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You are on page 1of 13

**Mathematical Problems in Engineering
**

Volume 2009, Article ID 249361, 13 pages

doi:10.1155/2009/249361

Research Article

Solitons, Peakons, and Periodic Cuspons of a

Generalized Degasperis-Procesi Equation

Jiangbo Zhou and Lixin Tian

Nonlinear Scientiﬁc Research Center, Faculty of Science, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang,

Jiangsu 212013, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Jiangbo Zhou, zhoujiangbo@yahoo.cn

Received 24 November 2008; Accepted 23 February 2009

Recommended by Elbert E. Neher Macau

We employ the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical systems to investigate the exact travelling

wave solutions of a generalized Degasperis-Procesi equation u

t

−u

xxt

4uu

x

γu − u

xx

x

3u

x

u

xx

uu

xxx

. The implicit expression of smooth soliton solutions is given. The explicit expressions of

peaked soliton solutions and periodic cuspon solutions are also obtained. Further, we show the

relationship among the smooth soliton solutions, the peaked soliton solutions, and the periodic

cuspon solutions. The physical relevance of the found solutions and the reason why these solutions

can exist in this equation are also given.

Copyright q 2009 J. Zhou and L. Tian. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative

Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in

any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Introduction

Recently, Degasperis and Procesi 1 derived a nonlinear dispersive equation

u

t

− u

xxt

4uu

x

3u

x

u

xx

uu

xxx

1.1

which is called the Degasperis-Procesi equation. Here ut, x represents the ﬂuid velocity at

time t in the x direction in appropriate nondimensional units or, equivalently the height

of the water’s free surface above a ﬂat bottom. The nonlinear convection term uu

x

in

1.1 causes the steepening of wave form, whereas the nonlinear dispersion eﬀect term

3u

x

u

xx

uu

xxx

1/2u

2

xxx

in 1.1 makes the wave form spread. Equation 1.1 can be

regarded as a model for nonlinear shallow water dynamics. Degasperis et al. 2 showed that

the 1.1 is integrable by deriving a Lax pair and a bi-Hamiltonian structure for it. Yin proved

local well posedness to 1.1 with initial data u

0

∈ H

s

R, s > 3 on the line 3 and on the

circle 4. The global existence of strong solutions and weak solutions to 1.1 is investigated

in 4–10. The solution to Cauchy problem of 1.1 can also blow up in ﬁnite time when

the initial data satisﬁes certain sign condition7–10. Vakhnenko and Parkes 11 obtained

2 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

periodic and solitary-wave solutions of 1.1. Matsuno 12, 13 obtained multisoliton, cusp

and loop soliton solutions of 1.1. Lundmark and Szmigielski 14 investigated multipeakon

solutions of 1.1. Lenells 15 classiﬁed all weak travelling wave solutions. The shock wave

solutions of 1.1 are investigated in 16, 17.

Yu and Tian 18 investigated the following generalized Degasperis-Procesi equation:

u

t

− u

xxt

4uu

x

3u

x

u

xx

uu

xxx

− γu

xxx

, 1.2

where γ is a real constant, and the term u

xxx

denotes the linear dispersive eﬀect. They

obtained peaked soliton solutions and period cuspon solutions of 1.2. Unfortunately, they

did not obtain smooth soliton solutions of 1.2.

In this paper, we are interesting in the following generalized Degasperis-Procesi

equation:

u

t

− u

xxt

4uu

x

γu − u

xx

x

3u

x

u

xx

uu

xxx

, 1.3

where γ is a real constant, the term u

x

denotes the dissipative eﬀect and the term u

xxx

represents the linear dispersive eﬀect. Employing the bifurcation theory of planar dynamical

systems, we obtain the analytic expressions of smooth solitons, peaked solitons, and period

cuspons of 1.3. Our work covers and supplements the results obtained in 18.

The remainder of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, using the travelling

wave transformation, we transform 1.3 into the planar dynamical system 2.3 and then

discuss bifurcations of phase portraits of system 2.3. In Section 3, we obtain the implicit

expression of smooth solitons, the explicit expressions of peaked solitons and periodic cuspon

solutions. At the same time, we show that the limits of smooth solitons and periodic cusp

waves are peaked solitons. In Section 4, we discuss the physical relevance of the found

solutions and give the reason why these solutions can exist in 1.3.

2. Bifurcations of Phase Portraits of System (2.3)

We look for travelling wave solutions of 1.3 in the form of ux, t ϕx − ct ϕξ, where

c is the wave speed and ξ x − ct. Substituting u ϕξ into 1.3, we obtain

−cϕ

cϕ

4ϕϕ

− 3ϕ

ϕ

− ϕϕ

γϕ

− γϕ

0. 2.1

By integrating 2.1 once we have

ϕ

_

ϕ − c γ

_

g −

_

c − γ

_

ϕ 2ϕ

2

−

_

ϕ

_

2

, 2.2

where g is the integral constant.

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 3

Let y ϕ

**, then we get the following planar dynamical system:
**

dϕ

dξ

y,

dy

dξ

g −

_

c − γ

_

ϕ 2ϕ

2

− y

2

ϕ − c γ

,

2.3

with a ﬁrst integral

H

_

ϕ, y

_

ϕ − c γ

2

_

y

2

− ϕ

2

− g

_

h, 2.4

where h is a constant.

Note that 2.3 has a singular line ϕ c − γ. To avoid the line temporarily we make

transformation dξ ϕ − c γdζ. Under this transformation, 2.3 becomes

dϕ

dζ

_

ϕ − c γ

_

y,

dy

dζ

g −

_

c − γ

_

ϕ 2ϕ

2

− y

2

.

2.5

System 2.3 and system 2.5 have the same ﬁrst integral as 2.4. Consequently,

system 2.5 has the same topological phase portraits as system 2.3 except for the straight

line ϕ c − γ. Obviously, ϕ c − γ is an invariant straight-line solution for system 2.5.

For a ﬁxed h, 2.4 determines a set of invariant curves of system 2.5. As h is

varied, 2.4 determines diﬀerent families of orbits of system2.5 having diﬀerent dynamical

behaviors. Let Mϕ

e

, y

e

be the coeﬃcient matrix of the linearized system of 2.5 at the

equilibrium point ϕ

e

, y

e

, then

M

_

ϕ

e

, y

e

_

_

y

e

ϕ

e

− c γ

4ϕ

e

− c γ −2y

e

_

, 2.6

and at this equilibrium point, we have

J

_

ϕ

e

, y

e

_

det M

_

ϕ

e

, y

e

_

−2y

2

e

−

_

ϕ

e

− c γ

__

4ϕ

e

− c γ

_

,

p

_

ϕ

e

, y

e

_

trace

_

M

_

ϕ

e

, y

e

__

−y

e

.

2.7

By the qualitative theory of diﬀerential equations see 19, for an equilibrium point of a

planar dynamical system, if J < 0, then this equilibrium point is a saddle point; it is a center

point if J > 0 and p 0; if J 0 and the Poincar´ e index of the equilibrium point is 0, then it is

a cusp.

4 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

By using the ﬁrst integral value and properties of equilibrium points, we obtain the

bifurcation curves as follows:

g

1

c

c − γ

2

8

,

g

2

c −c − γ

2

.

2.8

Obviously, the two curves have no intersection point and g

2

c < 0 < g

1

c for arbitrary

constants c

/

γ.

Using bifurcation method of vector ﬁelds e.g., 19, we have the following result

which describes the locations and properties of the singular points of system 2.5.

Theorem 2.1. For a given constant wave speed c

/

0, let

ϕ

±

0

c − γ ±

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

4

for g ≤ g

1

c, 2.9

y

±

0

±

_

c − γ

2

g for g ≥ g

2

c. 2.10

When c γ,

1 if g < 0, then system 2.5 has two equilibrium points −

_

−g/2, 0 and

_

−g/2, 0,

which are saddle points;

2 if g 0, then system 2.5 has only one equilibrium point 0, 0, which is a cusp;

3 if g > 0, then system 2.5 has two equilibrium points 0, −

√

g and 0,

√

g, which are

saddle points.

When c

/

γ,

1 if g < g

2

c, then system 2.5 has two equilibrium points ϕ

−

0

, 0 and ϕ

0

, 0. They are

saddle points:

i if c > γ, then ϕ

−

0

< −1/2c − γ < 1/4c − γ < c − γ < ϕ

0

,

ii if c < γ, then ϕ

−

0

< c − γ < 1/4c − γ < −1/2c − γ < ϕ

0

;

2 if g g

2

c, then system 2.5 has three equilibrium points ϕ

−

0

, 0, ϕ

0

, 0, and c − γ, 0.

c − γ, 0 is a cusp:

i if c > γ, then ϕ

−

0

−1/2c − γ < 1/4c − γ < c − γ ϕ

0

. ϕ

−

0

, 0 is a saddle

point, while ϕ

0

, 0 is a degenerate center point,

ii if c < γ, then ϕ

−

0

c − γ < 1/4c − γ < −1/2c − γ ϕ

0

. ϕ

−

0

, 0 is a degenerate

center point, while ϕ

0

, 0 is a saddle point;

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 5

−2 −1

0

1 2

φ

1

2

−2

−1

y

a

−2 −1

0

1 2

φ

1

2

3

−2

−3

−1

y

b

−2 −1

0

1 2

φ

1

2

3

−2

−3

−1

y

c

Figure 1: The phase portraits of system 2.5c γ. a g < 0; b g 0; c g > 0.

3 if g

2

c < g < g

1

c, then system 2.5 has four equilibrium points ϕ

−

0

, 0, ϕ

0

, 0, c −

γ, y

−

0

, and c − γ, y

0

. c − γ, y

−

0

and c − γ, y

0

are two saddle points:

i if c > γ, then ϕ

−

0

< 1/4c − γ < ϕ

0

≤ c − γ. ϕ

−

0

, 0 is a saddle point, while ϕ

0

, 0 is

a center point,

ii if c < γ, then c − γ ≤ ϕ

−

0

< 1/4c − γ < ϕ

0

. ϕ

−

0

, 0 is a center point, while ϕ

0

, 0 is

a saddle point.

Specially, when g 0,

i if c > γ, then the three saddle points ϕ

−

0

, 0, c − γ, y

−

0

, and c − γ, y

0

form a triangular

orbit which encloses the center point ϕ

0

, 0,

ii if c < γ, then the three saddle points ϕ

0

, 0, c − γ, y

−

0

, and c − γ, y

0

form a triangular

orbit which encloses the center point ϕ

−

0

, 0;

4 if g g

1

c, then system 2.5 has three equilibrium points c − γ/4, 0, c − γ, y

−

0

, and

c − γ, y

0

. c − γ/4, 0 is a degenerate center point, while c − γ, y

−

0

and c − γ, y

0

are

two saddle points;

5 if g > g

1

c, then system 2.5 has two equilibrium points c−γ, y

−

0

and c−γ, y

0

, which

are saddle points.

Corresponding to the case c γ and the case c

/

γ, we show the phase portraits of

system 2.5 in Figures 1 and 2, respectively.

3. Solitons, Peakons, and Periodic Cusp Wave Solutions

Theorem 3.1. Given arbitrary constant c

/

γ, let ξ x − ct, then

1 when 0 < g < g

1

c,

i if c > γ, then 1.3 has the following smooth hump-like soliton solutions:

β

1

_

ϕ

1

_

β

1

_

ϕ

_

e

−|ξ|

for ϕ

−

0

< ϕ < ϕ

1

, 3.1

ii if c < γ, then 1.3 has the following smooth valley-like soliton solutions:

β

2

_

ϕ

_

β

2

_

ϕ

−

1

_

e

−|ξ|

for ϕ

−

1

< ϕ < ϕ

0

, 3.2

6 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

4

3

2

1

−1

−2

−3

−4

y

−2 −1 1 2 3

φ

a

4

3

2

1

−1

−2

−3

−4

y

−3 −2 −1

0

1 2

φ

b

4

3

2

1

−1

−2

−3

−4

y

−2 −1 1 2 3

φ

c

4

3

2

1

−1

−2

−3

−4

y

−3 −2 −1

0

1 2

φ

d

4

3

2

1

−1

−2

−3

−4

y

−1

0

1 2

φ

e

4

3

2

1

−1

−2

−3

−4

y

−2 −1

0

1

φ

f

1.5

1

0.5

−0.5

−1

−1.5

y

−0.5

0

0.5 1 1.5

φ

g

1.5

1

0.5

−0.5

−1

−1.5

y

−1.5 −1 −0.5

0

0.5

φ

h

1.5

1

0.5

−0.5

−1

−1.5

y

−0.5

0

0.5 1 1.5

φ

i

1.5

1

0.5

−0.5

−1

−1.5

y

−1.5 −1 −0.5

0

0.5

φ

j

2

1

−1

−2

y

−0.5

0

0.5 1 1.5

φ

k

2

1

−1

−2

y

−1.5 −1 −0.5

0

0.5

φ

l

1.5

1

0.5

−0.5

−1

−1.5

y

−0.4

0

0.4 0.8 1.2

φ

m

1.5

1

0.5

−0.5

−1

−1.5

y

−1.4 −1 −0.6 −0.2

0

0.2 0.4

φ

n

Figure 2: The phase portraits of system 2.5 c /γ. a g < g

2

c, c > γ; b g < g

2

c, c < γ; c g

g

2

c, c > γ; dg g

2

c, c < γ; e g

2

c < g < 0, c > γ; f g

2

c < g < 0, c < γ; g g 0, c > γ; h

g 0, c < γ; i 0 < g < g

1

c, c > γ; j 0 < g < g

1

c, c < γ; k g g

1

c, c > γ; l g g

1

c, c < γ;

mg > g

1

c, c > γ; ng > g

1

c, c < γ.

2 when g 0, 1.3 has the following peaked soliton solutions:

ϕ

_

c − γ

_

e

−|ξ|

, 3.3

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 7

3 when g

2

c < g < 0,

i if c > γ, then 1.3 has the following periodic cusp wave solutions:

ux, t ϕ

3

x − ct − 2nT for 2n − 1T < x − ct < 2n 1T, 3.4

ii if c < γ, then 1.3 has the following periodic cusp wave solutions:

ux, t ϕ

4

x − ct − 2nT for 2n − 1T < x − ct < 2n 1T, 3.5

where

β

1

_

ϕ

_

_

2

_

ϕ

2

l

1

ϕ l

2

2ϕ l

1

_

ϕ − ϕ

−

0

α

1

_

2

√

a

1

_

ϕ

2

l

1

ϕ l

2

b

1

ϕ l

3

_

α

1

,

β

2

_

ϕ

_

_

2

_

ϕ

2

m

1

ϕ m

2

2ϕ m

1

_

ϕ − ϕ

0

α

2

_

2

√

a

2

_

ϕ

2

m

1

ϕ m

2

b

2

ϕ m

3

_

α

2

,

l

1

−

3

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

2

,

l

2

3c − γ

2

− 4g 5

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

8

,

l

3

c − γ

2

− 4g 3

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

2

,

m

1

−

3

_

c − γ

_

−

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

2

,

m

2

3c − γ

2

− 4g − 5

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

8

,

m

3

c − γ

2

− 4g − 3

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

2

,

a

1

c − γ

2

− 8g 3

_

c − γ

_

_

_

c − γ

_

2

− 8g

4

,

8 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

a

2

c − γ

2

− 8g − 3

_

c − γ

_

_

_

c − γ

_

2

− 8g

4

,

b

1

−

_

c − γ

_

−

_

_

c − γ

_

2

− 8g,

b

2

−

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g,

α

1

−

3

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

2

_

c − γ

2

− 8g 3

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

,

α

2

−3

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

2

_

c − γ

2

− 8g − 3

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g

,

ϕ

3

ξ l

e

−|ξ|

l

−

e

|ξ|

for

_

−g ≤ ϕ

3

≤ c − γ,

ϕ

4

ξ l

e

|ξ|

l

−

e

−|ξ|

for c − γ ≤ ϕ

4

≤ −

_

−g,

l

±

c − γ ±

_

c − γ

2

g

2

,

T

_

_

_

_

ln

_

_

−g

_

−2g

_

− ln2l

−

_

_

_

_

.

ϕ

±

1

3

4

_

c − γ

_

±

1

4

_

c − γ

2

− 8g ∓

1

2

_

c − γ

2

∓

_

c − γ

_

_

c − γ

2

− 8g,

3.6

ϕ

0

and ϕ

−

0

are as in 2.9.

Before proving this theorem, we take a set of data and employ Maple to display the

graphs of smooth solion, peaked soliton and periodic cuspon solutions of 1.3, see Figures 3,

4, 5, 6 and 7.

Proof. Usually, a solion solution of 1.3 corresponds to a homoclinic orbit of system 2.5,

and a periodic travelling wave solution of 1.3 corresponds to a periodic orbit of system

2.5. The graphs of homoclinic orbit, periodic orbit of system 2.5, and their limit curves are

shown in Figure 8.

1 When 0 < g < g

1

c, c > γ, system 2.5 has a homoclinic orbit see Figure 8a.

This homoclinic orbit can be expressed as

y ±

_

ϕ − ϕ

−

0

_

_

ϕ

2

l

1

ϕ l

2

c − γ − ϕ

for ϕ

−

0

< ϕ < ϕ

1

. 3.7

Substituting 3.7 into the ﬁrst equation of system 2.3 and integrating along this homoclinic

orbit, we obtain 3.1.

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 9

0.34

0.32

0.3

0.28

0.26

0.24

0.22

−15 −10 −5 0 5 10 15

a

0.4

0.35

0.3

0.25

0.2

−10 −5 0 5 10

b

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

c

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

d

Figure 3: Smooth hump-like soliton solutions of 1.3c 2, γ 1. a g 0.12; b g 0.1; c g 0.075;

d g0.05.

−0.2

−0.25

−0.3

−0.35

−0.4

−0.45

−10 −5 0 5 10

a

−0.2

−0.25

−0.3

−0.35

−0.4

−0.45

−10 −5 0 5 10

b

−0.2

−0.3

−0.4

−0.5

−0.6

−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

c

−0.1

−0.2

−0.3

−0.4

−0.5

−0.6

−0.7

−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

d

Figure 4: Smooth valley-like soliton solutions of 1.3 c 1, γ 2. a g 0.12; b g 0.1; c g 0.075;

d g 0.05.

When 0 < g < g

1

c, c < γ, we can obtain 3.2 in similar way.

2 When g 0, c > γ, system2.5 has a homoclinic orbit that consists of the following

three line segments see Figure 8c:

y ±ϕ for ϕ

−

0

≤ ϕ ≤ ϕ

1

, 3.8

ϕ c − γ for −

_

c − γ

2

g ≤ y ≤

_

c − γ

2

g. 3.9

10 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

ξ

a

−0.1

−0.2

−0.3

−0.4

−0.5

−0.6

−0.7

−0.8

−0.9

−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

ξ

b

Figure 5: Peaked soliton solutions of 1.3. a c 2, γ 1; b c 1, γ 2.

0.95

0.9

0.85

0.8

0.75

0.7

0.65

−4 −2 0 2 4

ξ

a

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

ξ

b

0.9

0.7

0.5

0.3

0.1

−15 −10 −5 0 5 10 15

ξ

c

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

−20 −10 0 10 20

ξ

d

Figure 6: Period cuspon solutions of 1.3 c 2, γ 1. a g −0.4; b g −0.1; c g −0.01; d

g −0.0000001.

Substituting 3.8 into the ﬁrst equation of system 2.3 and integrating along this orbit, we

obtain 3.3.

When g 0, c < γ, we can also obtain 3.3.

3 When g

2

c < g < 0, c > γ, system 2.5 has a periodic orbit see Figure 8e. This

periodic orbit can be expressed as

y ±

_

ϕ

2

g for

_

−g ≤ ϕ ≤ c − γ, 3.10

ϕ c − γ for −

_

c − γ

2

g ≤ y ≤

_

c − γ

2

g. 3.11

Mathematical Problems in Engineering 11

−0.65

−0.7

−0.75

−0.8

−0.85

−0.9

−0.95

−4 −2 0 2 4

ξ

a

−0.4

−0.5

−0.6

−0.7

−0.8

−0.9

−8 −6 −4 −2 0 2 4 6 8

ξ

b

−0.1

−0.3

−0.5

−0.7

−0.9

−15 −10 −5 0 5 10 15

ξ

c

−0.1

−0.2

−0.3

−0.4

−0.5

−0.6

−0.7

−0.8

−0.9

−20 −10 0 10 20

ξ

d

Figure 7: Period cuspon solutions of 1.3 c 1, γ 2. a g -0.4; b g −0.1; c g −0.01; d

g −0.0000001.

Substituting 3.10 into the ﬁrst equation of system 2.3 and integrating along this periodic

orbit, we obtain 3.4.

When g

2

c < g < 0, c < γ, we can obtain 3.5.

Remark 3.2. From the above discussion, we can see that when g < 0, g → 0, the period of the

periodic cusp wave solution becomes bigger and bigger, and the periodic cuspon solutions

3.4 and 3.5 tend to the peaked soliton solutions 3.3. When g > 0, g → 0, the smooth

hump-like soliton solutions 3.1 and the smooth valley-like soliton solutions 3.2 lose their

smoothness and tend to the peaked soliton solutions 3.3.

4. Discussion

In this paper, we obtain the solitons, peakons, and periodic cuspons of a generalized

Degasperis-Procesi equation 1.3. These solitons denote the nonlinear localized waves on the

shallow water’s free surface that retain their individuality under interaction and eventually

travel with their original shapes and speeds. The balance between the nonlinear steepening

and dispersion eﬀect under 1.3 gives rise to these solitons.

The peakon travels with speed equal to its peak amplitude. This solution is

nonanalytic, having a jump in derivative at its peak. Peakons are true solitons that interact

via elastic collisions under 1.3. We claim that the existence of a singular straight line for

the planar dynamical system 2.3 is the original reason why the travelling waves lose their

smoothness.

Also, the periodic cuspon solution is nonanalytic, having a jump in derivative at its

each cusp.

12 Mathematical Problems in Engineering

0.1

0.05

0

−0.05

−0.1

y

0.2 0.3 0.4

φ

a

0.1

0.05

0

−0.05

−0.1

y

−0.4 −0.3 −0.2

φ

b

1

0.5

0

−0.5

−1

y

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

φ

c

1

0.5

0

−0.5

−1

y

−1 −0.8 −0.6 −0.4 −0.2

φ

d

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

−0.2

−0.4

−0.6

y

0.75 0.85 0.95

φ

e

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

−0.2

−0.4

−0.6

y

−1 −0.9 −0.8

φ

f

Figure 8: The orbits of system 2.5 connecting with the saddle points. a 0 < g < g

1

c, c > γ; b 0 < g <

g

1

c, c < γ; c g 0, c > γ; d g 0, c < γ; e g

2

c < g < 0, c > γ; f g

2

c < g < 0, c < γ.

Acknowledgments

The authors are deeply grateful to the anonymous referee for the careful reading of our

manuscript and many constructive comments and valuable suggestions, which have helped

themto improve it. This research was supported by NSF of China No. 10771088 and Startup

Fund for Advanced Talents of Jiangsu University No. 09JDG013.

References

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2 A. Degasperis, D. D. Kholm, and A. N. I. Khon, “A new integrable equation with peakon solutions,”

Theoretical and Mathematical Physics, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 1463–1474, 2002.

3 Z. Yin, “On the Cauchy problem for an integrable equation with peakon solutions,” Illinois Journal of

Mathematics, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 649–666, 2003.

4 Z. Yin, “Global weak solutions for a new periodic integrable equation with peakon solutions,” Journal

of Functional Analysis, vol. 212, no. 1, pp. 182–194, 2004.

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13 Y. Matsuno, “Cusp and loop soliton solutions of short-wave models for the Camassa-Holm and

Degasperis-Procesi equations,” Physics Letters A, vol. 359, no. 5, pp. 451–457, 2006.

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