrosion will the matrix concentration of occur chromium at the grain boundary Intergranular Corrosion When grain boundary chromium carbide precipitation has occurred. If the grain boundary Cr carbon can diffuse a long way to concentration falls low However. then it will no longer remainreduces a short distance.

and often contradictory Erosion Corrosion Corrosion accelerated by impact by solid particles These may remove metal. or they may just remove oxide and allow metal to corrode more quickly 34 .Solving Weld Decay Use a low carbon grade of stainless steel Use a stabilised grade of steel. which includes a strong carbide-forming element (Nb or Ti) to lock up the carbon For existing components that have been sensitised. heat treat to re-dissolve the carbides (but this is very difficult in practice) Flow Effects Flow can increase transport of oxygen to the metal surface (may help to passivate) increase the rate of dissolution of corrosion product films mechanically remove oxides Terminology is poorly-defined.

Impingement Corrosion rate increased by the impact of turbulent eddies on the metal surface These locally remove the corrosion product by rapid dissolution. and allow rapid active corrosion Characterised by ‘horseshoe-shaped pits’ Cavitation High velocity flow leads to pressure falling below zero at points of highest flow Vapour bubbles form in these regions as the liquid is ‘pulled apart’ When the pressure increases again the collapse of the vapour bubbles creates an intense shockwave that removes metal or oxide from the surface Flow Effects 35 .

Terima Kasih 36 .